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What is Jurisdiction?

the power or the capacity given by the law to a court or tribunal


to entertain, hear, and determine controversies.

What is jurisdiction over subject matter?


the offence is one which the court is by law authorised to take
cognisance of.
Jurisdiction is defined as the power and authority of a court to hear, try
and decide a case. 11 Jurisdiction over the subject matter is conferred by the
Constitution or by law.12

The jurisdiction over the subject matter of a case may be objected to at


any stage of the proceedings, for such jurisdiction is conferred only by
law and cannot be acquired through, or waived by, any act or omission
of the parties. Hence, it may be alleged, for the first time, on appeal, or
considered by the Court motu proprio. 18
Nothing can change the jurisdiction of the court over the subject matter.
None of the parties to the litigation can enlarge or diminish it or dictate
when it shall attach or when it shall be removed. That power is a matter
of legislative enactment which none but the legislature may change.
Thus, the (Congress) has the sole power to define, prescribe and
apportion the jurisdiction of the various courts. 13

Jurisdiction over the person of the accused?


person charged with the offence must have been brought to its
presence for trial, forcibly by warrant of arrest or upon his voluntary
submission to the court.
jurisdiction over the person is acquired by his voluntary submission to the authority
of the court or through the exercise of its coercive processes. Jurisdiction over

the res is obtained by actual constructive seizure placing the property under
the orders of the court.

COURT OF APPEALS
Section 9. Jurisdiction. The Court of Appeals shall Exercise:

MAF
M 1. Original jurisdiction to issue writs of mandamus,
prohibition, certiorari, habeas corpus, and quo warranto, and
auxiliary writs or processes, whether or not in aid of its
appellate jurisdiction; (MPC-HAQ)
A 2. Exclusive original jurisdiction over actions for annulment of
judgements of Regional Trial Courts; and
F 3. Exclusive appellate jurisdiction over all final judgements,
resolutions, orders or awards of Regional Trial Courts and quasijudicial agencies, instrumentalities, boards or commission, including
the Securities and Exchange Commission, the Social Security
Commission, the Employees Compensation Commission and the
Civil Service Commission, Except those falling within the appellate
jurisdiction of the Supreme Court in accordance with the
Constitution, the Labor Code of the Philippines under Presidential
Decree No. 442, as amended, the provisions of this Act, and of
subparagraph (1) of the third paragraph and subparagraph 4 of the
fourth paragraph od Section 17 of the Judiciary Act of 1948.

The court of Appeals shall have the power to try cases and conduct
hearings, receive evidence and perform any and all acts necessary
to resolve factual issues raised in cases falling within its original and
appellate jurisdiction, including the power to grant and conduct new
trials or Appeals must be continuous and must be completed within
three (3) months, unless extended by the Chief Justice. (as
amended by R.A. No. 7902.)

REGIONAL TRIAL COURTS


X X X.
Section 19. Jurisdiction in civil cases. Regional Trial Courts
shall exercise exclusive original jurisdiction:
ITA-PE-JD
I (1) In all civil actions in which the subject of the litigation is
incapable of pecuniary estimation;
T -20,000 & 50,000 (2) In all civil actions which involve the title to,
or possession of, real property, or any interest therein, where the a
ssessed value of the property involved exceeds Twenty thousand
pesos (P20,000.00) or for civil actions in Metro Manila, where
such the value exceeds Fifty thousand pesos (50,000.00) except
actions for forcible entry into and unlawful detainer of lands or
buildings, original jurisdiction over which is conferred upon
Metropolitan Trial Courts, Municipal Trial Courts, and Municipal
Circuit Trial Courts;

A 100,000 & 200,000 (3) In all actions in admiralty and maritime


jurisdiction where he demand or claim exceeds One hundred
thousand pesos (P100,000.00) or , in Metro Manila, where such
demand or claim exceeds Two hundred thousand pesos
(200,000.00);
P 100 & 200,000 (4) In all matters of probate, both testate and
intestate, where the gross value of the estate exceeds One
hundred thousand pesos (P100,000.00) or, in probate matters in
Metro Manila, where such gross value exceeds Two hundred
thousand pesos (200,000.00);
E (5) In all cases not within the exclusive jurisdiction of any
court, tribunal, person or body exercising jurisdiction or any court,
tribunal, person or body exercising judicial or quasi-judicial
functions;
J (6) In all civil actions and special proceedings falling within the
exclusive original jurisdiction of a Juvenile and Domestic
Relations Court and of the Courts of Agrarian Relations as now
provided by law; and
D - 100,000 & 200,000 (8) In all other cases in which the demand,
exclusive of interest, damages of whatever kind, attorney's fees,
litigation expenses, and costs or the value of the property in
controversy exceeds One hundred thousand pesos (100,000.00)
or, in such other abovementioned items exceeds Two hundred
thousand pesos (200,000.00). (as amended by R.A. No. 7691*)
MTC/MCTC

Section 33. Jurisdiction of Metropolitan Trial Courts, Municipal Trial


Courts and Municipal Circuit Trial Courts in civil cases.
Metropolitan Trial Courts, Municipal Trial Courts, and Municipal
Circuit Trial Courts shall exercise:
P does not exceed 100,000 & 200,000 (1) Exclusive original
jurisdiction over civil actions and probate proceedings, testate
and intestate, including the grant of provisional remedies in proper
cases, where the value of the personal property, estate, or amount
of the demand does not exceed One hundred thousand pesos
(P100,000.00) or, in Metro Manila where such personal property,
estate, or amount of the demand does not exceed Two hundred
thousand pesos (P200,000.00) exclusive of interest damages of
whatever kind, attorney's fees, litigation expenses, and costs, the
amount of which must be specifically alleged: Provided, That where
there are several claims or causes of action between the same or
different parties, embodied in the same complaint, the amount of
the demand shall be the totality of the claims in all the causes of
action, irrespective of whether the causes of action arose out of the
same or different transactions;
F (2) Exclusive original jurisdiction over cases of forcible entry
and unlawful detainer: Provided, That when, in such cases, the
defendant raises the question of ownership in his pleadings and the
question of possession cannot be resolved without deciding the
issue of ownership, the issue of ownership shall be resolved only to
determine the issue of possession.

T- does not exceed 20,000 & 50,000 (3) Exclusive original


jurisdiction in all civil actions which involve title to, or
possession of, real property, or any interest therein where the
assessed value of the property or interest therein does not
exceed Twenty thousand pesos (P20,000.00) or, in civil actions in
Metro Manila, where such assessed value does not exceed Fifty
thousand pesos (P50,000.00) exclusive of interest, damages of
whatever kind, attorney's fees, litigation expenses and costs:
Provided, That value of such property shall be determined by the
assessed value of the adjacent lots. (as amended by R.A. No.
7691)

According to the 1987 Constitution, Article VIII, Section 5, the


Supreme Court exercises the following powers:
(ALAO)
A 1. Exercise jurisdiction over cases affecting ambassadors,
other public ministers and consuls, and over petitions for
certiorari, prohibition, mandamus, quo warranto, and habeas
corpus.
L 2. Review, revise, reverse, modify, or affirm, on appeal or
certiorari, as the law or the Rules of Court may provide, final
judgments and orders of the lower courts in:
(TTL-RQ)
T a. All cases in which the constitutionality or validity of any
treaty, international or executive agreement, law, presidential
decree, proclamation, order, instruction, ordinance, or regulation is
in question;

T b.
All cases involving the legality of any tax, impost,
assessment, or toll, or any penalty imposed in relation thereto;
L
c. All cases in which the jurisdiction of any lower court is in
issue;
R
d. All criminal cases in which the penalty imposed is
reclusion perpetua or higher;
Q
e. All cases in which only an error or question of law is
involved;
A 3. Assign temporarily judges of lower courts to other stations as
public interest may require. Such temporary assignments shall not
exceed six months without the consent of the judge concerned.
O
4. Order a change of venue or place of trial to avoid a
miscarriage of justice.
OTHERS:

I. Promulgate rules concerning the protection and enforcement of


constitutional rights, pleading, practice, and procedure in all courts;
the admission to the practice of law, the Integrated Bar; and legal
assistance to the underprivileged. Such rules shall provide a
simplified and inexpensive procedure for the speedy disposition of
cases, shall be uniform for all courts the same grade, and shall not
diminish, increase or modify substantive rights. Rules of procedure
of special courts and quasi-judicial bodies shall remain effective
unless disapproved by the Supreme Court.
II. Appoint all officials and employees of the Judiciary in
accordance with the Civil Service Law (Sec. 5 , id.).