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VI.

DC Machines

Introduction
DC machines are used in applications requiring a wide range
of speeds by means of various combinations of their field
windings
Types of DC machines:

Separately-excited
Shunt
Series
Compound

DC
Machines

Motoring

Generating

Mode

Mode

In Motoring Mode: Both armature


and field windings are excited by DC

In Generating Mode: Field winding


is excited by DC and rotor is rotated
externally by a prime mover coupled
to the shaft

1. Construction of DC Machines

Basic parts of a DC machine

Construction of DC Machines
Copper commutator segment
and carbon brushes are used
for:
(i) for mechanical rectification
of induced armature emfs
(ii) for taking stationary armature
terminals from a moving member

Elementary DC machine with commutator.

(a) Space distribution of air-gap flux density


in an elementary dc machine;

Average gives us a DC voltage, Ea


Ea = Kg f r
Te = Kg f a
= Kd If a
(b) waveform of voltage between brushes.

Electrical Analogy

(a) Space distribution of air-gap flux density


in an elementary dc machine;

(b) waveform of voltage between brushes.

2. Operation of a Two-Pole DC Machine

Space distribution of air-gap flux density, Bf


in an elementary dc machine;
One pole spans 180 electrical in space

B f B peak sin( )
Mean air gap flux per pole: avg / pole Bavg A per

Aper pole: surface area spanned


by a pole

pole

0 B peak sin( )dA


0 B peak sin( )rd

For a two pole DC machine, avg / pole 2 B peak r

Space distribution of air-gap flux density, Bf


in an elementary dc machine;
One pole spans 180 electrical in space
B f B peak sin( )

Flux linkage a:
with 0= 0
ea

a Navg / pole cos( )

: phase angle between the magnetic axes of


the rotor and the stator

a Navg / pole cos( r t )


da
r Navg / pole sin( r t )
dt

For a two pole DC machine: Ea

(t ) r t 0
Ea

0 ea ( t )dt

r Navg / pole

In general:

Kg: winding factor

E a K g f r

f: mean airgap flux per pole


r: shaft-speed in mechanical rad/sec
r 2

nr
nr: shaft-speed in revolutions per minute (rpm)
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DC machines with number of poles > 2

f elec

P nr Pnr

2 60 120

avg / pole
Ea

P: number of poles

2
2 B peak r
P

P 2
N r avg / pole K g f r
2

A four-pole DC machine

Schematic representation of a DC machine

Typical magnetization curve of a DC machine

Torque expression in terms of mutual inductance


Te

dM fa
1 2 dL f 1 2 dLa
if
ia
i f ia
2
d
2 d
d

Te i f ia

dM fa

cos
M fa M

i i
Te M
f a
Alternatively, electromagnetic torque Te can be derived from power conversion equations

Pmech Pelec

Ea K g f m

Te m Ea I a

Te m K g f m I a
Te K g f I a

In a linear magnetic circuit

Te K g K f I f I a

where

f K f If

Field-circuit connections of DC machines

(a) separately-excited

(c) shunt

(b) series

(d) compound

Separately-excited DC machine circuit in motoring mode

Pmech

Pout

Pf & w

internal electromechanical power


or gross output power

E a K g f m

Kg

E a Vt

p Ca
2 a

output power produced

friction and windage

p : number of poles
Ca : total number of conductors in armature winding
a : number of parallel paths through armature winding

Te produces rotation (Te and m are in the same direction)

Pmech 0, Te 0 and m 0

Separately-excited DC machine circuit in generating mode

E a Vt
Te and m are in the opposite direction

Pmech 0, Te 0 and m 0

Generating mode
Field excited by If (dc)
Rotor is rotated by a mechanical prime-mover at m.
As a result Ea and Ia are generated

3. Analysis of DC Generators
Separately-Excited DC Generator

also

Vt E a I a ra

where

E a K g f m

Vt I L R L

where

I L Ia

Terminal V-I Characteristics

Terminal voltage (Vt) decreases slightly as load current increases


(due to IaRa voltage drop)

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Terminal voltage characteristics of DC generators

Series generator is not used due to poor voltage regulation

Shunt DC Generator (Self-excited DC Generator)

Initially the rotor is rotated by a mechanical prime-mover at m


while the switch (S) is open.
Then the switch (S) is closed.

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When the switch (S) is closed

Ea= (ra + rf) If

Load line of electrical circuit

Self-excitation uses the residual magnetization & saturation properties


of ferromagnetic materials.
when S is closed Ea = Er and If = If0
interdependent build-up of If and Ea continues
comes to a stop at the intersection of the two curve
as shown in the figure below

Solving for the exciting current, If

E a K g f m

where

f K f I f

Ea K d If m

where

Kd K g K f

Integrating with the electrical circuit equations

K d i f m La Lf

di f
ra rf i f
dt

Applying Laplace transformation we obtain

K d m I f ( s ) La Lf sI f ( s ) ra rf I f ( s ) La Lf I f0
So the time domain solution is given by

if ( t ) I f0

r r K dm
a f
La Lf
e

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if ( t ) I f0

r r K dm
a f
La Lf
e

Let us consider the following 3 situations


(i) (ra + rf) > Kdm
lim if ( t ) 0

Two curves do not intersect.


(ii) (ra + rf) = Kdm
if ( t ) I f 0

Self excitation can just start


(iii) (ra + rf) < Kdm
Generator can self-excite

Self-excited DC generator under load

Ia= If + IL

Vt= Ea - ra Ia = rf If

Ea= ra Ia + rf If
Ea= (ra + rf) If + ra IL
Load line of electrical circuit

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Series DC Generator

also

Vt E a I a ( ra rs )

where

E a K g f m

Vt I L R L

and

I L Ia I s

Not used in practical, due to poor voltage regulation

Compound DC Generators
(a) Short-shunt connected compound DC generator

also

Vt E a I a ra I s rs

where

E a K g f m

Vt I L R L

and

IL Is

and

Ia If Is

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(b) Long-shunt connected compound DC generator

also

Vt E a I a ra rs

where

E a K g f m

Vt I L R L

and

I L Ia If

and

Ia Is

Types of Compounding
(i) Cumulatively-compounded DC generator (additive compounding)

Fd Ff Fs

field
mmf

shunt
field
mmf

series
field
mmf

for linear M.C. (or in the linear region of the magnetization curve, i.e. unsaturated magnetic circuits)

d f s

(ii) Differentially-compounded DC generator (subtractive compounding)

Fd Ff Fs
for linear M.C. (or in the linear region of the magnetization curve, i.e. unsaturated magnetic circuits)

d f s
Differentially-compounded generator is not used in practical, as it exhibits
poor voltage regulation

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Terminal V-I Characteristics of Compound Generators

Above curves are for cumulatively-compounded generators

Magnetization curves for a 250-V 1200-r/min dc machine.


Also field-resistance lines for the discussion of self-excitation are shown

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Examples
1.

A 240kW, 240V, 600 rpm separately excited DC generator has an armature


resistance, ra = 0.01 and a field resistance rf = 30. The field winding is
supplied from a DC source of Vf = 100V. A variable resistance R is connected
in series with the field winding to adjust field current If. The magnetization
curve of the generator at 600 rpm is given below:
If (A)

1.5

2.5

Ea (V)

165

200

230

250

260

285

300

310

If DC generator is delivering rated load and is driven at 600 rpm determine:


a) Induced armature emf, Ea
b) The internal electromagnetic power produced (gross power)
c) The internal electromagnetic torque
d) The applied torque if rotational loss is Prot = 10kW
e) Efficiency of generator
f) Voltage regulation

2.

A shunt DC generator has a magnetization curve at nr = 1500 rpm as shown


below. The armature resistance ra = 0.2 , and field total resistance rf = 100 .
a) Find the terminal voltage Vt and field current If of the generator when it
delivers 50A to a resistive load
b) Find Vt and If when the load is disconnected (i.e. no-load)

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Solution:
a)

b)

NB. Neglected raIf voltage drops

3.

The magnetization curve of a DC shunt generator at 1500 rpm is given below,


where the armature resistance ra = 0.5 , and field total resistance rf = 100 ,
the total friction & windage loss at 1500 rpm is 400W.
a) Find no-load terminal voltage at 1500 rpm
b) For the self-excitation to take place
(i) Find the highest value of the total shunt field resistance at 1500 rpm
(ii) The minimum speed for rf = 100.
c) Find terminal voltage Vt, efficiency and mechanical torque applied to
the shaft when Ia = 60A at 1500 rpm.

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Solution:
a)

b) (i)

b) (ii)

4. Analysis of DC Motors
DC motors are adjustable speed motors. A wide range of torquespeed characteristics (Te-m) is obtainable depending on the motor
types given below:

Series DC motor
Separately-excited DC motor
Shunt DC motor
Compound DC motor

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DC Motors Overview
(a) Series DC Motors

(b) Separately-excited DC Motors

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(c) Shunt DC Motors

(d) Compound DC Motors

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DC Motors
(a) Series DC Motors

The back e.m.f:

E a K g f m

Electromagnetic torque:

Te K g f I a

Terminal voltage equation:

Vt E a I a ( ra rs )
Ia I s

Assuming linear equation:

f K f Is

Te K g f I a

f K f Is

Te K g K f I s I a

Ia I s

Te K d I a2
K g f K d I a

Ea
V I a ra rs
t
K g f
K g f

E a K g f m , Vt E a I a ( ra rs )

Vt I a ra rs
K d Ia

K g f K d I a

E a K d I a m Vt I a ra rs
Ia

Te

E a K g f m

Vt
K d m ra rs

K d Vt 2

K d m ra rs

Te K d I a2

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Te

K d Vt 2

K d m ra rs 2

thus

Te

m2

Note that: A series DC motor should never run no load!


Te 0

overspeeding!

(b) Separately-excited DC Motors

The back e.m.f:

E a K g f m

Electromagnetic torque:

Te K g f I a

Terminal voltage equation:

Vt E a I a ra

Assuming linear equation:

f K f If

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Vt E a I a ra
Vt K g f m

Te ra
K g f

Vt
Te ra
m
K g f
K g f

ra
Vt

K g f
K g f

E a K g f m ,

Te

Te K g f I a

m 0 K l Te

No load (i.e. Te = 0) speed: 0

Slope:

Kl

ra

K g f 2

Vt
K g f

very small!

Slightly dropping m with load

(c) Shunt DC Motors

The back e.m.f:

E a K g f m

Electromagnetic torque:

Te K g f I a

Terminal voltage equation:

Vt E a I a ra

Assuming linear equation:

f K f If

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Vt E a I a ra
Vt K g f m

Te ra
K g f

Vt
Te ra
m
K g f
K g f

ra
Vt

K g f
K g f

E a K g f m ,

Te

Te K g f I a

m 0 K l Te

Same as separately excited motor

No load (i.e. Te = 0) speed: 0

Slope:

Kl

Vt
K g f

ra

K g f 2

very small!

Slightly dropping m with load

m 0 K l Te

Note that: In the shunt DC motors, if suddenly the field terminals are
disconnected from the power supply, while the motor was running,
overspeeding problem will occur
E a K g f m
so

f 0 m

Ea is momentarily constant, but f will decrease rapidly.

overspeeding!

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Motor Speed Control Methods

(a) Controlling separately-excited DC motors


Shaft speed can be controlled by
i.
Changing the terminal voltage
ii. Changing the field current (magnetic flux)

i.

Changing the terminal voltage

m 0 K l Te
Te K g f I a

Vt
K g f

Vt 0 ,

Vt E a I a ra

Te

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ii.

Changing the field current

m 0 K l Te
Te K g f I a

f K f I f

Vt
K g f

(linear magnetic circuit)


I f f , 0 ,

Te

(b) Controlling series DC motors


Shaft speed can be controlled by
i.
Adding a series resistance
ii. Adding a parallel field diverter resistance
iii. Using a potential divider at the input (i.e. changes the
effective terminal voltage)

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i.

Adding a series resistance


For the same Te produced

Ea drops, Ia stays the same


E a Vt I a ( ra rs rt )
For the same Te,
f is constant
but m drops since Ea = Kg f m..
New value of the motor speed, m is
given by

Ea
K g f

rt

ii.

Te K g f I a
E a K g f m

Ea , m

Adding a parallel field diverter resistance


When we add the diverter resistance

Is drops i.e. Is < Ia.


Ea remains constant,
For the same Te produced, Ia increases
Ia

Vt E a
ra ( rs || rd )

rs || rd rs

When series field flux drops, the motor


speed m = Ea / Kg f should rise, while
driving the same load.

rd

Ea
K g f

I s ,

E a K g f m
f K f Is
I a ,

f ,

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iii.

Using a potential divider


Let us apply Thvenin theorem to the
right of Vt

VTh

R2
Vt
R1 R2

RTh R1 || R2

This system like the speed control by


adding series resistance as explained in
section (i) where rt RTh and Vt VTh.
For the same Te produced

Ea drops rapidly, Ia stays the same


E a VTh I a ( ra rs RTh )
For the same Te,
f is constant
but m drops rapidly since Ea = Kg f m..

New value of the motor speed, m is


given by
Ea
Te K g f I a
m
K g f
E K
a

Vt

E a , m

If the load increases, Te and Ia increases and Ea decreases, thus motor speed m drops down more.

Ex1:

A separately excited DC motor drives the load at nr = 1150 rpm.

a)

Find the gross output power (electromechanical power output)


produced by the DC motor.
b) If the speed control is to be achieved by armature voltage control and
the new operating condition is given by:
nr = 1000 rpm and Te = 30 Nm
find the new terminal voltage Vt while f is kept constant.

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Soln:

a)

Gross output power is given by


Pconv Te m Ea I a

For Ia = 36 A
Ea VT I a ra 125 36 0.37 112 V

Thus

Pconv Te m Ea I a 112 36 4.03 kW

Note that induced torque is found to be Te = 33.4 Nm


b)

New gross output power is found to be


Pconv2 Te 2 m 2 Ea 2 I a 2 30 2 1000 / 60 3.14 kW

As Ea = Kg f m and f is constant
Ea 2

nr 2
1000
E a1
112 97.1 V
nr 1
1150

Ea1 m1 nr 1

Ea 2 m 2 nr 2

Then, new armature current is found to be


Ia 2

Pconv 2 3.14k

32.3 A
Ea 2
97.1

Consequently, the new terminal voltage is given by


Vt Ea 2 I a 2 ra 97.1 32.3 0.37 109 V

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Ex2: A 50 hp, 250 V, 1200 rpm DC shunt motor with compensating windings has
an armature resistance (including the brushes, compensating windings, and
interpoles) of 0.06 . Its field circuit has a total resistance Radj + RF of 50 ,
which produces a no-load speed of 1200 rpm. The shunt field winding has
1200 turns per pole.
a) Find the motor speed when its input current is 100 A.
b) Find the motor speed when its input current is 200 A.
c) Find the motor speed when its input current is 300 A.
d) Plot the motor torque-speed characteristic.

Solution:

At no load, the armature current is zero and therefore Ea = VT = 250 V.


a) Since the input current is 100 A, the armature current is
I A IL IF IL

VT
250
100
95 A
RF
50

Therefore E A VT I A RA 250 95 0.06 244.3V


and the resulting motor speed is:
n2

EA2
244.3
n1
1200 1173rpm
E A1
250

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b) Similar computations for the input current of 200 A lead to n2 = 1144 rpm.
c) Similar computations for the input current of 300 A lead to n2 = 1115 rpm.
d) At no load, the torque is zero.
For the input current of 100 A: ind
For the input current of 200 A: ind
For the input current of 300 A: ind

The induced torque is ind


2443 95

190N - m
2 1173 / 60
2383 195

388N - m
2 1144 / 60
2323 295

587 N - m
2 1115 / 60

EA I A

The torque-speed
characteristic of the motor is:

Ex3: A 100 hp, 250 V, 1200 rpm DC shunt motor with an armature resistance of
0.03 and a field resistance of 41.67 . The motor has compensating
windings, so armature reactance can be ignored. Mechanical and core losses
may be ignored also. The motor is driving a load with a line current of 126 A
and an initial speed of 1103 rpm. Assuming that the armature current is constant
and the magnetization curve is
a) What is the motor speed if the field
resistance is increased to 50 ?
b) Calculate the motor speed as a function
of the field resistance, assuming a
constant-current load.
c) Assuming that the motor next is
connected as a separately excited and
is initially running with VA = 250 V,
IA = 120 A and at n = 1103 rpm while
supplying a constant-torque load,
estimate the motor speed if VA is
reduced to 200 V.

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Soln:

shunt

a) For the given initial line current of 126 A, the initial armature current will be
I A1 I L1 I F 1 126

250
120 A
41.67

Therefore, the initial generated voltage for the shunt motor will be
E A1 VT I A1 RA 250 120 0.03 246.4V

After the field resistance is increased to 50 , the new field current will be
IF 2

250
5 A
50

The ratio of the two internal generated voltages is


E A 2 K22 2 n2

E A1 K11 1n1
Since the armature current is assumed constant, EA1 = EA2 and, therefore

n2

1n1
2

The values of EA on the magnetization curve are directly proportional to the flux.
Therefore, the ratio of internal generated voltages equals to the ratio of the fluxes within
the machine. From the magnetization curve, at IF = 5A, EA1 = 250V, and at IF = 6A,
EA1 = 268V. Thus:

n2

1n1 E A1n1 268


1103 1187rpm

250
2
EA2

b) A speed vs. RF characteristic is shown on the


right

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separately excited

c) For a separately excited motor, the initial generated voltage is

E A1 VT 1 I A1 RA
Since

E A 2 K22 2 n2

E A1 K11 1n1

and since the flux is constant


E n
n2 A 2 1
E A1
Since the both the torque and the flux are constants, the armature current IA is
also constant. Then

n2

VT 2 I A2 RA
200 120 0.03
1103 879rpm
n1
250 120 0.03
VT 1 I A1 RA

Ex4: A 250-V series dc motor with compensating windings. and a total series
resistance ra + rs of 0.08 . The series field consists of 25 turns per pole.
with the magnetization curve (at 1200 rpm) shown below.
a) Find the speed and induced torque of
this motor for when its armature current
is 50 A.
b) Calculate the efficiency of the motor

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Soln:

a)

To analyze the behavior of a series motor with saturation. pick points along the
operating curve and find the torque and speed for each point. Notice that the
magnetization curve is given in units of magnetomotive force (ampere-turns) versus
Ea for a speed of 1200 r/min. so calculated Ea values must be compared to the
equivalent values at 1200 r /min to deternine the actual motor speed.
For Ia = 50 A

Ea VT I a ra rs 250 50 0.08 246 V

Since Ia = Is = 50 A. the magnetomotive force is


Fs NI s 25 50 1250 A - turns

From the magnetization curve at F = 1250 A-turns. Ea0 = 80 V. To get the


correct speed of the motor.
nr

Ea
246
nr 0
1200 3690 rpm
Ea 0
80

To find the induced torque supplied by the motor at that speed, recall that
Pconv = Ea Ia = Tem. Therefore,
Te

b)

Ea I a

246 50
31.8 Nm
2 3690 / 60

Efficiency is given by the ratio of the output and input power values. Thus,
%

246 50
Pout
T
E I
100 e m 100 a a 100
100 98.4%
250 50
Pin
Vt I t
Vt I t

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