Building Services Assignment Sizing Radiators for my Home

Sean O’Keeffe Class 2B Construction Studies National Certificate in Construction Assignment due: 13 Feb 2007

Lecturer: K Coleman

History of Property: My house is located in Rockforest, Killavullen, just outside Mallow parish. The house is a three bedroom bungalow of approximately 90 square metres. It was built in 1964. I purchased the house in 2004. Originally, the house had a suspended timber floor. (This is evident from the vents that were left in the external walls (below floor level)). This was replaced with a ground supported concrete slab at some point. However, no insulation was placed under the slab. This came to my attention when I was putting channels in the slab to facilitate upgrading of the central heating, when I first purchased the property. I also insulated the attic as there was no insulation in the attic. I used 150mm deep glass wool insulation. The roof is of a cold roof construction. Upvc double glazed windows and doors had been put in the house in the recent past. The external walls of the house were constructed with cavity blocks. The chimneys were sealed by a previous owner. Assumptions: • It is assumed there is no internal heat loss. Therefore I have not considered heat loss through internal walls or doors. • The external wall is of cavity block construction. I have viewed the wall for the purpose of determining heat loss as a homogenous structure. Plastered on the inside and outside. With two leaves to the wall of 40mm aerated concrete and a cavity in the middle 130mm wide. This is not really correct since the cavity is breached at the ends of the blocks by the blocks. • The roof is of a cold roof construction. I have considered the attic space as external to the house because its air temperature should be the same as the outside air temperature. • I assumed a value of 0.75 air changes/hour for calculating heat loss due to ventilation.

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Calculations of U-values: External Wall:

The above diagram shows a section through the external wall of the house. It is composed of: • 70mm sand and cement render on the outside • 210mm cavity block with a 130mm cavity in the middle • 10mm sand and cement render inside the block • 5mm of gypsum skim coat Kvalues: Aerated concrete – 0.14 W/mK Sand + cement render – 0.53 W/mK Gypsum plaster – 0.40 W/mK Rvalue = Thickness of material/ Kvalue 80mm Aerated concrete = 0.08/0.14 = 0.571 mK/W 80mm Sand + cement render = 0.08/0.53 = 0.151mK/W 3

5mm Gypsum plaster = 0.005/0.40 = 0.013mK/W Rvalue for air is 0.18mK/W Calculations of Uvalue for external wall Rsi = 0.123 mK/W Rso = 0.055 mK/W Uvalue = 1/ Sum of Rvalues = 1 / 0.123 +0.055 +0.571 +0.151 +0.013 +0.18 = 0.915W/mK Ground Supported Slab:

The above diagram is of a 150mm deep ground supported slab. Kvalue: Structural Concrete = 1.40W/mK Rvalue: 0.150/1.40 = 0.107 mK/W Uvalue: 1/ 0.106 + 0.150 + 0.107 = 2.755 W/mK (I choice the Rsi and Rso values from the third page of our handout, which apply to the emissivity of internal surfaces. I considered the bottom of the slab to be internal because it is not exposed to the elements.)

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Ceiling:

The above diagram shows a section through the ceiling showing the following (The ceiling is closer to level than shown here): • 150mm Glass wool insulation • 20mm Gypsum plasterboard • 5mm Gypsum plaster Kvalue: Gypsum Plasterboard- 0.15 W/mK Gypsum Plaster- 0.40 W/mK Glass wool Insulation -1.02 W/mK Rvalue: Gypsum Plasterboard- 0.020/0.15 = 0.133 mK/W Gypsum Plaster - 0.005/0.40 = 0.0125 mK/W Glass wool insulation – 0.150/0.034 = 4.412 mK/W Uvalue 1/ 0.106+ 0.150+ 0.133+ 0.0125+ 4.412 = 0.208 W/mK (I used the same values again for the Rsi and Rso as with the ground slab. I considered the top of the ceiling as internal because it is in the attic.) Windows and Doors: I was not able to establish a realistic Uvalue for double glazing using the Kvalues in the handout i.e. 1.02 W/mK for glass .I did obtain a Uvalue for double glazing in the irish-energy.ie website. Uvalue for double glazing- 2.8 W/mK

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Calculations to determine Heat Loss and Radiator Sizes Rather than calculating the fabric heat loss and ventilation heat loss for each room individually I used a spreadsheet into which I put the formulas. This allowed me just to add the room, window, door and external wall dimensions for each room individually. I have shown below how the spreadsheet was setup before dimensions were inserted.
Room: Length Width Height Window: Width Height Door: Width Height Component: Floor Window Door External Walls Ceiling Volume of room : Sum of Areas: Sum of Qf's: Number of air changes: Inside environmental Temp: Heat loss due to Vent: Total heat loss: Radiator size: D23= D16*C5 D24=SUM(D16:D20) D25=SUM(G16:G20)

C3 C4 C5 C8 C9 C12 C13 Area D16= c3*c4 D17= c3*c9 D18= c12*c13 D19 D20 =D16 U value E16= 2.755 E17= 2.800 E18= 2.800 E19= 0.915 E20= 0.208 Temp. Diff F16=14. 0 F17=14. 0 F18=14. 0 F19=14. 0 F20=14. 0 Qf G16=D16 *E16*F16 G17=D17* E17*F17 G18=D18* E18*F18 G19=D19* E19*F19 G20=D20* E20*F20

0.75

D30=D25/(4.8*D24)+21

D32=0.33*D28*D23*(D30-7) D34=D32+D25 D36=D34/870

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Bedroom 1:
• • The room dimensions can be seen in the plan shown on page 1. The dimensions for the two windows are 1.400 x 1.150. I entered these as one window 2.80 x 1.150

Room: Length Width Height Window: Width Height Door: Width Height Component: Floor Window Door External Wall Ceiling Volume of room Sum of areas Sum of Qf's Number of air changes Inside environmental Temp Heat Loss due to Vent Total Heat Loss Radiator size

4.250 3.550 2.650 2.800 1.150

Area 15.088 3.220 0.000 11.590 15.088 39.982 44.985 900.552 0.750 W

Uvalue 2.755 2.800 2.800 0.915 0.208

Temp. Diff 14.0 14.0 14.0 14.0 14.0

Qf 581.925 126.224 0.000 148.468 43.935

25.171 179.808 1,080.359 1.242

C W W metres sq.

A radiator (870W/ metre square) of 1.242 square metres would be required for bedroom 1.

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Bedroom 2
Room: Length Width Height Window: Width Height Door: Width Height Component: Floor Window Door External Wall Ceiling Volume of room Sum of areas Sum of Qf's Number of air changes Inside environmental Temp Heat Loss due to Vent Total Heat Loss Radiator size Area 11.183 1.610 0.000 6.737 11.183 29.634 30.712 613.285 0.750 W Uvalue 2.755 2.800 2.800 0.915 0.208 Temp. Diff 14.0 14.0 14.0 14.0 14.0 Qf 431.309 63.112 0.000 86.301 32.563 3.150 3.550 2.650 1.400 1.150

25.160 133.193 746.478 0.858

C W W metres sq.

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Bedroom 3
Room: Length Width Height Window: Width Height Door: Width Height Component: Floor Window Door External Wall Ceiling Volume of room Sum of areas Sum of Qf's Number of air changes Inside environmental Temp Heat Loss due to Vent Total Heat Loss Radiator size Area 9.108 1.610 0.000 14.449 9.108 24.136 34.275 626.022 0.750 W Uvalue 2.755 2.800 2.800 0.915 0.208 Temp. Diff 14.0 14.0 14.0 14.0 14.0 Qf 351.296 63.112 0.000 185.092 26.522 3.300 2.760 2.650 1.400 1.150

24.805 106.363 732.384 0.842

C W W metres sq.

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Bathroom
The bathroom has two windows. (1.150 x 0.480 and 1.150 x 0.920) I have entered these as one window 1.150 x 1.400.
Room: Length Width Height Window: Width Height Door: Width Height Component: Floor Window Door External Wall Ceiling Volume of room Sum of areas Sum of Qf's Number of air changes Inside environmental Temp Heat Loss due to Vent Total Heat Loss Radiator size Area 4.756 1.610 0.000 6.075 4.756 12.603 17.197 338.221 0.750 W Uvalue 2.755 2.800 2.800 0.915 0.208 Temp. Diff 14.0 14.0 14.0 14.0 14.0 Qf 183.439 63.112 0.000 77.821 13.849 2.900 1.640 2.650 1.400 1.150

25.097 56.452 394.673 0.454

C W W metres sq.

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Kitchen
Room: Length Width Height Window: Width Height Door: Width Height Component: Floor Window Door External Wall Ceiling Volume of room Sum of areas Sum of Qf's Number of air changes Inside environmental Temp Heat Loss due to Vent Total Heat Loss Radiator size Area 15.878 2.013 0.000 20.963 15.878 42.075 54.731 1,006.056 0.750 W Uvalue 2.755 2.800 2.800 0.915 0.208 Temp. Diff 14.0 14.0 14.0 14.0 14.0 Qf 612.395 78.890 0.000 268.536 46.235 4.350 3.650 2.650 1.750 1.150

24.830 185.671 1,191.728 1.370

C W W metres sq.

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Living Room
Room: Length Width Height Window: Width Height Door: Width Height Component: Floor Window Door External Wall Ceiling Volume of room Sum of areas Sum of Qf's Number of air changes Inside environmental Temp Heat Loss due to Vent Total Heat Loss Radiator size Area 12.045 2.243 0.000 17.951 12.045 31.919 44.284 817.509 0.750 W Uvalue 2.755 2.800 2.800 0.915 0.208 Temp. Diff 14.0 14.0 14.0 14.0 14.0 Qf 464.576 87.906 0.000 229.952 35.075

3.300 3.650 2.650 1.950 1.150

24.846 140.984 958.493 1.102

C W W metres sq.

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Hall
Door: Width Height Component: Floor Window Door External Wall Ceiling Volume of room Sum of areas Sum of Qf's Number of air changes Inside environmental Temp Heat Loss due to Vent Total Heat Loss Radiator size 0.950 2.150 Area 10.291 0.000 2.043 1.403 10.291 27.271 24.028 524.930 0.750 W Uvalue 2.755 2.800 2.800 0.915 0.208 Temp. Diff 14.0 14.0 14.0 14.0 14.0 Qf 396.924 0.000 80.066 17.972 29.967

25.551 125.215 650.145 0.747

C W W metres sq.

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Utility Room
Room: Length Width Height Window: Width Height Door: Width Height Component: Floor Window Door External Wall Ceiling Volume of room Sum of areas Sum of Qf's Number of air changes Inside environmental Temp Heat Loss due to Vent Total Heat Loss Radiator size 2.500 1.640 2.650 0.600 1.150 0.950 2.120 Area 4.100 0.690 2.014 3.921 4.100 10.865 14.825 326.301 0.750 W Uvalue 2.755 2.800 2.800 0.915 0.208 Temp. Diff 14.0 14.0 14.0 14.0 14.0 Qf 158.137 27.048 78.949 50.228 11.939

25.585 49.978 376.279 0.433

C W W metres sq.

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