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DC Machines

Introduction

DC machines are used in applications requiring a wide range

of speeds by means of various combinations of their field

windings

Types of DC machines:

Separately-excited

Shunt

Series

Compound

DC

Machines

Motoring

Generating

Mode

Mode

and field windings are excited by DC

is excited by DC and rotor is rotated

externally by a prime mover coupled

to the shaft

1. Construction of DC Machines

Construction of DC Machines

Copper commutator segment

and carbon brushes are used

for:

(i) for mechanical rectification

of induced armature emfs

(ii) for taking stationary armature

terminals from a moving member

in an elementary dc machine;

Ea = Kg f r

Te = Kg f a

= Kd If a

(b) waveform of voltage between brushes.

Electrical Analogy

in an elementary dc machine;

in an elementary dc machine;

One pole spans 180 electrical in space

B f B peak sin( )

Mean air gap flux per pole: avg / pole Bavg A per

by a pole

pole

0 B peak sin( )rd

in an elementary dc machine;

One pole spans 180 electrical in space

B f B peak sin( )

Flux linkage a:

with 0= 0

ea

the rotor and the stator

da

r Navg / pole sin( r t )

dt

(t ) r t 0

Ea

0 ea ( t )dt

r Navg / pole

In general:

E a K g f r

r: shaft-speed in mechanical rad/sec

r 2

nr

nr: shaft-speed in revolutions per minute (rpm)

60

f elec

P nr Pnr

2 60 120

avg / pole

Ea

P: number of poles

2

2 B peak r

P

P 2

N r avg / pole K g f r

2

A four-pole DC machine

Te

dM fa

1 2 dL f 1 2 dLa

if

ia

i f ia

2

d

2 d

d

Te i f ia

dM fa

cos

M fa M

i i

Te M

f a

Alternatively, electromagnetic torque Te can be derived from power conversion equations

Pmech Pelec

Ea K g f m

Te m Ea I a

Te m K g f m I a

Te K g f I a

Te K g K f I f I a

where

f K f If

(a) separately-excited

(c) shunt

(b) series

(d) compound

Pmech

Pout

Pf & w

or gross output power

E a K g f m

Kg

E a Vt

p Ca

2 a

p : number of poles

Ca : total number of conductors in armature winding

a : number of parallel paths through armature winding

Pmech 0, Te 0 and m 0

E a Vt

Te and m are in the opposite direction

Pmech 0, Te 0 and m 0

Generating mode

Field excited by If (dc)

Rotor is rotated by a mechanical prime-mover at m.

As a result Ea and Ia are generated

3. Analysis of DC Generators

Separately-Excited DC Generator

also

Vt E a I a ra

where

E a K g f m

Vt I L R L

where

I L Ia

(due to IaRa voltage drop)

10

while the switch (S) is open.

Then the switch (S) is closed.

11

of ferromagnetic materials.

when S is closed Ea = Er and If = If0

interdependent build-up of If and Ea continues

comes to a stop at the intersection of the two curve

as shown in the figure below

E a K g f m

where

f K f I f

Ea K d If m

where

Kd K g K f

K d i f m La Lf

di f

ra rf i f

dt

K d m I f ( s ) La Lf sI f ( s ) ra rf I f ( s ) La Lf I f0

So the time domain solution is given by

if ( t ) I f0

r r K dm

a f

La Lf

e

12

if ( t ) I f0

r r K dm

a f

La Lf

e

(i) (ra + rf) > Kdm

lim if ( t ) 0

(ii) (ra + rf) = Kdm

if ( t ) I f 0

(iii) (ra + rf) < Kdm

Generator can self-excite

Ia= If + IL

Vt= Ea - ra Ia = rf If

Ea= ra Ia + rf If

Ea= (ra + rf) If + ra IL

Load line of electrical circuit

13

Series DC Generator

also

Vt E a I a ( ra rs )

where

E a K g f m

Vt I L R L

and

I L Ia I s

Compound DC Generators

(a) Short-shunt connected compound DC generator

also

Vt E a I a ra I s rs

where

E a K g f m

Vt I L R L

and

IL Is

and

Ia If Is

14

also

Vt E a I a ra rs

where

E a K g f m

Vt I L R L

and

I L Ia If

and

Ia Is

Types of Compounding

(i) Cumulatively-compounded DC generator (additive compounding)

Fd Ff Fs

field

mmf

shunt

field

mmf

series

field

mmf

for linear M.C. (or in the linear region of the magnetization curve, i.e. unsaturated magnetic circuits)

d f s

Fd Ff Fs

for linear M.C. (or in the linear region of the magnetization curve, i.e. unsaturated magnetic circuits)

d f s

Differentially-compounded generator is not used in practical, as it exhibits

poor voltage regulation

15

Also field-resistance lines for the discussion of self-excitation are shown

16

Examples

1.

resistance, ra = 0.01 and a field resistance rf = 30. The field winding is

supplied from a DC source of Vf = 100V. A variable resistance R is connected

in series with the field winding to adjust field current If. The magnetization

curve of the generator at 600 rpm is given below:

If (A)

1.5

2.5

Ea (V)

165

200

230

250

260

285

300

310

a) Induced armature emf, Ea

b) The internal electromagnetic power produced (gross power)

c) The internal electromagnetic torque

d) The applied torque if rotational loss is Prot = 10kW

e) Efficiency of generator

f) Voltage regulation

2.

below. The armature resistance ra = 0.2 , and field total resistance rf = 100 .

a) Find the terminal voltage Vt and field current If of the generator when it

delivers 50A to a resistive load

b) Find Vt and If when the load is disconnected (i.e. no-load)

17

Solution:

a)

b)

3.

where the armature resistance ra = 0.5 , and field total resistance rf = 100 ,

the total friction & windage loss at 1500 rpm is 400W.

a) Find no-load terminal voltage at 1500 rpm

b) For the self-excitation to take place

(i) Find the highest value of the total shunt field resistance at 1500 rpm

(ii) The minimum speed for rf = 100.

c) Find terminal voltage Vt, efficiency and mechanical torque applied to

the shaft when Ia = 60A at 1500 rpm.

18

Solution:

a)

b) (i)

b) (ii)

4. Analysis of DC Motors

DC motors are adjustable speed motors. A wide range of torquespeed characteristics (Te-m) is obtainable depending on the motor

types given below:

Series DC motor

Separately-excited DC motor

Shunt DC motor

Compound DC motor

19

DC Motors Overview

(a) Series DC Motors

20

21

DC Motors

(a) Series DC Motors

E a K g f m

Electromagnetic torque:

Te K g f I a

Vt E a I a ( ra rs )

Ia I s

f K f Is

Te K g f I a

f K f Is

Te K g K f I s I a

Ia I s

Te K d I a2

K g f K d I a

Ea

V I a ra rs

t

K g f

K g f

E a K g f m , Vt E a I a ( ra rs )

Vt I a ra rs

K d Ia

K g f K d I a

E a K d I a m Vt I a ra rs

Ia

Te

E a K g f m

Vt

K d m ra rs

K d Vt 2

K d m ra rs

Te K d I a2

22

Te

K d Vt 2

K d m ra rs 2

thus

Te

m2

Te 0

overspeeding!

E a K g f m

Electromagnetic torque:

Te K g f I a

Vt E a I a ra

f K f If

23

Vt E a I a ra

Vt K g f m

Te ra

K g f

Vt

Te ra

m

K g f

K g f

ra

Vt

K g f

K g f

E a K g f m ,

Te

Te K g f I a

m 0 K l Te

Slope:

Kl

ra

K g f 2

Vt

K g f

very small!

E a K g f m

Electromagnetic torque:

Te K g f I a

Vt E a I a ra

f K f If

24

Vt E a I a ra

Vt K g f m

Te ra

K g f

Vt

Te ra

m

K g f

K g f

ra

Vt

K g f

K g f

E a K g f m ,

Te

Te K g f I a

m 0 K l Te

Slope:

Kl

Vt

K g f

ra

K g f 2

very small!

m 0 K l Te

Note that: In the shunt DC motors, if suddenly the field terminals are

disconnected from the power supply, while the motor was running,

overspeeding problem will occur

E a K g f m

so

f 0 m

overspeeding!

25

Shaft speed can be controlled by

i.

Changing the terminal voltage

ii. Changing the field current (magnetic flux)

i.

m 0 K l Te

Te K g f I a

Vt

K g f

Vt 0 ,

Vt E a I a ra

Te

26

ii.

m 0 K l Te

Te K g f I a

f K f I f

Vt

K g f

I f f , 0 ,

Te

Shaft speed can be controlled by

i.

Adding a series resistance

ii. Adding a parallel field diverter resistance

iii. Using a potential divider at the input (i.e. changes the

effective terminal voltage)

27

i.

For the same Te produced

E a Vt I a ( ra rs rt )

For the same Te,

f is constant

but m drops since Ea = Kg f m..

New value of the motor speed, m is

given by

Ea

K g f

rt

ii.

Te K g f I a

E a K g f m

Ea , m

When we add the diverter resistance

Ea remains constant,

For the same Te produced, Ia increases

Ia

Vt E a

ra ( rs || rd )

rs || rd rs

speed m = Ea / Kg f should rise, while

driving the same load.

rd

Ea

K g f

I s ,

E a K g f m

f K f Is

I a ,

f ,

28

iii.

Let us apply Thvenin theorem to the

right of Vt

VTh

R2

Vt

R1 R2

RTh R1 || R2

adding series resistance as explained in

section (i) where rt RTh and Vt VTh.

For the same Te produced

E a VTh I a ( ra rs RTh )

For the same Te,

f is constant

but m drops rapidly since Ea = Kg f m..

given by

Ea

Te K g f I a

m

K g f

E K

a

Vt

E a , m

If the load increases, Te and Ia increases and Ea decreases, thus motor speed m drops down more.

Ex1:

a)

produced by the DC motor.

b) If the speed control is to be achieved by armature voltage control and

the new operating condition is given by:

nr = 1000 rpm and Te = 30 Nm

find the new terminal voltage Vt while f is kept constant.

29

Soln:

a)

Pconv Te m Ea I a

For Ia = 36 A

Ea VT I a ra 125 36 0.37 112 V

Thus

b)

Pconv2 Te 2 m 2 Ea 2 I a 2 30 2 1000 / 60 3.14 kW

As Ea = Kg f m and f is constant

Ea 2

nr 2

1000

E a1

112 97.1 V

nr 1

1150

Ea1 m1 nr 1

Ea 2 m 2 nr 2

Ia 2

Pconv 2 3.14k

32.3 A

Ea 2

97.1

Vt Ea 2 I a 2 ra 97.1 32.3 0.37 109 V

30

Ex2: A 50 hp, 250 V, 1200 rpm DC shunt motor with compensating windings has

an armature resistance (including the brushes, compensating windings, and

interpoles) of 0.06 . Its field circuit has a total resistance Radj + RF of 50 ,

which produces a no-load speed of 1200 rpm. The shunt field winding has

1200 turns per pole.

a) Find the motor speed when its input current is 100 A.

b) Find the motor speed when its input current is 200 A.

c) Find the motor speed when its input current is 300 A.

d) Plot the motor torque-speed characteristic.

Solution:

a) Since the input current is 100 A, the armature current is

I A IL IF IL

VT

250

100

95 A

RF

50

and the resulting motor speed is:

n2

EA2

244.3

n1

1200 1173rpm

E A1

250

31

b) Similar computations for the input current of 200 A lead to n2 = 1144 rpm.

c) Similar computations for the input current of 300 A lead to n2 = 1115 rpm.

d) At no load, the torque is zero.

For the input current of 100 A: ind

For the input current of 200 A: ind

For the input current of 300 A: ind

2443 95

190N - m

2 1173 / 60

2383 195

388N - m

2 1144 / 60

2323 295

587 N - m

2 1115 / 60

EA I A

The torque-speed

characteristic of the motor is:

Ex3: A 100 hp, 250 V, 1200 rpm DC shunt motor with an armature resistance of

0.03 and a field resistance of 41.67 . The motor has compensating

windings, so armature reactance can be ignored. Mechanical and core losses

may be ignored also. The motor is driving a load with a line current of 126 A

and an initial speed of 1103 rpm. Assuming that the armature current is constant

and the magnetization curve is

a) What is the motor speed if the field

resistance is increased to 50 ?

b) Calculate the motor speed as a function

of the field resistance, assuming a

constant-current load.

c) Assuming that the motor next is

connected as a separately excited and

is initially running with VA = 250 V,

IA = 120 A and at n = 1103 rpm while

supplying a constant-torque load,

estimate the motor speed if VA is

reduced to 200 V.

32

Soln:

shunt

a) For the given initial line current of 126 A, the initial armature current will be

I A1 I L1 I F 1 126

250

120 A

41.67

Therefore, the initial generated voltage for the shunt motor will be

E A1 VT I A1 RA 250 120 0.03 246.4V

After the field resistance is increased to 50 , the new field current will be

IF 2

250

5 A

50

E A 2 K22 2 n2

E A1 K11 1n1

Since the armature current is assumed constant, EA1 = EA2 and, therefore

n2

1n1

2

The values of EA on the magnetization curve are directly proportional to the flux.

Therefore, the ratio of internal generated voltages equals to the ratio of the fluxes within

the machine. From the magnetization curve, at IF = 5A, EA1 = 250V, and at IF = 6A,

EA1 = 268V. Thus:

n2

1103 1187rpm

250

2

EA2

right

33

separately excited

E A1 VT 1 I A1 RA

Since

E A 2 K22 2 n2

E A1 K11 1n1

E n

n2 A 2 1

E A1

Since the both the torque and the flux are constants, the armature current IA is

also constant. Then

n2

VT 2 I A2 RA

200 120 0.03

1103 879rpm

n1

250 120 0.03

VT 1 I A1 RA

Ex4: A 250-V series dc motor with compensating windings. and a total series

resistance ra + rs of 0.08 . The series field consists of 25 turns per pole.

with the magnetization curve (at 1200 rpm) shown below.

a) Find the speed and induced torque of

this motor for when its armature current

is 50 A.

b) Calculate the efficiency of the motor

34

Soln:

a)

To analyze the behavior of a series motor with saturation. pick points along the

operating curve and find the torque and speed for each point. Notice that the

magnetization curve is given in units of magnetomotive force (ampere-turns) versus

Ea for a speed of 1200 r/min. so calculated Ea values must be compared to the

equivalent values at 1200 r /min to deternine the actual motor speed.

For Ia = 50 A

Fs NI s 25 50 1250 A - turns

correct speed of the motor.

nr

Ea

246

nr 0

1200 3690 rpm

Ea 0

80

To find the induced torque supplied by the motor at that speed, recall that

Pconv = Ea Ia = Tem. Therefore,

Te

b)

Ea I a

246 50

31.8 Nm

2 3690 / 60

Efficiency is given by the ratio of the output and input power values. Thus,

%

246 50

Pout

T

E I

100 e m 100 a a 100

100 98.4%

250 50

Pin

Vt I t

Vt I t

35

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