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Energy and Buildings 92 (2015) 45–54

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Internal environment in the museum building—Assessment and
improvement of air exchange and its impact on energy demand
for heating
Joanna Ferdyn-Grygierek ∗ , Andrzej Baranowski
Department of Heating, Ventilation and Dust Removal Technology, Silesian University of Technology, Konarskiego 20, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland

a r t i c l e

i n f o

Article history:
Received 7 July 2014
Received in revised form
16 December 2014
Accepted 20 January 2015
Available online 29 January 2015
Air change rate
Building simulation
Heating demand

a b s t r a c t
The paper presents the results of the analysis of the impact of various ventilation systems on the energy
consumption performed for one Polish museum building that was built in 1929–1930. Simulations were
carried out with the use of two computer codes: CONTAM and ESP-r. Multi-zone models including the
exhibition rooms and the staircase were prepared. The simulations were made of synthetic weather data
for one of the Polish towns for two months of the heating season. Twenty-four hour variability of internal
heat gains was taken into account. The results show clearly that the natural ventilation system (which
is currently used in the building) enables the air exchange with fresh air on the first floor only. The air
infiltration on the upper levels is close to zero. Rebuilding the ventilation system generates changes in
the energy demand of the building. It is presented how the heat demand increases with the increase of
the ventilation air flow and what is the impact of the air infiltration on the heat demand for different
variants of ventilation.
© 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction
Parameters of internal environment in buildings are strictly
dependent on the function that these buildings perform. For general
purpose premises such as apartments, offices, etc., determination
of the requirements for internal air quality is precisely defined,
for example by appropriate standards. In special purpose facilities, e.g. museums, the determination of desired or even necessary
parameters of indoor environment is difficult and ambiguous. The
established and maintained indoor environment parameters in the
museum premises must be appropriate both to ensure proper conditions to prevent degradation of the objects due to external factors
and to create comfortable indoor environment for visitors.
Three groups of threats to the museum collections can be distinguished:
• hygrothermal conditions of the environment,
• air pollution: dust, chemical, biological,
• excessive internal gains (lighting, heat and humidity gains from
the people).

∗ Corresponding author. Tel.: +48 32 237 2912; fax: +48 32 237 2559.
E-mail addresses: (J. Ferdyn-Grygierek), (A. Baranowski).
0378-7788/© 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

The level of threat posed by these factors is different for different types of collections. In some countries, especially in those
with a large number of historic monuments, there are appropriate regulations determining optimum environmental factors for
the protection of the exhibits on the museum premises [1,2]. Some
guidance regarding the environmental conditions can be found in
ASHRAE publications [3,4].
Removal of the above threats can be accomplished by various
means, both through the use of appropriate technical solutions, e.g.
dehumidification or humidification of museum rooms which are at
risk, heating, cooling and air-conditioning of exhibition halls [5,6],
as well as through the protection of the exhibits by the use of closed
display cases, special display cassettes, etc. [7,8].
In order to determine the optimum microclimatic conditions in
the exhibition halls it is necessary to assess the current state. The
assessment is carried out by monitoring temperature and relative
air humidity [9–12] as well as CO2 concentration, the latter being
an indicator used to evaluate heat gains from the visitors [13], and
the quality of the ventilation in the building [14]. Particular attention should be paid to sharp peaks in temperature and air humidity,
because instantaneous acute changes in these parameters are dangerous to the exhibits. As to other threats, the monitoring can be
more sophisticated than simple tracking of changes in temperature
and air humidity. This concerns especially the level of gaseous pollutants on the premises, monitoring of which requires advanced
technologies [15].

5 m3 /(m h Pa0. . After World War II. 1).67 ). 3.5 ). the synergic effect of high thermal mass of the building and nocturnal air ventilation allows maintaining appropriate conditions for the preservation of museum objects without the use of mechanical cooling system. which describes air tightness of the windows. The main entrance is in the west part of building (Fig. was built. The way it is used should be optimal from the point of view both ensuring proper microclimatic conditions and energy saving. Two numerical models were built: the first one. In both cases. One of the biggest uncertainties was the value of the air infiltration coefficient. The analysis was performed with the use of two computer codes: CONTAM. and reducing air pollution. The paper presents the results of numerical simulation of various ventilation systems which could be applied in one Polish museum where only natural ventilation currently occurs. internal doors: a = 1. The building has mixed walls construction—made partly of reinforced concrete and partly of bricks. The building is equipped with various types of windows (wooden. Currently the whole ventilation of the building is provided by means of infiltration only. The results of the study presented in the paper are only a part of larger project. numerical simulations using building energy performance simulation codes [17–21] are useful. The window panes on the west side are covered with anti-reflection coating. CONTAM model. When indoor and solar gains are accurately controlled and minimized. The model did not include the ground floor (there is no connection between the ground floor and the part of the building that houses exhibitions. The staircase located centrally in the building – having the nature of the atrium – is a potentially important path of air flow throughout the building. entrance door: a = 1. The strategy for the use of the air-conditioning should be carefully planned. The zones are connected with each other and with the external space by the flow paths of the air or heat that reflect the actual paths of the energy and mass exchange. A. Description of the analyses The museum located in Upper Silesia of Poland was selected for the analyses. The exhibition rooms are located on the first. which can be harmful to the exhibits in the exhibition rooms [9]. To develop an optimal strategy for the use of the air-conditioning. aluminium windows: a = 0. All simulations were performed with 1-h time step for weather data from the local meteorological station for the period from 1 January to 30 September 2010. The total exhibition area amounts to: 250 m2 (Flora&Fauna exhibition) and 170 m2 (Temporary exhibition) on the first floor. Many historical museum buildings are massive ones. The results of the simulation were used as an input data in the second model—ESP-r thermal model. Due to the aim and requirements of the study. it makes sense to check the effectiveness of working of this kind of ventilation. In such a model the building is represented as a series of idealized zones with constant parameters of air within the entire zone. aluminium. 2. the old-fashioned and not modernized system was dismantled but no new system was installed instead. The studies [16] show that night ventilation for cooling of such buildings in summer can be applied.0 m3 /(m h Pa0. After the model calibration the air infiltration coefficients were set as follows: PVC and wooden windows: a = 0. Baranowski / Energy and Buildings 92 (2015) 45–54 Fig. Air infiltration coefficients were adopted based on the literature data verified by the authors’ own measurements [26. Temperature in the model was kept at 20 ◦ C in exhibition rooms and 18 ◦ C in corridors. The major disadvantage of this building is the lack of a ventilation system. Medieval buildings often have natural ventilation ducts which were deliberately constructed. was used to simulate the ventilation air flow in the building.6 m. Additional ways of protection from the sun at the exhibitions are internal blinds and plasterboard walls separating the room from external partitions. In some cases.46 J. Simulation analysis of the air flow Multi-zone numerical model of the museum. up to the top floor of the building.27]. PVC). Ensuring proper parameters of indoor environment depends to a large extent on proper ventilation of the exhibition galleries. Appropriate level of air exchange allows both removing the excess of moisture and heat from the premises. historical building offer limited possibilities for environmental conditions measurement.2 m3 /(m h Pa0. Due to their nature. It is double-winged five-storey building erected in 1929–1930 and was specially designed for exhibition purposes. The height of exhibition rooms is about 3. The analyses of internal environment in terms of air temperature and humidity have been described in detail in a separate publication [20]. The staircase was modelled as a vertical series of zones connected by low resistance openings through the floors. The model includes exhibition rooms on three floors and the whole staircase. second and third floors. the energy simulation system which is capable of energy and fluid flows modelling [25]. The museum building selected for the analysis. The staircase was modelled from the level of the entrance to the exhibition area.5 m3 /(m h Pa0. The building is equipped with the central heating system with radiators. In some historic buildings there are architectural structures that can be considered as a kind of natural ventilation system [22]. Fig. the improvement of the ventilation system is considerably impeded due to historic nature of the facilities and prohibition against any interference in the structure of the building. one of the methods to evaluate the ventilation system is computer simulation [23]. There is the heating and cooling system with fan coils in the Gallery of Painting hall. and ESP-r. Consequently. and thus there is no air flow path) and the rooms on the fifth floor (it is the unused part of the building connected with the staircase only through one closed door). Originally the building was equipped with a mechanical ventilation system. the programme designed for multi-zone analysis of the ventilation and indoor air quality in buildings [24]. representing all identified air flow paths both infiltrating through the cracks of windows and doors as well as inter-zone air flows. Ferdyn-Grygierek. The proposed ventilation systems were analysed in terms of air exchange and their impact on heat demand. 1. 860 m2 on the second floor (Ethnography exhibition) and 630 m2 on the third floor (Gallery of Painting). 2 shows three levels of the museum building represented in the CONTAM program. it was decided to represent the building in the form of multi-zone macro-scale models. The zoning was assumed in both models. The optimal solution is to equip the museum premises with the airconditioning system. which was imposed by very complicated internal structure of the building.67 ).5 ). It should be noted that the use of the air-conditioning system may result in rapid changes in temperature and air humidity.

1. 5). the air change rate is too small. In order to determine air exchange in particular museum halls the method of the tracer gas concentration decay was used [28]. However.3. 3 presents exemplary results of the simulation for two different coefficients of air infiltration (of unit m3 /(m h Pa0.28 h−1 in February.01 h−1 (30 m3 /h). 4): the average in the halls of Ethnography and Gallery of Painting amounts to about 0. Model calibration and validation The major source of uncertainty in models representing air flows in the building is air permeability of the windows. Case 3: mechanical. supply and exhaust ventilation system— supply fans located in the Ethnography hall (600 m3 /h) and the Gallery of Painting hall (600 m3 /h). it was assumed that the reason for the variation in CO2 concentration was the presence of the people in particular premises. as there was no way of guaranteeing that the tracer and the air had been mixed thoroughly in a large room. To verify the validity of the simulation results. which allowed to state that the recorded peaks in CO2 concentration were not random.g. e. The following four cases were simulated: Case 0: existing natural ventilation system. from the staircase) in relation to the volume of a given zone (air exchange). Forcing greater air flow in the staircase may cause an increase in air infiltration through the windows in particular exhibition halls. and only 0. 3. located in each exhibition room. 6). 0. On the second and third floor air change rate is definitely too small and the method of ventilation is improper—as a result. maximum and minimum air change rate for the selected months. The obtained results were compared with the simulation results in order to modify the air infiltration coefficients for windows that had been initially assumed.g.2. On upper levels external air infiltration is insignificant (Fig. and one roof exhaust fan with constant air flow rate (3000 m3 /h) located above the staircase. Analysing the results for the case 1 it can be seen that already in the first case (case 1a) the air change rate both on the second and third floor significantly increases (Fig.04 h−1 (37 m3 /h) in the Ethnography hall. not fresh outside one flows into the exhibition rooms. and only 0.J. Case studies The aim of the calculations was to examine air exchange and infiltration in particular exhibition halls for actual conditions of the local climate. because at that time the museum premises were monitored several times by checking the number of visitors. Results and discussion Fig. Case 1: exhaust ventilation system by roof fan of constant air flow rate ((a) 1000 m3 /h. Table 1 contains mean. and then into the rooms on the upper levels. 4–10 present air change rate in exhibition halls calculated as the sum of air flows infiltrating from the outside of the building in relation to the volume of a given zone (infiltration) or as the sum of all air flows (infiltrating from the outside of the building and inflowing from the adjacent premises.15 h−1 (130 m3 /h) for the analysed period in the Flora&Fauna hall and about 0. In the studied facility it was impossible to carry out appropriate measurements (e. Air change rate decreases with the increase in outdoor temperature.12 h−1 (270 m3 /h). even in relation to the minimum hygiene requirements. because due to the lack of ventilation ducts the air from the halls on the first floor flows into the staircase. Since there were no sources of CO2 in the halls. Baranowski / Energy and Buildings 92 (2015) 45–54 47 3. pressure tests).16 h−1 in April. Case 2: exhaust ventilation system by fans of constant air flow rate (1000 m3 /h).13 h−1 in the hall of temporary exhibitions (75 m3 /h). The simulation results showed that in case of the staircase located centrally in the building. Figs. the air exchange is generally greater than the infiltration. It was assumed that smaller value of the coefficient of air infiltration is more realistic (in the whole period of the simulation air change rate is closer to the measurement results) and this value was adopted for further calculations. The simulation results show that the highest level of air infiltration into the building takes place mainly in the rooms on the first floor of the museum. Fig. the average value of air change rate in the Flora&Fauna room amounts to 0. mainly stale air.11 h−1 in July. Model calibration was performed for the simulation results for the period from 1 to 31 March. The results of calculations of air exchange based on the measurement of CO2 concentration decay should be treated as approximate figures. The average value in the analysed period in the Gallery of Painting amounts to 0. When calculating and presenting the results one should distinguish between air exchange and infiltration. (c) 5000 m3 /h). The total air exchange on these floors is slightly better (Fig. thermal buoyancy that causes vertical air flow (about 300 m3 /h) is generated. Air exchange is calculated from the balance of all air fluxes flowing through the zone in question and thus also the streams from the adjacent rooms (it is the sum of air flow through the windows from the outside and through the doors from or to the adjacent rooms). A. mainly due to the . 3. As an example. the recorded CO2 concentration in the museum premises was used. However. these are small values–of approximately 0. located above the staircase. 2. As shown in Figs. 4 and 5. Model of the museum for calculations using CONTAM code. Ferdyn-Grygierek. whereas air infiltration is calculated as air flows between a given zone and the surroundings of the building (it is only fresh air inflowing from the outside through the windows).67 )) for the hall on the first floor (Flora&Fauna exhibition). (b) 3000 m3 /h.

4 0. 2nd floor Infiltration.1 0. Baranowski / Energy and Buildings 92 (2015) 45–54 a=0.5 Flora&Fauna.2 Ethnography.0 1/Jan 31/Jan 2/Mar 1/Apr 1/May 31/May 30/Jun 30/Jul 29/Aug 28/Sep Date Fig. . 2nd floor Gallery of Painting.2 0. A. 5.3 0. h-1 0. 6. Comparison of air change rate on the first floor (Flora&Fauna exhibition) for different parameters of window tightness. h-1 1.0 0.4 Gallery of Painting. 1. 1st floor Air exchange.48 J.6 0.4 0. 3rd floor 1.2 0.5 0. Variation of air infiltration over time in three exhibition halls of the museum for the case 0. 0.7 measurement Air change rate. 0.5 Flora&Fauna.1 0 1/Jan 10/Jan 19/Jan 28/Jan 6/Feb 15/Feb Date 24/Feb 5/Mar 14/Mar 23/Mar 1/Apr Fig. h-1 0. 3rd floor 0.2 0. Ferdyn-Grygierek.1 0.5 0.2 0.4 Gallery of Painting.3 0.0 1/Jan 31/Jan 2/Mar 1/Apr 1/May 31/May Date 30/Jun 30/Jul 29/Aug 28/Sep Fig.3 0. Variation of air exchange over time in three exhibition halls of the museum for the case 1a (exhaust of 1000 m3 /h in the staircase). 2nd floor Air exchange.2 0.4 Flora&Fauna.6 0.8 a=0. 3rd floor 0. h -1 0. 4. 1st floor Ethnography.8 0.0 1/Jan 31/Jan 2/Mar 1/Apr 1/May 31/May Date 30/Jun 30/Jul 29/Aug 28/Sep Fig. Variation of air exchange over time in three exhibition halls of the museum for the case 0. 3. 1st floor Ethnography.

3rd floor 31/Jan 2/Mar 1/Apr 1/May 31/May 30/Jun 30/Jul 29/Aug 28/Sep Date Air exchange. 1.6 0. h-1 J.4 Flora&Fauna.0 1/Jan 31/Jan 2/Mar 1/Apr 1/May 31/May 30/Jun 30/Jul 29/Aug 28/Sep Date Fig.2 Ethnography.4 Air exchange.4 Ethnography.8 0. 3rd floor 1. h-1 Fig. 2nd floor Gallery of Painting. 1.8 0. 1.2 Ethnography. 10.4 Flora&Fauna. 8.6 0.8 0.0 1/Jan 31/Jan 2/Mar 1/Apr 1/May 31/May 30/Jun 30/Jul 29/Aug 28/Sep Date Air exchange.4 0.6 0. h-1 1. 1st floor 1.2 1. 2nd floor 49 Gallery of Painting.0 0. Variation of air exchange over time in three exhibition halls of the museum for the case 1b (exhaust of 3000 m3 /h in the staircase).2 0. 3rd floor 1. supply of 600 m3 /h in the halls of Ethnography and Gallery of Painting). Variation of air exchange over time in three exhibition halls of the museum for the case 1c (exhaust of 5000 m3 /h in the staircase). Baranowski / Energy and Buildings 92 (2015) 45–54 1. Variation of air exchange over time in three exhibition halls of the museum for the case 3 (exhaust of 3000 m3 /h in the staircase.8 0. 2nd floor Gallery of Painting. .Air exchange. A.0 0.4 0. 9. 2nd floor 0. 7.2 0.0 1/Jan 31/Jan 2/Mar 1/Apr 1/May 31/May 30/Jun 30/Jul 29/Aug 28/Sep Date Fig.0 1/Jan Gallery of Painting. 3rd floor 1.6 Flora&Fauna.2 0. Ferdyn-Grygierek. 1st floor 1.2 0. 1st floor 1.0 0.4 0.4 Flora&Fauna. h-1 Fig. Variation of air exchange over time in three exhibition halls of the museum for the case 2 (exhaust of 1000 m3 /h in the exhibition halls).2 Ethnography. 1st floor 0.0 0.

11 0. The use of direct air supply to the exhibition rooms (case 3) results in the equalization of the air exchange in the building (Fig. the satisfactory level of 0.01 0. The exhaust of 5000 m3 /h of air (case 1c) further improves the air exchange on all floors. Analysis of the impact of ventilation systems on heat demand The model of the museum consisting of nine zones covering the following rooms of total volume of 8008 m3 was built in ESP-r program: • first floor: Flora&Fauna exhibition hall—one zone. A. Baranowski / Energy and Buildings 92 (2015) 45–54 Table 1 Air exchange and infiltration (italic) in the museum (case 0).04 0. except in the Gallery of Painting. .16 0.16 0. which would require very intensive air exchange (obviously it does not apply to the world-famous galleries and museums with a large number of visitors contributing to the significant heat and humidity gains).30].00 0.09 0.64 0. 10).26 0.42 0.60 0. On the other hand.03 0.4–0. corridor—one zone.28 0.00 0.16 0.40 0. • heat fluxes transferred with the air infiltration into the building.00 0. When analysing the obtained results. windows) that occur due to air and surface temperatures and climate data.03 1. Proper air change rate to ensure the protection of the exhibits is not clearly defined by any standards.23 0.03 0. • heat fluxes due to solar radiation transmitted through and absorbed by external surface (walls and windows) and solar radiation absorbed by different internal surfaces.00 0.003 improvement of air infiltration on these floors.59 0.00 0.00 0. The fluctuations of air change rate on the lowest floor result from the fact that the infiltration.09 0. 4.04 0.03 1.00 −1 h First floor/Flora&Fauna First floor/temporary exhibition First floor/corridor Second floor/Ethnography Second floor/corridor Third floor/Gallery of Painting Third floor/corridor 0.07 0.002 0.04 0.76 0.22 0. Floor/exhibition April February Mean Max Min Mean July Max Min Mean Max Min 0.00 0.06 0.04 0. The protection of collection items aims mainly at maintaining proper temperature and relative humidity in the rooms.33 0.00 0.05 0. a single exhaust of air with the flow of 1000 m3 /h in each of the three main exhibition halls was assumed.04 0.37 0.00 0.40 0.00 0.28 0.62 0.00 0.00 0.23 1.25 0.3 h−1 in any room.01 0.50 J. The solution 1b can be considered as a minimal variant—the minimum air change rate does not fall below 0.00 0.004 1. The air change rate at the level of 0.09 0. where the ventilation air flow is greater. By increasing the flow of exhaust air to 3000 m3 /h (case 1b). floors.44 0.15 0.002 0.05 0.03 0.004 0.22 0.05 1. corridor—one zone. In the case 2.02 0.38 0. Air exchanges in the exhibition halls are similar (0.10 0.003 0. Polish standard for public buildings specify 20 m3 /h per person as the required air flow.5 h−1 on average).62 0.5 h−1 is completely sufficient for the removal of possible pollution in the examined museum.002 0.01 0.07 0.05 1.06 1. maximum and minimum values in considered period from January to September) is presented in Table 2.5 h−1 . The beneficial influence of the exhaust air on the stabilisation of air change rate throughout the simulation period should be emphasized. which determines the air exchange in these parts of the building. For this variant.00 0. large air exchange can have an undesirable effect as it causes additional dehumidification of air and makes it impossible to maintain appropriate environmental conditions in storage areas [29.15 0.03 0.03 0.02 0.4–0. Exceeding one air exchange seems aimless.17 0.00 0. In typically used standard museums there are no sources of pollution.004 0.003 0. It is also a satisfactory value from the point of view of air quality for the visitors. Consequently there are no explicit criteria for choosing the optimal solution. Ferdyn-Grygierek. Improper supply distribution could be harmful to the exhibits because of the possibility of the occurrence of too high air velocities.00 0.27 0.00 0.03 people—depending on the location of the room. One should emphasize a favourable impact of air exhaust on the stabilization of the air change rate during the whole simulation period. When taking into consideration the volume of the premises. The following fluxes are computed in the thermal model of the building: • heat fluxes through the external and internal partitions (walls.14 0. The calculated air change rate (Fig.004 0.06 1. one can observe that none of the variants meets such a criterion accurately.04 0.20 0.33 1. changes according to outdoor temperature fluctuations and wind action.11 0. 7).01 0.36 0.10 0. vestibule—one zone. The average number of visiting groups ranges from 15 up to 30 people.30 0.41 0. The fluctuations in the air change rate on the lowest floor (case 0) result from the fact that air infiltration.36 0.05 0.07 0.15 1. corridor—one zone.00 0.24 0.07 1. determines these exchanges.00 0. which changes according to outdoor temperature fluctuations and wind impact.00 0.30 0. • second floor: Ethnography exhibition hall—two zones (due to the large number of partitions it was impossible to model the room as a single zone). the average air change rate in all halls is close to 0. Most equalized air change rate can be obtained when using the case 3—the combination of the exhaust through the staircase roof with the supply of the air in the worst ventilated rooms (the Ethnography and Gallery of Painting halls).19 0.00 0.004 0.4–0.01 0.00 0. air flows for such volumes of facilities are from 800 to 3000 m3 /h.00 1. It can be assumed that air exchange at the level of 0.03 0. The obtained results (of the air change rate) are similar to the case 1 (Fig.03 0.06 0.00 0. temporary exhibition hall—one zone. • third floor: the Gallery of Painting—one zone.5 h−1 provides the requisite air flow for 15 to 75 0.00 0.12 0. 9).5 h−1 air exchange is obtained in the halls of Ethnography and Gallery of Painting (Fig.00 0.00 0.00 0. 8) corresponds to the flux of approximately 600 m3 /h of the air on each floor.09 0.26 0.01 0. The summary of the air change rate (mean.

39 0. 4. 0 0.79 0 0.65 0. Subsequently the tuning of the model to the real object was performed. however.74 1.70 0 0. Qlatend = 55 W.96 1.64 0. as they are minimal in the summer season.27 0.16 0.58 0. When conducting the study it was assumed that there were no internal heat gains.62 0.48 0. The share of heat demand for heating up the ventilation air in April in exhibition halls ventilated naturally (case 0) practically does not change in relation to cooler February.12 0.93 0.20 1.37 1. and then the average heat gain for visiting hours was determined. The use of mechanical exhaust ventilation causes an increase in the infiltration.04 0. The heat demand in cases 1b and 2 is similar due to the fact that total exhausted air flow is the same. All walls of the building were modelled according to the actual state. however the air change rate is bigger in all rooms for the case 2.41 1. The amount of heat for one person was adopted according to ASHRAE [31]: Qsensible = 75 W.90 0.24 −1 h 0 1a 1b 1c 2 3 0.41 0.44 0.28 0. It can be seen that in the basic variant (case 0) only the rooms on the first floor (Flora&Fauna exhibition and temporary exhibition halls) are ventilated with an outdoor air (Fig.37 0. above analysed.07 0.88 0. The simulations were performed for the selected. The average monthly increase in average daily power for heating in February (in relation to the case 0) is similar in all halls.37 Each of the cases was simulated for two months of the heating season—February (one of the coldest months) and April (transition period when heating system still works during the days with low external temperature and can be turned off in time of higher external temperature. 11 presents the course of variation of numerically calculated and measured average daily indoor temperature in two zones. It is. gains from the lighting were adopted according to the inventory). In warmer April (Fig. It was assumed that people stay in the zones between 10 am and 3 pm. Thus one of the most uncertain parameters was excluded. During the transition period (April).5 times.52 0. occurs in the Gallery of Painting (cases 1b and 2).21 0. the lighting is switched on for 2 h. case 2 and case 3. Compared to the case 0.60 0. 12a and b). Twenty-four hour variability of internal heat gains was taken into account (the number of visitors was assumed according to the existing data. Internal partitions adjoining the rooms that had not been modelled were assumed as adiabatic.14 0.17 0.96 0.04 0. right) when losses resulting from heat penetration through the external walls decrease.86 0. The validation was performed for indoor temperature for non-heating season (from mid-June to late August) of all non-airconditioned zones of the building. Fig.04 0. Having analysed the total heat demand for the building (all modelled zones) in February. case 1b.07 0.32 0.18 0.96 0. Empirical verification regarding indoor temperature makes the results of the simulation calculations reliable—the relative error is small. A. the increase in heat demand is much smaller due to the increase in outdoor air temperature. 4.37 0.90 0.05 0. left). variable due to the used ventilation system. using real weather data. Even the decrease in heat demand for .35 1. In the cases 1b and 2 it ranges from 30 to 35% and in the case 3 it is lower—ranging from 14 to 18% (Fig.1. and for more than 90% of the time they do not exceed 5%. Results and discussion The solutions aimed at improving the ventilation of the museum influence the change in heat demand for heating up infiltrating air and total heat demand of the building. 12c and d). where the infiltration is the lowest.46 • sensible and latent casual heat gains emitted by occupants and lights. 13. the average daily thermal power increases with the increase of the amount of ventilation air.58 1. After the implementation of mechanical ventilation the share of heat demand for infiltration. 12 presents monthly (February) heat demand of four museum halls for different ventilation variants.01 0. it can be concluded that the largest growth in heat demand occurs when the cases 1b and 2 are used (around 30% more than in the case 0). 13. Baranowski / Energy and Buildings 92 (2015) 45–54 51 Table 2 Air exchange in exhibition halls of the museum for different ventilation variants. Case Flora&Fauna Mean Ethnography Max Min Mean Gallery of Painting Max Min Temporary exhibition Mean Max Min Mean Max Min 0.58 0. it can be stated that the presented model is characterized by sufficient accuracy and can be used for thermal calculations of the building.53 0. in relation to February. The total monthly heat demand for the whole building (all modelled zones) for different proposed ventilation systems was also analysed (Table 4). the highest increases occur in the Gallery of Painting and the Ethnography hall.41 0. Ferdyn-Grygierek. Model validation and calibration The preliminary calculations were made and the results of the simulation were compared with measurement results. The percentage of heat for ventilation in total heat demand changes in particular cases (Fig. 14).2. The largest increase. Percentage differences are presented in Table 3. ventilation variants: case 0.29 0.14 0. Adjacent buildings that may provide shade for the modelled building were also included in the model.50 0. The Gallery of Painting with a temperature regulated throughout the whole year was excluded from the comparison.J.34 0. The air infiltration on the upper floors is close to zero (Fig. The temperature was kept at 20 ◦ C in the exhibition rooms and 18 ◦ C in the corridors.61 0 0.35 0. and what is the percentage share of air infiltration in total heat inputs for different variants. In other halls the power increases from 30% for the case 3 to 80% for the cases 1b and 2. Slighter increase in heat demand occurs in the case 3. It was assumed that it takes 1 h for one person to visit the museum.49 0. almost 1.32 0. The results obtained with the use of numerical calculations are sufficiently close to those obtained by measurements. Based on that. The differences do not exceed the value of 10% in any of the zones. The demand for ventilation is specified. Fig.10 0.90 0. During further analyses it was examined how the demand for power for heating increases compared to the case 0.12 0. The courses are characterized by large convergence.36 0.07 0.43 0.38 0. The greatest impact belongs to the increase in heat demand for heating much larger infiltration flow (nearly 6-fold increase). slightly increases—on average from 8 percentage points in the cases 3 to 10 percentage points in the cases 1b and 2.44 0.48 0. in the whole building or locally in rooms) at one-hour time step.34 0.

9 100 89. 11. Zone Relative difference (%) −4. (a) Flora&Fauna exhibition (1st floor).8 −2.964 100 100 100 100 96. A.0 32 Qinf 28 Qtot-Qinf The share of the time when the difference is less than 10% (%) The share of the time when the difference is less than 5% (%) 0. Ethnography hall (right).1 90. (c) Ethnography exhibition (2nd floor).981 0. (d) Gallery of Painting (3rd floor). . kWh/m2 Monthly heat demand.3–8. Monthly (February) heat demand (Qtot —total heat demand. 25 20 simulation 15 measurement measurement Date 25/Aug 5/Aug 26/Jul 16/Jul 26/Jun 16/Jun 25/Aug 15/Aug 5/Aug 26/Jul 16/Jul 6/Jul 26/Jun 16/Jun Date 6/Jul 10 10 15/Aug Temperature.8–5. Comparison of average daily values of measured and calculated indoor temperature in the period from June to August for two selected zones: Flora&Fauna hall (left). Ferdyn-Grygierek. oC 52 Fig.8 −3.8–3. Baranowski / Energy and Buildings 92 (2015) 45–54 35 30 30 oC 35 25 20 simulation 15 Temperature. kWh/m2 Case 24 20 16 12 8 4 0 32 Qinf 28 Qtot-Qinf d) 24 20 16 12 8 4 0 0 1b 2 Case 3 0 1b 2 3 Case Fig. Table 3 Percentage differences of average daily values of indoor temperature for four zones (measurement–simulation).980 0. kWh/m2 Ethnography Flora&Fauna Temporary exhibition Corridor on the 1st floor Correlation factor 24 20 16 12 8 4 0 32 Qinf 28 Qtot-Qinf b) 24 20 16 12 8 4 0 0 1b 2 3 0 1b 32 Qinf 28 Qtot-Qinf 2 3 Case c) Monthly heat demand.6 a) Monthly heat demand.8 −3. (b) Temporary exhibition (1st floor). Qinf —heat for infiltration). kWh/m2 Monthly heat demand.0–9.J. 12.986 0.

80 12. 14. this would require interference in the building structure. Performed simulation analyses proved the use of the exhaust fan on the roof of the staircase to be a relatively simple way to improve the ventilation. A. where the stack effect occurs. but the ventilation system ignored. It is of vital importance to improve the ventilation system in the museum. Average increase (in relation to the case 0) of average daily thermal power in February (left) and April (right). Conclusions Museum is a specific facility. Ferdyn-Grygierek. On one hand. The flow of air infiltration in the winter season at low outdoor temperature is at the medium level of 0. This way of ventilation is insufficient from the point of view of hygiene and the requirements of exhibits’ protection. and also obtaining the consent from the conservator-restorer and the building manager. This is the result of a flow of the 1b 140% case 2 case 3 120% 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% Flora&Fauna Temporary Ethnography Exhibition room Percentage increase of thermal power Percentage increase of thermal power J. yet only in the winter in one exhibition hall (Flora&Fauna exhibition on the first floor). The acceptable solution is to use supplyexhaust ventilation in the exhibition halls.3 h−1 . Case February April Total heat demand Infiltration 34.41 3.38 43. 50% case 0 case 2 50% case 1b case 3 45% 40% 40% 35% 35% Qinf/Qtot Qinf/Qtot 45% 30% 25% 20% 25% 20% 15% 10% 10% 5% 5% Flora&Fauna Temporary Ethnography Gallery of Painting Exhibition room case 1b case 3 30% 15% 0% case 0 case 2 0% Flora&Fauna Temporary Ethnography Gallery of Painting Exhibition room Fig. This method only slightly interferes in the structure .04 to 0. Total modernization of ventilation systems in the museum buildings can pose a great challenge for designers due to the historic nature of these buildings.15 h−1 .15 5.05 Total heat demand Infiltration MW h 0 1b 2 3 8.06 11. Maximum values slightly exceed 0. In warmer periods of the year it does not exceed 0.37 1.73 5. The adequate air exchange is the key to obtain and maintain the desired parameters of indoor climate. Infiltration on the remaining floors is very small and the ventilation of these halls in larger part takes place mainly with the stale air from the staircase. The studies refer to one specific museum. can be observed. air infiltration occurs only on the first floor. 5.4 h−1 . The average air exchange throughout the year in individual rooms ranges from 0.69 39. 13. This concerns the situations when the cooling system was implemented in particular halls. and on the other hand it meets expectations for thermal comfort of people working and visiting it. However. The performed simulations revealed that the ventilation in the examined museum is insufficient. Table 4 Monthly heat demand (total and for infiltration) for different variants of ventilation (the whole building).99 11.87 13. As a matter of fact. it provides proper conditions for stored and collected exhibits.78 13. despite infiltration raise.59 5. Baranowski / Energy and Buildings 92 (2015) 45–54 140% case 1b case 2 53 case 3 120% 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% Gallery of Painting Flora&Fauna Temporary Ethnography Exhibition room Gallery of Painting Fig. yet they do show unfortunately not uncommon problem related the museum buildings modernization which were carried out improperly.37 7. Share of heat for infiltration (Qinf ) in total monthly heat demand (Qtot ) in February (left) and April (right). which must meet very rigorous requirements regarding indoor microclimate.2 h−1 on average. The ventilation air flow in the building is possible thanks to the open construction of the staircase (atrium kind). to the museum rooms in some days of a month. whose temperature is higher than the inside the building.14 ventilation.13 44.

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