You are on page 1of 27

Industrial training report

Industrial training is an important component in the development of the practical and
professional skills required by an engineer. The purpose of industrial training is to
achieve exposure on practical engineering fields. Through this exposure, we would
have a better understanding of engineering practice in general and sense of frequent
and possible problems.
The objectives of industrial training are:
a) To get exposure to engineering experience and knowledge, which are required in
industry and not taught in the lecture rooms.
b) To apply the technical knowledge and engineering methods to real industrial
c) Witness the functioning and organization of companies.
d) To interact with other professional and non-professional groups
e) To get exposure to responsibilities and ethics of engineers.

The Industrial training was carried out at Skyline Builders, Calicut. The project
assigned was Skyline Crescendo Luxury Apartments located in Chevarambalam,

Civil Engineering Department


Industrial training report

SKYLINE BUILDERS is one of the largest residential real estate developers in Kerala
headquartered in Kochi. Started as a partnership firm in 1989 the first project of
Skyline Builder, Skyline Mansion, was at Gandhinagar, Kochi. Skyline Builders
remains one of the pioneers in implementing and promoting the concept of luxury
apartment living lifestyle in Kerala. Skyline Builders is headed by its Chairman &
Managing Director K V Abdul Azeez.
Its prime activity includes the development of luxurious residential and villa projects
and also has commercial property development. Skyline Builders has 127 projects till
date in 10 cities across Kerala. The home builder has successfully completed and
handed over 113 residential projects and it has 23 ongoing residential projects. Skyline
Builders has over 1.2 crore sq.ft built-up area in its credit. Over 6000 happy clients
from about 50 countries invested in Skyline Builders.
Skyline Builders has won several awards and acclamations. The company holds a
CRISIL rating of DA2 the first among kerala builders since 1980.It is also an
upstanding member of the CREDAI. The home builder always keeps a long term
association with its clients by giving support from in-house services like Interior
Department, Home Care Department, After Sales Department and Skylineage. While
celebrating its 25th anniversary, five more new luxury apartment projects will be
launched soon in various part of the city.
2.2.1 Site Location:
Civil Engineering Department


2 About The Project: Skyline Crescendo is an 18 storied (including basement and ground floor) flat with luxury apartments. thus it places you to stay connected with the future of the city.2: Proposed elevation 3 . 2.1: Site Plan Civil Engineering Department Fig 2. Basement floor is entirely utilised for parking .2.Industrial training report It is situated at Chevarambalam with close proximity to NH Bypass and Cyber Park.Ground floor has Fig 2.

80 451.The floor area in each of the stories is as shown in the table below.80 451.23 169.Industrial training report Fig 2.94 13th 597.1: Floor areas in each storey - Ground 752.80 451.80 451.94 14th 597.94 10 th 597.80 451.94 16th 597.94 15th 597. a fully equipped modern gymnasium.94 7th 597.94 8 th 597.24 2nd 597. room for office.80 451.80 451.77 Carpet area (m2) Table 2.94 4th 597.94 9th 597.80 451.94 Civil 12thEngineering Department 597.80 451. swimming pool etc and Ist floor has three flats.80 451.94 6th 597. All the above floors which are typical consists of five flats each .80 451.80 451.80 451.84 1st 549.80 451. Floor Plinth area (m2) Basement 1865.94 5th 597. games room etc.61 421.3: Arrangement of flats in typical floors parking area.94 4 .94 3rd 597.80 451.94 11th 597.

the foundation to be constructed was fixed as raft foundation. The information is essential for the design of structures and for planning construction techniques. Site investigations are generally done to obtain the information useful for the following purposes. d) To predict and to solve potential foundation problems etc Soil investigation is thus an integral part of foundation design. b) To determine the bearing capacity of soil.Industrial training report CHAPTER-3 SITE INVESTIGATION AND FOUNDATION DETAILS Site investigation is done for obtaining the information about surface and subsurface conditions at the site of proposed construction. After conducting various soil tests in the site and evaluating the reports.1 SITE CLEARANCE Civil Engineering Department 5 . a) To select the type and depth of foundation for given structure. 3. c) To estimate the probable maximum and differential settlement.

Site clearance involves removal of vegetation along with any other objections which might be there in the site location.1: Site excavation 3. With respect to this center point all other points of columns were decided. After excavation construction works was started. It refers to the process of removing soil from its original location for construction purposes.2 POSITIONING OF CENTRAL COORDINATE AND LAYOUT The center point was marked with the help of a TOTAL STATION as per the grid drawing. normally the entire area of the structure. Here the land was excavated for the construction of basement floor and foundation for the specified width and depth as per the requirement. 3. The total earth excavated was calculated as 9959. It may be stiffened by ribs or beams incorporated into the foundation. A raft foundation normally consists of a concrete slab which extends over the entire loaded area.4 FOUNDATION DETAILS Raft foundations are used to spread the load from a structure over a large area.57m3.3 EXCAVATION Excavation is the first step of construction. Since raft foundation was used a large volume of earth excavation was required.Industrial training report As it was a land area clearance of site has to be carried out. 3. Fig 3. Raft foundations have the advantage of Civil Engineering Department 6 .

The raft foundation details are as shown in figure below. The various steps in constructing raft foundation include levelling the soil surface. They are often needed on soft or loose soils with low Fig 3. Here in this site for raft foundation (including raft beam and slab) concrete mix of M30 was used. laying slab top reinforcement. laying raft beam reinforcement.Industrial training report reducing differential settlements as the concrete slab resists differential movements between loading positions.2: Laying pcc for raft foundation bearing capacity as they can spread the loads over a larger area.laying slab bottom reinforcement. shuttering raft beam and concreting raft beam. shuttering raft slab . concreting raft slab. The raft beam is designed such that part of the beam ie about Civil Engineering Department 7 . laying levelling concrete (PCC).

coal tar was applied over the beam surfaces and slab to prevent damping.3: Raft slab bottom reinforcement Fig 3. After the construction of raft beam and slab. Civil Engineering Department 8 .4: Reinforcement of raft beam 400mm is inside the raft slab. The figures below shows the shuttering process of raft beam and the raft foundation after concreting is done.Industrial training report Fig 3.

5: Raft beam shuttering Fig 3.Industrial training report Fig 3. Whenever concreting is done with 40 or more bags of Civil Engineering Department 9 . slump test etc.6: Raft beam after concreting CHAPTER-4 QUALITY ASSURANCE AND QUALITY CONTROL In the site the quality and strength of concrete is maintained by testing them by doing compression test.

The casting of solid concrete blocks in site is shown in figure below.The strength of the beam.20mm.16mm. For this cement. slab or column is checked.  M sand used for construction is obtained from Thamarassery M-sand Plant. Civil Engineering Department 10 . The reinforcement bars are subjected to tension test which is carried out from Govt.Industrial training report cement slump test is done for the concrete mix made and cubes of size 150x150mm are cast for the compression test.10mm and 8mm of Fe500 grade produced by VIZAG steel is used. If the cubes fail in compression test the slab. Engineering College.After each layer is laid it is compressed with the help of machine. sand.  Reinforcement bars of dia 32mm.  Cement used for RCC works is Coromandel OPC 53 grade cement and cement used for masonry work.12mm.Calicut.  The fine aggregate and coarse aggregate used is such that it conforms in all respects to IS: 383.  Potable water is used for construction and the water is tested periodically at least once in three months. plastering etc is Portland Pozzuolana Cement. Sieve analysis is carried out for the quality assurance of the fine and coarse aggregate.  The concrete solid block used for partition walls is constructed in the site itself such that it conforms to IS 2185 and is kept for curing for 14 days and the strength is tested. If it is again found to be failed then the portion of building is strengthened using appropriate measures.  Laterite stone used is locally available near site. At a time six blocks can be constructed using the machine. beam or column cast using the specified mix is subjected to rebound hammer test after 28 days of curing .25mm. aggregate and water are mixed together as per the specification and are then fed to the rectangular moulds in the machine in three layers .

12mm -40% Civil Engineering Department 11 .1: Casting of concrete solid block Fig 4.2: Concrete solid block after construction 4.Industrial training report Fig 4.1 MIX DESIGN OF CONCRETE USED IN THE PROJECT Design Stipulations of Mix Design Type of cement – Coramandel OPC 53 grade Coarse aggregate 20mm -60% .

985 : 0.40 ) .6kg) Water = 162 litre Admixture (Sika Plastiment BV 40) = 2.10 kg (20mm -97. 12mm – 487.43) .45kg Coarse Aggregate = 162.4kg.M sand Exposure condition – Severe Degree of quality control .256 litre For 1 bag of cement Cement content = 50kg Fine Aggregate = 101. (cement: sand : aggregate:water) For 1 m3 of concrete Cement content = 404 kg Fine Aggregate = 723 kg Coarse aggregate = 1206kg (20mm – 723.242 : . 12mm – 482.26kg.Good M30 (1 : 2.029 : 3.84kg) Water = 21.4kg) Water = 162 litre Admixture (BASF Glenium Sky 8233) Civil Engineering Department = 2.Industrial training report Fine aggregate .6kg.5 litre Admixture (Sika Plastiment BV 40) = 300ml M35 ( 1 : 1.( cement: sand : aggregate :water) For 1 m3 of concrete Cement content = 376kg Fine Aggregate = 763 kg Coarse aggregate = 1219kg (20mm – 731. 12mm – 64.789 : 2.02 litre 12 .

70kg) Water = 20.Industrial training report For 1 bag of cement Cement content = 50kg Fine Aggregate = 89.02kg) Water = 19.05 kg (20mm -87. 12mm – 59.725:2.25kg Coarse Aggregate = 145.03kg.45kg Coarse Aggregate = 149.075 litre For 1 bag of cement Cement content = 50kg Fine Aggregate = 86. 12mm – 481.00 litre Admixture (BASF Glenium Sky 8233) = 250 ml M40 (1:1.4kg.25 kg (20mm -89. cement: sand: aggregate: water) For 1 m3 of concrete Cement content = 415 kg Fine Aggregate = 716 kg Coarse aggregate = 1204kg (20mm – 722.6kg) Water = 162 litre Admixture (BASF Glenium Sky 8233) = 2. 12mm – 58.39 .55kg .50 litre Admixture (BASF Glenium Sky 8233) = 250 ml CHAPTER-5 CONSTRUCTIONAL FEATURES Civil Engineering Department 13 .901:0.

In the site they are mixing concrete using concrete mixer. 5. These are then fed to the weighing basket of batch mixer using bobcat. Placing. fine aggregate and water. 5. coarse aggregate. and water is calculated for 4 bags of cement from the design mix. Mixing. columns. 5.1. To this drum water is supplied from the tank fitted above the mixing drum.Industrial training report In the beginning of my training the contactors have completed the construction up to 5th floor. They are added such that Civil Engineering Department 14 . The volume of cement. coarse aggregate. staircase. Plasticizer was added as per the mix design for increasing workability of concrete.1 STEPS IN CONCRETING Cement concrete is a mixture of cement. shear wall for lift and its concreting were carried out during my training period. and becomes hard such as stone. The water to be added is set in the control panel as per the water cement ratio in the mix design. By suitable adjusting the proportions of the cement. beams. So the 6th floor slabs.1 Batching In the site batching was done using the mixer machine.2 Mixing In the site the machine used for mixing was “batch mixer” shown in figure below. In this batching for each batch mix. The usual steps in concreting are Batching. 4 bags of cement is used. All the materials of the weighing basket are then transferred to the mixing drum. sand.1. All RCC works are carried out such that it confirms to IS456-2000. In batch mixer. it is possible to get the concrete of sufficient compressive strength of various uses. their relative quantities and the manner in which they are mixed and placed. Compaction & Curing. fine aggregate. The strength of cement concrete depends upon its ingredients. all the materials of the desired proportioned mix are fed into to the hopper of the revolving drum and then drum on being rotated at a certain speed mixes the materials with the aid of a series of blades provided inside. crushed rock and water which when placed in the skeleton of forms and allowed to cure.

Fig 5. In the site placing was carried out using concrete pumping technique.4 Compaction Compaction of concrete is the process adopted for expelling the entrapped air from the Civil Engineering Department 15 . Care should be taken to avoid displacement of reinforcement or movement of formwork. The concrete shall be placed and compacted before initial setting of concrete commences and should not be subsequently disturbed. These pipelines is made of steel tubes each 3m length and 100 to 125mm diameter. In the case of concreting columns (ie free fall of concrete will be above 1.3 Placing The concrete shall be deposited as nearly as practicable in its final position to avoid re-handling. .5m. the maximum permissible free fall of concrete may be taken as 1.5 m) an opening is provided in the side wall shuttering at a certain height of about 1m and concrete is poured through this and compacted. Concrete was pumped directly from the transit mixer through steel pipelines.Industrial training report 50% of the plasticizer is added during dry mixing of ingredients and remaining 50% is added during wet mixing of concrete inorder to get full advantage of the plasticizer used. As general guidance.1: Mixing of concrete 5.1.1. 5. Methods of placing should be such as to preclude segregation.

7 days 2) Spanning over 4.Industrial training report concrete.16 to 24 hrs b) Slabs (props left under) .14 days e) Removal of props under beams and arches: 1) Spanning up to 6m . Vertical retaining wall and concrete columns were cured by wet covering by using gunny bags. transporting and placing of concrete. In the proposed site form work may generally be removed after the expiry of following periods. This casing is known as shuttering.5 Curing In the site slabs are covered under water by making small ponds. In the process of mixing. Size of needles used for compaction was 40mm and 20mm diameter. While building the formwork the provisions for wiring and plumbing were also provided. columns and vertical faces of all structural members . The ongoing formwork for beams and slabs are shown in figure Civil Engineering Department 16 . In the site mechanical vibrators are used for compaction.1. form work and it is to be removed when the concrete has hardened sufficiently to support its own weight.3 days c) Beam Soffits (props left under) . 5. jute matting etc.5 m . a) For walls.21 days 3) Spanning over 9m .5 m . The lower the workability.2 FORMWORKS The concrete is contained in a timber or a steel casing for a certain period after its placing. air is likely to get entrapped in the concrete.28 days Steel and plywood formworks were used in the site. After the compaction of concrete the uniform depth of slab was checked by dropping the steel rod in vertical direction.14 days 2) Spanning over 6m and up to 9m .7 days d) Removal of props under slab: 1) Spanning up to 4. 5. higher is the amount of air entrapped.

Industrial training report Fig 5. For making RCC slab safe from compressive stress we place steel in the form of cranks provided in steel bars and extra steel bars at both ends of the slab. All RCC works including materials confirmed to IS 456-2000. The spacing of bars depends on the span and thickness of slab.3 CONSTRUCTION OF SLAB Slab is constructed using M30 grade concrete and Fe500 steel. The maximum tensile stress is in the middle of the slab whereas maximum compressive stress is at both ends.3. Reinforcement laid for slabs are shown in figure below. and all the slabs were designed as two way slabs.2 Process of laying slab In the site all the sophisticated equipments are used to finish the work in easy and simple method. Reinforcement is provided in the tension region using ferrous steel since bonding between cement and ferrous is more.3. For making RCC slab safe from tensile stress we place maximum steel in the middle of RCC slab.1 Cranking RCC slab is supported on two ends. The steel reinforcement are laid based on the detailing obtained from Civil Engineering Department 17 . These main steel bars provided in the RCC slab placed according to the arrangement that one bar laid straight and the other bar has a crank on both ends. 5. 5.2: Formwork construction 5.

here cup locks are used to support the frame.Industrial training report Fig 5.3: Slab reinforcement the design drawings. Fig 5. And the concrete is poured over the frame with the help of hydraulic jack and concrete pipes which are used to pump the concrete from transit mixer to the place where slab has to be laid. first a cream slurry cement paste has to be passed through pipes for smooth flow of concrete. After framing using shutter boards filled with shuttering oil.4 : Reinforcement for beam and slab Civil Engineering Department 18 . electrical conduits with ISI marks and conforming to IS 1554 are laid. To prevent coagulation inside pipes. Precast covering blocks of size 40x40mm (having same mix as M30 concrete ) and thickness equal to the specified covers are placed in between the bars and forms to ensure proper clear cover to reinforcement.

Tie rods. after mixing in concrete mixer and are not precast.5m in order to avoid honey combing. Periodical checking (ie after every 3 floors the verticality is checked) is done using total station.5: Slab concreting 5. ropes are used to place the shutters firmly around the column where the concrete is to be laid.4 CONSTRUCTION OF BEAMS Beam is a structural element that is capable of withstanding load primarily by resisting bending. Once the shutter is firmly placed then the concrete is filled manually till 0. the column verticality is checked using plumb bob.5 CONSTRUCTION OF COLUMNS Columns are laid under utmost care.6 CONSTRUCTION OF SHEARWALL Civil Engineering Department 19 . Precast covering blocks of same mix concrete shall be used to ensure adequate cover. They are casted along with slab. Before placing reinforcement and casting a column above slab. steel rods are firmly placed and these are connected using different types of Tor Rings with the help of binding wire. M40 grade concrete is used for laying columns. 5. 5. Here in the site the beams are reinforced with steel and made using M30 concrete and Fe500 steel.Industrial training report Fig 5.

The shear walls were constructed of M30 grade concrete and Fe500 steel.7: Shear wall construction 5.Industrial training report The walls of the lift room (shear walls) were constructed with RCC as per the design.7 CONSTRUCTION OF RETAINING WALL Civil Engineering Department 20 .6: Reinforcement of column Fig 5. Fig 5.

The stability of a retaining wall should be checked against sliding and overturning. On the surface of the wall which is in contact with soil coal tar was applied to prevent leakage of water. Since the basement floor of the building was below the ground level retaining wall was constructed.Industrial training report A retaining wall is constructed to retain artificial filling to one side. A black rubber sheet (Atom PVC coated Fabric 450 GSM) was placed between the soil and retaining wall inorder to prevent leakage of water.8: Retaining wall construction Civil Engineering Department 21 . It was constructed using M25 grade of concrete water proofing admixture “MASTERPEL 707” was added. Fig 5.

5. Also PVC water bars were laid in horizontal joints of walls of tanks to prevent entry of water. FIRE TANK & RAINWATER STORAGE TANK These tanks are constructed for water storage for various purposes such as fire fighting.9 CONSTRUCTION OF SUMP TANK. Civil Engineering Department 22 . The portion of the walls which are in direct contact with soil is coated with coal tar to prevent damping. The reinforcement detail of stair is given in the figure.9: Retaining wall curing 5. Both the main stair and fire stair has a width of 130cm. flushing purposes etc It was constructed of M30 grade concrete and water proofing admixture “MASTERPEL 707” was added.8 CONSTRUCTION OF STAIRCASE Since it is a flat two stairs are provided. Rise and tread provided are 15cm and 30cm respectively. one main stair and other for fire safety purpose.Industrial training report Fig 5.

11: Safety measures 5. Personal safety and public safety should be given due consideration. During campaigns advertisement films.10 SAFETY MEASURES In civil engineering construction project. For this a safety engineer has been appointed in the site and safety campaigns are conducted periodically under the safety manager to give awareness to labours. For personal safety every person should wear safety helmet. Important signs giving warnings are also provided in the site within the working location. So to avoid accidents good safety measures are to be taken at site.11 CONSTRUCTION IN PROGRESS Civil Engineering Department 23 . Do’s and Dont’s during construction work are displayed in bold letter along with diagram on chart paper in the site. The company is following safety norms as per ISO standards. documentaries etc are shown to the workers explaining the need for safety measures. Fig 5.Industrial training report Fig 5. About 80% of accidents are mainly caused due to unsafe practices and negligence due to workers. accidents cannot be avoided.10: Reinforcement details of fire stair 5. Training on first aid is also provided to workers and supervisors. safety vast and safety footwear while entering construction site. An event can happen any time and unexpectedly during construction.

12: Site in progress 5.Also 5th floor staircase and shear wall construction for lift was going on . The picture showing the progress of site work is given below. Electrical conduit laying was also done along with the slab reinforcement.Parallel to it plastering works in the lower floors was also going on. Fig 5.12 REMAINING WORKS        Construction of remaining 12 floors.beam and column reinforcement works were going on . Construction of swimming pool Construction of outer walls Plastering Flooring Finishing and painting Septic tank construction Civil Engineering Department 24 .Industrial training report During the training 6th floor slab .

During this internship I was able to apply my learnt academic knowledge in practical situations as well as gather a vast array of methods and processes that was only possible to be learnt through working on site.Industrial training report CHAPTER-6 CONCLUSION The industrial training for 15 days in SKYLINE BUILDERS helped me to understand the importance of site supervision and recently adopted techniques in construction and planning. Civil Engineering Department 25 .

S. “Concrete Technology Theory & Practice”. Chand Publications. Bureau of Indian Standards. Third edition. 2003. M. New Delhi. 2. 2007.Industrial training report REFERENCES 1. New Delhi.“Plain and Reinforced Concrete –Code of Practice”.S Shetty. IS 456: 2000 Indian Standard. Civil Engineering Department 26 .

Industrial training report Civil Engineering Department 27 .