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My View

by Bimal K. Bose

Doing Research in Power Electronics

o you do research in power


electronics? Are you a professor or graduate student in a university or an engineer in an industrial
research laboratory? Power electronics research is not different from any
other area of engineering or scientific
research. For doing research, we discipline and dedicate our mind to make
inventions or generate new knowledge
that helps to solve our problems and
contribute to the advancement of our
civilization in a broad perspective. The
sincerity, purity, and tranquility of our
mind, possibly blended with some spirituality, help us concentrate our mind
for doing research. Research accomplishment gives supreme satisfaction
of mind. Note that doing research and
learning always go together. Learning
is essentially a lifelong process. Albert
Einstein said that we cease to learn
only when we die.
How does our brain function for
doing research? The human brain, the
thinking machine with a biological neural network that gives us natural intelligence, is the most complex machine on
earth. Neurobiologists have attempted
to understand the structure of the
brain and its functioning over a prolonged period of time, but these remain
extremely inadequate even today. The
neural network [1] in our brain consists
of the interconnection of billions of neurons or nerve cells, where the synaptic
junction of each input dendrite is filled
with neurotransmitter fluid. The impedance of this junction contributes to
the intelligence or associative-memory
Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/MIE.2014.2364471
Date of publication: 19 March 2015

property of each cell. The intelligence


of the brain is thus distributed in the
cells of the whole neural network. The
supervised learning from our education conditions the junction impedances to acquire knowledge in a specific
domain, such as power electronics. It
is interesting to note that our brain
does not have a computerlike central
memory. The neural network has the
ability to interpolate or extrapolate this
knowledge to create new knowledge.
The brain has the additional cognitive
capability to invent, which we do not
really understand.
The creative capability of the human brain is tremendous. We use hardly
more than 5% of our creative capability
for doing research, and the remaining is
mostly wasted in the triviality of our
daily thoughts. The research can be defined as fundamental or basic type and
applied or application oriented. Thomas
Edison, the wizard of applied experimental research in electrical engineering, defined genius as 1% inspiration and 99%
perspiration. Edison had 1,093 U.S. patents even though he did not complete
his high school education. However,
according to Charles Steinmetz, the wizard of basic research, genius is defined
as 99% inspiration and 1% perspiration.
These are, of course, extreme examples
in the early days of engineering research. A modern research project typically requires idea formulationsystem
analysisdesignsimulation studyand
validation by experiment. Finally, suffice
it to say that a good researcher should
also be a good communicator in both
writing and speaking.
Now, let me fall back to power electronics. What is special about power

6 IEEE industrial electronics magazine march 2015

electronics? It is a complex and interdisciplinary technology that basically


deals with the conversion and control of
electrical power using switching-mode
power semiconductor devices. The applications of power electronics include
regulated dc and ac power supplies,
electrochemical processes, heating
and lighting control, electronic welding,
power line volt-ampere reactive (VAR)
and harmonic compensation, high-
voltage dc (HVDC), flexible ac transmission systems (FACTS), photovoltaic
(PV) systems, fuel cell power conversions, high-frequency (HF) heating, and
motor drives. After several decades of
technology evolution, power electronics applications have recently become
extremely important for energy saving,
electric/hybrid vehicles, the smart grid,
renewable energy systems, and bulk
energy storage, besides the usual applications in industrial automation and
high-efficiency energy systems.
In general, doing research in power
electronics requires expertise in power
semiconductor and peripheral devices,
converter circuits, control theories,
electrical machines, digital signal processors (DSPs), field programmable
gate arrays, power systems, and computer-aided design and simulation techniques. Recently, artificial intelligence
(AI) techniques, such as fuzzy logic
and artificial neural networks (ANNs),
are advancing the frontier of power
electronics. Each of these component
disciplines is advancing rapidly, thus
presenting greater challenges to power
electronics researchers. A thorough
knowledge of the application environment is essential for doing research in a
power electronics project.

In this column, discussions will


mainly be based on my own experience. The formulation of research ideas,
project planning, proposal preparation,
steps in doctoral research projects, and
writing papers for publication will be
covered. This column is aimed at young
researchers at universities based on examples from my own research career,
reviewing my experience in power electronics research, and illustrating my key
contributions. I have spent more than
30 years in universities and more than
11 years in a premier industrial research
laboratory, which practically spans the
whole era of the modern power electronics evolution. Hopefully, my knowledge and experience will be useful to
the readers.

Research Areas
in Power Electronics
As I mentioned, power electronics is a
complex and interdisciplinary technology, and doing research in this area
requires a comprehensive background
in electrical engineering and beyond.
Figure 1 shows some key inventions
related to power electronics [2]. The
research in power electronics can be
broadly classified into research on
devices, converter systems, motor
drives, and general energy systems,
which are summarized, respectively, in
Figures 25. The motor drive area is always included in power electronics because complexity in this area is mainly
due to power electronics.
The research on devices, particularly power semiconductor devices, is
extremely important because evolution
in this area has essentially brought on
the modern power electronics revolution. The present trend of research and
development (R&D) on silicon and largebandgap power semiconductor devices
will continue until the power device
characteristics and ratings are significantly improved, approaching an ideal
switch. However, note that the basic
research on power semiconductor and
peripheral devices (including machines)
does not strictly fall in the mainstream
of power electronics, except for the evaluation of their performances. Generally,
every research project in power electronics has the usual implementation

1837: dc Motor (Davenport)


1882: New York City dc Distribution System (Edison)
1885: Rotating Magnetic Field by Polyphase Stator Winding (Ferraris)
1888: Commercial Wound-Rotor Induction Motor (Tesla)
1889: Cage Induction Motor (Debrovolsky)
1891: Polyphase Alternator (Tesla)
: Ward Leonard dc Motor Speed Control (Leonard)
1897: Three-Phase Diode Bridge Rectifier (Graetz)
1929: Synchronous Machine d-q Model in Synchronous Reference Frame (Park)
1930: New York Subway Grid-Controlled Mercury Arc Rectifier for dc Drive
1934: Cycloconverter Synchronous Motor Drive for Induced-Draft (ID)
Fan (Alexanderson)
1938: Induction Motor d-q Model in Stationary Reference Frame (Stanley)
1948: Invention of Point Contact Bipolar Transistor (Bardeen and Brattain)
: Invention of Junction Bipolar Transistor (Schockley)
1956: Invention of Thyristor (Moll, Tanenbaum, Goldey, and Holonyak)
: Silicon High-Power Diode
1958: Introduction of Commercial Thyristor [General Electric (GE)]
: Invention of the Triode for Alternating Current (TRIAC) (GE)
: Invention of gate turn-off thyristor (GTO) (GE)
1961: Force-Commutated Thyristor Voltage-Fed Inverter (McMurray)
1963: Selected Harmonic Elimination Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) (Turnbull)
1964: Sinusoidal PWM (Schonung and Stemmler)
1969: Static Kramer Drive (Shepherd and Stanway)
: Indirect Vector Control (Hasse)
1971: Microprocessor 8-b (Intel)
1972: Direct Vector Control (Blaschke)
1973: Transistor ac Switch for Matrix Converter (Bose)
1977: Static Scherbius Drive (Smith)
1979: Hysteresis Band (HB) PWM for ac Motor Drive (Plunkett)
1980: Matrix Converter (Venturini)
1981: Diode-Clamped Three-Level Converter (Nabae, Takahashi, and Akagi)
1982: Space Vector PWM (Pfaff, Weschta, and Wick)
1983: Invention of the Insulated-Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) (GEBaliga)
1985: Commercial Introduction of IGBT (GE)
: Direct Torque and Flux Control (DTC) (Takahashi)
1990s2000s: Fuzzy Logic and Neural Network Applications in Power
Electronics (Bose et al.)
1997: Introduction of the Integrated Gate-Commutated Thyristor (IGCT) (ABB)
FIGURE 1 Some key inventions related to power electronics.

stages of design, analysis, modeling,


computer simulation study, and experimental evaluation.
The converter systems and motor
drives technologies have significantly
matured in recent years, although there
are ample opportunities for doing innovative and incremental research in these
areas. The motor drives area is generally
more complex and requires expertise in
more interdisciplinary areas. Recently,
power electronics applications have expanded into complex energy systems
because of their integration with the
utility systems, and research in this area

is expanding. Figure 5 gives some examples of general energy systems. The


modern complex smart or intelligent
grid, where the conventional high-power
fossil fuel, nuclear, and hydroelectric
generators are integrated with distributed renewable energy systems (such
as wind and PV) along with bulk energy
storage devices [such as batteries, flywheel, pumped storage, ultracapacitors,
superconducting magnet energy storage
(SMES), and hydrogen], need extensive
research efforts for system stabilities,
bus voltage, frequency control, power
quality, optimum resource utilization

march 2015 IEEE industrial electronics magazine 7

1) Power Semiconductor Devices:


A) Materials (Silicon, Silicon Carbide, Gallium Nitride, Diamond, Etc.)
B) Present Devices [Diode, Thyristor, GTO, Triac, Power MetalOxideSemiconductor Field-Effect
Transistor (MOSFET), IGBT, IGCT, Intelligent Power Module (IPM), or Power Integrated Circuit (PIC)]
with Incremental Change
or
Development of a New Device
[Voltage and Current Ratings, Leakage Current, Safe Operating Area (SOA), Conduction Drop, Junction
Temperature, Turn-On and Turn-Off Times, Minority Carrier Storage, Rate of Current Change (di/dt),
Rate of Voltage Change (dv/dt), Switching Frequency, Series and Parallel Operation, Power Loss,
Thermal Impedance, Cooling, Snubber or Snubberless, Gate Drive, Fault Diagnosis and Protection, and Applications]
Design, Fabrication, Packaging, Analysis, Modeling, Simulation Studies, Performance Prediction,
and Experimental Evaluation
2) Peripheral Devices:
Present Devices (Capacitor, Inductor, Resistor, Transformer, Battery, Fuel Cell, PV Cell,
Light-Emitting Diode, SMES, DSP,
Application-Specific Integrated Circuit, Field-Programmable Gate Array, Etc.) with Incremental Change
or
Development of a New Device
Design, Fabrication, Packaging, Analysis, Modeling, Simulation Studies, Performance Prediction,
and Experimental Evaluation
FIGURE 2 Research topics on devices.

1) Converters:
Present Converters (Voltage-Fed, Current-Fed, Hybrid, HF Link, Etc.) with Incremental Change
or
Development of a New Topology
[Control Strategy, Response, Loss and Efficiency, Line and Load Harmonics, Power Quality,
Filtering, Soft Switching, Dead-Time Compensation, Power (P), Reactive Power (Q), Total Harmonic Distortion (THD),
Power Factor (PF), Displacement Power Factor (DPF), Electromagnetic Interference (EMI),
Line/Converter/Load Faults, Fault Diagnostics and Fault-Tolerant Control, Hardware/Software Implementation, Etc.]
Design, Analysis, Modeling, Simulation Studies, Performance Prediction, and Experimental Evaluation
2) PWM Techniques:
Present PWM Techniques [Sinusoidal Pulsewidth Modulation (SPWM), Selected Harmonic Elimination (SHE),
Static Volt Ampere Reactive (Var) Compensator Hysteresis Band (SVC.HB)]
with Incremental Change
or
Development of a New Technique
Design, Analysis, Modeling, Simulation Studies, Performance Prediction, and Experimental Evaluation
FIGURE 3 Research topics on converter systems.

with supply-demand interactive energy


management, economical electricity to
consumers, higher energy efficiency,
higher system reliability and security,
fault detection and protection, fault-tolerant control, etc. The system complexity increases if it incorporates power
electronics-based HVDC transmissions,
FACTS, static synchronous compensators, uninterruptable power systems,
etc., to achieve the above-
mentioned
objectives. The AI applications in power

electronics are ushering in a new technology frontier in this perspective and


require further exploration. Additional
information on research areas can be
obtained from the power electronics
literature. Power electronics is often defined as a maturing enabling technology.
However, both ends of the technology
spectrum, i.e., power semiconductor devices and complex energy systems with
power electronics, require extensive
R&D efforts.

8 IEEE industrial electronics magazine march 2015

Doing Research in Universities


Now, let us fall back to research in universities [3]. Have you just completed your
Ph.D. degree in a university and are looking for a job to start your career? Generally, you have two choices: join the faculty
of a university or be an engineer in an industrial research laboratory. Of course,
you also have the option to be a postdoctoral fellow in a university to work
with a senior professor or start your own
business as an independent researcher.

1) Machines
Present Machines [Induction Motor (IM), Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM),
Wound-Field Synchronous Motor (WFSM), Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM)
with Radial, Axial, or Linear Geometry] with Incremental Change
or
Development of New Machine
(Volume, Weight, Power/Torque Density, Parameters, Losses and Efficiency, Cooling, Pulsating Torque,
Acoustic Noise, Faults, Etc.)
Design, Fabrications, Analysis, Modeling, Simulation, Performance Prediction, and Experimental Evaluation
2) Control Strategy
Present Control Strategies [Vector Control, DTC Control, Model Referencing Adaptive Control (MRAC),
Self-Tuning Regulator (STR),
Variable Structure Control (SMC), Model Predictive Control, Fuzzy and Neural Controls,
Genetic Algorithm (GA) Control, Sensorless Control, Disturbance
Compensation, Fault-Tolerant Control and Other Scalar, Optimal, and Adaptive Controls,
Hardware/Software Implementation] with Incremental Change
or
Development of a New Strategy
Analysis, Design, Modeling, Simulation Studies, Performance Prediction, and Experimental Evaluation
3) Estimation and Measurements
Present Techniques [Torque, Slip, Flux, Speed, Position, Acceleration, Disturbance (Line and Load),
Response, Accuracy, Harmonic Effects, Machine Parameters (Stator and Rotor Resistances, and Stator and
Rotor Inductances), dv/dt Effect on Insulation, Bearing Current, Acoustic Noise, Machine Voltage
Boost for Long Cable, Fault Diagnosis (Online and Offline), Hardware/Software
Implementation, Etc.] with Incremental Change
or
Development of a New Strategy
Design, Analysis, Modeling, Simulation Studies, Performance Prediction, and Experimental Evaluation
FIGURE 4 Research topics on machines and motor drives.

Whatever it is, you have essentially chosen research as the main activity in your
career path. It is very likely that you will
select a university to start a faculty career. So, welcome as a tenure-track assistant professor in electrical engineering.
What are the merits and challenges
in a university career? First, among the
merits, you have a lot of freedom. Essentially, you are your own boss. You wont
have to report for work during the
8 a.m.5 p.m. time frame. In a university,
if the department is big, you seldom
meet your department head, and he
will never ask you how your work is going. By adding Prof. with your name,
you maintain a prestige and ego in the
career. A university professor is an emblem of intellectual thinking and is highly respected in society. You can travel to
conferences as you want, provided you
control the travel funds. A university
job in the United States is typically for
nine months out of the year. This means
that in the summer you can work for

Examples:
Fuel Cell Uninterruptible Power System (UPS) with Supercapacitor
(or Battery) Storage Operating with Wind Generation System to Supply
Intermittent Loads in an Autonomous System
Micro Grid with PV, Wind, and Distributed Energy Storage
Magnetically Levitated Vehicle (MAGLEV) Transportation System with
Weak Utility Supplies
Transmission System Integrated with FACTS
PV and Off-Shore Wind Generation Systems Integrated with Utility Grid Through
Voltage-Fed (HVDC PLUS or HVDC LIGHT) HVDC Transmission
Smart Grid System Integrated with Fossil, Nuclear, and Renewable Energy
Systems and Bulk Energy Storage
(Bus voltage and frequency, p, q, harmonics, power quality, reliability, stability,
estimation, measurement, control, efficiency, security, fault diagnosis,
fault-tolerant control, optimum load flow, etc.)
Conceptual studies, design, analysis, modeling, simulation, performance
prediction, and experimental evaluation
FIGURE 5 Research topics on general energy systems.

extra income. In addition, you can also


do industrial consulting, typically one
day/week, to boost your income. A professors nine-month salary may not be

necessarily less than that of an engineer


for 12 months in industry. A professor,
of course, has to be a good speaker as
well as a good writer. For success in

march 2015 IEEE industrial electronics magazine 9

your career, these communication skills


are extremely important.
The biggest challenge in a university
is that a professor has to bring in research
funds in a sustained way throughout his
career. Although most universities have
the status of nonprofit tax-exempt institution, they tend to operate like profitmaking corporations. For this reason,
most of the faculty, particularly in the
engineering departments, are always
under tremendous pressure to bring in
more and more research funds. Since
most of the graduate students (M.S. and
Ph.D. students) come from abroad and
are usually supported by research funds,
if you do not have research funds, you
will hardly have any graduate students,
i.e., you will not have any research projects and, therefore, no publications. As
a tenured faculty member, you are left
with a full-time teaching load of four to
five courses. Essentially, you are a dead
professor. Again, it is a one-way street.
Once you have left the research career, it
is difficult to come back to it.
When you join the university as a new
nontenured faculty member, the university will most likely give you a seed or
start-up fund to start your research
program, buy some lab equipment, and
hire one or two graduate students as
research assistants. You will be lucky
to join as a team member of an ongoing
research program with a funding stream.
The research can also be supported
by teaching assistantships (TAs) in the
department. After a few years, a tenure
committee in the department will evaluate your teaching, publications, research
funding, and other activities and then
decide your eligibility for tenure. As a
tenured faculty, you will be promoted to
associate professor. If not tenured, you
can apply to another university or switch
to an industry job. If everything moves
smoothly after getting tenure, you will be
a full professor in the course of time and
remain in that position until retirement.
Some professors switch to administrative positions for more money and power, but with less intellectual attainment.
Some universities create distinguished
professors or prestigious chaired professors, with endowment funds that provide a high salary and initial tenure, to
attract distinguished professionals. The

chairs are normally expected to have


some industrial experience and high
connections that can attract more funding and enhance the universitys reputation. There is no mandatory retirement
age for a university professor. This is
another advantage of a university career.
Awards and Honors
As a researcher in power electronics,
whether in a university or in industry,
you normally become a Member of the
IEEE. The IEEE is the largest international professional organization in the world.
Eventually, through your professional
contributions, you can become eligible
to be an IEEE Fellow [4]. The IEEE Fellowship is very prestigious, particularly
in a university career. With this award,
you become eligible for promotions and
higher responsibilities in life. However,
this award is highly competitive globally, and the Fellow award is limited to
only 0.1% of the total IEEE membership.
Along with the Fellowship award, there
is also opportunities for for IEEE main
professional Society awards, technical
field awards, and medals [5], which can
be summarized as follows:
IEEE Power Electronics Society
Richard M. Bass Outstanding Young
Power Electronics Engineer Award
R. David Middlebrook Achievement
Award
IEEE Industrial Electronics Society
Dr.-Ing. Eugene Mittelmann Achievement Award

Dr. Bimal Bose Energy Systems
Award
Rudolf Chope R&D Award
J. David Irwin Early Career Award
IEEE Industry Applications Society
Outstanding Achievement Award
Gerald Kliman Innovator Award

A ndrew W. Smith Outstanding
Young Member Award
IEEE Technical Field Awards
William E. Newell Power Electronics Award
Richard Harold Kaufman Award
Nikola Tesla Award
IEEE Medals
Power Engineering Medal (replaced the original Lamme Medal)
Medal of Honor.
The Medal of Honor is the highest
award in the IEEE and is often defined

10 IEEE industrial electronics magazine march 2015

as the Nobel Prize in electrical engineering (as there is no Nobel Prize in


engineering). In 2014, the Medal of Honor was awarded to power electronics
scientist B.J. Baliga for the invention
of the insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT). Note that an Early Career
or Young Member Award may be given
before earning IEEE Fellowship.
Research Idea, Project Plan,
and Proposal Preparation
A research project in a university may
be nonfunded or funded. In nonfunded
research, a graduate student can get
support from a TA, a professor may have
his or her own research grant to support the student, or a visiting research
scholar from abroad may get support
from his or her own government. Visiting research scholars are normally brilliant because they are selected by their
governments on a competitive basis to
do research under reputed professors
abroad. Experienced visiting professors
and postdoctoral research fellows normally give the best performance with little supervision, which helps to enhance
the professors reputation.
In most cases, the research is funded
and a professor has to write proposals to
bring in funds. A proposal may be unsolicited or based on a request for proposal (RFP), and the funding agencies may
be government [such as the National
Science Foundation (NSF) or the Department of Energy (DOE)] or private industries. The research may be fundamental
or application oriented, as mentioned
before. The NSF, for example, promotes
fundamental research, whereas the
DOE research is generally applied. The
industrial projects are normally small
and solicited and require solving problems related to products. Unfortunately,
the success rate for government-funded
proposals is very small, which causes a
large waste of effort and a tremendous
amount of frustration.
How do you generate ideas for research projects? A mature knowledge
with a broad perspective of the technology helps with the generation of research
ideas. Often, there is cross-fertilization of
ideas, i.e., ideas gained in one technology
area can be applied to others. A professor can maintain an idea or knowledge

book for this. After attending a conference presentation or reading a paper, the
question should arise in his or her mind,
Have I learned anything new? The ideas
can be jotted down in the notebook.
Sometimes, research ideas flash in our
thoughtful mind when we are relaxing in
a chair, walking alone, etc. Solitude is the
breeding ground for new ideas. The ideas
should be innovative, advanced, and
timely in the current technology trend.
Once the idea crystalizes in the mind, it
should be verified by an intensive literature review to be sure that it is sound and
has not been solved before. Figure 6 gives
guidelines for planning a research project
and proposal preparation. An appropriate project title and objective of the
research should be written clearly and
convincingly. These and the technical
background of the proposal with appropriate references will demonstrate the importance of the project and the authors
knowledge base to handle it. The other
parts of the proposal, i.e., formulation
and scheduling of the tasks, background
of the project investigators (particularly
the principal investigator), lab facilities,
and budget, are also important.
Doctoral Research
A full-time doctoral student in a university typically takes four years to complete his or her courses, qualifying and
comprehensive exams, and the research
work after the M.S. degree, whereas an
M.S. degree may take two years for completion. A doctoral project should be an
original contribution in technology and
should include the steps of idea formulation, a literature study, a system analysis, a computer simulation, and finally an
experimental investigation to validate
the results, as indicated in Figure 7. A
university professor in a good university
normally demands one or two transactions publications from the doctoral dissertation. The scope of an M.S. thesis is
much narrower and may involve either a
simulation or experimental study, finally
resulting in a simple conference paper.
In the beginning, the advising professor should define the research project
for the student. It will be unfortunate if
the professor is too busy and does not
have a clear idea for the research and,
therefore, depends on the student to

Formulate the project idea.

Search the literature and be sure the idea is novel and timely.

Analyze the idea and plan proposal preparation.

Generate the proposal title.

Write an abstract or objective of the project.

Write a technical background or prior art.

Formulate the tasks with a brief description.

Prepare a time schedule of tasks.

Identify the project investigators and write a brief curriculum vitae.

Review the laboratory facilities.

Formulate a budget and complete the proposal.


Submit the proposal.
FIGURE 6 Planning a project and proposal preparation.

define his own project. The outline of


the project idea with some description
and scope of the work should be summarized in a one-page write-up and discussed with the student extensively. If
the student has any novel idea, it should
be fully honored. Then, an extensive literature study should follow to be sure
that the idea is original and that nobody has done it before. The selection
of a proper topic is the most important
step in doctoral research. Following the
start, the professor should have a weekly meeting with the student for an extensive discussion with back-and-forth
learning and pursuing progress. Any
gap in the students knowledge should
be filled up by self-study or by the professor. Needless to say, a professor becomes famous by the work of his or her
graduate students. Therefore, his intimate association with the project until
its successful completion is important.

In implementing the project, collect pieces of relevant knowledge from


different sources; document them in a
notebook; and connect, interpolate, and
extrapolate them to generate the new
knowledge. It is a good idea to formulate a questionnaire related to the different aspects of the project. Solving a
project essentially consists of answering
a questionnaire. The problems should
be analyzed thoroughly from all angles
to assure success. Suffice it to say that
the student should be a true friend and
companion of the professor throughout
the project. The student should write a
monthly progress report to the professor,
which can be used as a periodic progress
report for the funded project. Finally, the
thesis is composed and approved by the
doctoral committee after the defense
presentation. A professors workload
tends to be heavy with more graduate
projects in addition his teaching load and

march 2015 IEEE industrial electronics magazine 11

What is your background?


What project experience do you have?
Do you have any topic preference?
Select a project topic.

Formulate the project topic and


write the implementation steps in one page.

Review the literature and iterate the topic.

Analyze the system and design.

Evaluate the system performance.

Develop the control strategy and analyze the system.

Simulate the system and evaluate the performance.

Integrate the system and perform laboratory tests.

Write the thesis and papers.


FIGURE 7 Steps in a doctoral research project.

other department activities. With a large


number of students, he or she tends to
be more of a project manager rather than
a research adviser, and the quality of research can deteriorate, thus deteriorating the publication standard.
Writing a Paper for Publication
Have you ever published any paper in
IEEE publications, particularly in one of
the transactions [7]? The transactions
papers with your biography and photo
at the end are prestigious and bring you
status in the professional community.
Published IEEE papers are included in
IEEE Xplore (ieeexplore.org), and their
importance can be found in citations
and the h-index given in Google Scholar
(scholar.google.com). The quality of the
publication is extremely important. Inferior-quality papers will give you a bad
name. Typically, one transactions paper
can be considered equivalent to four or
five conference papers. Again, a highquality paper with an original contribution can be equivalent to ten mediocre
papers, and a paper with an invention

(see Figure 1) may be worth 20 high-quality papers. If you are a young, untenured
professor, transactions publications will
help you get tenure and promotions. If
you are a tenured professor, more transactions publications will promote your
fame, help you become an IEEE Fellow,
and may subsequently bring other IEEE
and non-IEEE awards and honors. Gradually, the door of your career may open for
new avenues of success. Needless to say,
publications are extremely important in
the academic community for survival
following the axiom publish or perish.
If you are an industrial researcher, publication may not be that important, but
it brings fame to your career. However, if
you are an engineer in industry and trying to transition to a university career,
you must build up a publication base.
Above all, publications bring the tremendous satisfaction of career accomplishments. A scientist without publications
is forgotten quickly.
If you have done research and the
results are of archival value, these are
publishable as papers. The material

12 IEEE industrial electronics magazine march 2015

may be of current interest or may have


a potential interest in the future. Of
course, state-of-the-art technology survey papers by experienced authors are
also worthy of transactions publication.
Proceedings of the IEEE often publishes
prestigious survey papers, which often get best paper awards (such as the
Donald G. Fink Award). The research
results in archival literature may be important for immediate applications or
future applications after a prolonged
period of time. For a new and emerging technology, often analytical results
with validation by a simulation study
may suffice for a transactions paper.
Otherwise, experimental results are demanded to substantiate analytical and
simulation results. The reason is that a
simulation is only as good as the model,
which means that if the modeling is not
accurate, the simulation cannot give
trustworthy results. Anyway, when a
contribution has been made, you need
to judge carefully if it is worthy of being a transactions or conference paper.
Once you have decided that the material
is transactions worthy, the first step is
to organize the material very carefully.
In addition to having good technical
content, writing a good paper is an art
and tests your knowledge of English and
your writing skills. It is no wonder that
a majority of submitted papers, particularly those written by foreign nationals,
are rejected. A typical flowchart for writing a paper is shown in Figure 8 [7].
Writing a good paper is like telling
a story to somebody, which should be
clear, concise, and well organized with
a logical flow of expressions. It is always
a good idea to read some good papers
written by reputed authors. The title of
the paper should clearly reflect your
contribution. For every paper, the lead
student normally becomes the first author even though the advisor has made
the primary contribution. This helps
the student successfully establish his
or her career. Then, coauthors should
be added in the order of magnitude
of their contribution. It is unethical to
add a coauthor who has not made any
contribution to the paper. In the same
way, it is not ethical to add the name of
a department head, project manager,
or financial supporter as a coauthor

unless he or she has made contributions. Note that plagiarism is an offense,


and submitting multiple publications
of the same material to different journals with slight alterations is highly unethical. The next step is to collect the
references in the proper format. The
references are important for writing the
introduction of the paper. The reviewer
of the manuscript will become angry
if his or her contribution is not cited
in the paper. Planning figures with the
appropriate labels and titles is a very
crucial step in the preparation of the
paper. The figures and captions should
be fully explanatory and clearly convey
their contribution to the paper. A figure
is worth a thousand words. The figures
should be finalized after the preparation
of the full draft paper. Then, plan the different sections and subsections with
the appropriate title and assign the figures to the sections. Organize the main
equations with the appropriate symbols
and definition of the symbols locally.
The equations are the ornaments of a
research paper, and if possible, there
should be a few equations. Use the
symbols that are commonly used in
textbooks. The derivation of the equations, if necessary, should be included
briefly in the appendix. Organize all the
points in detail and in proper sequence
in each section and subsection before
starting the draft paper preparation.
Correct English composition, grammar,
and spelling are extremely important in
paper writing. Needless to say, despite
being an excellent contribution, a majority of papers are rejected because
of poor English. If a professor depends
solely on his graduate student for writing, it is almost certain that the paper
will be rejected. Again, even if the paper
is written by an experienced professor
himself, rejection is not uncommon.
The most difficult part of the paper
is writing the introduction. Here, in the
beginning, you should clearly highlight
the importance of your contribution in
a convincing way. Then, past contributions in this area should be reviewed
with proper references, emphasizing
why your contribution is novel and superior to others. The remaining parts of
the paper consist of a simple and clear
description of the content in logical

sequence. Finally, summarize your contribution and its significance in the


conclusion. After writing the full draft
paper, revise it several times to improve
and polish the English. After the peer review of your paper, typically by three reviewers, it may be rejected or accepted
with recommendations for revision.
If you are a senior and established
professor with a lot of experience, you
should possibly consider writing a
book. A good book can give you a lot of
visibility in the professional community. However, writing a book may not be
easy. Many professors start the project, but very few complete it. A book
project requires a lot of extra studies
and continuous progress without any
interruption. A young professor in the
midst of career building should never
undertake a book project.

Doing Research in Industry


This article would be incomplete without
some discussion of the pros and cons
of industrial jobs. Some discussion was
included in the Doing Research in Universities section. A discussion of government research labs is also included in
this section. Some students, after a long
period in the university environment,
find it tiring and monotonous and would
like to experience the outside world by
taking a job in industry. There is definitely satisfaction in doing real-world, product-oriented practical projects with
your own hands and interacting with
a lot of people. As I mentioned before,
some industrial experience is an asset if
you plan to switch to a university career
later as a prestigious chaired professor.
In that case, building a publication base
is essential. The salary in an industrial
job may be higher, but not necessarily.
There is also the possibility of moving
to a higher management position (such
as vice president) later in your career
with high compensation and power that
are unheard of in a university. However,
a managerial job is generally less secure
than that of a contributor. As a manager,
you may have a reputation only within
the perimeter of your company. Besides,
unlike a renowned university professor,
you are forgotten quickly as soon as
you quit the management position. As a
contributor, you will have to report the

progress of your project to your manager, who may be less mature and less
educated than you. He or she may also
have an arrogant personality that may
be difficult for you to bear. If you meet
him/her in the corridor, he or she may
ask you, How is the project going? Your
travels are restricted mostly to business
travels. There is no tenure system in
industry, and you may be laid off with
short notice if the companys financial
condition is not good or if it changes its
research direction.
A research lab in a large corporation may undertake large governmentfunded projects, or problem-solving
tasks for their product departments, in
addition to its own assessed-fund technology development projects. Much of
the discussion on academic research
given in the previous section is also
applicable in industrial projects. Since
industries are profit oriented, the R&D
activity is highly organized to economize cost. The publication of patents is
of much higher priority than the publication of papers. In fact, paper publication is often denied or delayed until

Is the contribution publishable?

Generate an appropriate paper title.

List the author/coauthors.

Collect the relevant references.

Plan the figures and tables with titles.


Collect the points and organize
the sections and subsections.
Write a draft paper.

Finalize all the figures and tables.


Prepare the final paper
(revisereviserevise).

FIGURE 8 Steps for writing a research paper.

march 2015 IEEE industrial electronics magazine 13

the application or issue of the patent.


Efficient team work (with compatibility
of temperament) for a large project under a project manager is important. A
monthly progress report and periodic
design review (with action items) on
the progress of the project by an expert
review team are essential. This is discussed further in the My Experience in
Research section.

My Experience in Research
I started my power electronics research
in 1958 in the University of Wisconsin,
Madison, where I completed my M.S.
degree in 1960 under the support of the
United States Agency for International
Development (USAID). My project was
concerned with investigating threephase diode-bridge rectifier harmonics
on a long transmission line. In those
days, thyristors were not available commercially (they were introduced in 1958),
but silicon power diodes were available
in high power for industrial applications.

The field of power electronics was then


known as industrial electronics. The term
power electronics was introduced in the
beginning of the 1970s. My Wisconsin
project consisted of some theoretical
study and experimental investigation
with a model distributed parameter
(LC) transmission line in the lab. With
the help of a harmonic wave analyzer,
I could demonstrate the distribution of
harmonics along the line and the resonance voltage boosting effect with a particular harmonic.
I returned to India in 1960 and joined
the Bengal Engineering College [now
the Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology (IIEST)], Shibpur,
to start my career and begin my doctoral research in Ramey magnetic amplifiers (MAs). My research project was
somewhat hybrid among MAs, power
transistors, and thyristors. The projects were developmental, analytical,
and experimental studies of a magnetic
servoamplifier for a position-servo with

FIGURE 9 Doing research in the GE-CRD laboratory on DSP control of EV (ETXII) project. (From
left) Paul Szczesny, Bimal Bose, and Hunt Sutherland [11].

14 IEEE industrial electronics magazine march 2015

a two-phase induction motor and multichannel telemetry encoding systems


[8], [9]. The U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
Langley Research Center, United States,
considered the encoding system for
satellite-to-earth data communication.
I received my doctorate degree in 1966.
From 1966 to 1971, I supervised several
MA-based research projects on a fourquadrant analog multiplier, a dc-to-dc
converter, a magnetic servoamplifier,
and a digital voltmeter.
The year 1971 was historic in my career, when I emigrated to United States
with an ambitious goal in life. I joined
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI),
Troy, New York, as a faculty member to
organize its power electronics teaching
and research program with the help of GE
Corporate R&D (GE-CRD) (now GE Global
Research Center), Schenectady (Figure
9). Power electronics was an emerging
technology at that time with intense R&D
activities by large corporations, such as
GE, Westinghouse, and Siemens. Coming
from India with an MA background, the
work was quite challenging to me. The
only other university in the United States
with a power electronics program at
that time was the University of Missouri,
Columbia. I found that the graduate students were extremely brilliant in RPI and
were excited to do research projects in
the emerging power electronics area. I
completed a number of projects, which
consisted of developing a transistor ac
switch and its application in a matrix converter [19], Triac speed control of a threephase induction motor, a three-phase ac
power control with transistors, a thyristor self-oscillating inverter, etc. During
this period, I came in close contact with
GE-CRD researchers in power electronics. They offered me a part-time (one
day/week) consulting research project
on a thyristor HF resonant-link cycloconverter for a motor drive [24], which was
quite challenging for me. The project was
successful, and I could for the first time
demonstrate that the cycloconverter
could operate at a programmable (leading-lagging) line displacement power factor (DPF) [as a static VAR compensator
(SVC) in extreme cases]. It was also the
M.S. project of a GE-CRD engineer who
helped me complete the project.

I decided to transition to GE-CRD


[11] in 1976 after a 16-year university
career. My main motivation was to learn
power electronics with hands-on experience and work on some real-world
large industrial projects. In those days,
GE-CRD was the worlds top research
center (called the ivory tower) in power
electronics. It was like Bell Laboratory
where the transistor was invented. Power electronics scientists from all over the
world used to visit us in Schenectady. I
could see so many world-class scientists
across the hall in Building 37, where my
office was located. My first project was
an autosequential current-fed inverter
analysis and simulation with William
McMurray (see William McMurray:
The Guru of Power Electronics). Bill
was the founding father and guru of
power electronics, and his papers on
force-commutated thyristor inverters
were classic contributions that set the
stage for the modern power electronics evolution. I used to worship him like
God. From him, I learned that research
ideas do not necessarily come within
the 8 a.m.5 p.m. work day in office.
The thoughts linger most of the time
beyond the office hours, and often new
ideas come when I am taking bath, walking alone in the evening, or even in the
midnight when I suddenly wake up with
the flash of a new idea. There is no difference between scientific research
and transcendental meditation [11]. A
substantial part of my time in GE (until
1987) was involved with electric vehicle
(EV) and hybrid electric vehicle (HEV)
projects. The EV project was the first
major initiative by the U.S. government
after the Arab oil embargo in the 1970s. I
was the principal engineer for microprocessor/DSP control development, which
was quite a difficult subject for a power
electronics engineer in those days. Our
first EV project (ETV1) was a splendid
success [21], and it was demonstrated
before Queen Elizabeth II of England. My
last GE project was an EV drive (ETXII)
with an interior permanent magnet
(IPM) synchronous motor drive [12]
using distributed TMS320 DSP-based
control. Gradually, the IPM synchronous
motor for EV/HEV drives was accepted
all over the world. My other important
projects in GE were control development

William McMurray: The Guru of Power Electronics

FIGURE S1
William McMurray
(19262006) [10].

William McMurray (Figure S1) was a power electronics scientist with


GE-CRD for 35 years (19531986). He received the honorary doctor
of law degree from Concordia University, Canada, in 1986. He became an IEEE Fellow in 1980 and a Life Fellow in 1994. He received
the IEEE Newell Award (1978), the IEEE Lamme Medal (1984), and
the IEEE Millennium Medal (2000) for his research contributions.
He authored the book The Theory and Design of Cycloconverters
(MIT Press, 1972) and was a contributing author in the historic book
Principles of Inverter Circuits by Bedford and Hoft (New York, Wiley,
1964). Bill was a chain smoker. In the later part of life, he suffered
from emphysema, which was the cause of his death in 2006.

of a linear inductor machine for railroad


propulsion, a microcomputer-based hybrid (SPWM-SHE) PWM controller [22]
of an inverter, scalar decoupled control
of induction motors, control of SRM
drives, sliding mode control of induction
motors, maximum power point tracking
(MPPT) control of residential PV systems [26], etc. I noticed that my manager
strongly discouraged simulation studies, which he thought were a waste of
time. I do not trust simulation results
was his comment. He would only trust
experimental waveforms on a scope or a
multichannel recorder when the inverter is working and the machine is running. The company mandate was that if
I needed to study fundamentals related
to a project, I must do it in my home on
my own time. Company time was only
for problem solving. Although I was very
publication minded, publications were
considered a waste of time in the company environment. Instead, writing patent applications was highly encouraged.
Often, paper writing was not permitted
at all or was permitted with a long delay after patent application. During my
GE career of 11 years, I lost practically
50% of potential research publications
because of this company policy. In this
period, I continued as an adjunct faculty member of RPI, where I advised a
large number of graduate students and
taught a graduate course on ac drives in
the evening. I published my first edited
book, Adjustable Speed AC Drive Systems
(1982) [13], and my first authored book,
Power Electronics and AC Drives (1986)
[14], in my GE days with great hurdles.

I had to work hard on the weekends for


these books with the door shut against
my family members. The authored book
was translated into several languages
immediately after publication.
I decided to return to a university
career in 1987 after spending 11 years
in industry. The university is my original home, and I love this career. I joined
the University of Tennessee, Knoxville,
as the Condra Chair of Excellence (Endowed Chair Professor) in Power Electronics with initial tenure granted to
me. Concurrently, I started working as a
chief/distinguished scientist in the newly established Electric Power Research
InstitutePower Electronics Applications Center. Part of my responsibility
as a chief scientist was to promote power electronics education and research in
the United States. In addition to my regular graduate students, I was fortunate
to get a large number of visiting professors and research scholars from abroad
to come and work in my laboratory with
financial support from their respective
governments. All of them were brilliant
scholars. Unfortunately, I was not very
lucky to get mega-funded projects from
the U.S. government agencies. In fact, I
hardly tried for it. I love the university
career for its freedom and prestige but
hate to be a super-salesman seeking research funds. In my opinion, the government should maintain a roster of expert
researchers in the country and solicit
their contributions instead of researchers searching for government funds.
Some of my research contributions in
the University of Tennessee included a

march 2015 IEEE industrial electronics magazine 15

Have a dream in life, and try to translate it into reality with hard work.
Have a long-term ambition and short-term career goalnever leave obstacles without giving your best effort.
Have a simple and unsophisticated lifestyle with some spiritual bend.
Have a guru in your life whom you can emulate.
Maintain a private diary describing your aspirations, problems, and progresses in life.
Document what you learned after attending a conference or reading a paper in your knowledge book
formulate ideas for research.
To solve a research problem, let it linger in your mind all the timewhile walking, while taking a bath,
and even in the midst of your sleep.
Analyze technical and lifes problems from all angles. Never make an impulsive decision.
Before giving any presentation, look into the broad perspective and solve possible questions in your mind.
Finally, always keep the fire burning in your mind.
FIGURE 10 My ten-point instructions to young scientists.

soft-switched inverter for motor drives,


HF nonresonant link power conversion
for EV drives using a MOS-controlled
thyristor [25], fuzzy control of dc and
induction motor drives, fuzzy control
of wind generation systems, neural network-based drive feedback signal estimation for vector drives, neural control
of space vector modulations (SVMs)
of two-level and multilevel converters
[28], [29], converter faults investigation, automated IM drive control design
by expert systems, sensorless vector
control of IMs, and high-temperature
superconductivitysynchronous motor (SM) ship propulsion with multilevel
converters. A number of these projects
were government funded. We did a lot
of pioneering work in the application of
AI techniques in power electronics [1],
[27]. Unfortunately, however, the area
did not pick up the desired momentum
possibly because of its general unfamiliarity in the power electronics community and very few industrial applications.
During my days in the University of Tennessee (19872014), I traveled abroad
extensively to give tutorials, IEEE Distinguished Lectures, invited seminars, and
keynote addresses. During this time, I
also published two authored books [1],
[15] and three edited books [16][18].
Some of my key contributions can
be summarized as follows [33]:
I invented the transistor ac switch
[19] and demonstrated it for acac
direct power conversion in 1973
(published in 1976). This has been
recognized as a key milestone contribution in matrix converter research
[20]. The IGBT-based ac switch is now

16 IEEE industrial electronics magazine march 2015

universally used in matrix converters.


The matrix converter for acac conversion was formally introduced later
by Venturini in 1980.
I pioneered microprocessor control of power electronics systems
[14], [16]. The first microprocessor-controlled fully functional
commercial motor drive system
paper for EV applications was
published in 1979 [21] after Intel
8080 was introduced in 1970. I also
introduced microprocessor (Intel
8086)-based SPWM
(hybrid with
SHE) of fully functional voltage-fed
inverter VFI for IM drives [22]. Microprocessors and DSPs are now
universally used in the control of
power electronic systems.
I invented an adaptive hysteresisband PWM current control method
of voltage-fed inverters used for IPM
synchronous motor drives in 1989
[23]. This method is now widely used
for commercial direct torque control
(DTC) drives and other applications.
I demonstrated the first thyristor cycloconverter-based ac-HFac-ac resonant link power conversion system
for motor drives that could operate
at a programmable (leading-lagging)
power factor at the line side in 1975
[24]. In extreme cases, it could operate as an SVC.
I proposed an HF active filter in the
dc link to eliminate electrolytic capacitors in a voltage-fed converter
system [32].
I introduced the HF nonresonant
link soft-switched power conversion for ac drives [25].

I introduced the MPPT control algorithm in PV power systems in


1984 [26] (IEEE prize paper), which
is routinely used today.
I pioneered AI (expert system, fuzzy
logic, and neural network) applications in the control and estimation
of power electronic systems, which
is now an emerging technology [1],
[15], [27]. These include ANN-based
space vector PWM for two- [1] and
multilevel converters [28], [29].
I published the first textbook on
modern power electronics and ac
drives in the English language in
1986 [14], [33].
I built the power electronics program in the University of Tennessee from zero-ground to the center
stage of the world during 19872002.
This provided the favorable base for
building the present national center
for the smart grid project [known as
the Center for Ultra-Wide-Area Resilient Electric Energy Transmission
Networks (CURENT)] by the NSF and
the DOE (http://curent.utk.edu).
I promoted power electronics globally through extensive seminars,
tutorials, books, invited presentations, and keynote addresses [30].

Conclusion
The article has provided a comprehensive and personalized review on doing
research in power electronics, which includes my experience and contributions
during my career that spans more than
four decades, covering the entire period
of the modern power electronics evolution. Although my experience has been

highlighted in the article, it should be emphasized that the technology has been
enriched by the relentless contributions
of many researchers over a long period of
time. The article is generally addressed
to young researchers who are about to
embark on a new career. Research in the
university and industry is generally a vast
topic and is covered here briefly, emphasizing the salient points. The advantages
and demerits of both the career paths are
outlined. Doctoral research that includes
the formulation of project ideas, proposal
preparation, execution of the project, and
writing papers for publication has been
highlighted in the discussion. Hopefully,
my research experience, including my
own contributions, will be of interest and
benefit to the readers. Finally, I would like
to conclude the article with some advice
[31] for young researchers (Figure 10). I
have tried to follow these instructions in
my own career.

Acknowledgments
I am deeply indebted to my graduate
students and visiting scholars who
contributed so much for the development of my career. Most of the names
are cited with the references at the end
of this article. I am also grateful to Prof.
T.H. Liu of the National Taiwan University of Science and Technology for reviewing the whole article and making
some suggestions. The presentation of
a similar topic was given in his university with his invitation [3].

Biography
Bimal K. Bose (bbose@utk.edu) was a
faculty member at the Bengal Engineering College, India, [currently the Indian
Institute of Engineering Science and
Technology (IIEST)] from 1960 to 1971.
From 1971 to 1976, he was an associate
professor of electrical engineering at the
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy,
New York. From 1976 to 1987, he was a research engineer in General Electric Corporate Research and Development (GECRD) (now GE Global Research Center),
Schenectady, New York. He has been
the Condra Chaired Professor (Chair of
Excellence) at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, since 1987. He specializes in power electronics, motor drives,
and artificial intelligence applications.

He has authored more than 250 papers,


holds 21 U.S. patents, and authored/
edited seven books in power electronics. He is a recipient of a number of
awards, including the IEEE Power Electronics Society Newell Award (2005),
the IEEE Millennium Medal (2000), the
IEEE Meritorious Achievement Award
in Continuing Education (1997), the
IEEE Lamme Medal (1996), the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society (IES) Mittelmann Award (for lifetime achievement
in power electronics and motor drives)
(1994), the IEEE Region 3 Outstanding
Engineer Award (1994), the IEEE Industry Applications Society Outstanding
Achievement Award (1993), the Calcutta
University Mouat Gold Medal (1970),
the IIEST Distinguished Alumnus Award
(2006), the D.Sc. degree (honoris causa)
from IIEST (2013), and a number of prize
paper awards. IEEE Industrial Electronics Magazine published a special issue
(June 2009) Honoring Dr. Bimal Bose
and Celebrating His Contributions in
Power Electronics with a cover photo.
The IES Dr. Bimal Bose Energy Systems
Award was established in 2014, which is
funded by the IEEE Foundation and the
IES. He is a Life Fellow of the IEEE.

References

[1] B. K. Bose, Modern Power Electronics and AC


Drives. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2001.
[2] B. K. Bose, Power electronics and motor drivesRecent progress and perspective, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 56, no. 7,
pp. 581588, Feb. 2009.
[3] B. K. Bose, How to do research in power electronics and motor drives, presented at the
Seminar in National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Apr. 16, 2008.
[4] B. K. Bose, How to be an IEEE Fellow, IEEE IE
Society Newslett., vol. 52, pp. 67, Dec. 2005.
[5] B. K. Bose, IEEE medalsThe most covetable
awards, IEEE PELS Newslett., vol. 20, 1st. Qr.,
pp. 1113, 2008.
[6] M. Liserre, L. G. Franquelo, I. Nagy, and C. Wen,
Honoring Dr. Bimal Bose and celebrating his
contributions in power electronics, IEEE Ind.
Electron. Mag. (IEEE IES Special Issue), vol. 3,
no. 1, pp. 25, 1214, June 2009.
[7] B. K. Bose, How to get a paper accepted in
transactions, IEEE IE Soc. Newslett., vol. 53,
pp. 67, Mar. 2006. (Also in IEEE PELS Newslett.,
Second Qr., vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 46, 2006).
[8] B. K. Bose, A magnetic amplifier telemetry encoder circuit, Proc. IEEE, vol. 52, no. 9, p. 1076,
1964.
[9] B. K. Bose, An improved telemetry encoding
circuit by square-loop cores and SCRs, Proc.
IEEE, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 440442, 1966.
[10] B. K. Bose, Power electronicsHistorical
perspective and my experience, IEEE Ind. Applicat. Mag., vol. 20, pp. 29, Mar./Apr. 2014.
[11] B. K. Bose, Eleven years in corporate environmentMy experience, IEEE IE Soc. Newslett.,
vol. 54, pp. 68, June 2006.

[12] B. K. Bose, A high performance inverter-fed


drive system of an interior permanent magnet
synchronous machine, IEEE Trans. Ind. Applicat., vol. 24, pp. 989997, Nov./Dec. 1988.
[13] B. K. Bose, Ed., Adjustable Speed AC Drive Systems. Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 1982.
[14] B. K. Bose, Power Electronics and AC Drives.
Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1986.
[15] B. K. Bose, Power Electronics and Motor
DrivesAdvances and Trends. Burlington, MA:
Academic, 2006.
[16] B. K. Bose, Ed., Microcomputer Control of Power
Electronics and Drives. Piscataway, NJ: IEEE
Press, 1987.
[17] B. K. Bose, Ed., Modern Power Electronics. Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 1992.
[18] B. K. Bose, Ed., Power Electronics and Variable
Frequency Drives. Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press,
1997.
[19] V. Jones and B. K. Bose, A frequency stepup cycloconverter using power transistors I
inverse-series mode, Int. J. Electron., vol. 41,
no. 6, pp. 573587, 1976.
[20] T. Friedli and J. W. Kolar, Milestones in matrix
converter research, IEEE J. Ind. Applicat., vol.
1, no. 1, pp. 214, 2012.
[21] B. K. Bose, A microprocessor based control
system for a near-term electric vehicle, IEEE
Trans. Ind. Applicat., vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 626631,
Nov./Dec. 1981 (Also in IEEE IAS Annu. Meeting
Conf. Rec., 1979, pp. 743748).
[22] B. K. Bose and H. A. Sutherland, A high performance pulse-width modulator for an inverterfed drive system using a microcomputer, IEEE
Trans. Ind. Applicat., vol. 19, pp. 235243. Mar./
Apr. 1983.
[23] B. K. Bose, An adaptive hysteresis band current control technique of a voltage-fed PWM
inverter for machine drive system, IEEE
Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 37, pp. 402408, Oct.
1990.
[24] B. K. Bose and P. Espalage, High frequency
link power conversion, in IEEE Trans. Ind. Applicat., vol. 13, pp. 387393, Sept./Oct. 1977.
[25] L. Hui, B. Ozpineci, and B. K. Bose, A softswitched high frequency non-resonant link
integral pulse modulated dc-ac converter for
ac motor drive, in IEEE IECON Conf. Rec., 1998,
pp. 726732.
[26] B. K. Bose and P. Szczesny, A microcomputer
based control of residential photovoltaic power conditioning system, IEEE Trans. Ind. Applicat., vol. 21, pp. 11821191, Sept./Oct. 1985 (also
presented at the IAS Conf., 1984).
[27] B. K. Bose, Neural network applications in
power electronics and motor drivesAn
introduction and perspective, IEEE Trans.

Ind. Electron., vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 1433, Feb.


2007.
[28] S. K. Mondal, B. K. Bose, V. Oleschuk, and
J. O. P. Pinto, A neural network based space
vector PWM controller for a three-level voltage-fed inverter induction motor drive, IEEE
Trans. Ind. Applicat., vol. 38, pp. 660669,
May/June 2002.
[29] N. P. Filho, J. O. P. Pinto, B. K. Bose, and L. E. B.
da Silva, A neural network based space vector PWM of a five-level voltage-fed inverter, in
IEEE Industry Applications Society Conf. Rec., pp.
21812187, 2004.
[30] M. Liserre, Dr. Bimal K. Bose: A reference for
generations, IEEE Ind. Electron. Mag., vol. 3,
no. 2, pp. 25, 2009.
[31] B. K. Bose, Fulfilling my lifelong dream, IEEE
Ind. Applicat. Mag., vol. 19, p. 88, Sept./Oct.
2013.
[32] B. K. Bose and D. Kastha, Electrolytic capacitor
elimination in power electronic system by high
frequency active filters, in IEEE IAS Annu. Meeting Conf. Rec., 1991, pp. 869878.
[33] Wikipedia. (2015.). Wikipedia online encyclopedia. [Online]. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/
Bimal_ Kumar_Bose


march 2015 IEEE industrial electronics magazine 17