ABSTRACT
The need for renewable energy is increasing by the day and arguably solar energy is the most
widely available form of renewable energy. Hence it is essential to be able to identify whether or
not a given location is suitable for setting up a Solar Thermal Power Plant. But comparison is
always a subjective thing and hence there should be established benchmark values with which any
site can be compared. This benchmark values can be considered as analogous to the Carnot cycle in
air standard cycles. The project presents the attempts that have been made to arrive at such
benchmarks for Solar Thermal Power Plant sites. To proceed with this, one first needs to understand
all the Viable parameters which affect the decision of site selection. Hence an exhaustive,
complete and non-redundant set of all the parameters that affect the selection was identified and
were categorized into three categories namely, Technical, Social and Economic factors. These
criteria include Sunshine hours in technical factors; Land cost in Economic factors and Public
support in Social factors, etc. After extensive research, a quantitative domain was assigned to each
criterion which was then normalized to obtain the constraints subjected to which the optimization
problem is to be solved. Then the problem was mathematically modelled into an optimization
problem by maximizing or minimizing the criteria as per the requirement. This optimization
problem was solved using Linear Programming Method because all the viable parameters are
mutually independent. Each category was separately evaluated and weights were assigned using the
Satis scale and separate objective functions were developed for each category. The three categories
were then compared against each other to obtain weights for the categories and the final objective
function was defined as the summation of the product of these weights and their respective
objective functions. This objective function was optimized subject to the constraints and the final
result was obtained in the normalized form of the criteria. Hence, the quantitative conditions for the
ideal site were obtained and validated.
Thus by using mathematical modeling and optimization methods, one can determine the
ideal quantitative conditions for obtaining the benchmark values for a solar thermal power plant.
The thus obtained results can be integrated into any of the MCDM methods and therefore can be
used for comparison with the other sites. This methodology can also be used to evaluate the ideal
conditions for any type of problem given that the viable criteria are identified.
CONTENTS
Title page.1
Acknowledgements..2
Certificate.....3
Abstract....4
Work division...........................................................................................6
1. Introduction..........7
2.Working of Solar Thermal Power Plants......8
3. Viable Parameters........9
4. Weights of the Criteria.............10
5. Mathematical Modelling......................................................................13
6. Solving the Mathematical Model.........................................................14
7. Case Study ...........................................................................................16
Summary & Conclusion.......18
References....19
INTRODUCTION
The demand for energy is ever increasing in the modern-day world and the depletion of the
conventional resources is taking place at an even faster rate. The per annum energy consumption of
the world has hit a record value of 141,852 billion kilowatt hours per annum. The energy
consumption in India alone has increased by 91% in a span of 10 years. These statistics can be seen
in the table that follows:
Hence to meet these ever increasing demands and to be able to supply power
continuously, one has to fall back on the renewable ways of generating energy. Out of the many
such renewable methods that are available for electricity generation, using Solar Thermal Power
Plants for electricity generation is one of the most established methods. Presently, the worlds
largest solar plant is set in Mojave Desert, Palm springs, California. It spreads over 3,800acres of
land and produces 10,000 Mega-watts of solar energy.
3
If not in such high quantities, steps should be taken to utilise maximum amount of solar
energy that is available, especially in a developing country like India. But setting up solar plants is
not an easy task as the site identification is a very crucial step which will determine the capacity of
the plant. Hence there must be some standard set of criteria which must be considered and carefully
scrutinised for any given site before building a Solar Thermal Power Plant in that site. Hence it is
very important that one should understand the working of a Solar Thermal Power Plant.
From this one can understand that to set up a Solar Thermal Power Plant, not just sunlight
but many other resources like water body availability, grid connection availability,etc have to be
checked. Hence there is a need to identify the Viable set of criteria which affect the decision
making.
VIABLE PARAMETERS
Many parameters will affect the selection of a site for Solar Thermal Power Plant set up.
These parameters include solar irradiation, wind speed, clearance factor, Land cost, public support,
economic incentives, etc. All these factor should be carefully analysed and arranged together to
form anexhaustive, complete and non-redundant set of criteria. Hence the Viable set of criteria for a
Solar Thermal Power Plant was found out and was further classified into three categories namely,
Technical, Social and Economic Factors. Each criterion is again divided into sub categories as
shown below:
No/:
Criteria
Min/Ma
Range (units)
x
Technical Factors:
A1
A2
A3
A4
A5
Sunshine Hours
Standard Coal
Water Availability
Site Accessibility
Grid Connection Distance
Max
Max
Min
Min
Min
Min
Max
Min
Max
Max
Economic Factors:
B1
B2
Land Cost
Subsidies and Incentives
Social Factors:
C1
C2
C3
But as can be seen each criteria has its own units and hence there is no uniformity among the
criteria. Hence the criteria must be normalised by using either of the standard normalisation
techniques, namely
Method 1
Method 2
Method 3
Method 4
Method 3 and 4 can be used when there is a functional value that defined the variable. Also,
Method 2 might result in 0 values when F i(a) takes the minimum value. Hence Method 1 has been
used to normalise the criteria and the normalised values of the criteria are as shown below:
0.6 < C1 < 1
0.625 < C2< 1
0 < C3< 1
0 < C4< 1
0< C5< 1
0.8< C6< 1
0.556 < C7< 1
6
A1
1
0.2
0.334
0.112
0.334
A2
5
1
0.5
0.5
2
A3
3
2
1
0.5
0.5
A4
9
2
2
1
2
A5
3
0.5
2
0.5
1
By calculating the Eigen vector values for this matrix we obtain the normalised weights for each
criterion as mentioned below,
W1 = 0.4962
W2 = 0.1389
W3 = 0.1555
W4 = 0.0634
W5 = 0.1460
The Consistency ratio (CR) for this table is obtained as; CR = 0.0815 < 0.1 hence the weights that
are obtained are correct only.
Similarly, The weighted matrix for Social and economic factors are as shown below:
B1
B2
B1
1
0.2
B2
5
1
Therefore we get:
W6 = 0.833
W7 = 0.1667
And CR = 0< 0.1 hence the weights are consistent
C1
C2
C3
C1
1
5
3
C2
0.2
1
0.2
C3
0.334
5
1
Hence
W8 = 0.1022
W9 = 0.6864
W10 = 0.2114
And CR = 0.0555 < 0.1 and hence these weights are also consistent
MATHEMATICAL MODELLING
All the Viable criteria are independent of each other. Hence the current problem can be
defined as a Linear Programming Problem. Therefore the Objective functions for each set of the
criteria i.e.; Technical, Economic and Social, can be written as shown below
Z1 = C1*W1 + C2*W2 C3*W3 C4*W4 C5*W5
Z2 = - C6*W6 + C7*W7
Z3 = - C8*W8 + C9*W9 + C10*W10
Now to obtain the final weights, each of these criteria is compared against the other using
the same method as was used above and a weighted matrix is obtained. The Eigen vectors of this
matrix are calculated to obtain the final weights Wa ,Wb and Wc.
Z1
Z2
Z3
Z1
1
0.2
0.112
Z2
5
1
0.334
Z3
9
3
1
Therefore,
Wa = 0.7482
Wb = 0.1804
Wc = 0.0714
CR value is obtained as 0.07 < 0.1, hence even these weights are consistent.
Therefore the final Objective Function can be written as
9
CASE STUDY
Quantitative data corresponding to four Solar Thermal Power Plant sites were obtained and the
value of Z corresponding to these two sites was calculated. These Z values were then compared to
the benchmark values of Z to determine the relative efficiency of these sites.
These Z values can also be compared with each other and the site with the maximum Z
values is considered as the more suitable site.
Sunshine Hours ( C1 )
Standard Coal Savings ( C2 )
Water availability ( C3 )
Site accessibility ( C4 )
Grid connection distance ( C5 )
Land cost ( C6 )
Subsidies and Incentives ( C7 )
Ecological Environmental influence ( C8 )
Pollutant Emission Reduction Benefits ( C9 )
Public Support ( C10 )
Site 1
0.9
0.6
0.6
0.2
0.6
0.97
0.87
0.4
0.72
0.4
Site 2
0.9
0.6
0.6
0.2
0.8
0.87
0.69
0.4
0.72
0.7
Site 3
0.9
0.6
0.9
0.4
0.9
0.9
0.69
0.4
0.75
0.7
Site 4
0.9
0.6
0.5
0.3
0.4
0.92
0.7
0.4
0.75
0.6
The data is substituted in the maximization function Z and the following values of Z are obtained
For Site 1, Z1= 0.2071
For Site 2, Z2= 0.1774
For Site 3, Z3= 0.1271
11
then are normalized to fit the maximisation function. These criteria are compared against each other
in a pair wise comparision matrix within their category and weights are assigned to them with
respect to their category. Then the categories are again compared among themselves with pair wise
comparision matrix and the values of the weights are assigned to them. Thus the final weight
matrix is defined. The Consistency ratios are identified for the individual categories and as a whole
andit was found that the deviations were under 0.1, thus are consistent and weights can be used for
further evaluation of sites.
The function to evaluate the sites based on the criteria and their weights is written and the
values to be maximum are added while those to be minimum are subtracted. This maximisation
function is solved for the ideal site values..
Ideal site value is obtained by following optimization techniques and ideal Z value of the
site is found. Where Z is the normalized value of the site under evaluation. The site data of the
proposed sites are taken and were substituted in the Z function to find the Z values of the individual
sites. The thus obtained values are analysed to find their carnot value of the respective sites. The
sites satisfying the minimum criteria is first filtered according to the requirement and the best
possible site is known for the Z value or the carnot values.
REFERENCES
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_energy_consumpt
ion
http://time.com/3723592/inside-the-worlds-largestsolar-power-plant/
13
http://www.nexteraenergyresources.com/what/solar_
works.shtml
14
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