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# CE 434 L13.

PEDESTRIAN FACILITIES

.Shared Pedestrian-Bicycle facilities This section deals with LOS provided to pedestrians on shared facilities. On shared facilities. Pedestrian-to-pedestrian interaction is negligible. bicycles-because of their markedly higher speeds-can have a negative effect on pedestrian capacity and LOS. LOS is based on the overtaking of pedestrians by bicycles.

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Research has established LOS guidelines both for pedestrians and for bicyclists based on the frequency of passing (same direction) and of meeting (opposite direction) other users on paths 2. the LOS for a pedestrian on a shared path depends on the frequency that the average pedestrian is overtaken by bicyclists.4 m wide.LOS for shared paths is based on hindrance. . Because pedestrians seldom overtake other pedestrians.

Fp = Qsb (1 – Sp/Sb) -----. per hour.Equation 1 & 2 are used to calculate the total number of bicycle passing events and the total number of opposing bicycle meeting events.(1) Fm = Qob (1 + Sp/Sb) -----. for the average pedestrian on the shared path.(2) .

Qsb = bicycle flow rate in the same direction (bicycles/h). Sp = mean pedestrian speed on the path (m/s). and Sb = mean bicycle speed on the path (m/s). Fm = number of opposing events (events/h). Qob = bicycle flow rate in the opposing direction (bicycles/h). .where Fp = number of passing events (events/h).

Meeting events allow direct visual contact. .The total number of events is calculated according to Equation 3. so that opposing bicycles tend to cause less hindrance to pedestrians. Fp = number of passing events (events/h). and Fm = number of meeting events (events/h).(3) Where F = total number of events on the path (events/h).5Fm ---------. F = Fp + 0.

there are no meeting events.0 m/s applied to the equations above can produce LOS thresholds for two-way paths. .4 m wide. For one-way paths.A default average pedestrian speed of 1. so that the LOS is determined from the number of passing events. Otherwise.2 m/s and a bicycle speed of 5. calculated with Equation 1. These are summarized in Exhibit 1. LOS must be based on the total number of events per hour. The indicated bicycle service volumes apply only for a 50/50 directional split of bicycles on paths 2.

103 > 44 .44 > 60 .EXHIBIT 1.180 F > 180 > 75 ..144 E > 144 .75 D > 103 .60 > 28 .105 > 105 .4 m wide. An “event” is a bicycle meeting or passing a pedestrian. . a. PEDESTRIAN LOS CRITERIA FOR SHARED TWOWAY PATHSa Pedestrian LOS A B C Corresponding Bicycle Service Volume per Direction Number of Events/hb (bicycles/h) ≤ 38 ≤ 28 > 38 .131 > 131 Notes: Path 2. Assuming 50/50 directional split of bicycles.

2 m/s. two-way. pedestrian-bicycle facility 2. √ Bicycle flow rate in the opposing direction = 100 bicycles/h. √ Bicycle flow rate in the same direction = 100 bicycles/h. If a separate pedestrian path is needed.4 m wide. what is the LOS for pedestrians on a separate path? The Facts √ Effective width = 2. √ Assume a bicycle speed of 5. and √ Assume bicycles need a 2. uninterrupted.EXAMPLE PROBLEM 1 The Shared Path An east-west.4-m-wide path.4 m. Comments √ Assume a pedestrian speed of 1. The Question What is the LOS of this facility? If it is operating lower than LOS C. and √ Peak pedestrian flow = 100 p/15-min.0 m/s. use a width of 1.5 m .

Outline of Solution All input parameters are known. therefore no default values are required. If the result is LOS C or lower. . LOS for the shared path will be determined. average unit flow rate and LOS for a separate pedestrian facility will be determined.

2/5. Fp Fp = Qsb [1 .2/5.0)] = 124 events/h .(Sp /Sb)] Fp = 100[1–(1. Fm Fm = Qob [1 + (Sp/Sb)] Fm = 100 [1 + (1.0) = 76 events/h 2.Steps 1. Determine number of opposing events. Determine number of passing events.

Determine total number of events. Find vp Assume 1. Determine shared-path LOS LOS D Need separate pedestrian path or walkway 5.Steps… 3.5 (124) = 138 events/h 4. 6.5 = 4.5Fm F = 76 + 0.5-m walkway will be constructed for pedestrians. F F = Fp + 0.4 p/min/m LOS A . Determine LOS for a separate pedestrian facility vp = v15 / 15*W E vp = 100 / 15*1.

33 > 1.49 > 1.2 – 3.75 variable variable Speed (m/s) > 1.7 > 23 .22 > 0.65 E > 0.65 – 1.23 > 1.75 ≤ 0.21 – 0.6 > 16 .75 – 1.4 > 49 .30 v/c Ratio ≤ 0.31 – 0.7 – 5.44 D > 1.27 > 0.75 – 1.0 F ≤ 0.27 – 1.22 – 1.Table 1 AVERAGE FLOW LOS CRITERIA FOR WALKWAYS AND SIDEWALKS LOS Space (m2/p) Flow Rate (p/min/m) A > 5.75 > 0.4 – 2.44 – 0.30 > 0.31 C > 2.14 > 0.14 – 1.2 > 33 .6 ≤ 16 B > 3.21 .

Results The shared pedestrian-bicycle facility operates at LOS D for pedestrians.5-m pedestrian walkway is provided. LOS A could be achieved for pedestrians. . If a separate 1.