You are on page 1of 54

INITIAL SIZING

Estimation of Design Gross Weight

Prof. Rajkumar S. Pant
Aerospace Engineering Department
IIT Bombay

What is Initial Sizing ?

Estimation of its design take-off gross weight Wo
 Weight at the start of the design mission profile

Mission Profile specified by the user

Additional Requirements by Regulatory Bodies

Objectives
 Identify requirements that are likely to drive the design
 First estimate of the size of the aircraft, through Wo

Vary with the purpose of the aircraft

MISSION PROFILE

AE-332M / 714 Aircraft Design

Capsule-3

Mission Profiles
 Mission profile  purpose of the aircraft
 General Aviation Aircraft
 Simple Cruise + Hold

 Commercial Transport Aircraft
 Main Profile + Missed Approach + Diversion + Hold

Mission Profile: Simple Cruise
Cruise
3

4
5

1

2

Warm up, Taxi-out,
Take Off

AE-332M / 714 Aircraft Design

Loiter
5
Approach
6

7

Landing, Taxi-in

Capsule-3

Mission Profile: Air Superiority Aircraft
Cruise 2

7
Cruise 1

4

3
5
1

2

Warm up, Taxi-out, Take
Off

AE-332M / 714 Aircraft Design

6
Combat

Loiter

5

Loiter
Weapon Drop

Approach

8

9

Landing, Taxi-in

Capsule-3

Mission Profile: Ground Attack Fighter
Cruise 2

6

Cruise 1

3

4

7

Loiter

Loiter
Combat
Approach

1

2

Warm up, Taxi-out,
Take Off

AE-332M / 714 Aircraft Design

5

5
Weapon Drop

8

9

Landing,
Taxi-in

Capsule-3

Mission Profile: Strategic Bomber
Cruise 3

9

Cruise 1

3

Loiter

4
5

6
Combat

1

10

2

Warm up, Taxi-out,
Take Off

7

Approach

8
Weapon Drop

11

12

Landing,
Taxi-in

* R: Re-Fuelling
AE-332M / 714 Aircraft Design

Capsule-3

Mission Profile: UAV

Predator (Tier II) Mission Profile
AE-332M / 714 Aircraft Design

Capsule-3

Issues in Initial Sizing

Very little known about a/c configuration

Most methods are deeply rooted in past
 Statistical inference of parameters
 Similar aircraft designed earlier


Most procedures empirical / semi-empirical
Various methodologies / approaches, e.g.,
 Loftin’s method
 Raymer’s approach (explained here)

Typical Take-off weight break-up
Empty weight

Payload

Usable Fuel

Trapped Fuel

25

25

50

20
5

Take-off weight build-up

Wo = Wcrew + Wpay + Wfuel + Wempty
Wempty
 Weight of structure, engines, landing gear, fixed

equipment, avionics, etc.

Wcrew and Wpay are both known
 User-specified requirements

Wfuel & Wempty are unknowns to be determined

Equation for Initial Sizing

Wo = Wcrew + W pay + W fuel + Wempty
Wcrew + W pay
Wo =
Wempty W fuel 
+
1− 

Wo 
 Wo

Wcrew + W pay
Wo =
1 − {wˆ e + wˆ f }
wˆ e & wˆ f

are the two unknowns to be determined

Mostly using historical data !

ESTIMATION OF EMPTY
WEIGHT FRACTION
AE-332M / 714 Aircraft Design

Capsule-3

Estimation of empty weight fraction ώe
ώe = A WoC * Kvs

Where “A” and “C” are constants

Their values for various aircraft types are
obtained from statistical curve-fits

Kvs is a factor depending on the a/c sweep
 Kvs = 1.00 for conventional, fixed-wing
 Kvs = 1.04 for wing with variable sweep

“A” and “C” for various a/c types












A/C type

A

Sailplane (unpowered)
Sailplane (powered)
Homebuilt-metal/wood
Home-built composite
General Aviation-1 Engine
General Aviation-2 Engine
Agricultural a/c
Twin turboprop
Flying Boat
Jet trainer
Jet fighter
Military cargo
Jet transport

0.83
0.88
1.11
1.07
2.05
1.40
0.72
0.92
1.05
1.47
2.11
0.88
0.97

Note: Wo in kg

C
-0.05
-0.05
-0.09
-0.09
-0.18
-0.10
-0.03
-0.05
-0.05
-0.10
-0.13
-0.07
-0.06

UAV Weight Fractions
TYPE
UAV- Recce and UCAV
UAV- High Altitude
UAV- Small

A
1.53
2.48
0.86

C
-0.16
-0.18
-0.06

ώe = A WoC * Kvs
Source: Table 3.1, pg. 31, Raymer, 5th edition
AE-332M / 714 Aircraft Design

Capsule-3

Empty Weight Fraction Trends

Empty Weight Fraction Trends

Weight Trend Data - Single Aisle Jet Transport
From The Elements of Airplane Design, Schaufele.
140000

Bae 146-100
DC-9-10

130000

BAC-111

Wempty - Empty Weight (lbs)

120000

BAE 146-200
y = 0.5598x
F100

110000
BAE 146-300
DC-9-30

100000

737-200
90000

DC-9-40
DC-9-50

80000

717-200
70000

737-300
737-400

60000

MD-81
50000
40000
80000

737-600
737-700
100000

120000

140000

160000

180000

200000

220000

240000

WTO - Maximum Takeoff Weight (lbs)
AE-332M / 714 Aircraft Design

Capsule-3

Estimation of mission fuel fraction ώf

Wfuel = Wmission fuel + W reserve fuel
Wmission fuel depends on
 Type of mission
 Aircraft aerodynamics
 Engine SFC

Wreserve is required for
 Missed Approach, Diversion & Hold
 Navigational errors and Route weather effects
 Trapped Fuel (nearly 0.5% to 1 % of total fuel)

Assumption
 Fuel used in each mission segment is proportional to a/c weight

during mission segment
 Hence

ώf is independent of the aircraft weight

Estimation of Mission Segment Weights
 Various segments or legs are numbered, with ‘0’ denoting the

mission start
 Mission segment weight fraction for ith segment = Wi/Wi-1
 Total fuel weight fraction (W6/W0) obtained by multiplying the
weight fractions of each mission segments

Estimation of Mission Segment Weights
 The warm-up, take-off, and landing weight

fraction estimated by historical trends
 Fuel consumed (and distance traveled) during

all descent segments ignored

Weight fractions in Climb and Acceleration

Effect of using historical data
Mission Profile

W6 W6 W5 W4 W3 W2 W1
=





W0 W5 W4 W3 W2 W1 W0

W6
W5
W3
= 0.995 ⋅
⋅1.0 ⋅
⋅ 0.985 ⋅ 0.97
W0
W4
W2

W6
W W
= 0.95067 ⋅ 5 ⋅ 3
W0
W4 W2

Using mission profile and historical data for engines !

ESTIMATION OF FUEL
WEIGHT FRACTION
AE-332M / 714 Aircraft Design

Capsule-3

Breguet Range Equation
Fuel Consumption:

dW = −tsfc × T × dt

Range for dW fuel

V∞ dW
ds = V∞ dt = −
(tsfc )T

During Cruise

T = D, W = L

Drag changes due to changing lift: assume L/D is constant,

Hence:

 V∞  L  dW
 
ds = −
 tsfc  D  W

Assuming L/D, tsfc and V∞ (= aM) are constant:
AE-332M / 714 Aircraft Design

Capsule-3

Breguet Range Equation

a  L  Winitial
R=
 M  ln
tsfc  D  W final
Engine efficiency
(fuel consumption)

Aerodynamic
efficiency

Structural
efficiency

a is sound speed
Winitial = MTOW (Maximum Takeoff Weight)
Wfinal = OEW + Pax + reserve fuel
OEW = Operational Empty Weight = Empty Weight
+ Crew + trapped fuel & Oil
Source: Jet Sense; The Philosophy and the Art of Aircraft Design, Zarir D. Pastakia
AE-332M / 714 Aircraft Design

Capsule-3

Fuel Fraction in Cruise segment
 Cruise segment mission weight fraction can be

estimated using the Breguet Range Equation

Vcruise
R=
ccruise
R
ccruise
Vcruise
[L/D]cruise

Wi −1 
L
⋅ 
⋅ ln 

 D  cruise
 Wi 

= Cruise Range (m)
= Specific Fuel consumption in cruise (per sec)
= Cruise Velocity (m/s)
= Optimum lift to drag ratio during cruise
= [L/D]max
for Propeller driven a/c
= 0.866*[L/D]max for Jet engined a/c

Fuel Fraction in Loiter segment
 Loiter segment mission weight fraction can be

estimated using the Breguet Endurance Equation

1
E=
cloiter
E
cloiter
[L/D]loiter

Wi −1 
L
⋅ 
⋅ ln 

 D  loiter
 Wi 

= Endurance (sec)
= Specific Fuel consumption in Loiter (per sec)
= Optimum lift to drag ratio during loiter
= 0.866 [L/D]max for Propeller driven a/c
= [L/D]max
for Jet engined a/c

WE WERE HERE ON 26 AUG

AE-332M / 714 Aircraft Design

Capsule-3

Mostly using historical data !

ESTIMATION OF MAX L/D

AE-332M / 714 Aircraft Design

Capsule-3

Estimation of [L/D]max
 Accurate value is not available since the aircraft

configuration is not yet finalized !!
 Thumb Rule
For 7 ≤ ARwing ≤ 11,
[L/D]max = 2 * ARwing

Approx. values of Cruise L/D max

[L/D]max values for 4-6 seater Piston/Turboprop a/c
Cessna 310
13.0
Beech Bonanza
13.8
Cessna Cardinal
14.2

Drivers of subsonic L/D


Configuration dependent
In level flight, L = W; L/D depends on D
Two main components of subsonic D
 Parasite or “Zero Lift”  f(wetted area)
 Induced or “lift dependent”:  f(wing span)

Concept of wetted aspect ratio
 ARwet = b2/Swet
 ARwet is a better indicator of max. L/D

Proof: B-47 v/s Vulcan

Different shapes, same Max. L/D

Source: Raymer,D., Aircraft Design, A Conceptual Approach, 2nd ed., pp 20 , AIAA Education Series, 1989

Wetted area ratios for some configurations

Source: Raymer,D., Aircraft Design, A Conceptual Approach, 2nd ed., pp 21, AIAA Education Series, 1989

Max. L/D v/s ARwet

Source: Raymer,D., Aircraft Design, A Conceptual Approach, 2nd ed., pp 22, AIAA Education Series, 1989

Historical Trends in Max L/D
20

From: The Historical Fuel Efficiency Characteristics of Regional Aircraft from Technological, Operational, and Cost Perspectives,
R. Babikian, S. Lukachko and I. Waitz, http://web.mit.edu/aeroastro/people/waitz/publications/Babikian.pdf

AE-332M / 714 Aircraft Design

Capsule-3

Again using historical data !

ESTIMATION OF ENGINE
PARAMETERS
AE-332M / 714 Aircraft Design

Capsule-3

SFC trends for various engine types

Jet Engine TSFC = fuel mass flow rate per unit thrust
 units = mg/N-s or lb/lb-hr

Propeller engine PSFC = fuel mass flow rate per unit power
 units = mg/W-s or lb/SHP-hr

Typical SFC values (SI system)

Historical TSFC Trend for
Turbofan Engines
0.66
y = -0.00428x + 9.099
R² = 0.835

Cruise TSFC lb/(lbf·h)

0.64
0.62
0.6
0.58

Series1
Linear (Series1)

0.56
0.54
0.52
0.5
1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

Year

For a 2020 Airplane consider TSFC ~ 0.47-0.5
AE-332M / 714 Aircraft Design

Capsule-3

Trend Data for Cruise sfc:
Jet Aircraft

1.2

Installed sfc (lb/hr/lb)

1

0.8
Heavier
Bigger Landing Gear

0.6

0.4

0.2

0
0

4

8

12

16

Bypass Ratio
AE-332M / 714 Aircraft Design

Capsule-3

ηp and SFC for Propeller Driven a/c
Aircraft Type

ηp

c
lb/(SHP-hr)

Personal / Utility

0.80

0.60

Commuter
Regional Turboprop

0.82
0.85

0.55
0.50

Concept of Equivalent Jet SFC
 Breguet Range & Endurance equations for

Turbo/Pistonprop a/c are very messy !!
 Equivalent jet SFC for Turbo/Pistonprop engines
 Cpower
= Fuel Flow rate/Power

= Fuel Flow rate/{TV/ηp }

= [Fuel Flow rate/T] {ηp/V}

= [Cjet]. ηp/V
 Thus, Cjet = CpowerV/ηp
 Thus by using Cjet in Brequet Equations, we can use
them also for Turbo/Pistonprop a/c also !

Estimation of mission fuel fraction

Segment Weight fractions estimated using the
Brequet equations for Cruise and Loiter
segments, and historical values for others

Total fuel fraction estimated as
 Wf/Wo= ώf = (1 + RFF)*(1 - Wx/Wo)
o
o

RFF = Reserve Fuel Fraction
= 0.06 to 0.1 for commercial transport aircraft

Design Gross Weight Estimation

Wcrew + W pay
Wo =
1 − {wˆ e + wˆ f }
Wo =

Wcrew + W pay

 Wx  
C
1 −  A ⋅ Wo + (1 + RFF )1 −  
 W0  

Steps in Wo estimation
 Assume starting value of Wo (say, 4 times Wpay)
 Estimate ώe = A WoC * Kvs
 Estimate segment weight fractions, using
 Historical Data
 Breguet Range and Endurance formulae

 Estimate ώf = (1 + RFF)*(1 - Wx/Wo)
 Calculate Wo = {Wcrew + Wpay}/{1- ώe – ώf}
 Iterate till convergence

Medium Range Jet Transport Aircraft

EXAMPLE OF SIZING

AE-332M / 714 Aircraft Design

Capsule-3

Requirements






Payload: 150 pax at 175 lb & 30 lb baggage each
Crew: 2 pilots and 3 cabin attendants at 175 lb each
and 30 lb baggage each
Range: 1500 nm, followed by 1 hour loiter, followed
by 100 nm flight to alternate and descent
Altitude: 35,000 ft for design range
Cruise speed: Mach number = 0.82 @ 35,000 ft
Climb: direct climb to 35,000 ft at max WTO
Climb rate of 2500 ft/min at a speed at 275 kt
Take-off & landing: FAR 25 field-length of 5,000 ft
Assume ISA deg oC atmosphere

AE-332M / 714 Aircraft Design

Capsule-3

Mission Profile

AE-332M / 714 Aircraft Design

Capsule-3

Assumptions




ώe = 0.97 Wo-0.06 (W0 in kg)
ώe = 1.02 Wo-0.06 (W0 in lb)
Max(L/D) = 16
Cruise:
 cj = 0.5 lb/hr/lb

Loiter
 cj = 0.55 lb/hr/lb

Diversion
 Cruise speed of 250 kts (FAR 25)
 L/D of 10 and cj = 0.9 lb/hr/lb

Reserve Fuel Fraction = 10%

AE-332M / 714 Aircraft Design

Capsule-3

S O L V E !!

AE-332M / 714 Aircraft Design

Capsule-3