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We discuss here Strongly Multiplicative labeling of some path related graphs. We prove that the Total Graph and
Splitting Graph of the path Pn are strongly multiplicative. In addition to this we prove that Shadow Graph of the path and
Triangular Snakes are strongly multiplicative.

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**and Computer Applications Research (IJMCAR)
**

ISSN(P): 2249-6955; ISSN(E): 2249-8060

Vol. 5, Issue 5, Oct 2015, 1-6

TJPRC Pvt. Ltd.

**STRONGLY MULTIPLICATIVE LABELING OF SOME PATH RELATED GRAPHS
**

K. K. KANANI 1 & T. M. CHHAYA2

1

**Government Engineering College, Rajkot, Gujarat, India
**

2

Lecturers, L. E. College, Morbi, Gujarat, India

ABSTRACT

We discuss here Strongly Multiplicative labeling of some path related graphs. We prove that the Total Graph and

Splitting Graph of the path Pn are strongly multiplicative. In addition to this we prove that Shadow Graph of the path and

Triangular Snakes are strongly multiplicative.

**KEYWORDS: Strongly Multiplicative Labeling; Total Graph; Splitting Graph; Shadow Graph
**

2010 Mathematics Subject Classification: 05C78.

INTRODUCTION

Throughout this work, by a graph we mean finite, connected, undirected, simple graph G =(V(G), E(G)) of order

│V(G)│ and size │E(G)│.

Definition1.1: A graph labeling is an assignment of integers to the vertices or edges or both subject to certain

condition(s). If the domain of the mapping is the set of vertices (edges) then the labeling is called a vertex labeling (an

edge labeling).

A latest survey on various graph labeling problems can be found in Gallian [2].

Definition1.2: A graph G = (V (G), E(G)) with p vertices is said to be multiplicative if the vertices of G can be

labeled with p distinct positive integers such that label induced on the edges by the product of labels of end vertices are all

distinct.

Multiplicative labeling was introduced by Beineke and Hegde [1]. In the same paper they proved that every graph G admits

multiplicative labeling and defined strongly multiplicative labeling as follows.

Definition1.3: A graph G = (V (G), E(G)) with p vertices is said to be strongly multiplicative if the vertices of G

can be labeled with p consecutive positive integers 1,2,., p such label induced on the edges by the product of labels of end

vertices are all distinct.

Beineke and Hegde [1] proved the following results.

•

Every cycle Cn is strongly multiplicative.

•

Every wheel Wn is strongly multiplicative.

•

The complete graph Kn is strongly multiplicative ⟺ n ≤ 5.

•

The complete bipartite graph Kn,n is strongly multiplicative ⟺ n ≤ 4.

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2

K. K. Kanani & T. M. Chhaya

•

Every spanning subgraph of a strongly multiplicative graph is strongly multiplicative.

•

**Every graph is an induced subgraph of a strongly multiplicative graph.
**

Vaidya and Kanani[5] have discussed strongly multiplicative labeling in the context of arbitrary supersubdivision

**of graphs and proved the following results.
**

•

Arbitrary supersubdivision of the path Pn is strongly multiplicative.

•

Arbitrary supersubdivision of the star K1,n is strongly multiplicative.

•

**Arbitrary supersubdivision of the cycle Cn is strongly multiplicative.
**

Here we consider the following definitions.

•

The Total Graph T(G) of G is the graph whose vertex set is V (G) U E(G) and two vertices are adjacent whenever

they are either adjacent or incident in G.

•

The Splitting Graph of the graph G is obtained by adding to each vertex v a new vertex v′ such that v′ is adjacent

to every vertex which is adjacent to v in G in other words N(v) = N(v′). The Splitting graph is denoted by S′ (G).

•

**The Shadow Graph D2(G) of a connected graph G is constructed by taking two copies of G namely G′ and G′′ join
**

each vertex u′ in G′ to the neighbors of the corresponding vertex u′′ in G′′.

•

The Triangular Snake TSn is obtained from the path Pn by replacing every edge of the path by the triangle C3.

For any undefined term in graph theory we rely upon Gross and Yellen[3].

MAIN RESULTS

Theorem 2.1: The Total Graph T(Pn) of the path Pn is strongly multiplicative.

Proof: Let v1, v2,…….,vn be the n vertices and e1, e2,…., en-1 be the ( n – 1) edges of the path Pn. Let G = T(Pn) be

the total graph of the path Pn. Let v′1, v′2,….., v′n-1 be the newly added vertices corresponding to edges e1, e2,…..,en-1 to

obtain total graph of the path Pn. We note that │V(G)│ = 2n-1 and │E(G)│ = 4n-5.

We define strongly multiplicative labeling f : V (G) → {1,2,3,….,2n-1} as follows.

f(vi) = 2i - 1;

1≤ i ≤ n;

f(v′i ) = 2i;

1 ≤ i ≤ n-1.

The labeling pattern defined above covers all the possibilities and in each case the graph G under consideration

admits strongly multiplicative labeling. That is, the Total Graph T(Pn) of the path Pn is strongly multiplicative.

Illustration 2.2: The Total Graph T(P4) of path P4 and its strongly multiplicative labeling is shown in Figure 1.

Impact Factor (JCC): 4.6257

NAAS Rating: 3.80

Strongly Multiplicative Labeling of Some Path

3

Related Graphs

**Figure 1: Strongly Multiplicative Labeling of Total Graph T(P4).
**

Theorem 2.3: The Splitting Graph S′(Pn) of the path Pn is strongly multiplicative.

Proof: Let Pn be the path with n-vertices and v1, v2,…….,vn be the vertices of path Pn. Let G = S′(Pn) be the graph

obtained by adding to each vertex v a new vertex v′ such that v′ is adjacent to every vertex that is adjacent to v in G. We

note that │V(G)│ = 2n and │E(G)│= 3n -3.

We define strongly multiplicative labeling f : V (G) → {1,2,3,….,2n} as follows.

f(vi) = 2i;

1 ≤ i ≤ n;

f(v′i ) = 2i-1; 1 ≤ i ≤ n.

The labeling pattern defined above covers all the possibilities and in each case the graph G under consideration

admits strongly multiplicative labeling. That is, the Splitting Graph S′(Pn) of the path Pn is strongly multiplicative.

Illustration 2.4: The Splitting Graph S′(P7) of path P7 and its strongly multiplicative labeling is shown in Figure

2.

**Figure 2 Strongly Multiplicative Labeling of Splitting Graph S′(P7).
**

Theorem 2.5: The Shadow Graph D2(Pn) of the path Pn is strongly multiplicative.

Proof: Let Pn be the path with n-vertices. Let G = D2(Pn) be the Shadow Graph of the path Pn.

Let v′1, v′2,…., v′n be the vertices of the first copy P′n and v1′′, v2′′,…., vn′′ be the vertices of the second copy Pn′′ of

the path Pn. We note that │V(G)│ = 2n and │E(G)│ = 2n - 4.

We define strongly multiplicative labeling f : V (G) → {1,2,3,….,2n} as follows.

f(vi′ ) = 2i;

1 ≤ i ≤ n;

f(vi′′ ) = 2i-1; 1 ≤ i ≤ n.

The labeling pattern defined above satisfies the vertex conditions and edge conditions of strongly multiplicative

labeling. That is, The Shadow Graph D2(Pn) of the path Pn is strongly multiplicative.

Illustration 2.6 : The Shadow Graph D2(P7) and its strongly multiplicative labeling is shown in Figure 3

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K. K. Kanani & T. M. Chhaya

**Figure 3: Strongly Multiplicative Labeling of Shadow Graph D2(P7)
**

Theorem 2.7: The Triangular Snakes TSn are strongly multiplicative.

Proof: Let G = TSn be the Triangular Snake obtained from path Pn. Let v1, v2,…,vn be the path vertices. We note

that │V(G)│ = 2n -1 and │E(G)│ = 3n -3.

We define strongly multiplicative labeling f : V (G) → {1,2,3,….,2n-1} as follows.

f(vi) = 2i -1;

1 ≤ i ≤ n;

f(vi′ ) = 2i;

1 ≤ i ≤ n-1.

The labeling pattern defined above satisfies the vertex conditions and edge conditions of strongly multiplicative

labeling. That is, The Triangular Snakes TSn are strongly multiplicative.

Illustration 2.8: The Triangular Snake TS5 and its strongly multiplicative labeling is shown in Figure 4.

Figure 4: Strongly Multiplicative Labeling of Triangular Snake TS5

CONCLUSIONS REMARKS

Here we have derived four results related to the strongly multiplicative labeling. To derive similar results related

to other graph families is an open problem.

REFERENCES

1.

**L. W. Beineke and S. M. Hegde, Strongly multiplicative graphs, Discussiones Mathematicae Graph Theory,
**

21(2001), 63-75.

2.

J. A. Gallian. A dynamic survey of graph labeling, The Electronics Journal of Combinatorics, 17(2014).

3.

J. Gross and J. Yellen. Handbook of graph theory, CRC Press,(2004).

Impact Factor (JCC): 4.6257

NAAS Rating: 3.80

Strongly Multiplicative Labeling of Some Path

4.

Related Graphs

5

**S. K. Vaidya and N. A. Dani, Strongly multiplicative labeling in the context of arbitrary super subdivision, Jounal
**

of Mathematics Research, 2(2)(2010), 28-33.

5.

**S. K. Vaidya and K. K. Kanani, Some strongly multiplicative graphs in the context of arbitrarySuper subdivision,
**

International Journal of Applied Mathematics and Computation, 3(1)(2011), 60-64.

6.

**S. K. Vaidya and K. K. Kanani, Strongly multiplicative labeling for some cycle related graphs, Modern Applied
**

Science, 4(7) (2010), 82-88.

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