Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Introduction to Hydrodynamic Stability
V. Shankar
Department of Chemical Engineering
IIT Kanpur
vshankar@iitk.ac.in
home.iitk.ac.in/~vshankar
SADEAFFP2014, Department of Mathematics, IIT Kanpur
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
1 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Outline
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
2 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
References
P. G. Drazin, Introduction to Hydrodynamic Stability, Cambridge
(2002).
F. Charru, Hydrodynamic Instabilities, Cambridge (2011).
P. Schmid and D. Henningson, Stability and Transition in Shear
Flows, Springer (2001).
P. G. Drazin and W. H. Reid, Hydrodynamic Stability, Cambridge
(1981).
S. Chandrasekhar, Hydrodynamic and Hydromagnetic Stability,
Oxford (1961).
National Committee for Fluid Mechanics Films, Video on Instability
and Transition, http://web.mit.edu/hml/ncfmf.html
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
3 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Outline
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
4 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Instabilities are everywhere
Water flow from a tap.
Smoke from an incence stick.
Flow between two concentric
cylinders.
A layer of heated liquid.
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
5 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Instabilities are everywhere
Water flow from a tap.
Smoke from an incence stick.
Flow between two concentric
cylinders.
A layer of heated liquid.
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
5 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Instabilities are everywhere
Water flow from a tap.
Smoke from an incence stick.
Flow between two concentric
cylinders.
A layer of heated liquid.
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
5 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Instabilities are everywhere
Water flow from a tap.
Smoke from an incence stick.
Flow between two concentric
cylinders.
A layer of heated liquid.
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
5 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Hydrodynamic stability: connection with Mathematics
Pioneers: Applied Mathematicians and Mathematical Physicists in
late 1800s and early 1900s.
E.g. von Helmholtz, Lord Kelvin, Lord Rayleigh, Neils Bohr,
A Sommerfeld, W Heisenberg (PhD thesis, 1923), S Chandrasekhar,
V I Arnold...
One of the 7 Millennium Prize problems of Clay Mathematical
Institute.
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
6 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Hydrodynamic stability: connection with Mathematics
Pioneers: Applied Mathematicians and Mathematical Physicists in
late 1800s and early 1900s.
E.g. von Helmholtz, Lord Kelvin, Lord Rayleigh, Neils Bohr,
A Sommerfeld, W Heisenberg (PhD thesis, 1923), S Chandrasekhar,
V I Arnold...
One of the 7 Millennium Prize problems of Clay Mathematical
Institute.
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
6 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Hydrodynamic stability: connection with Mathematics
Pioneers: Applied Mathematicians and Mathematical Physicists in
late 1800s and early 1900s.
E.g. von Helmholtz, Lord Kelvin, Lord Rayleigh, Neils Bohr,
A Sommerfeld, W Heisenberg (PhD thesis, 1923), S Chandrasekhar,
V I Arnold...
One of the 7 Millennium Prize problems of Clay Mathematical
Institute.
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
6 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Laminarturbulent transition
Osborne Reynolds (1883), An experimental investigation of the
circumstances which determine whether the motion of water shall be
direct or sinuous..
Discontinuous transition from laminar to a turbulent flow when
Re VD/ > 2000.
For rectangular channels, transition at Re 1200.
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
7 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Laminarturbulent transition
Osborne Reynolds (1883), An experimental investigation of the
circumstances which determine whether the motion of water shall be
direct or sinuous..
Discontinuous transition from laminar to a turbulent flow when
Re VD/ > 2000.
For rectangular channels, transition at Re 1200.
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
7 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Laminarturbulent transition
Osborne Reynolds (1883), An experimental investigation of the
circumstances which determine whether the motion of water shall be
direct or sinuous..
Discontinuous transition from laminar to a turbulent flow when
Re VD/ > 2000.
For rectangular channels, transition at Re 1200.
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
7 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Practical perspective
Newtonian fluids: NavierStokes equations have all the information
about fluid flow.
Laminar flows: simple solutions to governing equations.
Examples: plane and pipe Poiseuille flows; plane Couette flow.
Flow in a pipe: laminar flow unstable at Re 2000.
Instability leads to turbulence.
Turbulent flows: high mixing and drag.
Laminar flows: low mixing and drag.
When does a given laminar flow become unstable ?
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
8 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Practical perspective
Newtonian fluids: NavierStokes equations have all the information
about fluid flow.
Laminar flows: simple solutions to governing equations.
Examples: plane and pipe Poiseuille flows; plane Couette flow.
Flow in a pipe: laminar flow unstable at Re 2000.
Instability leads to turbulence.
Turbulent flows: high mixing and drag.
Laminar flows: low mixing and drag.
When does a given laminar flow become unstable ?
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
8 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Practical perspective
Newtonian fluids: NavierStokes equations have all the information
about fluid flow.
Laminar flows: simple solutions to governing equations.
Examples: plane and pipe Poiseuille flows; plane Couette flow.
Flow in a pipe: laminar flow unstable at Re 2000.
Instability leads to turbulence.
Turbulent flows: high mixing and drag.
Laminar flows: low mixing and drag.
When does a given laminar flow become unstable ?
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
8 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Practical perspective
Newtonian fluids: NavierStokes equations have all the information
about fluid flow.
Laminar flows: simple solutions to governing equations.
Examples: plane and pipe Poiseuille flows; plane Couette flow.
Flow in a pipe: laminar flow unstable at Re 2000.
Instability leads to turbulence.
Turbulent flows: high mixing and drag.
Laminar flows: low mixing and drag.
When does a given laminar flow become unstable ?
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
8 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Practical perspective
Newtonian fluids: NavierStokes equations have all the information
about fluid flow.
Laminar flows: simple solutions to governing equations.
Examples: plane and pipe Poiseuille flows; plane Couette flow.
Flow in a pipe: laminar flow unstable at Re 2000.
Instability leads to turbulence.
Turbulent flows: high mixing and drag.
Laminar flows: low mixing and drag.
When does a given laminar flow become unstable ?
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
8 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Practical perspective
Newtonian fluids: NavierStokes equations have all the information
about fluid flow.
Laminar flows: simple solutions to governing equations.
Examples: plane and pipe Poiseuille flows; plane Couette flow.
Flow in a pipe: laminar flow unstable at Re 2000.
Instability leads to turbulence.
Turbulent flows: high mixing and drag.
Laminar flows: low mixing and drag.
When does a given laminar flow become unstable ?
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
8 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Practical perspective
Newtonian fluids: NavierStokes equations have all the information
about fluid flow.
Laminar flows: simple solutions to governing equations.
Examples: plane and pipe Poiseuille flows; plane Couette flow.
Flow in a pipe: laminar flow unstable at Re 2000.
Instability leads to turbulence.
Turbulent flows: high mixing and drag.
Laminar flows: low mixing and drag.
When does a given laminar flow become unstable ?
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
8 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Practical perspective
Newtonian fluids: NavierStokes equations have all the information
about fluid flow.
Laminar flows: simple solutions to governing equations.
Examples: plane and pipe Poiseuille flows; plane Couette flow.
Flow in a pipe: laminar flow unstable at Re 2000.
Instability leads to turbulence.
Turbulent flows: high mixing and drag.
Laminar flows: low mixing and drag.
When does a given laminar flow become unstable ?
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
8 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Laminar flows
NavierStokes equations
v =0
Re[t v + v v] = p + 2 v
Laminar flows: flows with relatively simple kinematics and are usually
timeindependent.
Laminar flow solutions satisfy NavierStokes equations at any Re.
Landau & Lifshitz
Yet not every solution of the equations of motion, even if it is exact, can
actually occur in Nature. The flows that occur in Nature must not only
obey the equations of fluid dynamics, but also be stable
Need to probe the stability of laminar flows to external disturbances.
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
9 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Laminar flows
NavierStokes equations
v =0
Re[t v + v v] = p + 2 v
Laminar flows: flows with relatively simple kinematics and are usually
timeindependent.
Laminar flow solutions satisfy NavierStokes equations at any Re.
Landau & Lifshitz
Yet not every solution of the equations of motion, even if it is exact, can
actually occur in Nature. The flows that occur in Nature must not only
obey the equations of fluid dynamics, but also be stable
Need to probe the stability of laminar flows to external disturbances.
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
9 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Laminar flows
NavierStokes equations
v =0
Re[t v + v v] = p + 2 v
Laminar flows: flows with relatively simple kinematics and are usually
timeindependent.
Laminar flow solutions satisfy NavierStokes equations at any Re.
Landau & Lifshitz
Yet not every solution of the equations of motion, even if it is exact, can
actually occur in Nature. The flows that occur in Nature must not only
obey the equations of fluid dynamics, but also be stable
Need to probe the stability of laminar flows to external disturbances.
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
9 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Laminar flows
NavierStokes equations
v =0
Re[t v + v v] = p + 2 v
Laminar flows: flows with relatively simple kinematics and are usually
timeindependent.
Laminar flow solutions satisfy NavierStokes equations at any Re.
Landau & Lifshitz
Yet not every solution of the equations of motion, even if it is exact, can
actually occur in Nature. The flows that occur in Nature must not only
obey the equations of fluid dynamics, but also be stable
Need to probe the stability of laminar flows to external disturbances.
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
9 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Why do instabilities occur ?
Real flows subjected to disturbances of
various types.
Disturbances distort the existing force
equilibrium.
Thermal convection & Circular Couette
flows.
After instability
New complex laminar states.
Direct transition to turbulence.
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
10 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Why do instabilities occur ?
Real flows subjected to disturbances of
various types.
Disturbances distort the existing force
equilibrium.
Thermal convection & Circular Couette
flows.
After instability
New complex laminar states.
Direct transition to turbulence.
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
10 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Why do instabilities occur ?
Real flows subjected to disturbances of
various types.
Disturbances distort the existing force
equilibrium.
Thermal convection & Circular Couette
flows.
After instability
New complex laminar states.
Direct transition to turbulence.
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
10 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Why do instabilities occur ?
Real flows subjected to disturbances of
various types.
Disturbances distort the existing force
equilibrium.
Thermal convection & Circular Couette
flows.
After instability
New complex laminar states.
Direct transition to turbulence.
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
10 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Why do instabilities occur ?
Real flows subjected to disturbances of
various types.
Disturbances distort the existing force
equilibrium.
Thermal convection & Circular Couette
flows.
After instability
New complex laminar states.
Direct transition to turbulence.
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
10 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
How to analyze and predict instabilities ?
Experiments, computation and theory.
What is the effect of an initial disturbance on
laminar flow ?
Do perturbations grow or decay ?
At what value of Reynolds number ?
Infinitesimal vs. finite disturbances.
Infinitesimal disturbances: unavoidable.
Linear stability theory.
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
11 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
How to analyze and predict instabilities ?
Experiments, computation and theory.
What is the effect of an initial disturbance on
laminar flow ?
Do perturbations grow or decay ?
At what value of Reynolds number ?
Infinitesimal vs. finite disturbances.
Infinitesimal disturbances: unavoidable.
Linear stability theory.
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
11 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
How to analyze and predict instabilities ?
Experiments, computation and theory.
What is the effect of an initial disturbance on
laminar flow ?
STABLE
Do perturbations grow or decay ?
At what value of Reynolds number ?
Infinitesimal vs. finite disturbances.
Infinitesimal disturbances: unavoidable.
Linear stability theory.
UNSTABLE
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
11 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
How to analyze and predict instabilities ?
Experiments, computation and theory.
What is the effect of an initial disturbance on
laminar flow ?
STABLE
Do perturbations grow or decay ?
At what value of Reynolds number ?
Infinitesimal vs. finite disturbances.
Infinitesimal disturbances: unavoidable.
Linear stability theory.
UNSTABLE
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
11 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
How to analyze and predict instabilities ?
Experiments, computation and theory.
What is the effect of an initial disturbance on
laminar flow ?
STABLE
Do perturbations grow or decay ?
At what value of Reynolds number ?
Infinitesimal vs. finite disturbances.
Infinitesimal disturbances: unavoidable.
Linear stability theory.
UNSTABLE
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
11 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
How to analyze and predict instabilities ?
Experiments, computation and theory.
What is the effect of an initial disturbance on
laminar flow ?
STABLE
Do perturbations grow or decay ?
At what value of Reynolds number ?
Infinitesimal vs. finite disturbances.
Infinitesimal disturbances: unavoidable.
Linear stability theory.
UNSTABLE
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
11 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
How to analyze and predict instabilities ?
Experiments, computation and theory.
What is the effect of an initial disturbance on
laminar flow ?
STABLE
Do perturbations grow or decay ?
At what value of Reynolds number ?
Infinitesimal vs. finite disturbances.
Infinitesimal disturbances: unavoidable.
Linear stability theory.
UNSTABLE
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
11 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Outline
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
12 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Specify governing equations
NavierStokes equations (Newtonian fluid)
v = 0,
[t v + (v )v] = p + 2 v + g .
Boundary conditions at rigid surface: noslip and nopenetration.
Find the base state: v x (z), and p(x) (steady, unidirectional).
For complex fluids
Specify appropriate constitutive relation.
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
13 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Specify governing equations
NavierStokes equations (Newtonian fluid)
v = 0,
[t v + (v )v] = p + 2 v + g .
Boundary conditions at rigid surface: noslip and nopenetration.
Find the base state: v x (z), and p(x) (steady, unidirectional).
For complex fluids
Specify appropriate constitutive relation.
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
13 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Add a small perturbation
v(x, t) = vx (x) + v (x, t) ,
p(x, t) = p(x) + p (x, t) ,
 1.
Key questions
For a given control parameter , does v grow or decay with
time ?
What is the critical for instability ?
What is the spatial structure at the critical value ?
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
14 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Add a small perturbation
v(x, t) = vx (x) + v (x, t) ,
p(x, t) = p(x) + p (x, t) ,
 1.
Key questions
For a given control parameter , does v grow or decay with
time ?
What is the critical for instability ?
What is the spatial structure at the critical value ?
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
14 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Linearize about laminar state
Nonlinear term in NavierStokes:
v v = v v + (v v + v v ) + 2 v v
v v is the trivial laminarflow contribution.
At O(), terms linear in the perturbations Include.
At O( 2 ), terms nonlinear in the perturbations Neglected for
small perturbations.
Hence, linear stability.
Can predict only the onset of instability.
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
15 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Linearize about laminar state
Nonlinear term in NavierStokes:
v v = v v + (v v + v v ) + 2 v v
v v is the trivial laminarflow contribution.
At O(), terms linear in the perturbations Include.
At O( 2 ), terms nonlinear in the perturbations Neglected for
small perturbations.
Hence, linear stability.
Can predict only the onset of instability.
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
15 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Linearize about laminar state
Nonlinear term in NavierStokes:
v v = v v + (v v + v v ) + 2 v v
v v is the trivial laminarflow contribution.
At O(), terms linear in the perturbations Include.
At O( 2 ), terms nonlinear in the perturbations Neglected for
small perturbations.
Hence, linear stability.
Can predict only the onset of instability.
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
15 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Linearize about laminar state
Nonlinear term in NavierStokes:
v v = v v + (v v + v v ) + 2 v v
v v is the trivial laminarflow contribution.
At O(), terms linear in the perturbations Include.
At O( 2 ), terms nonlinear in the perturbations Neglected for
small perturbations.
Hence, linear stability.
Can predict only the onset of instability.
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
15 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Linearize about laminar state
Nonlinear term in NavierStokes:
v v = v v + (v v + v v ) + 2 v v
v v is the trivial laminarflow contribution.
At O(), terms linear in the perturbations Include.
At O( 2 ), terms nonlinear in the perturbations Neglected for
small perturbations.
Hence, linear stability.
Can predict only the onset of instability.
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
15 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Linearized PDEs: Fourier expansion
Collect terms of O():
v = 0
[t v + v v + v v] = p + 2 v
BCs: v = 0 at rigid boundaries; Initial condition v (x, t = 0).
y
x MEAN FLOW :
(Vx (y), 0, 0 )
Fourier expand the disturbances
A(x, t) =
dkx
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
dkz
An (k, t)Fn (y ) exp[i(kx x + kz z)]
n=1
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
16 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Linearized PDEs: Fourier expansion
Collect terms of O():
v = 0
[t v + v v + v v] = p + 2 v
BCs: v = 0 at rigid boundaries; Initial condition v (x, t = 0).
y
x MEAN FLOW :
(Vx (y), 0, 0 )
Fourier expand the disturbances
=
A(x, t) =
+
Z
dkx
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
+ ...
dkz
An (k, t)Fn (y ) exp[i(kx x + kz z)]
n=1
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
16 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Normal modes: Eigenvalue problem
Linearity Study the dynamics of all Fourier modes individually.
Time dependence An (k, t) = An (k) exp[sn t]
Complex growth rate s = sr + isi
sr > 0 Instability; sr < 0 Stability; sr = 0 Neutral stability.
If any Fourier mode grows with time unstable, exponential growth
as t .
If all Fourier modes decay stable as t .
Need to solve coupled ODEs (for F (y )) with an eigenvalue s for
various values of control parameter .
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
17 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Normal modes: Eigenvalue problem
Linearity Study the dynamics of all Fourier modes individually.
Time dependence An (k, t) = An (k) exp[sn t]
Complex growth rate s = sr + isi
sr > 0 Instability; sr < 0 Stability; sr = 0 Neutral stability.
If any Fourier mode grows with time unstable, exponential growth
as t .
If all Fourier modes decay stable as t .
Need to solve coupled ODEs (for F (y )) with an eigenvalue s for
various values of control parameter .
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
17 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Normal modes: Eigenvalue problem
Linearity Study the dynamics of all Fourier modes individually.
Time dependence An (k, t) = An (k) exp[sn t]
Complex growth rate s = sr + isi
sr > 0 Instability; sr < 0 Stability; sr = 0 Neutral stability.
If any Fourier mode grows with time unstable, exponential growth
as t .
If all Fourier modes decay stable as t .
Need to solve coupled ODEs (for F (y )) with an eigenvalue s for
various values of control parameter .
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
17 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Normal modes: Eigenvalue problem
Linearity Study the dynamics of all Fourier modes individually.
Time dependence An (k, t) = An (k) exp[sn t]
Complex growth rate s = sr + isi
sr > 0 Instability; sr < 0 Stability; sr = 0 Neutral stability.
If any Fourier mode grows with time unstable, exponential growth
as t .
If all Fourier modes decay stable as t .
Need to solve coupled ODEs (for F (y )) with an eigenvalue s for
various values of control parameter .
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
17 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Normal modes: Eigenvalue problem
Linearity Study the dynamics of all Fourier modes individually.
Time dependence An (k, t) = An (k) exp[sn t]
Complex growth rate s = sr + isi
sr > 0 Instability; sr < 0 Stability; sr = 0 Neutral stability.
If any Fourier mode grows with time unstable, exponential growth
as t .
If all Fourier modes decay stable as t .
Need to solve coupled ODEs (for F (y )) with an eigenvalue s for
various values of control parameter .
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
17 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Normal modes: Eigenvalue problem
Linearity Study the dynamics of all Fourier modes individually.
Time dependence An (k, t) = An (k) exp[sn t]
Complex growth rate s = sr + isi
sr > 0 Instability; sr < 0 Stability; sr = 0 Neutral stability.
If any Fourier mode grows with time unstable, exponential growth
as t .
If all Fourier modes decay stable as t .
Need to solve coupled ODEs (for F (y )) with an eigenvalue s for
various values of control parameter .
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
17 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Normal modes: Eigenvalue problem
Linearity Study the dynamics of all Fourier modes individually.
Time dependence An (k, t) = An (k) exp[sn t]
Complex growth rate s = sr + isi
sr > 0 Instability; sr < 0 Stability; sr = 0 Neutral stability.
If any Fourier mode grows with time unstable, exponential growth
as t .
If all Fourier modes decay stable as t .
Need to solve coupled ODEs (for F (y )) with an eigenvalue s for
various values of control parameter .
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
17 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Outline
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
18 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
A simple toy example
Governing equation: t f = f f 2 + 1 y2 f
Boundary conditions: f (y = 0) = f (y = 1) = 0.
Base state: f = 0
Add perturbation: f (y , t) = f + f (y , t)
Linearize:
t (f + f ) = f f2 + 1 y2 f + f 2ff + 1 y2 f + O( 2 )
At O(): t f = f 2ff + 1 y2 f
+ 1 y2 f , f (y
modes: f (y , t) =
Normal
sF = F +
1 2
dy F
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
= 0) = f (y = 1) = 0
F (y ) exp[st]
F (y = 0) = F (y = 1) = 0
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
19 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
A simple toy example
Governing equation: t f = f f 2 + 1 y2 f
Boundary conditions: f (y = 0) = f (y = 1) = 0.
Base state: f = 0
Add perturbation: f (y , t) = f + f (y , t)
Linearize:
t (f + f ) = f f2 + 1 y2 f + f 2ff + 1 y2 f + O( 2 )
At O(): t f = f 2ff + 1 y2 f
+ 1 y2 f , f (y
modes: f (y , t) =
Normal
sF = F +
1 2
dy F
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
= 0) = f (y = 1) = 0
F (y ) exp[st]
F (y = 0) = F (y = 1) = 0
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
19 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
A simple toy example
Governing equation: t f = f f 2 + 1 y2 f
Boundary conditions: f (y = 0) = f (y = 1) = 0.
Base state: f = 0
Add perturbation: f (y , t) = f + f (y , t)
Linearize:
t (f + f ) = f f2 + 1 y2 f + f 2ff + 1 y2 f + O( 2 )
At O(): t f = f 2ff + 1 y2 f
+ 1 y2 f , f (y
modes: f (y , t) =
Normal
sF = F +
1 2
dy F
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
= 0) = f (y = 1) = 0
F (y ) exp[st]
F (y = 0) = F (y = 1) = 0
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
19 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
A simple toy example
Governing equation: t f = f f 2 + 1 y2 f
Boundary conditions: f (y = 0) = f (y = 1) = 0.
Base state: f = 0
Add perturbation: f (y , t) = f + f (y , t)
Linearize:
t (f + f ) = f f2 + 1 y2 f + f 2ff + 1 y2 f + O( 2 )
At O(): t f = f 2ff + 1 y2 f
+ 1 y2 f , f (y
modes: f (y , t) =
Normal
sF = F +
1 2
dy F
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
= 0) = f (y = 1) = 0
F (y ) exp[st]
F (y = 0) = F (y = 1) = 0
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
19 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
A simple toy example
Governing equation: t f = f f 2 + 1 y2 f
Boundary conditions: f (y = 0) = f (y = 1) = 0.
Base state: f = 0
Add perturbation: f (y , t) = f + f (y , t)
Linearize:
t (f + f ) = f f2 + 1 y2 f + f 2ff + 1 y2 f + O( 2 )
At O(): t f = f 2ff + 1 y2 f
+ 1 y2 f , f (y
modes: f (y , t) =
Normal
sF = F +
1 2
dy F
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
= 0) = f (y = 1) = 0
F (y ) exp[st]
F (y = 0) = F (y = 1) = 0
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
19 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
A simple toy example
Governing equation: t f = f f 2 + 1 y2 f
Boundary conditions: f (y = 0) = f (y = 1) = 0.
Base state: f = 0
Add perturbation: f (y , t) = f + f (y , t)
Linearize:
t (f + f ) = f f2 + 1 y2 f + f 2ff + 1 y2 f + O( 2 )
At O(): t f = f 2ff + 1 y2 f
+ 1 y2 f , f (y
modes: f (y , t) =
Normal
sF = F +
1 2
dy F
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
= 0) = f (y = 1) = 0
F (y ) exp[st]
F (y = 0) = F (y = 1) = 0
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
19 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
A simple toy example
Governing equation: t f = f f 2 + 1 y2 f
Boundary conditions: f (y = 0) = f (y = 1) = 0.
Base state: f = 0
Add perturbation: f (y , t) = f + f (y , t)
Linearize:
t (f + f ) = f f2 + 1 y2 f + f 2ff + 1 y2 f + O( 2 )
At O(): t f = f 2ff + 1 y2 f
+ 1 y2 f , f (y
modes: f (y , t) =
Normal
sF = F +
1 2
dy F
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
= 0) = f (y = 1) = 0
F (y ) exp[st]
F (y = 0) = F (y = 1) = 0
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
19 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
A simple toy example
Governing equation: t f = f f 2 + 1 y2 f
Boundary conditions: f (y = 0) = f (y = 1) = 0.
Base state: f = 0
Add perturbation: f (y , t) = f + f (y , t)
Linearize:
t (f + f ) = f f2 + 1 y2 f + f 2ff + 1 y2 f + O( 2 )
At O(): t f = f 2ff + 1 y2 f
+ 1 y2 f , f (y
modes: f (y , t) =
Normal
sF = F +
1 2
dy F
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
= 0) = f (y = 1) = 0
F (y ) exp[st]
F (y = 0) = F (y = 1) = 0
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
19 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
A simple toy example
Governing equation: t f = f f 2 + 1 y2 f
Boundary conditions: f (y = 0) = f (y = 1) = 0.
Base state: f = 0
Add perturbation: f (y , t) = f + f (y , t)
Linearize:
t (f + f ) = f f2 + 1 y2 f + f 2ff + 1 y2 f + O( 2 )
At O(): t f = f 2ff + 1 y2 f
+ 1 y2 f , f (y
modes: f (y , t) =
Normal
sF = F +
1 2
dy F
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
= 0) = f (y = 1) = 0
F (y ) exp[st]
F (y = 0) = F (y = 1) = 0
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
19 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Solution of toy problem
F (y ) = c sin[ny ] n integer.
sn = 1
n2 2
Stable s < 0 for < n2 2
Neutral s = 0 for = n2 2
Unstable s > 0 for > n2 2
Most unstable mode:
f (y , t) = h
c sin[y ] exp 1
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
i
t
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
20 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Solution of toy problem
F (y ) = c sin[ny ] n integer.
sn = 1
n2 2
Stable s < 0 for < n2 2
Neutral s = 0 for = n2 2
Unstable s > 0 for > n2 2
Most unstable mode:
f (y , t) = h
c sin[y ] exp 1
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
i
t
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
20 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Solution of toy problem
F (y ) = c sin[ny ] n integer.
sn = 1
n2 2
Stable s < 0 for < n2 2
Neutral s = 0 for = n2 2
Unstable s > 0 for > n2 2
Most unstable mode:
f (y , t) = h
c sin[y ] exp 1
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
i
t
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
20 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Solution of toy problem
F (y ) = c sin[ny ] n integer.
sn = 1
n2 2
Stable s < 0 for < n2 2
Neutral s = 0 for = n2 2
Unstable s > 0 for > n2 2
Most unstable mode:
f (y , t) = h
c sin[y ] exp 1
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
i
t
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
20 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Outline
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
21 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
KelvinHelmholtz instability  I
Two incompressible, inviscid fluids in horizontal parallel infinte
streams of different densities and velocities, one stream above the
other.
U(z) = U2 i, (z) = 2 , P(z) = p0 g 2 z for z > 0.
U(z) = U1 i, (z) = 1 , P(z) = p0 g 1 z for z < 0.
Irrotational perturbations: restrictive, but enough for a proof of
instability.
Does not prove stability as the analysis gives no information about
rotational disturbances.
Perturbed interface z = (x, y , t).
u = where = 1 for z > , and = 2 for z < .
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
22 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
KelvinHelmholtz instability  II
u = 0, u = 0 u = .
2 1 = 0 for z > and 2 2 = 0 for z < .
BC: = U as z = .
Kinematic condition at moving interface z = , k = 1, 2:
k
k
D
k
Dt = uz = t + x x + y y
Normal
stress continuity (Bernoulli
theorem)
at z = :
h
h
i
i
1
2
1
1
2
gz = 2 C2 2 (2 )2
gz
1 C1 2 (1 )
t
t
The base flowalso satisfies thiscondition (at z = 0):
1 C1 21 U12 = 2 C2 21 U22
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
23 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
KelvinHelmholtz instability  Linearization
2 = U2 x + 2 for z > , 1 = U1 x + 1 for z < . Neglect products
of small perturbations 1 , 2 and .
,
1 and g U12 , U22 .
How small ?
x y
Taylorexpand z = about z = 0:
k z= = k z=0 + k z=0 +
z
2 2 = 0, 2 1 = 0
BC: k 0 for z for k = 1, 2
k
=
+ Uk
at z = 0 for k = 1, 2.
z
t
x
2 2
1 1
1 U1
+
+ g = 2 U2
+
+ g at z = 0.
x
t
x
t
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
24 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
KelvinHelmholtz instability  Normal Modes
1 , 2 ) exp[i(kx + ly ) + st]
(, 1 , 2 ) = (,
h 2
i
2 k ddz2k (k 2 + l 2 )k = 0
+ B2 exp[kz],
k 2 = (k 2 + l 2 ).
2 = A2 exp[kz]
BC at y , uz2 = 0 B2 = 0.
and 1 = A1 exp[kz].
So: 2 = A2 exp[k]z
Using the kinematic condition at interface:
k,
k.
A2 = (s + ikU2 )/
A1 = (s + ikU1 )/
Using the normal stress condition at interface:
+ (s + ikU1 )2 ] = 2 [kg
(s + ikU2 )2 ]
1 [kg
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
25 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
KelvinHelmholtz instability  Growth Rate
2 U2
s = ik 1 U11 +
+2
k 2 1 2 (U1 U2 )2
(1 +2 )2
i
(1 2 ) 1/2
kg
1 +2
Both roots are neutrally stable if
(2 2 ) k 2 1 2 (U1 U2 )2 . When the equality holds, marginal
kg
2
1
stability.
One root is unstable (with Re[s] > 0) if
(2 2 ) < k 2 1 2 (U1 U2 )2 .
kg
1
2
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
26 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Surface Gravity Waves
2 = 0 and U1 = 0, U2 = 0. Surface gravity waves on deep water.
Stable with phase velocity:
1/2
c = is/k = (g /k)
Oscillatory, stable normal modes.
Waves a special case of hydrodynamic stability.
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
27 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Internal Gravity Waves
No basic flow: U1 = 0, U2 = 0.
(2 1 )/(1 + 2 )2 ]1/2
s = [kg
Instability if 1 < 2 (heavey fluid rests above light fluid).
If 1 > 2 , there is stability, and there are waves with phase velocity:
1 + 2 )]1/2 .
c = [g (1 2 )/k(
The eigenfunctions decay exponentially away from the interface.
Motion confined to the vicinity of the interface.
Observed between layers of fresh and salt water that occur in
estuaries.
RayleighTaylor instability when the whole system has an upward
acceleration f . Same result with g = f + g . If 2 > 1 , then
instability occurs only of g < 0.
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
28 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Instability Due to Shear
No effect of buoyancy: 1 = 2 , but U1 6= U2 .
s = 12 ik(U1 + U2 ) 12 k(U1 U2 )
Flow always unstable if U1 6= U2 . Waves of all wavelengths are
unstable.
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
29 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Outline
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
30 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Capillary Instability of a Jet
A cylindrical jet of liquid moving with uniform velocity in air (e.g.
water jet from a slightlyopen tap).
Surface tension at the liquidair interface.
Assume density of outside fluid is zero, and inviscid dynamics for the
liquid.
u=0
u + uu = p
t
Pressure inside the jet: P = P + n at r = (x, , t)
Perturbed unit normal to the jet:
,1, )
(
r #
n = " x
1/2
2
+1+ 2
x
r
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
31 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Capillary Instability of a Jet
Kinematic condition: ur =
D
Dt
at r = .
Base flow: U = 0, P = p + /a for 0 r a, as n = 1/r when
n = er .
Disturbances: u = U + u , p = P + p , and = a +
u = p and
u = 0.
t
2
2
1
n = 1r
2
r 2
x 2
2
Normal stress BC at r = a: p = a2 +
+ a2 2
x 2
2
2
2
2 p = 0, where 2 = 2 + 2 + 1r + r12 2 .
r
x
r
exp[st + i(kx + n)]
Normal modes: (u , p , ) = (
u(r ), p(r ), )
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
32 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Capillary Instability of a Jet
d2 p
dr 2
p
1 d
r dr
k2 +
n2
r2
p = 0
Linearly independent solutions: modified Bessel functions In (kr ),
Kn (kr ); take n 0 without loss of generality.
Physically allowed solution: p(r ) = AIn (kr ).
= A(s)1 (ikIn (kr ), kIn (kr ), inr 1 In (kr ))
u
2,
Linearized BCs: AIn () = (1 2 n2 )/a
1
A(as) In () = s where = ak.
Eigenvalue relation:
s2 =
In ()
(1
a3 In ()
2 n 2 )
In ()/In () > 0 for all 6= 0. So s 2 < 0 if n 6= 0.
s 2 > 0 for 1 < < 1 if n = 0.
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
33 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Dispersion relation: theory and experiments
Jet stable to all nonaxisymmetric disturbances (n 6= 0).
Jet unstable to axisymmetric modes with wavelengths
= 2/k > 2a.
If km is the wavenumber at which s is maximum, km = 0.7/a.
Jets of all radii are unstable. No critical parameter that marks the
domain of stability.
In experiments the liquid jet will break up with wavelength about
2/km 9a
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
34 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Physical interpretation
Displacement of the jet radius: Rnew = R + cos(kz), k = 2/.
Surface area of the perturbed jet:
A=
V =
2Rnew ds
0
2
Rnew
dz
#1/2
dRnew 2
+1
ds =
dz
dz
h
2 i
dz
For small , ds = 1 + 21 dRdznew
"
1
A = 2R + R2 k 2
2
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
35 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Physical interpretation
V =
dz [R + cos(kz)]2
1
V
= R 2 + 2
2
i
h
2 1/2
Require V / = R02 , so R = R0 1 21 R 2
To O(2 ), R = R0
1 2
4 R02
Then, change in surface area of the jet (per unit wavelength) due to the
displacement Rnew = R + cos(kz) is then
1 2
[(2R0 )2 2 )]
2 R02
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
36 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Physical interpretation
In terms of , the change in surface area is
1 2
[(2R0 )2 2 ]
2 R02 2
For > 2R0 , the surface area decreases.
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
37 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Linear stability analysis: success stories
RayleighBenard thermal convection
Critical Rayleigh number Rac = 1708. Experiments: 1705 10.
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
38 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Linear stability analysis: success stories
TaylorCouette Centrifugal Instability
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
39 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Outline
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
40 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Stability of Parallel Shear Flows
Parallel Base Flow: U = (U(y ), 0, 0)
Perturbations: u, v , w
u
u
+U
+ vU
t
x
v
v
+U
t
x
w
w
+U
t
x
u v
w
+
+
x
y
z
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
p
1 2
+
u
x
Re
p
1 2
=
+
v
y
Re
p
1 2
=
+
w
z
Re
=
= 0
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
41 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Stability of Parallel Shear Flows
v
2 p = 2U
x
h
i
+ U 2 U 1 4 v = 0
Re
t
x
x
h
i
+ U 1 2 = U v
Re
t
x
z
u
w
Normal vorticity: =
.
z
x
Boundary conditions: v = v = = 0 at solid walls and in the far
field.
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
42 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
OrrSommerfeld and Squire equations
v (x, y , z, t) = v (y ) exp[i(x + z t)]
(x, y , z, t) = (y ) exp[i(x + z t)]
k 2 = (2 + 2 )
1
(D2 k 2 )2 v = 0
(i + iU)(D k 2 ) iU
Re
1
2
2
(D k ) = iU v
(i + iU)
Re
BCs: v = D
v = = 0 at solid walls and in free stream.
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
43 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
OrrSommerfeld and Squire equations
Temporal problem: , real, complex.
Spatial problem: real, , complex.
We will consider the temporal problem: c = / is the complex
wavespeed (eigenvalue) of the OS equation, and the associated v are
the eigenfunctions.
OS equation is homogeneous, while the Squire equation is forced by
the solutions of the OS equation.
Two classes of eigenmodes: OS modes and Squire modes.
OS modes: Find vn and n by solving OS equation and then find np
by solving the inhomogeneous Squire equation.
Squire modes: v = 0, m m
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
44 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Squires transformation and Squires theorem
(U c)(D k 2 )
v U v
1
2
iRe (D
k 2 )2 v = 0
OS equation with = 0 (no variation in the z direction):
2 )2 v
2 )
=0
(U c)(D 2D
v U v i2D1Re2D (D2 2D
Comparing: the two equations will have
p identical solutions if the
following relations hold: 2D = k = 2 + 2
2D Re2D = Re
Re2D = Re k < Re
To each 3D OS mode, there is a corresponding 2D OS mode at a
lower Reynolds number.
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
45 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Squires transformation and Squires theorem
Damped Squire modes: The solutions to the Squire equation are
always damped with ci < 0 for all , , and Re.
To prove, multiply Squire equation by and integrate from y = 1
to y = 1 (the fluid domain), and take imaginary part.
ci
1
dy 
 =
Re
1
2
dy D2 + k 2 
2 < 0
Squires theorem
Given ReL as the critical Reynolds number for the onset of linear instability
for a given , , the Reynolds number Rec below which no exponential
instabilities exisit for any wavenumber satisfies
Rec min, ReL (, ) = min ReL (, 0)
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
46 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Inviscid Analysis
Rayleigh Equation: Neglect viscous terms in OS equation
(U c)(D2 k 2 )
v U v = 0
with k 2 = 2 + 2 , and BCs: v = 0 at y = 1 at solid boundaries.
We have to forgo the noslip BC due to the reduced order of the ODE.
Since the coefficients of the Rayleigh equation are real, any complex
eigenvalue will appear in conjugate pairs. If c is an eigenvalue, so is
c .
Regular singular point in the complex y plane when U(y ) = c. The
corresponding real part of this location yc is the critical layer where
U(y ) = cr .
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
47 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Inviscid Analysis
Singularity is logarithmic, and Frobenius series can be used to find the
solution about yc .
v1 (y ) = (y yc )P1 (y )
U
v2 (y ) = P2 (y ) + c ln(y yc )
Uc
Here, P1 and P2 are analytic.
The second solution is multivalued due to the logarithmic term.
When ci = 0, the critical layer is on the real axis,
ln(y yc ) = ln y yc  i for y < yc .
The correct sign of the imaginary part cannot be determined within
the inviscid analysis.
Must do a matched asymptotic expansion of the Rayleigh invisicd
solution with the full OS solution about y = yc .
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
48 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Classical theorems in inviscid stability
Multiply Rayleigh equation by v and integrate from y = 1 to
y = 1. Then integrate by parts:
Z
dy D
v 2 + k 2 
v 2 +
dy
1
U

v 2 = 0
U c
Take imaginary part:
ci

v 2
dy U
1

v 2
=0
U c2
c2
Both
and U
are nonnegative. If ci is positive, then U has
to change sign in order for the integral to be zero.
Raylieghs inflexion point theorem only a necessary condition.
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
49 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Classical theorems in inviscid stability
Rayleighs inflexion point theorem
If there exist perturbations with ci > 0, then U (y ) must vanish for some
y [1, 1] for instability.
Z
dy D
v  + k 
v +
1
Take real part:
Z
dy
1
U

v 2 = 0
U c
Z 1
U (U cr )
dy
dy D
v 2 + k 2 
v 2
=
2
U
c
1
1
Then add the following expression to the left side of above equation:
1

v 2
=0
U c2
1
The above expression is zero
due to inflexion point theorem.
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
(cr Us )
dy U
50 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Classical theorems in inviscid stability
Z
U (U Us) 2

v =
dy
U c2
1
dy D
v 2 + k 2 
v 2
For the integral to be negative, U (U Us ) < 0 in the flow field.
Fjortofts Criterion
Given a monotonic mean velocity profile U(y ), a necessary condition for
instability is that U (U Us ) < 0, with Us = U(ys ) as the mean velocity
at the inflexion point, i.e., U (ys ) = 0.
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
51 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Classical theorems in inviscid stability
Howards semicircle theorem
The unstable eigenvalues of the Rayleigh equation satisfy
1
cr (Umax + Umin )
2
2
ci2
(Umax Umin )
2
2
For ci 0+ , Umin < cr < Umax for marginally stable modes.
For planePoiseuille flow and many internal channel flows, U does
not vanish in the domain of the flow, and so these flows are stable in
the inviscid limit to 2D infinitesimal perturbations.
Unbounded jets and free shear layers are unstable in the inviscid limit.
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
52 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Viscous instability
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
53 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Numerical Eigenspectrum
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
54 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Numerical Eigenspectrum
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
54 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Comparison with experiments
PlanePoiseuille flow (numerical solution): Rec = 5722.2
Experiments: Rec could be as low as 1000.
PipePoiseuille flow (asymptotic/numerical solution): Rec =
Experiments: Rec 2000.
Plane Couette flow (numerical solution): Rec = .
Experiments: Rec 360.
Can a unavoidable disturbance in an experiment be treated as
infinitesimal ?
Very careful experiments in pipe flow: Re for transition could be 105 .
Still need to explain the usual value of Re 2000.
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
55 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Comparison with experiments
PlanePoiseuille flow (numerical solution): Rec = 5722.2
Experiments: Rec could be as low as 1000.
PipePoiseuille flow (asymptotic/numerical solution): Rec =
Experiments: Rec 2000.
Plane Couette flow (numerical solution): Rec = .
Experiments: Rec 360.
Can a unavoidable disturbance in an experiment be treated as
infinitesimal ?
Very careful experiments in pipe flow: Re for transition could be 105 .
Still need to explain the usual value of Re 2000.
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
55 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Comparison with experiments
PlanePoiseuille flow (numerical solution): Rec = 5722.2
Experiments: Rec could be as low as 1000.
PipePoiseuille flow (asymptotic/numerical solution): Rec =
Experiments: Rec 2000.
Plane Couette flow (numerical solution): Rec = .
Experiments: Rec 360.
Can a unavoidable disturbance in an experiment be treated as
infinitesimal ?
Very careful experiments in pipe flow: Re for transition could be 105 .
Still need to explain the usual value of Re 2000.
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
55 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Comparison with experiments
PlanePoiseuille flow (numerical solution): Rec = 5722.2
Experiments: Rec could be as low as 1000.
PipePoiseuille flow (asymptotic/numerical solution): Rec =
Experiments: Rec 2000.
Plane Couette flow (numerical solution): Rec = .
Experiments: Rec 360.
Can a unavoidable disturbance in an experiment be treated as
infinitesimal ?
Very careful experiments in pipe flow: Re for transition could be 105 .
Still need to explain the usual value of Re 2000.
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
55 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Comparison with experiments
PlanePoiseuille flow (numerical solution): Rec = 5722.2
Experiments: Rec could be as low as 1000.
PipePoiseuille flow (asymptotic/numerical solution): Rec =
Experiments: Rec 2000.
Plane Couette flow (numerical solution): Rec = .
Experiments: Rec 360.
Can a unavoidable disturbance in an experiment be treated as
infinitesimal ?
Very careful experiments in pipe flow: Re for transition could be 105 .
Still need to explain the usual value of Re 2000.
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
55 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Comparison with experiments
PlanePoiseuille flow (numerical solution): Rec = 5722.2
Experiments: Rec could be as low as 1000.
PipePoiseuille flow (asymptotic/numerical solution): Rec =
Experiments: Rec 2000.
Plane Couette flow (numerical solution): Rec = .
Experiments: Rec 360.
Can a unavoidable disturbance in an experiment be treated as
infinitesimal ?
Very careful experiments in pipe flow: Re for transition could be 105 .
Still need to explain the usual value of Re 2000.
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
55 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Nonlinear stability
A sufficiently large disturbance could destabilize or stabilize.
A toy nonlinear ODE:
dx
dt
= ax bx 3
Basestate: x = xB1 = 0 , x = xB2 = +
a/b > 0.
p
p
a/b , xB3 = a/b for
Stability: x = xB1 + x , dx
dt = ax , x (t) = A exp[at] , Unstable for
a > 0 and Stable for a < 0.
Stability of xB2 and xB3 :
s = 2a.
dx
dt
= ax 3bxB2 x , x (t) = A exp[st] ,
xB2 and xB3 stable if a > 0 and are unstable if a < 0.
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
56 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Nonlinear stability
A sufficiently large disturbance could destabilize or stabilize.
A toy nonlinear ODE:
dx
dt
= ax bx 3
Basestate: x = xB1 = 0 , x = xB2 = +
a/b > 0.
p
p
a/b , xB3 = a/b for
Stability: x = xB1 + x , dx
dt = ax , x (t) = A exp[at] , Unstable for
a > 0 and Stable for a < 0.
Stability of xB2 and xB3 :
s = 2a.
dx
dt
= ax 3bxB2 x , x (t) = A exp[st] ,
xB2 and xB3 stable if a > 0 and are unstable if a < 0.
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
56 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Nonlinear stability
A sufficiently large disturbance could destabilize or stabilize.
A toy nonlinear ODE:
dx
dt
= ax bx 3
Basestate: x = xB1 = 0 , x = xB2 = +
a/b > 0.
p
p
a/b , xB3 = a/b for
Stability: x = xB1 + x , dx
dt = ax , x (t) = A exp[at] , Unstable for
a > 0 and Stable for a < 0.
Stability of xB2 and xB3 :
s = 2a.
dx
dt
= ax 3bxB2 x , x (t) = A exp[st] ,
xB2 and xB3 stable if a > 0 and are unstable if a < 0.
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
56 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Nonlinear stability
A sufficiently large disturbance could destabilize or stabilize.
A toy nonlinear ODE:
dx
dt
= ax bx 3
Basestate: x = xB1 = 0 , x = xB2 = +
a/b > 0.
p
p
a/b , xB3 = a/b for
Stability: x = xB1 + x , dx
dt = ax , x (t) = A exp[at] , Unstable for
a > 0 and Stable for a < 0.
Stability of xB2 and xB3 :
s = 2a.
dx
dt
= ax 3bxB2 x , x (t) = A exp[st] ,
xB2 and xB3 stable if a > 0 and are unstable if a < 0.
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
56 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Nonlinear stability
A sufficiently large disturbance could destabilize or stabilize.
A toy nonlinear ODE:
dx
dt
= ax bx 3
Basestate: x = xB1 = 0 , x = xB2 = +
a/b > 0.
p
p
a/b , xB3 = a/b for
Stability: x = xB1 + x , dx
dt = ax , x (t) = A exp[at] , Unstable for
a > 0 and Stable for a < 0.
Stability of xB2 and xB3 :
s = 2a.
dx
dt
= ax 3bxB2 x , x (t) = A exp[st] ,
xB2 and xB3 stable if a > 0 and are unstable if a < 0.
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
56 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Supercritical and Subcritical Bifurcation
Supercritical bifurcation for b > 0: Solutions xB2 and xB3 exist only
for a > 0; for a < 0, x = 0 is the only solution.
For a > 0 x = 0 becomes unstable and gives rise to two new stable
solutions xB2 or xB3 . (RayleighBenard convection).
Subcritical bifurcation for b < 0: For b < 0, xB2 and xB3 exist only
for a < 0.
For a < 0, xB2 and xB3 are unstable.
The x = 0 solution could become unstable even for a < 0 to a
sufficiently large disturbance (Shear flow instabilities).
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
57 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Supercritical and Subcritical Bifurcation
Supercritical bifurcation for b > 0: Solutions xB2 and xB3 exist only
for a > 0; for a < 0, x = 0 is the only solution.
For a > 0 x = 0 becomes unstable and gives rise to two new stable
solutions xB2 or xB3 . (RayleighBenard convection).
Subcritical bifurcation for b < 0: For b < 0, xB2 and xB3 exist only
for a < 0.
For a < 0, xB2 and xB3 are unstable.
The x = 0 solution could become unstable even for a < 0 to a
sufficiently large disturbance (Shear flow instabilities).
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
57 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Weakly nonlinear effects: Landau equation
Linear theory:
1 dA
A dt
= s0 A A(t) = A(0) exp[s0 t]
When s0 > 0 Flow unstable: Only onset predicted.
Exponential growth: Cannot neglect nonlinearities anymore.
Nonlinearities can saturate exponential growth, or further accelerate
exponential growth.
Weakly nonlinear theory:
Landau Equation:
1 dA
A dt
= s0 + s1 A2 ;
s1 : Landau constant effect of nonlinearities.
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
58 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Supercritical Equilibrium
Landau Constant negative
A
1 dA
A dt
New nonlaminar
steady states
> c
< c
= s0 s1 A2 A2s = s0 /s1 .
{z}
+ve
A linearly unstable mode saturates to a new steady state.
Rayleigh Bernard convection cells, Taylor vortices . . .
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
59 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Subcritical Instability
Landau constant positive
A
c
No nearby equilibrium states
1 dA
A dt
Stable to
Small disturbances
Unstable to
finite disturbances
= s0  + s1 A2 Instability for < c if A2intial > s0 /s1 .
{z}
ve
A linearly stable mode becomes unstable to finite amplitude
disturbances.
Plane Poiseuille flow in a rigid channel: 65% reduction in critical Re
for vx /V = 0.025; Strongly subcritical.
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
60 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Subcritical Instability
weakly
subcritical
strongly
A subcritical
1 dA
A dt
Unstable
= s0  + s1 A2 Instability for < c if A2intial > s0 /s1 .
{z}
ve
A linearly stable mode becomes unstable to finite amplitude
disturbances.
Plane Poiseuille flow in a rigid channel: 65% reduction in critical Re
for vx /V = 0.025; Strongly subcritical.
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
60 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Transient or algebraic growth: A simple example
d
1
2
Coupled ODEs: dv
dt = Re v ,
dt = v Re
Solution: Exponential decay of v (t) and (t)
v (t) = v0 exp[t/Re]
(t) = v0 Re(exp[t/Re] exp[2t/Re]) + 0 exp[2t/Re]
For small times, series expand:
Rev0 (exp[t/Re] exp[2t/Re]) = v0 t
3v0 2
t +
Re
Growth t for small times t < O(Re), and exponential decay for
long times.
During this transient growth nonlinearities could become important
and lead to instabilities.
Bypass transition.
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
61 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Transient or algebraic growth: A simple example
d
1
2
Coupled ODEs: dv
dt = Re v ,
dt = v Re
Solution: Exponential decay of v (t) and (t)
v (t) = v0 exp[t/Re]
(t) = v0 Re(exp[t/Re] exp[2t/Re]) + 0 exp[2t/Re]
For small times, series expand:
Rev0 (exp[t/Re] exp[2t/Re]) = v0 t
3v0 2
t +
Re
Growth t for small times t < O(Re), and exponential decay for
long times.
During this transient growth nonlinearities could become important
and lead to instabilities.
Bypass transition.
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
61 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Transient or algebraic growth: A simple example
d
1
2
Coupled ODEs: dv
dt = Re v ,
dt = v Re
Solution: Exponential decay of v (t) and (t)
v (t) = v0 exp[t/Re]
(t) = v0 Re(exp[t/Re] exp[2t/Re]) + 0 exp[2t/Re]
For small times, series expand:
Rev0 (exp[t/Re] exp[2t/Re]) = v0 t
3v0 2
t +
Re
Growth t for small times t < O(Re), and exponential decay for
long times.
During this transient growth nonlinearities could become important
and lead to instabilities.
Bypass transition.
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
61 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Nonmodal (transient) growth
In rigid tubes, pipe flow always (asymptotically) stable at any Re as
per normal mode analysis.
PlanePoiseuille flow unstable at Rec = 5772, but experiments show
instability at Re 1200.
Underlying differential operators are nonnormal, and eigenfunctions
are nonorthogonal.
Possibility of algebraic or transient growth at early times, which
eventually decay as t .
Schmid and Henningson, 2001
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
62 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Nonmodal (transient) growth
In rigid tubes, pipe flow always (asymptotically) stable at any Re as
per normal mode analysis.
PlanePoiseuille flow unstable at Rec = 5772, but experiments show
instability at Re 1200.
Underlying differential operators are nonnormal, and eigenfunctions
are nonorthogonal.
Possibility of algebraic or transient growth at early times, which
eventually decay as t .
transient
growth
disturbance
energy
asymptotic
decay
time
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
Schmid and Henningson, 2001
SADEAFFP2014
62 / 63
Introduction
Linear stability theory
A toy example
KelvinHelmholtz instability
Capillary Instability
Parallel shear flows
Spatiotemporal analysis
Response to impulse forcing at x = 0, t = 0.
t
x
Convective
G (x, t) =
I (x, ) =
d
L 2
d
2
Absolute
I (x, ) exp(it)
D(k, )1 exp(ix)
Absolute instability: Contour deformation in the Ldomain until there
is a pinching of branches in the F domain.
V. Shankar (ChE, IITK)
Hydrodynamic Stability
SADEAFFP2014
63 / 63
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