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System Success and Failure: Implementation


What do we mean by information system failure?

An information system "failure" may mean that a system falls apart, but it usually means that the system is
under-utilized or not used at all. This is because the system does not perform the functions for which it is intended or
does so in a way that is too difficult or time-consuming to use. Users may have to develop "parallel" manual
procedures to make the system work properly or rely on manual procedure entirely.

What kinds of problem that are evidence of information system failure?
Information system failure is indicated by the following problems: design, data, operations and costs.

How can we measure system success? Which measures of system success are the most
The following are recognized as measures of system success:


High levels of usage of the system.
User satisfaction.
Favorable user attitudes about information systems and the IS department.
Achieved objectives: the extent to which the system meets its specified goals.
Financial payoff. This measure may be of limited value because not all successful
information systems have tangible benefits.

Define implementation. What are the major approaches to implementation?

Implementation refers to all of the organizational activities involved in the adoption, management and
routinization of an innovation. For IS, implementation is the entire process of introducing, building and installing the
system and can be considered a complex process of deliberate organizational change.
There are three major approaches to implementation in scholarly literature:
1) a focus on actors and roles, suggesting that organizations should promote actors with innovative
characteristics and develop organizational roles championing innovation.
2) a focus on strategies of innovation, believing that successful innovations must have support from topdown and/or bottom-up.
3) a focus on general organizational change factors supportive of long-term routinization of innovations.
5. What are the actions and Indicators for successful system implementation?
- Support by local funds; New organizational arrangements; Stable supply and maintenance; New
classifications; Changes in organizational authority; Internalization of training program; Continual
updating of
the system; Promotion of key personnel; Survival of system after turnover; Attainment of widespread
6. What is the user-designer communications gap? What kinds of implementation problems can it
The "user-designer communications gap" refers to the conflict between the "technical" orientation of IS
specialists and the "business" orientation of end-users. Often the objectives, priorities and language of
communication between these groups is so different that they have entirely divergent goals. If serious, the "userdesigner communications gap" prolongs implementation time. Users and IS specialists must spend additional
time and effort trying to mutually understand one another. Users often forfeit their control over implementation to
technical specialists. The result is an information system that makes sense to the technicians but doesn't meet
users' business requirements.

What dimensions influence the level of risk in each systems development project?
Influencing the level of project risk are:

Project size.
Project structure.
Project technology level.

8. Why is it necessary to understand the concept of implementation when examining system success and
One of the most important determinants in system success and failure is the pattern of the implementation
process. Especially critical facets of the implementation process are:

Define requirements

· Inadequate user and system documentation. What are the major causes of implementation success or failure? How are they related to the failure of enterprise resource planning (ERP) and business reengineering projects? System failure may be due to factors outside the organization. · The system is designed only to serve current needs. The level of risk and of organizational and technical complexity in an implementation project.Time slippage . · No development of appropriate acceptance tests for management review. · Insufficient time and dollars are budgeted for conversion activities. Implementation problems at different stages of the life cycle : Analysis: · Inadequate resource allocation. schedules Identify interest groups. · No organizational impact analysis for drastic clerical procedure changes. · Users won't provide the requisite information. · Too little time is spent on developing program logic.Cost overruns .     The role of users in the implementation process. Design: · Users don't participate sufficiently in the design process. · IS specialists can't interview users properly and understand their requirements. lead training effort and installation User responsible for change control .    o Assess costs. many instances of system failure and negative implementation outcome are caused by factors within the organization. · Poorly defined problem or objectives. The quality of management of the implementation process itself. Conversion: · Training begins too late. The design reflects the biases of technicians. What project management techniques can be used to control project risk? External integration tools help solidify the relationship between implementation activities and end-users at all organizational levels. details Train end users Contain conflicts. An organization may be faced with external "environmental" pressures which it cannot meet because to do so would run counter to its inherent characteristics.Failure to obtain anticipated benefits 9. Such tools are most useful for projects that are not well-structured and which require heavy user involvement and commitment. List some of the implementation problems that might occur at each stage of the systems development process. Testing: · Insufficient time is allocated to testing. · Promises that are impossible to meet. Programming: · Programmers receive incomplete specifications. actors. · Programs are not fully documented. benefits. uncertatinties Poor Project Management . Users are unprepared for the new system and procedures.        User as team leader or assistant User steering committee Users as active team members Require user approval of specs Distribute important minutes widely Users can report to management. 10. · The project does not develop organized test plans. · Incomplete documentation. However. The degree of management support for the implementation process.Technical shortfalls impair performance . 11.

health issues.Develop process for project approval • FORMAL CONTROL TOOLS: Help Monitor Progress Toward Completing Tasks. establish targets Budget Time. sensitivity to organizational needs and sensitivity to human needs. Sequence Tasks. and user What organizational considerations should be addressed by information system design?    Organizational impact analysis . They are most useful for projects with high technical complexity. Management Information System 6th Edition.mis. package modifications to conform to organizational procedures. A "system-oriented" strategy focuses on overcoming resistance stemming from factors inherent in system design. persuasion or building commitment through user participation.How will proposed system affect orientational? In terms of the structure. procedures and behavior will have to be addressed. encouraging user participation. and enduser interfaces Sociotechnical design . A strategy to counter the conflict of people and system factors could consist of restructuring the userdesigner relationship.Develop specifications from feasibility study . design of jobs. What strategies can be used to overcome user resistance to systems development projects? End-user resistance to IS projects can be overcome by the following strategies: A "people-oriented" strategy focuses on ways of overcoming resistance stemming from factors inherent to individuals or people as a group.Establish specification standards . and attempting to fix organizational problems before introducing new systems. coercion through edicts or policies. Henry C.Periodic formal status reports to show progress 13.Interaction of people and machines including. Such a strategy might include user participation in system design. freeze design . Changes in job functions. Formal Planning and Control Tools • FORMAL PLANNING TOOLS: Help Structure. organizational structure.Spot deviations from plan .Internal integration tools promote cohesion and unity within the implementation team. References:    http://www. Resources Select milestone phases .boun. power relationships. a design that is highly sensitive to human factors. project management background Frequent meetings. SANCHEZ BS COE V . Reaching Goals Maintain disciplines to control. distribute minutes concerning key decisions Regular technical status reviews Members have good working relationships with others Members help set goals. Lucas Jr. Effy Oz PREPARED BY: RHEA D. 14. They are most valuable for managing projects that are large and/or well-structured. attitudes. Formal planning and control tools help structure and sequence tasks and monitor progress towards goals. Money. It can consist of education.Design to produce information systems that blend the ff: technical effiency. • • • • • • Team members highly experienced Leader has strong technical.htm Information Technology for Management 7th Edition. Information system design must consider careful planning and orchestration of organizational change. Technical solutions must be developed around an appropriate "social design" for an information system. decision making and operations Ergonomics .