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Submitted by : Allen

Daniel A. Andicoy
Submitted to: Prof.
Junee Agron


mangroves. Coastal ecosystems . 2. To adequately address this crisis we must urgently reduce carbon pollution and prepare for the consequences of global warming. Despite new technologies and industry recognition of the issue. Climate change poses a fundamental threat to the places. In many cases.The generally clear. Environment and Society A. fast-flowing waters and bedrock and coarse sediment beds of upland rivers encourage fish species with limited temperature tolerances. species and people’s livelihoods WWF works to protect. which we are already experiencing. high oxygen needs. more intense droughts threaten crops. cool. and life history and breeding strategies adapted to these and other traits of lowland rivers. For example. 4. covering over 70% of the Earth's surface. Marine ecosystems . wildlife and freshwater supplies.Science. gold and oil are discovered.The generally more turbid. roads and rivers. these modifications are simple and inexpensive. Changes could result in destruction and complete loss. The habitats that make up this vast system range from the productive near shore regions to the barren ocean floor. ENVIRONMENTAL THREATS 1.include salt marshes. but the fishing methods can be harmful to the marine environments where they are employed. Not only does it cause avoidable deaths and injuries. WWF works to:  advance policies to fight climate change  engage with businesses to reduce carbon emissions  help people and nature adapt to a changing climate 3.are a part of the largest aquatic system on the planet. By catch Fishing industry leaders increasingly realize the need to reduce this phenomenon. our planet’s diversity of life is at risk from the changing climate. warm. B. 1 . and often come from fishers themselves. 2. such as modifying fishing gear so that fewer non-target species are caught or can escape. 3. Each type of coastal ecosystem is home to many different plants and animals. From polar bears in the Arctic to marine turtles off the coast of Africa. Lowland ecosystems . mostly due to forest conversion for cattle ranching. Proven solutions do exist. but even remote areas have been encroached upon when valuable mahogany. ECOSYSTEM 1. WWF aims to reduce bycatch by working with fisheries and helping develop and promote new technologies and gear for more efficient operations. Deforestation Deforestation is a particular concern in tropical rainforests because these forests are home to much of the world’s biodiversity. estuaries and bays. Longer. strong swimming ability and specialized reproductive strategies to prevent eggs or larvae being swept away. Effects of climate change Sea levels are rising and oceans are becoming warmer. wetlands. Coastal ecosystems are sensitive to changes in the environment. Deforestation in this region is particularly rampant near more populated areas. slow-flowing waters and fine sediment beds of lowland rivers encourage fish species with broad temperature tolerances and greater tolerances to low oxygen levels. bycatch is still a major problem. Upland ecosystems . in the Amazon around 17% of the forest has been lost in the last 50 years.

Humans are also regularly harmed by pollution. 10. putting them at risk of contracting deadly diseases. such as tuna and groupers. Illegal wildlife trade Wildlife crime is a big business. Furthermore. 9. Soil erosion and degradation 1 . 7. and unregulated (IUU) fishing and seafood fraud. By its very nature. planning and construction of infrastructure projects. wildlife and animal parts are trafficked much like illegal drugs and arms. It employs new and often unproven technologies to extract hydrocarbons from deep within the earth. including examining innovative ways reduce environmental impact and protecting sensitive habitat that may be irrevocably damaged by these projects. for example. Overfishing More than 85 percent of the world's fisheries have been pushed to or beyond their biological limits and are in need of strict management plans to restore them. Pollution Pollution may muddy landscapes. effective method to clean up oil in ice. unreported. Toxic chemicals that accumulate in top predators can make some species unsafe to eat. lung cancer and other diseases. Long-term exposure to air pollution. 5. Co-chaired by the Secretaries of Commerce and State. which lead to an abundance of smaller marine species. there is no proven. such as sardines and anchovies. Oil spills can occur from blowouts. WWF works with governments. Based on these recommendations the President will issue guidance to the relevant agencies that will then begin drafting regulations for implementation. pipeline leaks or failures. 6. More than one billion people lack access to clean water and 2. in the Arctic. the Task Force is charged with providing recommendations to the President within 180 days of the announcement. estimate that it runs into hundreds of millions of dollars. illegal-fishing A new Task Force was then established to combat illegal. Experts at TRAFFIC. the wildlife trade monitoring network. it is almost impossible to obtain reliable figures for the value of illegal wildlife trade. or shipping accidents. or kill plants and animals. Several important commercial fish populations (such as Atlantic bluefin tuna) have declined to the point where their survival as a species is threatened. Environment and Society 4. Run by dangerous international networks. Have been encroached upon when valuable mahogany. Oil and Gas development Most easily accessible oil has already been developed. poison soils and waterways. 8. gold and oil are discovered. the Timor Sea. These spills pose a serious threat to ecosystems— whether they happen in the Congo Basin. or in the Arctic. industry and other leaders to encourage the consideration of sustainability in these efforts. can lead to chronic respiratory disease. is changing marine communities.Science. Target fishing of top predators. Infrastructure Environmental concerns are not always considered during the design. Today.4 billion don’t have adequate sanitation. oil and gas exploration is probing the Earth’s most remote and inhospitable places.

Sustainable land use can help to reduce the impacts of agriculture and livestock. thermal. The sources are called point sources because in mathematical modeling. Pollution point sources are identical to other physics. rather than an airport or a road. noise or light pollution. It has led to increased pollution and sedimentation in streams and rivers. SOURCE OF POLLUTION A point source of pollution is a single identifiable source of air. making available a high level of technology. clogging these waterways and causing declines in fish and other species. which can worsen flooding. they can be approximated as a mathematical point to simplify analysis. engineering. A point source has negligible extent. or volume source. considered a line source or a forest fire which is considered an area source. TOXIC SUBSTANCE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Environmental health professionals investigate potential exposures from environmental contaminants at inactive hazardous waste sites and from petroleum and chemical spills. The Chemical Emergency Response van enables the Westchester County Department of Health to respond on a 24-hour basis to numerous chemical emergencies and hazardous spills. the Westchester County Department of Health responded to hundreds of chemical and toxic spills.  Water pollution from an oil refinery wastewater discharge outlet[1]  Noise pollution from a jet engine  Disruptive seismic vibration from a localized seismic study  Light pollution from an intrusive street light  Thermal pollution from an industrial process outfall  Radio emissions from an interference-producing electrical device D. Environment and Society The effects of soil erosion go beyond the loss of fertile land. Annually. 1 . and chemistry point sources and include:  Air pollution from an industrial source. Water pollution. And degraded lands are also often less able to hold onto water. distinguishing it from other pollution source geometries. C. optics. preventing soil degradation and erosion and the loss of valuable land to desertification. fires and other environmental incidents.Science.

Resources:  Choosing Toxicology Tests and Treatments Wisely  Toxnet: Toxicology Data Network  Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) (CDC) For further information. check the following links:  Asbestos information  Arsenic in ground water (USGS)  Cadmium FAQ's (CDC)  Hazardous Materials Toxin Database (NLM)  Household Poisons (NIH)  Indoor Air Pollution: Organic Gases (EPA)  Lead Basics (EPA)  Childhood Lead Poisoning (CDC)  Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention (WCDOH)  Mercury FAQ's (CDC)  Mercury and your health (WCDOH)  MTBE gasoline additive (methyl tertiary-butyl ether) (EPA)  MTBE FAQ's (EPA)  PERC dry-cleaning fluid (Perchloroethylene) Dry-cleaners assistance (EPA)  Radon (EPA)  EPA map of radon zones (EPA)  Solvents (OSHA)  Solvents Chemical Pollution in Mother's Milk (NRDC)  VOC's-Volatile Organic Compounds E. SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT The Division of Solid Waste Management provides safe and secure long term disposal of solid waste for the citizens of Citrus County. the LEPC develops site-specific plans for each facility and the surrounding area. The Central Landfill is a 1 . Based on the types and qualities of chemicals being reported. Members of Westchester's LEPC also respond to inquires from the public regarding chemicals in the community and work with local emergency responders.Science. The LEPC is responsible for developing emergency response plans for chemical emergencies within Westchester County. Environment and Society The Office of Emergency Services is the lead agency for Westchester's Local Emergency Planning Committee (LEPC). use or manufacture specially designated chemicals. Committee members gather and maintain information from facilities that store.

A. and concrete and clean white Styrofoam. RA 8749 focuses primarily on pollution prevention rather than control by encouraging cooperation and self-regulation among citizens and industries. G. fish and wildlife habitat conservation areas. otherwise known as the Philippine Clean Air Act of 1999. landslide-prone areas. river basins or water resources regions. provides the policy framework for the country’s air quality management program. industrial enforcement program for stationary sources. Bantay Tsimnea and Bantay Sunog. and strong collaboration between government and stakeholders on measures to address pollution. steep slope areas.. Some of the programs or activities implemented to achieve this objective are: Linis/Ligtas Hangin Program with the Bantay Tambutso. waste oil/filters. end-of-life electronics. The objective of the WQMA is to protect. and industrial waste per year. flood-prone areas. The following are environmentally critical areas designated by this Chapter 25. wetlands.” because a clean and healthy environment is for the good of all and should.09: geologic hazard areas. We also operate a single-stream recycling program at 16 neighborhood drop-off locations. designation of attainment and non-attainment area sources. promotion of clean fuel. In addition to offering disposal services. 8749. the water body and its tributaries by keeping their water quality within the Water Quality Guidelines or Criteria conforming to the water body’s classification (e. Environment and Society modern engineered double lined facility that accepts over 100. commercial. A WQMA Action Plan will be prepared in order to address water quality issues and problems in the area and later result to the improvement or better water quality of the said water body. antifreeze. seismic hazards areas and volcanic hazard areas 1 . peat settlement-prone areas. Class C or Class SC) or even improve the quality to higher classification (e. tires.g. The law adheres to the Constitutional right of people to “a balanced and healthful ecology in accord with the rhythm and harmony of nature. mercury. F. the Division also recycles yard waste. It also enforces a system of accountability for adverse environmental impacts to heighten compliance to government environmental regulations. from C to B or SC to SB).g. It seeks to uphold the right of every Filipino to breathe clean air by addressing air pollution from mobile and stationary sources. WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT Section 5 of RA 9275 or the Philippine Clean Water Act of 2004 tasked the DENR in coordination with the National Water Resources Board to designate certain areas as water quality management areas (WQMA) using appropriate physiographic units such as watershed. and abandoned landfills. car batteries.. Geologic hazard areas are liquefaction-prone areas. Volunteer organizations monitor and maintain the sites and earn revenue from the sale of the materials. ENVIRONMENTALLY CRITICAL AREAS FOR PROJECT I.” It also believes in the principle that “polluters must pay.Science. AIR QUALITY MANAGEMENT Republic Act No.Geologic Hazard Areas and Steep Slope Areas. cooking oil. 1.000 tons of household. thru stakeholders collaboration. H. therefore be the concern of all. scrap metal.

and areas with signs of potential land sliding. 3. areas with geologic conditions that can promote earth movement.or under protective of key environmental features and to a misallocation of the resources available for environmental protection. and bowed or backtilted trees. 2000 and 2003). the construction industry accounts for around 45-50 percent of global energy usage. and soil drainage characteristics. such as fans and colluvial deposition at the toes of hillsides. may lead to water-quality goals that are over. through an overlay process. (3) Areas with topographic expression of run out zones. At least in the case of sediment and nutrients in the Albemarle-Pamlico region. (5) Slopes with an incline of forty (40) percent or more within a vertical elevation change of at least ten feet (10'). 5. or areas that have shown significant movement during the last ten thousand (10. nearly 50 percent of worldwide water usage. such as springs.Science. such as landslide headscarps and sidescarps. Liquefaction-prone Areas. hummocky terrain. groundwater seepage. Landslide-prone Areas. J. The following are landslide-prone areas: a . as areas of coincidence between categories of three mapped variables\Mland use. Liquefaction-prone areas are areas typically underlain by cohesionless soils of low density. and another 50 percent of landfill wastes. or b. ENVIRONMENTAL SETTING Environmental settings were defined. a watershed management plan that focuses only on anthropogenic factors. This finding underscores the importance of developing watershed management plans that account for differences associated with the mosaic of natural and anthropogenic factors that define a basin's environmental setting. maximizing the use of recycling. Steep slope areas that are regulated for additional erosion hazards are described in subsection 4. 2. such as point-source discharges. and 7. and does not account for natural characteristics of a watershed and the influences of these characteristics on water quality. depending on soil conditions. 40 percent of drinking water pollution. that lose substantial strength during earthquakes. surficial geology. Potential landslide areas: (1) Those areas that are described as potential slide areas in "Seattle Landslide Study" (Shannon & Wilson. and creating sustainable buildings.000) years or are underlain by mass wastage debris deposited during this period. Expert judgment was used in selecting factors thought to influence sediment and nutrient concentrations in the AlbemarlePamlico drainage area. 50 percent of climate change gases. (4) Setbacks at the top of very steep slopes or bluffs. 3. the industry contributes to 23 percent of air pollution. Environment and Society described in subsections 2. This study's findings support the hypothesis that environmental settings defined using these three variables can explain variations in the concentration of certain sediment and nutrient constituents. usually in association with a shallow groundwater table. It is important then that construction companies should focus more on minimizing waste production. 1 . According to a report by the Willmott Dixon Group. 6. and around 60 percent of the total usage of raw materials. Landslide-prone areas include steep slope areas. CHANGES IN THE ENVIRONMENT DURING CONSTRUCTION Construction of buildings and infrastructure affects the environment in mainly two ways – by consuming resources and by creating pollutants and wastes. K. (2) Areas with indications of past landslide activity.Known landslide areas identified by documented history. On the other hand.

electric wiring. 1 . dredging materials. such as carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxide. Turing to sustainable construction would be another effective way to save energy and resources. average surface temperature of the world increased by 0.6 °C during the last hundred years.8 percent from residential buildings. Ancient civilizations exerted more social control over the community than modern societies. Environmental considerations may be set aside in favor of other considerations including economic and other benefits of going ahead. One way to reduce these wastes is by establishing a proper system for recycling and reuse. insulin. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESTMENT "Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is the process of assessing the likely environmental impacts of a proposal and identifying options to minimize environmental damage.9 percent of the country’s total carbon dioxide emissions. Pollution – The construction industry produces pollutants in many forms and during different phases of construction." EIA is not a way of allowing an environmental 'veto' on development proposals. The Commonwealth and each State and Territory has legislation relating to EIA. toxic elements. L. Environment and Society Factors Impacting the Environment Here are two major facts to know about the impact of the construction industry on the environment: Global warming – According to the IPCC Synthesis Report 2012. EIA provides an opportunity to identify key issues and stakeholders early in the life of a proposal so that potentially adverse impacts can be addressed before final approval decisions are made. Why is EIA necessary? Environmental impact assessment (EIA) is necessary today when it was not in the past:  modern societies have a faster. The construction industry can be held accountable for this to a large extent. and carbon dioxide. The main purpose of EIA is to inform decision makers of the likely impacts of a proposal before a decision is made.Science. including 18 percent from commercial buildings and 20. According to the 2008 statistics from the US Department of Energy. A second change is the change in how societies are organized. America’s domestic and commercial buildings contribute to around 38. Also the environmental impacts of their actions tended to be localized and limited in impact.  the individualism of modern societies requires legal controls to replace traditional community control  political priorities and environmental awareness has changed The changes brought about by previous civilizations were sometimes large but occurred very slowly so there was time to assess them. A majority of climate scientists believe that the increase in global surface temperature has been mainly caused by an increase in the concentration of certain trace greenhouse gases. hydrogen sulfide. Some wastes and pollutants the construction industry produces include toxic elements. Today it is possible to pollute whole oceans and even the earth's atmosphere with materials that will persist long into the future. MITIGATING MEASURES DURING CONSTRUCTION M. more widespread and larger impact on the natural environment. rubble. and asbestos.

1 . If you are particularly cynical you might argue that EIA is necessary today because a vocal section of the community demand it. Another change is the changing political priorities that have come with affluence and the growing public awareness of and dissatisfaction with environmental degradation.Science. Thomas implies that EIA is a mechanism of social control in that it controls development by individuals or groups of individuals. Environment and Society You may of course disagree with this.