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Industrial training report

CHAPTER -1
INTRODUCTION
Industrial training is an important component in the development of the practical and
professional skills required by an engineer. The purpose of industrial training is to
achieve exposure on practical engineering fields. Through this exposure, we would
have a better understanding of engineering practice in general and sense of frequent
and possible problems.
The objectives of industrial training are:
a) To get exposure to engineering experience and knowledge, which are required in
industry and not taught in the lecture rooms.
b) To apply the technical knowledge and engineering methods to real industrial
situations.
c) Witness the functioning and organization of companies.
d) To interact with other professional and non-professional groups
e) To get exposure to responsibilities and ethics of engineers.

The Industrial training was carried out at Skyline Builders, Calicut. The project
assigned was Skyline Crescendo Luxury Apartments located in Chevarambalam,
Calicut.

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CHAPTER-2
COMPANY AND PROJECT DETAILS
2.1 COMPANY PROFILE
SKYLINE BUILDERS is one of the largest residential real estate developers in Kerala
headquartered in Kochi. Started as a partnership firm in 1989 the first project of
Skyline Builder, Skyline Mansion, was at Gandhinagar, Kochi. Skyline Builders
remains one of the pioneers in implementing and promoting the concept of luxury
apartment living lifestyle in Kerala. Skyline Builders is headed by its Chairman &
Managing Director K V Abdul Azeez.
Its prime activity includes the development of luxurious residential and villa projects
and also has commercial property development. Skyline Builders has 127 projects till
date in 10 cities across Kerala. The home builder has successfully completed and
handed over 113 residential projects and it has 23 ongoing residential projects. Skyline
Builders has over 1.2 crore sq.ft built-up area in its credit. Over 6000 happy clients
from about 50 countries invested in Skyline Builders.
Skyline Builders has won several awards and acclamations. The company holds a
CRISIL rating of DA2 the first among kerala builders since 1980.It is also an
upstanding member of the CREDAI. The home builder always keeps a long term
association with its clients by giving support from in-house services like Interior
Department, Home Care Department, After Sales Department and Skylineage. While
celebrating its 25th anniversary, five more new luxury apartment projects will be
launched soon in various part of the city.
2.2 PROJECT DETAILS
SKYLINE CRESCENDO LUXUARY APPARTMENTS
2.2.1 Site Location:
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It is situated at Chevarambalam with close proximity to NH Bypass and Cyber Park,


thus it places you to stay connected with the future of the city.
2.2.2 About The Project:
Skyline Crescendo is an 18 storied (including basement and ground floor) flat with
luxury apartments. Basement floor is entirely utilised for parking .Ground floor has

Fig 2.1: Site Plan

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Fig 2.2: Proposed elevation

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Fig 2.3: Arrangement of flats in typical floors


parking area, room for office, swimming pool etc and Ist floor has three flats, a fully
equipped modern gymnasium, games room etc. All the above floors which are typical
consists of five flats each .The floor area in each of the stories is as shown in the table
below.
Floor

Plinth area (m2)

Basement

1865.77

Carpet area (m2)


Table 2.1: Floor areas in each storey
-

Ground

752.23

169.84

1st

549.61

421.24

2nd

597.80

451.94

3rd

597.80

451.94

4th

597.80

451.94

5th

597.80

451.94

6th

597.80

451.94

7th

597.80

451.94

8 th

597.80

451.94

9th

597.80

451.94

10 th

597.80

451.94

11th

597.80

451.94

Civil
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597.80

451.94

13th

597.80

451.94

14th

597.80

451.94

15th

597.80

451.94

16th

597.80

451.94

Industrial training report

CHAPTER-3
SITE INVESTIGATION AND FOUNDATION DETAILS
Site investigation is done for obtaining the information about surface and subsurface
conditions at the site of proposed construction. The information is essential for the
design of structures and for planning construction techniques. Site investigations are
generally done to obtain the information useful for the following purposes.
a) To select the type and depth of foundation for given structure.
b) To determine the bearing capacity of soil.
c) To estimate the probable maximum and differential settlement.
d) To predict and to solve potential foundation problems etc
Soil investigation is thus an integral part of foundation design. After conducting
various soil tests in the site and evaluating the reports, the foundation to be
constructed was fixed as raft foundation.
3.1 SITE CLEARANCE

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As it was a land area clearance of site has to be carried out. Site clearance involves
removal of vegetation along with any other objections which might be there in the site
location.
3.2 POSITIONING OF CENTRAL COORDINATE AND LAYOUT
The center point was marked with the help of a TOTAL STATION as per the grid
drawing. With respect to this center point all other points of columns were decided.
3.3 EXCAVATION
Excavation is the first step of construction. It refers to the process of removing soil
from its original location for construction purposes. Here the land was excavated for
the construction of basement floor and foundation for the specified width and depth as
per the requirement. Since raft foundation was used a large volume of earth
excavation was required. The total earth excavated was calculated as 9959.57m3.
After excavation construction works was started.

Fig 3.1: Site excavation


3.4 FOUNDATION DETAILS
Raft foundations are used to spread the load from a structure over a large area,
normally the entire area of the structure. A raft foundation normally consists of a
concrete slab which extends over the entire loaded area. It may be stiffened by ribs or
beams incorporated into the foundation. Raft foundations have the advantage of
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reducing differential settlements as the concrete slab resists differential movements


between loading positions. They are often needed on soft or loose soils with low

Fig 3.2: Laying pcc for raft foundation


bearing capacity as they can spread the loads over a larger area. Here in this site for
raft foundation (including raft beam and slab) concrete mix of M30 was used. The
various steps in constructing raft foundation include levelling the soil surface, laying
levelling concrete (PCC),laying slab bottom reinforcement, laying raft beam
reinforcement, laying slab top reinforcement, shuttering raft slab , concreting raft
slab, shuttering raft beam and concreting raft beam. The raft foundation details are as
shown in figure below. The raft beam is designed such that part of the beam ie about

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Fig 3.3: Raft slab bottom reinforcement

Fig 3.4: Reinforcement of raft beam


400mm is inside the raft slab. After the construction of raft beam and slab, coal tar
was applied over the beam surfaces and slab to prevent damping. The figures below
shows the shuttering process of raft beam and the raft foundation after concreting is
done.

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Fig 3.5: Raft beam shuttering

Fig 3.6: Raft beam after concreting

CHAPTER-4
QUALITY ASSURANCE AND QUALITY CONTROL
In the site the quality and strength of concrete is maintained by testing them by doing
compression test, slump test etc. Whenever concreting is done with 40 or more bags of
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cement slump test is done for the concrete mix made and cubes of size 150x150mm
are cast for the compression test. If the cubes fail in compression test the slab, beam or
column cast using the specified mix is subjected to rebound hammer test after 28 days
of curing .The strength of the beam, slab or column is checked. If it is again found to
be failed then the portion of building is strengthened using appropriate measures.
The fine aggregate and coarse aggregate used is such that it conforms in all
respects to IS: 383. Sieve analysis is carried out for the quality assurance of the
fine and coarse aggregate.
Cement used for RCC works is Coromandel OPC 53 grade cement and
cement used for masonry work, plastering etc is Portland Pozzuolana Cement.
Reinforcement bars of dia 32mm,25mm,20mm,16mm,12mm,10mm and 8mm
of Fe500 grade produced by VIZAG steel is used. The reinforcement bars are
subjected to tension test which is carried out from Govt. Engineering
College,Calicut.
Potable water is used for construction and the water is tested periodically at
least once in three months.
M sand used for construction is obtained from Thamarassery M-sand Plant.
Laterite stone used is locally available near site.
The concrete solid block used for partition walls is constructed in the site itself
such that it conforms to IS 2185 and is kept for curing for 14 days and the
strength is tested.
The casting of solid concrete blocks in site is shown in figure below. For this cement,
sand, aggregate and water are mixed together as per the specification and are then fed
to the rectangular moulds in the machine in three layers .After each layer is laid it is
compressed with the help of machine. At a time six blocks can be constructed using
the machine.

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Fig 4.1: Casting of concrete solid block

Fig 4.2: Concrete solid block after construction

4.1 MIX DESIGN OF CONCRETE USED IN THE PROJECT


Design Stipulations of Mix Design
Type of cement Coramandel OPC 53 grade
Coarse aggregate 20mm -60% , 12mm -40%
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Fine aggregate - M sand


Exposure condition Severe
Degree of quality control - Good
M30 (1 : 2.029 : 3.242 : .43) ,( cement: sand : aggregate :water)
For 1 m3 of concrete
Cement content

= 376kg

Fine Aggregate

= 763 kg

Coarse aggregate

= 1219kg (20mm 731.4kg, 12mm 487.6kg)

Water

= 162 litre

Admixture
(Sika Plastiment BV 40)

= 2.256 litre

For 1 bag of cement


Cement content

= 50kg

Fine Aggregate

= 101.45kg

Coarse Aggregate

= 162.10 kg (20mm -97.26kg, 12mm 64.84kg)

Water

= 21.5 litre

Admixture
(Sika Plastiment BV 40)

= 300ml

M35 ( 1 : 1.789 : 2.985 : 0.40 ) , (cement: sand : aggregate:water)


For 1 m3 of concrete
Cement content

= 404 kg

Fine Aggregate

= 723 kg

Coarse aggregate

= 1206kg (20mm 723.6kg, 12mm 482.4kg)

Water

= 162 litre

Admixture
(BASF Glenium Sky 8233)

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= 2.02 litre

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For 1 bag of cement


Cement content

= 50kg

Fine Aggregate

= 89.45kg

Coarse Aggregate

= 149.25 kg (20mm -89.55kg , 12mm 59.70kg)

Water

= 20.00 litre

Admixture
(BASF Glenium Sky 8233)

= 250 ml

M40 (1:1.725:2.901:0.39 , cement: sand: aggregate: water)


For 1 m3 of concrete
Cement content

= 415 kg

Fine Aggregate

= 716 kg

Coarse aggregate

= 1204kg (20mm 722.4kg, 12mm 481.6kg)

Water

= 162 litre

Admixture
(BASF Glenium Sky 8233)

= 2.075 litre

For 1 bag of cement


Cement content

= 50kg

Fine Aggregate

= 86.25kg

Coarse Aggregate

= 145.05 kg (20mm -87.03kg, 12mm 58.02kg)

Water

= 19.50 litre

Admixture
(BASF Glenium Sky 8233)

= 250 ml

CHAPTER-5
CONSTRUCTIONAL FEATURES
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In the beginning of my training the contactors have completed the construction up to


5th floor. So the 6th floor slabs, beams, columns, staircase, shear wall for lift and its
concreting were carried out during my training period. All RCC works are carried out
such that it confirms to IS456-2000.
5.1 STEPS IN CONCRETING
Cement concrete is a mixture of cement, sand, crushed rock and water which when
placed in the skeleton of forms and allowed to cure, and becomes hard such as stone.
The strength of cement concrete depends upon its ingredients, their relative quantities
and the manner in which they are mixed and placed. By suitable adjusting the
proportions of the cement, coarse aggregate, fine aggregate and water, it is possible to
get the concrete of sufficient compressive strength of various uses. The usual steps in
concreting are Batching, Mixing, Placing, Compaction & Curing. In the site they are
mixing concrete using concrete mixer.
5.1.1 Batching
In the site batching was done using the mixer machine. In this batching for each batch
mix, 4 bags of cement is used. The volume of cement, fine aggregate, coarse
aggregate, and water is calculated for 4 bags of cement from the design mix. These are
then fed to the weighing basket of batch mixer using bobcat. All the materials of the
weighing basket are then transferred to the mixing drum. To this drum water is
supplied from the tank fitted above the mixing drum. The water to be added is set in
the control panel as per the water cement ratio in the mix design.
5.1.2 Mixing
In the site the machine used for mixing was batch mixer shown in figure below. In
batch mixer, all the materials of the desired proportioned mix are fed into to the
hopper of the revolving drum and then drum on being rotated at a certain speed mixes
the materials with the aid of a series of blades provided inside. Plasticizer was added
as per the mix design for increasing workability of concrete. They are added such that

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50% of the plasticizer is added during dry mixing of ingredients and remaining 50% is
added during wet mixing of concrete inorder to get full advantage of the plasticizer
used.

.
Fig 5.1: Mixing of concrete
5.1.3 Placing
The concrete shall be deposited as nearly as practicable in its final position to avoid
re-handling. The concrete shall be placed and compacted before initial setting of
concrete commences and should not be subsequently disturbed. Methods of placing
should be such as to preclude segregation. Care should be taken to avoid displacement
of reinforcement or movement of formwork. As general guidance, the maximum
permissible free fall of concrete may be taken as 1.5m. In the site placing was carried
out using concrete pumping technique. In the case of concreting columns (ie free fall
of concrete will be above 1.5 m) an opening is provided in the side wall shuttering at a
certain height of about 1m and concrete is poured through this and compacted.
Concrete was pumped directly from the transit mixer through steel pipelines. These
pipelines is made of steel tubes each 3m length and 100 to 125mm diameter.
5.1.4 Compaction
Compaction of concrete is the process adopted for expelling the entrapped air from the
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concrete. In the process of mixing, transporting and placing of concrete, air is likely to
get entrapped in the concrete. The lower the workability, higher is the amount of air
entrapped. In the site mechanical vibrators are used for compaction. Size of needles
used for compaction was 40mm and 20mm diameter. After the compaction of concrete
the uniform depth of slab was checked by dropping the steel rod in vertical direction.
5.1.5 Curing
In the site slabs are covered under water by making small ponds. Vertical retaining
wall and concrete columns were cured by wet covering by using gunny bags, jute
matting etc.
5.2 FORMWORKS
The concrete is contained in a timber or a steel casing for a certain period after its
placing. This casing is known as shuttering, form work and it is to be removed when
the concrete has hardened sufficiently to support its own weight. In the proposed site
form work may generally be removed after the expiry of following periods.
a) For walls, columns and vertical faces of all structural members - 16 to 24 hrs
b) Slabs (props left under)

- 3 days

c) Beam Soffits (props left under)

- 7 days

d) Removal of props under slab:


1) Spanning up to 4.5 m

- 7 days

2) Spanning over 4.5 m

- 14 days

e) Removal of props under beams and arches:


1) Spanning up to 6m

- 14 days

2) Spanning over 6m and up to 9m

- 21 days

3) Spanning over 9m

- 28 days

Steel and plywood formworks were used in the site. While building the formwork the
provisions for wiring and plumbing were also provided. The ongoing formwork for
beams and slabs are shown in figure

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Fig 5.2: Formwork construction


5.3 CONSTRUCTION OF SLAB
Slab is constructed using M30 grade concrete and Fe500 steel. Reinforcement is
provided in the tension region using ferrous steel since bonding between cement and
ferrous is more. All RCC works including materials confirmed to IS 456-2000, and all
the slabs were designed as two way slabs.
5.3.1 Cranking
RCC slab is supported on two ends. The maximum tensile stress is in the middle of
the slab whereas maximum compressive stress is at both ends. For making RCC slab
safe from tensile stress we place maximum steel in the middle of RCC slab. For
making RCC slab safe from compressive stress we place steel in the form of cranks
provided in steel bars and extra steel bars at both ends of the slab. The spacing of bars
depends on the span and thickness of slab. These main steel bars provided in the RCC
slab placed according to the arrangement that one bar laid straight and the other bar
has a crank on both ends. Reinforcement laid for slabs are shown in figure below.
5.3.2 Process of laying slab
In the site all the sophisticated equipments are used to finish the work in easy and
simple method. The steel reinforcement are laid based on the detailing obtained from
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Fig 5.3: Slab reinforcement


the design drawings. After framing using shutter boards filled with shuttering oil,
electrical conduits with ISI marks and conforming to IS 1554 are laid, here cup locks
are used to support the frame. And the concrete is poured over the frame with the help
of hydraulic jack and concrete pipes which are used to pump the concrete from transit
mixer to the place where slab has to be laid. To prevent coagulation inside pipes, first
a cream slurry cement paste has to be passed through pipes for smooth flow of
concrete. Precast covering blocks of size 40x40mm (having same mix as M30
concrete ) and thickness equal to the specified covers are placed in between the bars
and forms to ensure proper clear cover to reinforcement.

Fig 5.4 : Reinforcement for beam and slab


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Fig 5.5: Slab concreting


5.4 CONSTRUCTION OF BEAMS
Beam is a structural element that is capable of withstanding load primarily by resisting
bending. Here in the site the beams are reinforced with steel and made using M30
concrete and Fe500 steel. They are casted along with slab, after mixing in concrete
mixer and are not precast. Precast covering blocks of same mix concrete shall be used
to ensure adequate cover.
5.5 CONSTRUCTION OF COLUMNS
Columns are laid under utmost care, steel rods are firmly placed and these are
connected using different types of Tor Rings with the help of binding wire. Tie rods,
ropes are used to place the shutters firmly around the column where the concrete is to
be laid. Once the shutter is firmly placed then the concrete is filled manually till 0.5m
in order to avoid honey combing. M40 grade concrete is used for laying columns.
Before placing reinforcement and casting a column above slab, the column verticality
is checked using plumb bob. Periodical checking (ie after every 3 floors the verticality
is checked) is done using total station.
5.6 CONSTRUCTION OF SHEARWALL

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The walls of the lift room (shear walls) were constructed with RCC as per the design.
The shear walls were constructed of M30 grade concrete and Fe500 steel.

Fig 5.6: Reinforcement of column

Fig 5.7: Shear wall construction


5.7 CONSTRUCTION OF RETAINING WALL
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A retaining wall is constructed to retain artificial filling to one side. The stability of a
retaining wall should be checked against sliding and overturning. Since the basement
floor of the building was below the ground level retaining wall was constructed. It was
constructed using M25 grade of concrete water proofing admixture MASTERPEL
707 was added. On the surface of the wall which is in contact with soil coal tar was
applied to prevent leakage of water. A black rubber sheet (Atom PVC coated Fabric
450 GSM) was placed between the soil and retaining wall inorder to prevent leakage
of water.

Fig 5.8: Retaining wall construction

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Fig 5.9: Retaining wall curing


5.8 CONSTRUCTION OF STAIRCASE
Since it is a flat two stairs are provided, one main stair and other for fire safety
purpose. Both the main stair and fire stair has a width of 130cm. Rise and tread
provided are 15cm and 30cm respectively. The reinforcement detail of stair is given in
the figure.
5.9 CONSTRUCTION OF SUMP TANK, FIRE TANK & RAINWATER
STORAGE TANK
These tanks are constructed for water storage for various purposes such as fire
fighting, flushing purposes etc It was constructed of M30 grade concrete and water
proofing admixture MASTERPEL 707 was added. The portion of the walls which
are in direct contact with soil is coated with coal tar to prevent damping. Also PVC
water bars were laid in horizontal joints of walls of tanks to prevent entry of water.

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Fig 5.10: Reinforcement details of fire stair


5.10 SAFETY MEASURES
In civil engineering construction project, accidents cannot be avoided. An event can
happen any time and unexpectedly during construction. About 80% of accidents are
mainly caused due to unsafe practices and negligence due to workers. Personal safety
and public safety should be given due consideration. For personal safety every person
should wear safety helmet, safety vast and safety footwear while entering construction
site. So to avoid accidents good safety measures are to be taken at site. The company
is following safety norms as per ISO standards. For this a safety engineer has been
appointed in the site and safety campaigns are conducted periodically under the safety
manager to give awareness to labours. During campaigns advertisement films,
documentaries etc are shown to the workers explaining the need for safety measures.
Dos and Donts during construction work are displayed in bold letter along with
diagram on chart paper in the site. Important signs giving warnings are also provided
in the site within the working location. Training on first aid is also provided to
workers and supervisors.

Fig 5.11: Safety measures


5.11 CONSTRUCTION IN PROGRESS
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During the training 6th floor slab ,beam and column reinforcement works were going
on .Also 5th floor staircase and shear wall construction for lift was going on .Parallel to
it plastering works in the lower floors was also going on. Electrical conduit laying
was also done along with the slab reinforcement. The picture showing the progress of
site work is given below.

Fig 5.12: Site in progress


5.12 REMAINING WORKS

Construction of remaining 12 floors.


Construction of swimming pool
Construction of outer walls
Plastering
Flooring
Finishing and painting
Septic tank construction

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CHAPTER-6
CONCLUSION

The industrial training for 15 days in SKYLINE BUILDERS helped me to understand


the importance of site supervision and recently adopted techniques in construction and
planning. During this internship I was able to apply my learnt academic knowledge in
practical situations as well as gather a vast array of methods and processes that was
only possible to be learnt through working on site.

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REFERENCES
1. IS 456: 2000 Indian Standard- Plain and Reinforced Concrete Code of
Practice, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, 2007.
2. M.S Shetty, Concrete Technology Theory & Practice, Third edition, S.
Chand Publications, New Delhi, 2003.

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