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Commission of the European Communities

technical steel research



EUR 9813 EN
Blow-up from microfiche original

Commission of the European Communities

technical steel research



9, Albert Embankment

Contract No 7210-CA/808
( 3 . 5 . 1 9 7 9 - 2.5.1983)

Science, Research and Development


EUR 9813 EN

Published by the C O M M I S S I O N OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES Directorate-General Information Market and Innovation L-2920 LUXEMBOURG LEGAL NOTICE Neither the Commission of the European Communities nor any person acting on behalf of the Commission is responsible for the use which might be made of the following information >ECSC-EEC-Euratom. Brussels· Luxembourg .

G. Development and Design of Transport Rollers in Continuous Casting Plant F I N A L Agreement R E P O R T 7210.CA/808 J. McCann P.Evaluation. Stevens British Steel Corporation Swinden Laboratories Teesside Laboratory EUR 9813 EN .


showed that weld surfacing with 12% chromium weldment improved roller wear by a factor of ten and hence wear could be eliminated as a major reason for roller removal. DEVELOPMENT AND DESIGN OF TRANSPORT ROLLERS IN CONTINUOUS CASTING PLANT ECSC Agreement No. mechanical loads have been measured using load cells introduced in two roller segments at Positions 3 and 5 in the casting machine.FR 71-9 831 7210. . thermal shock cracking and permanent bending. The plant chosen for works trials was casting large quantities of high grade slabs for both strip and plate production.CA/808 SUMMARY This report describes a coordinated engineering and metallurgical study of the performance. Finally. The major objective of the joint research programme carried out by Sheffield and Teesside Laboratories of British Steel Corporation has been to quantify the influence of the operating environment upon roller performance and to define metallurgical and engineering design parameters which influence overall roller life with special emphasis upon plant casting wide slabs. The results of this trial. 7210. heat transfer coefficients have been calculated for the strand/roller interface for normal and abnormal casting conditions. The reasons for premature roller changes were found to vary with position on the casting machine but in the majority of cases rollers in the spray chamber/strand guide area were removed for unacceptable wear and/or permanent bending and catastrophic brittle failure particularly during the early part of the project. and design of transport rollers in modern continuous casting plant. by considering (a) observations of metallurgical changes occurring during normal and abnormal casting conditions and (b) the detailed analysis of mechanical and thermal loads either measured directly 'in-situ' or obtained from detailed mathematical models. Rollers in the straightener withdrawal zone also suffered from brittle failure due to the presence of thermal fatigue cracking. In addition. coupled with previous experience. Novel composite and weld surfaced rollers were incorporated within a structured roller trial segment introduced into the strand guide area of the continuous casting plant at BSC Ravenscraig Works. PLANT MONITORING Rollers instrumented with thermocouple implants have been designed and used in different positions within the strand guide area in order to monitor the specific thermal environment. The research programmes and results are described in detail and involve:1. ROLLER TRIALS AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION A system of performance monitoring was established involving the physical and metallurgical examination of many conventional and selected trial rollers during either scheduled or unscheduled plant maintenance periods. It has been possible to relate roller performance to these parameters. The 'cold roller' designs using peripheral bored or composite scrolled roller designs performed best in terms of their resistance to permanent bending during 'stall' conditions. 2. The results and their subsequent analysis have shown that under normal operating conditions the roller should not experience temperatures greater than 200°C.CA/808 British Steel Corporation THE EVALUATION. in terms of their propensity to wear. The influence of process water is significant in aiding the overall cooling of the transport roller.

CA/808 MATHEMATICAL MODELLING Finite element models have been derived in order to study the influence of roller design and cooling water efficiency utilising the boundary conditions established for the instrumented roller in service. the mechanical loads. Detailed specifications have been established for low alloy monobloc forgings and 12% Cr weldments either for prime roller supply or roller reclamation. 4.FR 71-9 831 3. The models may be used to predict the performance of a variety of roller designs and show that the roller cooling design is particularly effective when considering the degree of permanent bending likely to arise during a plant stoppage. SUPPORTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT An attempt has been made to develop laboratory tests to evaluate candidate roller materials. are insignificant in comparison to the thermal loading during abnormal casting conditions. wear. Duplex or composite rollers appear to offer the best combination of resistance to thermal fatigue or thermal shock cracking. 7210. due to the ferrostatic pressure within the solidifying slab. fracture toughness and thermal fatigue data have been used to assess the potential of low alloy and 12% Cr steels for use in roller manufacture. In addition. Mechanical tests. 11 . resistance to permanent bending and overall economy of production. The potential for using low alloy and high alloy castings is found to be more dependent upon producing more isotropic physical and mechanical properties in order to optimise their performance in service conditions.

CA/808 CONTENTS PAGE 1.2 3.1 7.3 Roller Trials and Performance Evaluation Plant Monitoring and the Development of an Instrumented Roller Mathematical Modelling and Roller Design 26 7.2 16 17 4.1 4.1 3.1 5.2 5.3 5 5 6 2.3 20 20 22 5. CONCLUSIONS 25 7. DISCUSSION 23 7.2 25 25 8.Fracture Properties Influence of Temperature Upon the Mechanical Properties of Candidate Materials Properties of Hard Surfacing Consumables 22 6. 2. 7 7 9 Introduction Roller Instrumentation Data Analysis and Presentation Mechanical Load Measurements 9 10 11 15 MATHEMATICAL MODELLING OF ROLLER DESIGNS 15 4.2 2.3 3. 7.3 4. Summary of Intended Research Programme Details of Models Conditions Assumed for Comparison of Three Roller Designs Comparison of Roller Performances During a Strand Stoppage Summary of Comparison of Roller Performances During a Strand Stoppage 17 19 SUPPORTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT 20 5.FR 71-9 831 7210.4 2.4 Introduction Materials Evaluation .4 4.4 Supporting Research and Development 26 REFERENCES 27 TABLES 28 FIGURES 33 APPENDIX 86 m .1 2.5 3.1 2 ROLLER TRIALS AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION 5 2.4 5. INTRODUCTION 1 1. Introduction Metallurgical Examination of Roller Surfaces Wear and Thermal Fatigue Behaviour of Roller Surfaces Roller Bending Structured Roller Segment Works Trial PLANT MONITORING 3.


Quasi Steady State Temperature During Uninterrupted Casting (Trial 2) 7. Quasi Steady State Temperature During Uninterrupted Casting (Trial 4) 9. Quasi Steady State Temperature During Uninterrupted Casting (Trial 1) 6. Quasi Steady State Temperature During Uninterrupted Casting (Trial 3) 8. Chemical Compositions of Candidate Roller Materials 11. Hardness of Rollers Used in Lackenby Slab Caster Plant Trials 2. Wear of Rollers Used in Lackenby Slab Caster Plant Trials 3.FR 71-9 831 7210. Roller Hardness After Service 4. (a) Fracture Properties of Candidate Roller Materials (b) Influence of Temperature on the Fracture Properties of Forged 21CrMoV511 (a) Mechanical Properties of Candidate Roller Materials (b) Mechanical Properties at Elevated Temperatures 12. Physical Parameters for Rollers Studied by Mathematical Models 10. .CA/808 LIST OF TABLES 1. Results of Roller Condition Monitoring in Structured Works Trials 5.


CA/808 LIST OF FIGURES 1. Results of Metallographic Examination Using Replica Techniques 4. Showing Surface Texture and Wear of 16CrMo44 Roller 14. Roll Temperatures .1850 χ 229 mm Strand Segment Position 3 . Roll Temperatures During Casting 24. Quasi Steady State Temperatures 1st Roller . Roll Instrumentation 20. Comparison of Water Spray Strand Cooling and Air Mist Strand Cooling . Typical Plant Layout 2.Plate/Strip Grade Steel 22. Instrumented Plug Prior to Force Fitting Into Roll Roll Frame Used to Force Fit Plug 21. Crack Depths in Straightener/Withdrawal Segments 6. Temper Response for 12% Chromium Weldment 18. Roller Showing Enclosure of Grooves by Lateral Expansion of the Surface 8. Thermal Cracking in the Bore of a Roller 11. Fracture Face of a Roller Showing Final Failure from a Small Shallow Crack 9. Showing Cracking Associated with Weld Bead Overlap 15.Segment Position 5 27. Quasi Steady State Temperature 2nd Roller . 3 Machine 19. Roll Temperatures .Plate/Strip Grade Steel 23.FR 71-9 831 7210.All Strand Sizes Cast in Segment Positions 3 and 5 26. Layout of Ravenscraig No. Plastic Deformation and Scale on the Surface of a Roller 12. Comparison of Conventional Water Spray Strand Cooling and Air Mist Strand Cooling Segment Position 5 for a Strand 1280 χ 229 mm .Ravenscraig Strand Guide Roll Segment Trial After 270 000 t 16. Surface Replicas of Withdrawal Straightener Slab Casting Rollers Exemplifying the Principal Degradation Mechanisms 5.1850 χ 229 mm Strand Segment Position 5 . Hardness Survey . Fracture Face of a Roller Showing Final Failure from a Deep Crack 10. Schematic Representation of Roll Designs 3.All Strand Sizes Cast in Segment Positions 3 and 5 25. Surface Replica Showing the Morphology of the Delta Ferrite Found in the Tempered Martensite Matrix of Some Rollers 17. Relationship Between Roller Failure Mechanisms and Position in Machine 7. Deep Thermal Shock and Thermal Fatigue Cracking Beneath Plastic Deformation 13.

(a) Impact Transition Data.FR 71-9 831 7210. Comparison of Temperature Contours After a 40 min Strand Stoppage 42. Cut Up Tests . Comparison of Typical Variations in Roller Surface Temperatures and Heat Transfer Coefficients at Roller/Strand Contact Zones in Segment Positions 3 and 5 31. Effect of Coolant Flow Rate on Predicted Bending of Rollers Due to Thermal Loading 48. Comparison of Temperature Contours After a 5 min Strand Stoppage 40. Variation with Temperature of Thermal Conductivity and Specific Heat Assumed for 16CrMo44 Roller Material 39. Finite Element Meshes Used to Determine Temperature Variations Within Rollers During a Strand Stoppage 36.Specimen Orientation 49. Instrumented Fixed Stop in Segment 32. Typical Variation in Roller Surface Temperature During a Single Revolution 29. Effect of Coolant Flow Rate on Centre-Bore Roller Temperature Contours After a 10 min Strand Stoppage 45.Centr ifugally Cast Sleeve 50. Elevated Temperature Mechanical Properties of Low Alloy Steels 52.CA/808 28. Axisymmetric Finite Element Mesh Used to Determine Roller Bending from Thermal and Mechanical Loadings 37. Cross Sections of Roller Designs Modelled 34. Comparison of Surface Temperature for Two Roller Revolutions in Segment Positions 3 and 5 30. Effect of Coolant Flow Rate on Scrolled Roller Temperature Contours After a 10 min Strand Stoppage 47. Comparison of Temperature Contours After a 20 min Strand Stoppage 41. Low Alloy Steels (b) Impact Transition Data for Production Casts . Effect of Coolant Flow Rate on Peripheral Bore Roller Temperature Contours After a 10 min Strand Stoppage 46. Macrostructure . Measurements of Roller Loads Due to Ferrostatic Pressure 33. Variation with Temperature of Thermal Conductivity and Specific Heat Assumed for Strand 38. Comparison of Predicted Bending of Different Roller Designs During a 40 min Strand Stoppage 44.16CrMo44 Steel (c) Impact Transition Data for 12% Cr Cast Material 51. Comparison of High Temperature Hardness . Comparison of Predicted Radial Roll Temperature During a 40 min Strand Stoppage 43. Portions of Roller and Strand Modelled to Determine Temperature Variation Within Roller During Strand Stoppage 35.

Thermographic Survey of Straightener Roller Surface Temperatures IX . Laboratory Evaluated Thermal Fatigue 55.FR 71-9 831 7210. Laboratory Evaluated Wear Rates 54. Comparison of Von Mises Equivalent Stress Contours Due to Mechanical and Thermal Loadings 56.CA/808 53. Variation in Tensile Yield Stress with Temperature of 16CrMo44 Material 57.


L'objectif principal du programme de recherche commun des laboratoires de Sheffield et de Teesside de la British Steel Corporation était de quantifier l'influence des conditions de production sur la performance des rouleaux et de définir les paramètres de conception industriels et métallurgiques qui influencent la durée de vie totale des rouleaux.CA/808 RESUME Le présent rapport décrit une étude industrielle et métallurgique combinée de la performance et de la conception des rouleaux de transport utilisés dans des installations de coulée continue modernes. l'accent ayant été mis plus particulièrement sur la coulée de grands brames dans les installations. de leur fissuration due au choc thermique et de leur pliage permanent. mais dans la majorité des cas. surtout dans les premiers temps du projet.FR 71-9 831 7210.CA/808 British Steel Corporation EVALUATION. L'on s'est rendu compte que les modifications survenant prématurément aux rouleaux étaient fonction de la position de ces derniers sur la machine à couler. Les installations choisies pour les essais coulaient de grandes quantités de brames de gualité supérieure destinés à la production de plaques et de rubans. On a pu établir un rapport entre la performance des rouleaux et les paramètres ci-dessus. les rouleaux ont dû être enlevés de la chambre de vaporisation/guide-torons parce qu'ils présentaient des traces d'usure inacceptables et/ou étaient plies de façon permanente ou encore à cause de la rupture fragile. On a par ailleurs constaté la rupture fragile de rouleaux se trouvant dans la zone de redressement/retrait due à la fissuration par fatigue thèrmigue. DEVELOPPEMENT ET CONCEPTION DE ROULEAUX DE TRANSPORT DANS LES INSTALLATIONS DE COULEE CONTINUE Accord CECA N° 7210. comprenant l'examen physique et métallurgigue d'un grand nombre de rouleaux d'essai conventionnels et sélectionnés au cours de diverses périodes d'entretien concerté et curatif. soit mesurées directement "in situ". Les programmes de recherche et leurs résultats sont décrits en détail et englobent:1. introduit dans la zone des guide-torons des installations de coulée continue de BSC à l'usine de Ravenscraig. en tenant compte (a) des observations des changements métallurgigues se produisant dans des conditions normales et anormales de coulée et (b) de l'analyse détaillée des charges mécaniques et thermiques. xi . De nouveaux rouleaux mixtes et à surface soudée ont été incorporés à un segment structuré d'essai de rouleaux. du point de vue de leur tendance à l'usure. soit obtenues à partir de modèles mathématiques détaillés. ESSAIS DE ROULEAUX ET EVALUATION DE LEUR PERFORMANCE Un système de contrôle de la performance a été mis au point.

il a été dans ce cas-là possible d'éliminer l'usure comme l'une des raisons principales d'enlèvement des rouleaux. En outre. 4. ETABLISSEMENT DE MODELES MATHEMATIQUES On a dérivé des modèles à éléments finis afin de pouvoir étudier 1'influence de la conception des rouleaux et l'efficacité de l'eau de refroidissement dans les conditions limite établies pour le rouleau muni d'instruments utilisé. Ce sont les "rouleaux à froid". dans le cadre aussi bien de la fourniture de rouleaux de qualité supérieure que des corrections à apporter à ces derniers. TRAVAUX DE SOUTIEN ET DEVELOPPEMENT On a tenté de mettre au point des tests de laboratoire qui permettrait de déterminer les matériaux qui pourraient éventuellement être utilisés pour produire les rouleaux. Le choix entre des coulées à faible ou à forte teneur en alliage dépend essentiellement des propriétés mécanigues et physiques isotropiques indispensables à leur performance optimale dans des conditions de travail. les charges mécaniques dues à la pression ferrostatique dans le brame en cours de solidification ont de l'importance par rapport aux charges thermiques constatées dans des conditions anormales de coulée. Les rouleaux doubles ou mixtes semblent être les meilleurs en ce qui concerne à la fois la résistance à la fatigue thermique et au craquage dû au choc thermique. les rouleaux ne devraient pas être soumis à des températures dépassant 200°C. xii . L'eau de traitement a une influence déterminante en ce qui concerne le refroidissement général des rouleaux de transport. En dernier lieu. Qui plus est. basés sur les rouleaux à alésage périphérique ou sur les rouleaux à spirale mixtes qui ont eu la meilleure performance sur le plan de leur résistance au pliage permanent dans des conditions de "ralentissement". on a mesuré les charges mécaniques au moyen de cellules de chargement introduites dans deux segments de rouleau. au pliage permanent et des conditions globalement économigues de production.FR 71-9 831 7210. Les modèles peuvent être utilisés pour prédire la performance de plusieurs rouleaux de conception différente et montrent gue la conception du refroidissement des rouleaux est particulièrement importante lorsque l'on envisage le degré de pliage permanent susceptible de se produire lors d'un arrêt de travail dans les installations. Les résultats obtenus et l'analyse qui en a été faite ont montré que dans des conditions de travail normales. associés à des expériences précédentes.CA/808 Les résulats de cet essai. 2. On a effectué des essais mécaniques et on a utilisé des données de résistance à la fracture et de fatigue thermique pour évaluer le potentiel d'aciers à faible teneur en alliage et à 12% de Cr qui pourraient être utilisés pour fabriquer des rouleaux. ont permis de constater un facteur d'amélioration de dix pour ce qui est de l'usure de rouleaux dont la surface est soudée avec un matériau contenant 12% de chrome. on a calculé les coefficients de transfert de chaleur pour 1'interface toron/ rouleaux dans des conditions de coulée normales et anormales. 3. à l'usure. Des spécifications détaillées ont été établies pour les pièces forgés monobloc à faible teneur teneur en alliage et les pièces soudées à 12% de Cr. aux positions 3 et 5 de la machine à couler. SURVEILLANCE DES INSTALLATIONS On a mis au point des rouleaux munis de thermocouples et on les placés à divers endroits de la zone du guide-torons afin de pouvoir contrôler les conditions thermiques spécifiques.

DISCUSSION 23 7.1 2 5 2. 2.1 7.FR 71-9 831 7210. CONCLUSIONS 25 7.1 3.1 5.2 3.4 Introduction Evaluation des matériaux .3 6 7 7 9 Introduction Instruments destinés aux rouleaux Analyse et présentation des données Mesure des charges mécaniques ETABLISSEMENT DE MODELES MATHEMATIQUES DE CONCEPTION DE ROULEAUX 4. Essais de rouleaux et évaluation de leur performance Contrôle des installations et développement d'un rouleau muni d'instruments Etablissement de modèles mathématiques et conception des rouleaux Travaux de soutien et développement REFERENCES TABLEAUX FIGURES APPENDICE 25 25 26 26 27 28 33 86 Xlll .1 4.Propriétés de fracture Influence de la température sur les propriétés mécaniques des matériaux candidats Propriétés des matériaux consumables à surface dure 22 22 6.2 5.2 7.2 5.3 20 20 5.5 3.4 4.3 3. INTRODUCTION 1 1.4 8.1 2. Résumé du programme de recherche prévu ESSAIS DE ROULEAUX ET EVALUATION DE LEUR PERFORMANCE 2.3 7. Page Détails des modèles Conditions adoptées pour la comparaison de trois rouleaux de conception différente Comparaison de la performance des rouleaux au cours d'un arrêt des torons 9 10 11 15 15 16 17 19 TRAVAUX DE SOUTIEN ET DEVELOPPEMENT 20 5.4 2.CA/808 SOMMAIRE 1.3 5 5 4. Introduction Examen métallurgique de la surface des rouleaux Usure et comportement vis-à-vis de la fatigue thermique des surfaces des rouleaux Pliage des rouleaux Essais en usine du segment structuré de rouleau CONTROLE DES INSTALLATIONS 3.2 2.


Paramètres physiques pour les rouleaux étudiés à partir des modèles mathématique s 10. Dureté des rouleaux après le travail 4. Température quasi stable pendant la coulée ininterrompue (essai 3) 8. Température quasi stable pendant la coulée ininterrompue (essai 2) 7. Composition chimiques des matériaux qui pourraient éventuellement être utilisés pour produire des rouleaux 11. Dureté des rouleaux utilisés lors des essais en usine de coulée de brames Lackenby 2.FR 71-9 831 7210. Résultats de la surveillance de l'état des rouleaux lors des essais structurés en usine 5. Température quasi stable pendant la coulée ininterrompue (essai 4) 9. Usure des rouleaux utilisés lors des essais en usine de coulée de brames Lackenby 3.CA/808 LISTE DES TABLEAUX 1. Influence de la température sur les propriétés de fracture de la pièce forgée 21CrMoV511 (a) Propriétés mécaniques des matériaux qui pourraient éventuellement être utilisés pour produire des rouleaux (b) Propriétés mécaniques à des températures élevées xv . (a) Propriétés de fracture des matériaux qui pourraient éventuellement être utilisés pour produire des rouleaux (b) 12. Température quasi stable pendant la coulée ininterrompue (essai 1) 6.


Instruments dont sont munis les rouleaux 20. Face de la fracture d'un rouleau montrant sa défaillance finale due à une petite fissure superficielle 9. Examen de la dureté . Résultats de l'examen métallographique effectué par des techniques de reproduction 4.Essai du segment de rouleau de guide-toron Ravenscraig après 270 000 t 16. Rouleau montrant les limites des cannelures par l'expansion latérale de la surface 8. Reproduction de la surface montrant la morphologie du ferrite delta trouvé dans la matrice de martensite tempérée de certains rouleaux 17. Agencement d'une machine n°3 à Ravenscraig 19. Face de la fracture d'un rouleau montrant sa défaillance finale due à une fissure profonde 10. Choc thermique profond et fissuration par fatigue thermique en-dessous de la déformation plastique 13. Reproduction des surfaces des rouleaux de redressement/retrait des machines à couler les brames exemplifiant les mécanismes de dégradation principaux 5. Représentation de la texture et de l'usure de la surface d'un rouleau 16CrMo44 14. Représentation de la fissure associée au cordon de soudure à recouvrement 15.CA/808 LISTE DES FIGURES 1. Agencement typique des installations 2. Profondeur des fissures dans les segments de redressement/retrait 6. Fissuration thermique dans l'alésage d'un rouleau 11. Réaction à la trempe d'une pièce soudée à 12% de chrome 18. Représentation schématique des rouleaux de conception différente 3.FR 71-9 831 7210. Déformation plastique et scories sur la surface d'un rouleau 12. Bouchon à instruments avant de 1'introduire de force dans le rouleau Châssis de rouleau utilisé pour introduire de force le bouchon XVll . Rapport entre les mécanismes de défaillance des rouleaux et la position de ces derniers dans la machine 7.

avec le segment aux positions 3 et 5 30. Comparaison des contours de température après un arrêt de 5 min du toron xvm . Comparaison des variations typiques de la température de la surface d'un rouleau et des coefficients de transfert de chaleur dans les zones de contact rouleau/toron. Portions du rouleau et toron modèle utilisés pour déterminer la variation de température à l'intérieur du rouleau pendant l'arrêt du toron 35. Température quasi stable du 2nd rouleau ­ torons de toutes les tailles coulée avec le segment aux positions 3 et 5 26. Sections transversales des modèles de conception des rouleaux 34. Température des rouleaux pendant la coulée 24. G rille à éléments finis axisymétrigues utilisée pour déterminer le pliage du rouleau dû aux charges thermiques et mécaniques 37.CA/808 21. G rilles à éléments finis utilisées pour déterminer la variation de température à 1'intérieur d'un rouleau pendant un arrêt du toron 36. Comparaison entre le refroidissement des torons par vaporisation d'eau et le refroidisssement des torons par brume d'air ­ segment à la position 5 27. Mesure des charges du rouleau due à la pression ferrostatigue 33. Arrêt fixe à instruments dans le segment 32. Variation due à la température de la conductivité thermique et de la chaleur spécifique adoptée pour le toron 38. Comparaison entre le refroidissement conventionnel des torons par vaporisation d'eau et le refroidissement des torons par brume d'air avec le segment à la position 5 pour un toron de 1280 χ 229mm 28. Variation due à la température de la conductivité thermique et de la chaleur spécifique adoptée pour le matériau 16CrMo44 du rouleau 39.FR 71 ­9 831 7210. Température quasi stable du 1er rouleau ­ torons de toutes les tailles coulée avec le segment aux positions 3 et 5 25. Comparaison de la température de la surface d'un rouleau après deux révolutions. Température des rouleaux ­ toron 1850 χ 229mm Position 3 du segment ­ acier de qualité plaque/ruban 23. Température des rouleaux ­ toron 1850 χ 229mm Position 5 du segment ­ acier de qualité plaque/ruban 22. avec le segment aux positions 3 et 5 31. Variation typique de la température de la surface d'un rouleau au cours d'une révolution 29.

Comparaison de la température prévue du rouleau radial au cours d'un arrêt de 40 min du toron 43.CA/808 40. Comparaison du pliage prévu de rouleaux de conception différente au cours d'un arrêt de 40 min du toron 44.FR 71­9 831 7210. Effet du débit du refroidissant sur le pliage prévu des rouleaux dû à la charge thermique 48. Comparaison des contours équivalents de contrainte de Von Mises due aux charges mécanigues et thermiques 56. Examen thermographique de la température de la surface d'un rouleau de redressement xix . Variation de la résistance élastique à la traction en fonction de la température du matériau 16CrMo44 57. Comparaison des contours de température après un arrêt de 20 min du toron 41. Effet du débit du refroidissant sur les contours de température du rouleau à spirale après un arrêt de 10 min du toron 47. Effet du débit du refroidissant sur les contours de température du rouleau à alésage périphérique après un arrêt de 10 min du toron 46. Effet du débit du refroidissant sur les contours de température du rouleau à alésage central après un arrêt de 10 min du toron 45. Comparaison de la dureté à des hautes températures 53. Taux d'usure évalués en laboratoire 54. Propriétés mécanigues à des■températures élevées des aciers à faible teneur en alliage 52. Essais de coupage ­ Orientation du spécimen 49. Macrostructure ­ manchon coulé centrifugement 50. (a) Données transitoires d'impact ­ aciers à faible teneur en alliage (b) Données transitoires d'impact pour les coulées industrielles ­ acier 16CrMo44 (c) Données transitoires d'impact pour une coulée de matériau à 12% de Cr 51. Comparaison des contours de température après un arrêt de 40 min du toron 42. Fatigue thermigue évaluée en laboratoire 55.


Das Forschungsprogramm. mathematische Modelle gewonnen wurde. Man fand.und Treibrichtzone litten auch durch Spröddefekte wegen des Vorliegens von Wärmeermüdungsrissen. aber in der Mehrzahl der Fälle wurden die Rollen im Spritzkammer. die während normalen und normwidrigen Gießbedingungen auftraten. und zwar wurden die folgenden Punkte berücksichtigt: (a) Beobachtungen der metallurgischen Änderungen. Die Rollen in der Transport. Die Forschungsprogramme und Ergebnisse werden in Einzelheiten beschrieben. und das betrifft ihre Neigung zu Verschleiß. Neue Verbundrollen und Rollen mit schweißplattierter Oberfläche wurden in einem strukturierten Rollensegmentversuch aufgenommen. und sie betrafen: 1. die die Gesamthaltbarkeit der Rollen beeinflussen. Die Ergebnisse dieses Versuches zusammen mit bereits gewonnener Erfahrung zeigten. und (b) die detaillierte Analyse der mechanischen und Wärmebelastungen. das gerneins am von den Sheffield und Teesside Laboratorien der British Steel Corporation (BSC) durchgeführt wurde. hatte als Hauptziel. der im Strangführungsbereich der Stranggußanlage des Ravenscraig Stahlwerkes der BSC eingesetzt wurde. Wärmestoßrißbildung und permanenter Biegung. Rollenversuche und Leistungsbewertung Ein Verfahren für Leistungskontrolle wurde festgelegt.und Blechstahlproduktion gegossen. daß die Gründe für vorzeitige Rollenänderungen durch die Position in der Gießmaschine schwankten. daß Schweißplattierung mit einer 12% Chromschweißung den Rollenverschleiß um einen Faktor von zehn verbesserte. und es betraf die physikalische und metallurgische Untersuchung vieler herkömmlicher und ausgewählter Versuchsrollen entweder während geplanten oder ungeplanten Wartungsperioden im Betrieb.CA/808 British Steel Corporation Bewertung. In der für die Betriebsversuche gewählten Anlage wurden große Mengen an Qualitätsbrammen für Band. 7210. die entweder direkt 'am Platz' gemessen oder durch detaillierte. und spezielle Betonung wurde auf das Gießen von breiten Brammen im Betrieb gelegt. den Einfluß der Betriebsumgebung auf die Rollenleistung zu bestimmen. die Rollenleistung mit diesen Parametern in Beziehung zu setzen. und die metallurgischen und technischen Entwurfsparameter zu ermitteln.FR 71-9 831 7210. Es ist möglich gewesen.CA/808 Zusammenfassung In diesem Bericht wird die koordinierte technische und metallurgische Untersuchung bezüglich der Leistung und dem Entwurf von Transportrollen in modernen Stranggußanlagen beschrieben.und Strangführungsbereich wegen unakzeptierbaren Verschleiß und/oder permanenter Biegung und katastrophalen Spröddefekt besonders während dem ersten Teil des Vorhabens weggenommen. xxi . Entwicklung und Entwurf von Transportrollen in Stranggußanlagen EKSG Vertrag Nr.

um die Leistung von vielen verschiedenen Rollenentwürfen vorherzusagen. wodurch die Grenzbedingungenausgenutzt werden. Bruchfestigkeits­ und Wärmeermüdungsdaten wurden benutzt. 2. um ihre Leistung unter Betriebs­ bedingungen zu optimieren. Außerdem wurden die Koeffizienten der Wärmeübertragung für die Strang­ und Rollengrenzfläche unter normalen und normwidrigen Gießbedingungen berechnet. Betriebskontrolle Mit Thermoelementeinsätzen instrumentierte Rollen sind entworfen und an verschiedenen Positionen im Strangführungsbereich eingesetzt worden. physika­ lischen und mechanischen Eigenschaften ist. um die spezifische Wärmeumgebung zu überwachen. die man für die instrumentierte Rolle im Betrieb festsetzte. daß die Rolle unter normalen Betriebs­ bedingungen nicht einer Temperatur ausgesetzt werden sollte. Detaillierte Spezifikationen sind für die armlegierten Schmiedestücke aus einem Block und 12% Cr Schweißungen ent­ weder für neuen Rolleneinsatz oder Rollenrückgewinnung festgesetzt worden. Mechanische Ver­ suche. Es scheint. Verschleiß. xxi ι . wenn man das Ausmaß an permanenter Biegung berücksichtigt. daß das Potential für den Einsatz von arm­ und hochlegierten Gußstücken abhängiger von der Produktion von isotropischeren. das wahrscheinlich während einem Betriebsstillstand auftreten kann. wo peri­ pherisch gebohrte oder Mantelstützrollen mit schräg genutetem Kern zur Innenkühlung eingesetzt werden. Mathematische Modelle Finite Elementsmodelle sind abgeleitet worden. Der Einfluß des Kühlwassers ist bedeutend und fördert die Gesamtkühlung der Transportrolle. 4. daß der Rollenkühlungsentwurf besonders effektiv ist. um Laboruntersuchungen für die Bewertung der in Frage kommenden Rollenwerkstoffe zu entwickeln. Widerstand gegen permanente Biegung und der Gesamtrentabilität der Produktion bieten. um das Potential der armlegierten und 12% Cr Stähle für Einsatz in der Rollen­ herstellung zu beurteilen. Die Ergebnisse und deren anschließende Analyse haben gezeigt. Die Modelle können benutzt werden.FR 71­9 831 7210. Die 'kalten Rollenentwürfe'. Unterstützende Forschung und Entwicklung Ein Versuch wurde unternommen. und zum Schluß sind die mechanischen Belastungen unter Einsatz von Belastungszellen gemessen worden.CA/808 und deshalb konnte Verschleiß als einer der Hauptgründe für Rollenent­ fernung ausgeschlossen werden. die höher als 200 C ist. 3. Außerdem sind die mechanischen Belastungen wegen dem ferrostatischen Druck innerhalb der erstarrenden Bramme unbedeutend im Vergleich zu der Wärmebelastung während den normwidrigen G ießbedingungen. wiesen die beste Leistung hinsichtlich ihres Widerstandes gegen permanente Biegung wegen der 'Stillstandbe­ dingungen ' auf. Man fand. die in zwei Rollensegmenten an den Positionen 3 und 5 in der Gießmaschine einge­ führt wurden.als ob Duplex­ oder Verbundrollen die beste Kombinationdes Widerstandes gegen Wärmeermüdung oder Wärmestoß­ rißbildung. um den Einfluß des Rollenent­ wurfs und des Leistungsvermögens des Kühlwassers zu untersuchen. und um zu zeigen.

1 4.CA/808 Inhaltsverzeichnis 1.1 2.3 Rollenversuche und Leistungsbewertung Betriebskontrolle und Entwicklung einer instrumentierten Rolle Mathematische Modelle und Rollenentwurf 7.FR 71­9 831 7210.2 2.3 4.1 3.5 Einleitung Metallurgische Untersuchung der Rollen­ oberflächen Verschleiß und Wärmeermüdungsverhalten der Rollenoberflächen Rollenbiegung Strukturierte Rollensegmentversuche im Werk Betriebskontrolle 3.4 Unterstützende Forschung und Entwicklung 25 26 26 27 Literaturnachweis 28 Tabellen 33 Abbildungen 86 Anhang ΧΧ111 .4 2.3 3.1 2 Zusammenfassung des geplanten Forschungs­ programmes Rollenversuche und Leistungsbewertung 2. Diskussion 23 7.4 Einzelheiten der Modelle Für den Vergleich zwischen drei Rollenentwürfen vorausgesetzte Bedingungen Vergleich zwischen den Rollenleistungen während eines Strangstillstandes Zusammenfassung des Vergleichs zwischen den Rollenleistungen während eines Strangstillstandes 17 19 Unterstützende Forschung und Entwicklung 20 5.2 5.2 16 17 4.2 25 7. Seite Einleitung 1 1.1 5. Schlußfolgerungen 25 7.1 7.3 20 20 22 5.4 Einleitung Instrumentierung der Rollen Datenanalyse und Darstellung Messungen dei mechanischen Belastung 9 10 11 15 Mathematische Modelle der Rollenentwürfe 15 4.2 3.3 2.4 Einleitung Werkstoffbewertung ­ Brucheigenschaften Einfluß der Temperatur auf die mechanischen Eigenschaften der in Frage kommenden Werkstoffe Eigenschaften der Stoffe zum Hartauftragsschweißen 22 6.


(a) Mechanische Eigenschaften der in Frage kommenden Rollenwerkstoffe (b) Mechanische Eigenschaften bei erhöhten Temperaturen xxv . Quasistabiler Zustand der Temperatur während dem ununterbrochenen Gießen (1. Versuch) 6. Physikalische Parameter für die mit mathematischen Modellen untersuchten Rollen 10.FR 71-9 831 7210. Versuch) 7. Quasistabiler Zustand der Temperatur während dem ununterbrochenen Gießen (2. Versuch) 9. Widerstandsfähigkeit der in den Versuchen im Lackenby Brammengießwerk benutzten Rollen 2. Versuch) 8.CA/808 Aufstellung der Tabellen 1. Verschleiß der in den Versuchen im Lackenby Brammengießwerk benutzten Rollen 3. Quasistabiler Zustand der Temperatur während dem ununterbrochenen Gießen (3. Chemische Verbindungen der in Frage kommenden Rollenwerkstoffe 11. (a) Brucheigenschaften der in Frage kommenden Rollenwerkstoffe (b) Einfluß der Temperatur auf die Brucheigenschaften des geschmiedeten 2lCrMoV511 Stahls 12. Widerstandsfähigkeit der Rollen nach Betrieb 4. Ergebnisse der Kontrolle der Rollenbedingungen in strukturierten Betriebsversuchen 5. Quasistabiler Zustand der Temperatur während dem ununterbrochenen Gießen (4.


OOO t 16. Bruchfläche einer Rolle. gezeigt werden die durch laterale Ausdehnung geschlossenen Nuten auf der Oberfläche 8. gezeigt wird der endgültige Ausfall von einem kleinen. Anordnung der Maschine Nr. Darstellung der mit der Schweißraupenüberlagerung verbundene Rißbildung 15. Typische Betriebsanordnung 2. flachen Riß 9. Oberflächennachbildung. Übersicht der Widerstandsfähigkeit ­ Rollensegmentversuch in der Ravenscraig Strangführung nach 270. Ergebnisse der metallographischen Untersuchung unter Einsatz von nachgebildeten Verfahren 4. Darstellung des Oberf lächengefüges und des Verschleißes der 16CrMo44 Rolle 14. das in der vergüteten Martensitmatrix mancher Rollen gefunden wird 17. Rolleninstrumentierung 20. Rollentemperaturen ­ 1850 χ 229 mm Strang Segmentposition 3 ­Blech­ und Bandstahl xxvi ι . Rißtiefen in den Transport­ und Treibrichtsegmenten 6. Schematische Darstellung der Rollenentwürfe 3. Rollentemperaturen ­ 1850 χ 229 mm Strang Segmentposition 5 ­ Blech­ und Bandstahl 22. 3 in Ravenscraig 19. Bruchfläche einer Rolle. Tiefe Wärmestoß­ und Wärmeermüdungsrißbildung unter der plastischen Deformation 13. Oberflächennachbildungen der Brammengußrollen in der Transport­ und Treibrichtzone.CA/808 Aufstellung der Abbildungen 1. Vergütungsreaktion für die 12% Chromschweißung 18. Wärmerißbildung in der Bohrung einer Rolle 11.FR 71­9 831 7210. um den Stecker unter Druck einzusetzen 21. gezeigt wird die Morphologie des Deltaferrits. die als Beispiel der Hauptdegradierungsmechanismen dienen 5. Plastische Deformation und Belag auf der Oberfläche einer Rolle 12. Rolle. Verhältnis zwischen den Rollenausfallmechanismen und der Position in der Maschine 7. Instrumentierter Stecker vor dem Einsatz in der Rolle unter Druck Benutzter Rollenrahmen. gezeigt wird der endgültige Ausfall von einem tiefen Riß 10.

StrangstiIlstand 41. Quasistabiler Zustand der Temperatur. Schwankung der Wärmeleitfähigkeit durch die Temperatur und voraus­ gesetzte. Auswirkung der Fließgeschwindigkeit des Kühlmittels auf die Tempera­ turkonturen an der Mittelbohrung der Rolle nach einem 10 min. Rolle ­ alle Strang­ größen in den Segmentpositionen 3 und 5 gegossen 26. StrangstiIlstand xxviii . fester Anschlag im Segment 32. Vergleich zwischen der vorausgesagten Biegung der verschiedenen Rollenentwürfe während eines 40 min. um die Temperaturschwankung innerhalb der Rolle während eines Strangstillstandes zu bestimmen 36. Teile der nachgebildeten Rolle und dem Strang. Rollentemperaturen während dem Gießen 24. 2. radialen Rollentemperatur während eines 40 min.FR 71­9 831 7210. Schwankung der Wärmeleitfähigkeit durch die Temperatur und voraus­ gesetzte. Finîtes. Strangstillstandes 43. Strangstillstand 42. Vergleich zwischen den Temperaturkonturen nach einem 20 min. um die Temperatur­ schwankung innerhalb der Rolle während eines Strangstillstandes zu bestimmen 35. Vergleich zwischen der vorausgesagten. benutztes Elementgitter. Vergleich zwischen der Kühlung des Strangs durch Wasserspritzung und Luftnebel ­ Segmentposition 5 27. finîtes benutztes Elementgitter. Vergleich:zwischen der Oberflächentemperatur für zwei Rollenumdrehungen in den Segmentpositionen 3 und 5 30. Axisymmetrisches. Strangstillstandes 44. 40. Messungen der Rollenbelastungen wegen dem ferrostatischen Druck 33. spezifische Wärme für den 16CrMo44 Rollenwerkstoff 39. Vergleich zwischen den Temperaturkonturen nach einem Strangstillstand 5 min. Typische Schwankung der Rollenoberflächentemperatur während einer Umdrehung 29. Instrumentierter. Querschnitte der nachgebildeten Rollenentwürfe 34. um die Rollen­ biegung durch die thermischen und mechanischen Belastungen zu bestimmen 37. Rolle ­ alle größen in den Segmentpositionen 3 und 5 gegossen Strang­ 25. Vergleich zwischen den typischen Schwankungen der Rollenoberflächen­ temperaturen und den Koeffizienten der Wärmeübertragung an den Rollen/ Strangkontaktzonen in den Segmentpositionen 3 und 5 31.CA/808 23. spezifische Wärme für den Strang 38. 1. Vergleich zwischen der herkömmlichen Kühlung des Strangs durch Wasser­ spritzung und Luftnebel ­ Segmentposition 5 für Strang 1280 χ 229 mm 28. Quasistabiler Zustand der Temperatur. Vergleich zwischen den Temperaturkonturen nach einem 40 min.

Auswirkung der Fließgeschwindigkeit des Kühlmittels auf die vorausgesagte Biegung der Rollen wegen der Wärmebelastung 48.CA/808 45. armlegierte Stähle (b) Daten der Aufschlagsübertragung für Produktionsgußstücke . Vergleich zwischen den von Miseschen gleichwertigen Beanspruchungskonturen wegen der mechanischen und Wärmebelastungen 56. (a) Daten der AufSchlagsübertragung. Im Labor bewertete Wärmeermüdung 55. Makrogefüge . Strangstillstand 47.16CrMo44 Stahl (c) Daten der Aufschlagsübertragung für den gegossenen 12% Cr Werkstoff 51.FR 71-9 831 7210. Auswirkung der Fließgeschwindigkeit des Kühlmittels auf die Temperaturkonturen der Mantelstützrolle mit schräg genutetem Kern nach einem 10 min.Zentrifugal gegossener Mantel 50. Mechanische Eigenschaften der armlegierten Stähle bei erhöhten Temperaturen 52. Schnittprobenversuch . Thermographische Übersicht der Oberflächentemperaturen der Treibrichtrolle xxix . Strangstillstand 46. Vergleich zwischen der Widerstandsfähigkeit bei Hochtemperatur 53. Auswirkung der Fließgeschwindigkeit des Kühlmittels auf die Temperaturkonturen an der peripherischen Bohrung der Rolle nach einem 10 min. Im Labor bewertete Verschleißraten 54. Schwankung der Streckspannung des 16CrMo44 Werkstoffes durch die Temperatur 57.Probenorientierung 49.


(c) Brittle fracture of the roller usually originating from crack like defects at the surface. The pitching of rollers throughout the plant is a compromise between the level of support given to the slab. The bulging stresses due to the ferrostatic pressure increase as the slab approaches the end of the strand guide area. Secondary cooling zones and support roller systems form the strand guide area of the plant where the roller systems are set up to give a curvature between 9 m and 13 m radius. A typical plant layout is shown schematically in Fig. then eventually heat cracking develops on the roller surfaces during prolonged service. Clearly different environmental conditions and mechanical stresses apply dependent upon the position of the rollers in the plant.CA/808 British Steel Corporation THE EVALUATION.CA/808 FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT 1. (b) Wear often accompanied by environmentally assisted erosion. lives quoted vary from 150 000 tons to 5 000 000 tons throughput. the minimising of frictional forces between the stock and the rolls. the overall strength of the roll at operating temperature must be sufficient to withstand the static or dynamic stresses occurring during both normal and abnormal . For instance. achieved on external or internal water cooling mechanisms. 7210. Therefore. 1. followed by a withdrawal straightener unit designed to take the heavier mechanical loads which are present when attempting to straighten relatively cold slabs. DEVELOPMENT AND DESIGN OF TRANSPORT ROLLERS IN CONTINUOUS CASTING PLANT ECSC Agreement No. In addition. whereas in the straightener withdrawal area external water is not supplied and the rollers may be cooled internally only. in the spray chamber zone of the plant it is likely that a corrosive/erosive environment applies due to the large quantities of water sprayed onto the slab and available at the roller surfaces. Because the roller surfaces are in contact with the hot steel stock and are heated by conduction and radiation. (d) Excessive distortion or bending resulting from either repeated thermal cycles or intermittent overloads caused by abnormal operating conditions in the plant. followed by subsequent cooling. whereas the mechanical stresses due to the physical straightening of the product are greatest in the withdrawal straightener area. INTRODUCTION Modern continuous casting plant for the manufacture of billets and heavy slabs adopt a basic design below the casting tundish involving the use of water cooled copper moulds followed by cooling grids and solid roller systems to ensure the primary solidification of the product. it is essential that the selection of materials caters for the possibility of brittle failure initiating from these surface defects. Life is usually limited according to a number of factors including:(a) Surface degradation caused by the presence of thermal fatigue cracking. together with the largest roller diameter in order to give good overall deflection characteristics and prolonged life in service. Roll lives vary markedly from machine to machine and from position to position within the same machine.FR 71-9 831 7210. and it is in this area where heavy back-up rolls are used to support the primary roller in the critical straightening area. The main function of the roller system is to support the partly solidified slab by containing the bulging forces caused by the ferrostatic head of pressure within the solidifying slab together with additional forces caused by the movement of the slab beyond the rollers at speeds of up to 3 m/min.

spray coating and alternative engineered options.1 Summary of Intended Research Programme The research project involved a three-part programme aiming to improve the performance of rollers used in the continuous casting machines and to generate data relevant to the optimisation of design and specification of rollers.involving the evaluation of thermal fatigue and mechanical and physical property evaluation of candidate roller materials.involving existing design differences and the procurement of rollers surfaced using submerged arc welding. 1. (a) Monobloc type.FR 71-9 831 7210. (b) Plant Monitoring . (d) Supporting Research and Development Work . The later sections of this document present the general details of the work under the following headings:(a) Roller Trials and Performance Evaluation .1 Roller Trials and Performance Evaluation The programme of trials included most types of design used in BSC machines.involving computation of operational characteristics of different roller designs. These comprised both low alloy and high alloy forged and cast materials. i. a practical evaluation of thermal and mechanical conditions in which these operate and detailed laboratory studies of the properties of materials used in their manufacture. (b) Sleeved design. . (c) Mathematical Modelling . The equivalent 16CrMo44 would be expected to have improved resistance to brittle failure. Clearly some of the En20A in current use has unacceptable resistance to brittle fracture and only moderate resistance to wear and thermal fatigue.1.e.involving the derivation of operating service conditions by the determination of roller temperatures and mechanical stresses occurring during the casting process. This report presents the results of a four year study carried out jointly between the Teesside and Sheffield Laboratories of BSC concerning the metallurgical and engineering factors affecting the performance of the support rollers in continuous casting machines casting wide slabs. (c) Hard surfaced rollers either as prime supply or reclaimed. 1. (d) Alternative cold roll designs. Unfortunately these characteristics are often contradictory in terms of materials requirements and the development of a roller with best overall performance requires consideration of both design and material selection based upon specific mechanical and physical properties. Rollers were selected to ensure that the total programme provided a comprehensive coverage of available manufacturing and materials options. including the systematic evaluation of rollers and their performance in production conditions. Different manufacturing routes for the manufacture of monobloc and sleeved rollers were also included in the programme. Individual research programmes were planned. Monobloc Rollers and Conventional Sleeved Design Rollers The currently used En20A and 16CrMo44 rollers provided base-line performance levels in each of the plants concerned in the development trials.CA/808 service operating conditions.

. These include centre-bore and bearing cooling arrangements (hot roller design) and designs which incorporate a central scroll cooling configuration which allows more effective cooling of the surface regions of the roller (cold roller design). Weld surfacing and metal spraying offer the possibility of manufacturing rollers consisting of an outer shell possessing excellent wear and thermal fatigue resistance and a tough core to prevent brittle fracture. it was planned to measure temperatures and loads in selected rollers at selected positions in different plant throughout BSC. This rather basic knowledge is essential to the optimisation of materials for the design and construction of rollers. etc. Thermocouple implants specifically designed to record not only the maximum temperatures occurring at the roller surface but at various depths in the roller were used to provide accurate data for the determination of temperature gradients close to the roller surface. temperatures. Three of the four designs were evaluated in a single eight roller segment in service on works production for a period of one year..2 Plant Monitoring Knowledge of plant conditions leading ultimately to the degradation of roller surfaces and to product quality problems associated with surface integrity and dimensional tolerances is an essential pre-requisite to the selection of roller design and materials. Performance Monitoring Roller performance monitoring for all designs and materials was planned in all plants producing heavy steel slabs and involved many conventional and trial rollers. tough. In practice it is the specific thermal cycles and mechanical loads imparted to the rollers during casting which determine performance. The two main areas in a concast strand which would benefit from the use of a composite roll are the strand guide and straightener withdrawal sections. life. The requirements for a new surfaced roller are:(a) A cheap. Alternative Cold Roll Designs All BSC continuous casting plant producing wide slab operate with a variety of roller designs.FR 71-9 831 7210. Load cells positioned below rollers in critical parts of the strand provided data on the essential overall mechanical loads encountered during both normal and abnormal operating conditions. Different surface properties may be required in these areas and a number of surfacing materials were tested including low alloy and stainless steels. (c) Thermal stability during long term normal and abnormal casting conditions. 2 and 3 3 ) . it is essential to determine wear patterns and the occurrence and depth of any thermal cracks. This in turn provided the boundary conditions for calculating the thermal stresses at various positions in the roller. In addition to recording details of tonnages.1. 1.CA/808 Hard Surfaced Rollers It should be appreciated that perhaps the greatest improvement in wear and thermal fatigue resistance may only be economically achieved through the use of surfacing technology. Therefore. The ongoing research project incorporates an evaluation of novel cold roller designs with even more effective water cooling arrangements. easily weldable core. breakages. (b) A wear and thermal fatigue resistance skin. Recent experience with weld surfaced rolls in hot rolling mills has been of significant value in establishing the viability of these concepts and has shown that a consistent and acceptable quality standard can be maintained. These comprise either a double flow fabricated scroll and shell or a peripheral bored cooling system (Figs.

A finite element approach was adopted for the major models which enabled roller temperature and stress distributions to be determined.FR 71-9 831 1. usually originating from crack like defects at the surface. (b) Brittle fracture of rollers. This phase of the investigation has been separated into two parts:(a) The development of a mathematical model to simulate roller performance under normal operating conditions (i. As an interim measure.4 Supporting Research and Development Work The wide range of weld surfaced products and alloy steel forgings and castings. a simplified model was to be constructed using a finite difference technique.1.1. when the rollers and steel are stationary and one part of the roller is in contact with the steel for a long period). the results being used in conjunction with other properties to estimate the probability of failure from both manufacturing and service defects. Obviously the core material must be able to arrest these cracks and prevent failure of the roll. Since the finite element models are relatively complicated it was reasoned that time would be needed before they were fully developed.CA/808 Mathematical Modelling and Roll Design The experimental data obtained from the plant trials were to be used in a suite of mathematical models which were developed to simulate the performance of the rollers during operation. (b) The development of a finite element model to simulate roller performance during machine stoppages (i.e. (c) Excessive distortion or crack initiation resulting from high thermal stresses or intermittent overloads. together with the various roll design possibilities under consideration. crack growth rates and the arrest characteristics of the core material were to be evaluated. This model is not as powerful as the proposed finite element model but it does enable the temperature distributions for simple designs (such as a solid roller with a central cooling hole) to be determined relatively quickly. Therefore. A test method was to be designed to simulate plant conditions in the continuous casting machine. totally prohibited complete in-service evaluation of all but a few of the options available. parameters obtained from the plant monitoring programme were used to define the testing conditions. 1.e. The model would also be a useful check during the development of the finite element model. .3 7210. The resistance of the weld metals to crack initiation. Fracture toughness properties of both monobloc and duplex roller candidate materials were to be determined. One problem which can occur using duplex and hard surfacing materials is the possibility of producing brittle fracture of this layer by high local thermal stresses and superimposed mechanical loads. it was imperative that laboratory tests were conducted on the prospective materials in order that the service trials could be limited to the most likely candidates. The candidate metals and weld/core combinations were to be tested by simulating the imposed thermal and mechanical cycle experienced by the roll surface. when the roller and strand are moving). Roller life in service is limited by a number of factors which can be divided basically into three groups:(a) Surface degradation caused primarily by the presence of excessive thermal fatigue cracking and abrasive/erosive wear.

Casting machines designed by Concast AG and Demag operate with significantly different roller designs. In practical terms it is also possible to estimate the surface operating temperatures by examining the microstructure and hardness variations. Details of the methods of examination and the relevance of results are presented in a later section of this report. (b) Submerged arc weld surfaced 'refurbished' rollers (including some rollers hard faced using the 'bulk weld' powder consumable technique) using 12% chromium bearing consumables. the simplest design employing a simple central bore and water acceleration tube device. usually concerned only with cooling their bearing journal areas. In addition.5% Mo steel. or spray chamber zone. up to 430 and 480 mm. Throughout the strand guide. Clearly roll bulging forces tend to increase along the strand guide yet the mechanical loading during slab straightening may be greatest at the tangent point of the machine. between 180 and 250 mm. heat resistant grades. medium hardenability.FR 71-9 831 2.1 Introduction 7210. in extreme cases. Typical microstructures for the three types of rollers examined are shown in Fig. Rollers outside the spray chamber area and making up the mechanical straightener withdrawal units of the plant are designed to carry heavier mechanical loads and therefore are greater in diameter.2 Metallurgical Examination of Roller Surfaces A surface replica technique was devised in order to provide more detailed metallurgical and microstructural information regarding both the quality of incoming rollers and in order to compare the degree and severity of damage and surface degradation occurring during service. Manufacturing details and compositions of the above variants are given in Appendix 1. which incorporated conventional and 'surfaced' types of materials in low alloy and stainless compositions. the rollers weld surfaced with 12% Cr martensitic stainless steel exhibited almost fully martensitic structures with approximately 10% delta ferrite. The thermal mechanical loading of the rollers is complex and varies with the position in the strand. 2. 3. ROLLER TRIALS AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION 2. (c) Metal spray coated rollers. In principle. Both types of design have been studied during the research programme. This information was supplemented by detailed hardness surveys of new and used rollers. The different roller designs are shown schematically in Fig. the rollers close to the mould have the smallest diameter. Such conditions clearly produce thermal shock conditions at the roll surface leading to the possibility of permanent roll bending or. roll surface cracking. the thermal stresses are greatest during abnormal casting conditions associated with either reduced casting speeds or actual prolonged strand stoppages. which highlights the design configurations for 'hot' and 'cold' operational rollers. 2. however.CA/808 Before describing the details of rollers examined during the contract period it is worth noting that British Steel Corporation employ a variety of roller designs in its wide slab machines. other designs relying upon more complex cooling nearer the roll shell using a scroll system or latterly peripheral bored cooling ducts close to the roll surface. and may also continue to adopt either the simple or complex roll cooling designs. and rely upon limited internal cooling. The conventional low alloy steel roller comprises a microstructure containing mixtures of bainite and ferrite typical of low alloy. rollers are through cooled. The appearance of delta . During the research programme rollers were put into service in the same plant environment in order to compare directly the following variations:(a) Conventional low alloy steel forgings based upon a high temperature 1% Cr 0. In contrast.

FR 71-9 831


ferrite in the microstructure is deliberate as this constituent in relatively
small amounts is known to improve both the weldability of the weldment and its
resistance to hot cracking in service.
The metal spray coated material exhibits a complex microstructure containing
chromium carbides together with some chromium borides fused in a matrix of
In practice, the conventional and weld surfaced rollers exhibited hardness
bands from 230-510 HV and the metal spray coating was measured at 750 HV.
Details of the rollers examined are described in Table 1.

Wear and Thermal Fatigue Behaviour of Roller Surfaces

During the early part of the project an opportunity was made to examine in
detail a complete segment of 245 mm diameter strand guide rollers removed from
service in the Lackenby slab casting machine. The segment comprised several
rollers which had been weld surfaced using either low alloy or 12% chrome alloy
weldments, together with conventional rollers. These were first examined
in-situ when only the entry and exit rollers could clearly be seen. The
surfaces of the top rollers were extremely bright and free from thermal
cracking and wear. Additional visual inspection showed that eight of the ten
rollers were corroded whilst the other two were relatively bright with machine
tool marks clearly visible across the length of the body. This series of
rollers facilitated a useful comparison of material performance using surface
examinations and measurement of the overall roller dimensions. The degree of
wear is obviously a very important criterion for roller performance and
therefore it was necessary to measure this feature on each of the rollers. The
measurements are presented in Table 2.
Surface replicas taken from the roller surfaces are shown in Fig. 4 and
exemplify the various types of surface degradation which can occur.
In practice the most common form of surface degradation is thermal fatigue
and/or thermal shock damage and this aspect of performance was followed in
greater detail for a large number of rollers.
A summary of the results showing crack depth for both monobloc and weld
surfaced rollers is shown in Fig. 5.
It is very clear from the results obtained that the hard surfaced rollers have
shown overall better wear performance than the conventional low alloy steel
rollers in the strand guide area.
In addition, those rollers surfaced with a
martensitic corrosion resistant steel have performed better than the low alloy
weldments with respect to both wear and corrosion resistance and resistance to
fire cracking.
The results obtained using in-situ replica techniques to compare the type and
degree of surface degradation occurring in both the strand guide and withdrawal
straightener units as demonstrated in Fig. 4 clearly demonstrate the type of
surface degradation occurring in hard surfaced rollers where both plucking out,
corrosive abrasive wear and thermal cracking are clearly evident in the
Later in the project an opportunity was taken to examine in detail the failure
of rollers and the reasons for withdrawal from service.
The incidence of each type of roller failure is shown schematically in Fig. 6
where it is clearly shown that either severe cracking or permanent bending form
the major part of removal causes.
It should be noted that the majority of these rollers contained surface grooves
as part of their original design and had been manufactured from low alloy
1% CrMo steel forgings.
In addition, many of the rollers had been in the
machine for long periods.
The crack depths measured are taken from the roller surface and do not take
account of the depth of the groove.
(Maximum depth should be 10 mm.)
It is

FR 71-9 831


also interesting to note that the grooves were designed with a 'U' shaped
profile at intervals of 25 mm along the roller barrel in order to allow the
unrestricted expansion of the immediate roller surface and hence reduce the
thermal stresses. In practice, the machine environment created lateral
expansion of the metal to such an extent that the grooves were enclosed and the
roller surface took on the appearance of a plain barrelled roller at its centre
(Fig. 7). It was also found that many of the grooves had been machined with a
squarer profile which clearly acts as an initiation site for cracking.
Fractures had occurred in rollers of each of the designs used in BSC plant1
and with low alloy steel weld surfaced and plain or grooved designs. In
addition, the critical defect size varied considerably from 4 mm deep by 15 mm
long (Fig. 8) to full roll thickness (Fig. 9 ) . Fracture toughnessó/z tests
carried out on failed material varied from 55 MN m - 3 / 2 to 117 MN m~
indicated a need to produce a more stringent metallurgical specification for
roller material. A detailed specification has been developed by the plant
metallurgists in order to ensure much more uniform mechanical properties in
material supplied from a variety of sources.
A further examination of the failed rollers showed that a considerable change
in hardness had occurred along the roller barrel even after relatively short
periods of service.
In addition, other rollers which were ready for
refurbishing also showed a similar fall off in hardness towards the centre of
the barrel.
Table 3 shows the results of hardness measurements taken across a
number of rollers where the end position measurements correspond approximately
with the as-received values.
As these forgings are supplied in the hardened and tempered condition it is
clear that the fall off in hardness may be related to service temperatures in
excess of the initial tempering temperatures, e.g. where the initial tempering
would normally be carried out at 580°C, a residual hardness at the centre of
the roller after service would be commensurate with a service temperature in
excess of 650°C.
Later results in this report indicate that a plant stoppage can result in a
surface temperature of 600°C.
However, should the water cooling system be
impaired temperatures in excess of 600°C could easily be achieved.
evidence of this effect can be seen in terms of the appearance of thermal
cracking at the bore cooling zone of the simpler roller design (Fig. 10).
In certain cases it was noted that thermal cracking may be masked by surface
plastic deformation and scale (Fig. 11) which when removed by machining readily
showed deep thermal shock and thermal fatigue cracking (Fig. 12).

Roller Bending

Considerable attention has been given to the increased frequency of roller
removal due to the occurrence of permanent bending outside the prescribed
limits for producing good slab quality.
Two rollers which had been withdrawn
from service due to bending have been examined in-situ to assess the nature of
the deformation.
Visual examination showed that each roller surface was of good quality with
little wear and thermal cracking and with the original surface machining marks
still intact.
Hardness measurements along the roller barrels surface showed a
fall in hardness of approximately 50 HV at the centre positions which was
uniform around the roller circumference.
This change in hardness was again
consistent with a surface operating temperature in excess of 600°C.
Examination indicated little metallurgical change of the roller surface, the
microstructure being predominantly bainitic.

Structured Roller Segment Works Trial

During the course of the project specially instrumented rollers were fitted
into strand guide segments in a series of trials conducted in BSC Ravenscraig
In order to complement the instrumentation trials (see Sections 3
and 4 ) , metallurgical examinations were instituted on the final trial segment.

FR 71-9 831



Trial Segment

The four pair, 310 mm diameter, roll segment contained rollers manufactured to
three different designs:(a)

Four rollers with the conventional centre bore cooling system.


Two rollers with the peripheral bore type of cooling.


Two rollers to a scroll cooling design.

These designs are shown schematically in Fig. 2.
One objective of the trial
was to ascertain the effect of the design of the roll cooling system on the
roller performance under recorded works practice conditions.
The centre bore
rollers were to be used as the standard comparators and were placed at the
entry and exit positions of the segment.
The other two designs were placed in
pairs, top and bottom, in the central positions.
Each of the rollers had been
weld surfaced with a 12% chromium martensitic stainless steel using a wide bead
oscillating wire technique with the exception of the instrumented centre bore
roller which was a conventional forged low alloy 16CrMo44 material.

Segment Service

The segment entered service in the No. 5 position of the No. 1 strand.
a period of approximately one month during which 20 400 t were cast the segment
was withdrawn from service in order to be subsequently re-entered into
position 3 in the strand.
There followed a period of nine months in service
with a further 250 000 t cast before the segment was withdrawn from service
because of unacceptable roller bending deformation.
Whilst the segment was in
the casting machine both 'hard' and 'soft' strand cooling techniques had been
employed and several strand stoppages had occurred.
Some details of these
events are given in Section 3.

Metallurgical Examination

The opportunity was taken to examine the rollers metallurgically on withdrawal
of the segment from position 5 after casting 20 400 t and again on withdrawal
from position 3 after casting a total of 270 400 t. The procedure used on both
occasions included a visual examination and measurement of crack depths, and a
hardness survey. The final examination also included a dimensional check and
an 'in-situ' metallographic examination on each roller.

Visual Examination

After casting 20 400 t the general surface condition of each of the rollers was
satisfactory and crack free with the exception of the top peripherally bored
roller where pronounced circumferential cracks were noted in the central work
The crack depths were measured using a potential drop crack depth gauge
and found to be of the order of 8-11 mm. There were also three areas where
small pieces had spalled from the surface.
After casting 270 400 t the surfaces had acquired distinct characteristic
Each 12% Cr weld-clad roller still exhibited the original lathe
tool machine marks visible over much of the surface indicating very little
By contrast the 16CrMo44 roller had a very rough surface showing
considerable wear, Fig. 13.
Only superficial cracking had occurred on each
of the bottom rollers but the top rollers were showing deeper cracks.
cracking had occurred it was associated with the weld bead overlap position and
delineated the weld bead (Fig. 1 4 ) . These cracks were up to 9 mm deep, but the
cracks on the top peripherally drilled roll had not increased significantly
since the first examination after 20 400 t of production. None of the cracks
had extended into the water channels. However, the top scroll cooled roller
did contain one crack up to 20 mm deep and the welded joint between sleeve and
scroll had failed on the shoulder permitting a severe water leakage.

Hardness Survey

Hardness readings were obtained using an Equotip Portable Hardness Tester.
The readings were taken along each roller in a longitudinal plane to determine

PLANT MONITORING 3. 1 6 ) . After casting 270 400 t a considerable decrease in hardness was noted to varying degrees on each of the top rollers. Excessive bending was found in the scrolled rollers whilst the peripherally bored rollers remained acceptable. 3.FR 71-9 831 7210. The circumferential hardness profiles did not show any major variations except for the bottom scrolled roller which exhibited two deep troughs with a decrease of approximately 150 HV.CA/808 the general profile and in a circumferential plane to ascertain the effect of prolonged stoppages with the roller resting on the hot slab (Fig. This effect has been noted previously on a similar design of roller.3). The microstructures observed were composed of delta ferrite in tempered martensite which is typical of the type of cladding employed.4 Discussion Comparison of the surface condition of the 12% Cr weld surfaced rollers and the conventional forged 16CrMo44 steel roller confirms the previous observations of the superiority of the former in both wear and corrosion resistance (Section 2. . This production process has resulted in hardnesses in the range 350-450 HV. It is known that the level and morphology of the delta ferrite can be influenced by the manufacturing parameters. In the cases of the peripherally drilled and the scrolled designs these positions had fallen to the equivalent of 210 HV. the weld surfaced rollers were post-weld heat treated at 550°C. After service the minimum hardness on each top roller is in the range 200-250 HV. 1 5 ) .5. In the event of a reduction in the amount of cooling water. The bottom rollers showed less of a decrease in general hardness falling to a minimum of 280 HV. The amount of wear was negligible on the 12% Cr weld surfaced rollers.1 Introduction As part of the broad investigation on the performance of support rollers in continuous casting machines a comprehensive series of works trials has been carried out with specially instrumented rollers fitted into the strand guide segments. The failure of the sleeve/scroll weld has further exacerbated the problem by the resultant loss of effective cooling water. There was some difference in the morphology of the delta ferrite. The temper response curve shown in Fig. that to achieve this lower hardness the surface of the rollers must have been at a temperature in excess of 600°C for some period of time. In these instances greater bending forces will ensue. The purpose of these trials has been to:(a) Derive the service conditions by determining the temperatures and mechanical loads the rollers experience during normal and abnormal casting. The occurrence and proportion of each phase was variable and could not be associated with any of the topographical features of the rollers. 2. (c) Dimensional The amount of roller bending and wear is recorded in Table 4. Consideration of the Larson-Miller parameter suggests that temperatures much below 600°C would require an excessive time at temperature to achieve the decline in hardness encountered. the surface of the scrolled roller will attain a higher temperature than the surface of the centre bore or peripheral bore rollers. During manufacture. (d) Metallographic Examination Areas representative of each weld surfaced roller were prepared and examined metallographically by the in-situ surface replication technique. which was present as a mixture of a fine interdendritic type and a more massive type (Fig. There was some tendency for the fall in hardness to be greatest at the 1/3 and 2 / 3 position along the roller. 17 indicates. This is because of the partial insulation of the scroll from the sleeve by the water channels.

This special thermocouple was formed by a sandwich of very thin thermocouple wires. 20 and Appendix 2.g. 17. 4. However. was to have been carried out at BSC Lackenby Works with an instrumented roller installed in the withdrawal section of the machine. the temperature of the roller when no surface thermocouple is present). A further series of trials.the first two using a roller without a surface thermocouple and the second two with a surface thermocouple . Four trials . a special surface thermocouple was fitted within the tapered plug. mica insulation and roller material as shown in Fig.CA/808 Provide a detailed roller temperature history of both the surface and sub-surface temperatures during plant operation to aid the development of a suite of mathematical models which can be used in the design of new rollers and improve the life of existing rollers. 19. These were connected to a slip ring unit mounted on the exposed end of the roll. Fig. 3. 16. (c) Angular position of thermocouple plug relative to strand. 3 machine and then moved up to segment position 3. This would not only provide data for the model work but also would test the instrumentation and data analysis system prior to carrying out the main trial with the roller fitted with a surface thermocouple. This design also has a very rapid response to change in temperature and is mechanically robust. 18. For one of the rollers. 10 . 69 and 118 mm from the roller surface of the first roller and at 0.) were recorded simultaneously with the measurements from the instrumented segment. all other major casting parameters (e. see Fig. Fig.5.e.FR 71-9 831 (b) 7210. 19. see Fig. A specially constructed frame was used to press the tapered plugs into the rollers. During the trials. (d) Casting speed. 48. The instrumented rollers had an outside diameter of 310 mm and a 60 mm diameter central water cooling hole. Rather than hold up the trials it was decided to proceed with a preliminary set using a roller without a surface thermocouple. 83 and 120 mm from the surface of the second roller. Thermocouples were positioned at 5.5. (b) The mechanical forces transmitted from the strand to the segment.5. 19. The reason for carrying out two similar trials was because of the delay in delivery from the manufacturers of the roller thermocouple instrumentation with the special surface thermocouple.2 Roller Instrumentation A standard four roll strand guide segment was specially instrumented to provide the following data during casting:(a) Roller surface and sub-surface temperature profiles. This design enables the thermocouple junction to be renewed continuously throughout the roll life. The roller temperatures were measured by means of thermocouples embedded at different depths from the roller surface. The thermocouples were fitted into tapered plugs of roller material. zone water flows strand temperatures etc. immediately after the installation of the instrumented roller it was seriously damaged by a plant mishap. The plugs were installed at a central position along the barrel of the rollers and the thermocouple lead wires passed through the central water cooling holes. The extent of the damage was such that it was not possible to rebuild another roller and conduct the trials before the end of the project. Since the thermocouple was manufactured using roll material the temperatures obtained accurately represented the true surface temperature of the roller (i.have been successfully completed at BSC Ravenscraig Works. In the trials both the rollers were first installed in segment position 5 of the Ravenscraig No. which were force fitted into matching tapered holes machined in the rollers. similar to those carried out at Ravenscraig. The sandwich was manufactured in the form of a small tapered pin which was pressed into the main instrumentation plug.

the differences in maximum roller surface temperatures are due largely to variations in heat transfer between the strand and the roller caused by varying thicknesses of scale both along the strand surface and adhering to the roller surface. The temperature variation at these three positions. Similar differences in maximum surface temperatures have also been recorded with roughing mill rolls2. For each of the rollers in each segment position. Similarly at 17.3. In addition to this 'quasi' steady state temperatures have been determined for every signal cast with each roller in each segment position. slightly higher. At this depth the maximum reached was generally about 115°C to 120°C. as the depth from the surface 11 .3 Data Analysis and Presentation A considerable amount of data on roller temperatures has been recorded during the trials with both of the instrumented rollers. 24-26. i. transducer and associated electronic equipment from drainage and water ingress. under spray etc. 21-23. the surface 4. Subsequently. During the first 8 to 10 revolutions of the roller the maximum surface temperatures reached increased steadily. The maximum temperature generally varied between 110°C and 140°C. A specially constructed box. 3. The considerable cyclic variation in temperature within the outer layers of the roller can be clearly seen. The typical temperature variation recorded for a strand 1850 mm χ 229 mm in segment position 5 is shown in Fig. 3.1 Temperature Variations During Normal Production Shown in Figs. the results of which are shown in Figs. and the temperature then dropped to a minimum as the roller rotated further and the surface cooled. which was air-purged during casting.5 mm from the roller surface the temperature rose relatively quickly for about 10 revolutions after which time the minimum had reached a steady level of about 100°C and remained within 5°C of this level for the remainder of the cast. At this depth it can be seen that the cyclic temperatures are lower than those at the surface as would be expected. in general. several representative casts of the same strand size have been analysed in detail. These results are summarised in Tables 5-8 and are shown in Figs.CA/808 Also located on the roller end was a transducer to measure very accurately the angular position of the plug as the roller rotated. During casting the thermocouple and transducer signals were recorded simultaneously on chart recorders and a data logger. The temperatures at 4. however. 21. the temperature rise resulting from contact with the strand decreased with depth from the roller surface. 27-29.FR 71-9 831 7210.5 mm below the surface responded in a similar pattern but clearly at this depth the cyclic variation was less than at the surface. in order to be able to relate temperature variation to cause (i. roller in contact with strand.). was fixed to the roller bearing housing to protect and locate the slip ring.5 and 17.e. After approximately 20 min. This is most probably due to the external cooling of the roller giving a slightly lower minimum temperature on the surface at the end of each revolution. i. Typical results from this analysis are shown in Figs. the maximum surface temperatures varied between 120 and 190°C with the majority within the range from 120 to 180°C. when 'quasi' steady state conditions had been reached. As before the temperature rose relatively quickly for about 10 revolutions after which time the minimum temperature at the end of each revolution had reached about 90°C and again remained within 5°C of this level for the rest of the cast. Detailed analysis of the surface temperature variations for the trials with the second roller have been carried out on several different section sizes in both segment positions 3 and 5. It is thought that. The minimum temperature reached was. 21 and 22 are representative examples of the temperature variations recorded to complete a cast of plate/strip grade steel under normal casting conditions in both segment positions 3 and 5.5 mm clearly show that. and are thought to result from the same causes.e. considerable differences may be observed in the maximum surface temperature attained from revolution to revolution.e. On each revolution the temperature of the roller surface rose to a maximum as contact was made with the strand. however.

However. generally. The lower temperatures in the segment 3 position can also be seen at the other depths. The casting sequences were made at a speed of 0. The difference is probably due to the lower contact pressure between the strand and the roller in segment 3 resulting in a lower heat transfer coefficient.5 mm below the surface. a significant increase in roller temperatures could have resulted due to the reduced cooling at walls of the cooling hole caused by the formation of steam. If boiling had occurred.3.5 and 17. between 120 and 190°C. As will be seen in the later sections of this report the mean angle of contact in segment 3 was 20° compared with 4° in segment 5. However. It may also be seen from Fig. The cyclic temperature variation can again be clearly seen at the surface and at positions 4. Those differences in roller temperatures for the two segment positions may be attributed to the different conditions in the roller/strand contact region at the two segment position. 83 and 120 mm (3 mm from the central cooling hole) positions increased comparatively slowly to 90. 21 at all positions other than the surface. between 100-120°C in comparison with segment position 5 where the surface varied from a minimum of about 110°C to a maximum of. the typical maximum heat transfer coefficient between the strand and the roller was only 300 W/m2 Κ in segment 3 in comparison with 1300 W/m2 Κ in segment 5 despite the significantly greater angle of contact. and the roller in segment position 5 data were collected during the casting of a niobium grade of steel.5 mm below the surface increased significantly due to the greater time of contact of the roller with the strand. This is most likely due to the effects of external cooling on the roller surface. 3. From the steady-state thermal analysis it has been found that these temperature increases are almost certainly due to the reduced strand cooling and not as a result of the lower strand speed when casting the niobium quality. shows that the roller temperatures were some 20-30°C higher than those measured during the casting of plate/strip grade steel. The maximum temperature would have occurred in the part of the roller which was in direct contact and this was some distance away from the thermocouple plug. In this position. the higher temperatures recorded do serve to show how quickly the roller can heat up locally as a result of a strand slowdown or stoppage. 12 . reduced water sprays to the strand) in order to avoid problems with strand quality. for example. generally.7 m/min with 'soft' strand cooling (i. These tended to follow a very similar pattern to those recorded with the roller in segment position 5. 23. it should be observed that the temperatures recorded in segment position 3 were noticeably lower. 23 that the temperature recorded at a depth of 118 mm reached 93-98°C during casting. It is most interesting to see that at the end of the cast when the strand speed is significantly reduced for 'capping off' the temperatures on the surface and at 4. The temperatures recorded during these casting sequences are shown in Fig. 21. 75 and 60°C respectively after about 20 min casting and remained substantially constant for the rest of the cast. Since the central cooling hole is only some 7 mm from this position the temperature on the inside surface of the cooling hole would be similar (_90°C) and very close to the boiling point of the cooling water. Comparison of these data with those in Fig. These higher temperatures were not the maximum temperatures that would have been attained had the thermocouple plug been in direct contact with the strand. without the surface thermocouple. Figure 22 shows the temperature variation recorded in segment position 3 for the same size strand (1850 mm χ 229 mm) cast. shown in Fig. The temperatures at the 69.5 and 17. the maximum temperature reached per revolution decreases while the minimum increases.CA/808 increases. However.2 Effects of Reduced Casting Speed and Reduced Strand Cooling During the trials with the first roller.FR 71-9 831 7210. the surface temperature fluctuation per revolution varied from a minimum of 70°C to a maximum of.e.

For example. some of the casts recorded had conventional spray strand cooling while the others had air mist strand cooling. due to the reduction in strand speed. show conclusively that variations in strand cooling produce a significant effect on the roller temperatures during normal casting.5-0. The surface temperature has not been included in any of this analysis as it tended to be so variable from revolution to revolution as has been seen earlier. Whilst these two sets of results cannot be directly compared with each other because of the different strand cooling used in the trials with the second roller they both show quite clearly that the temperatures recorded with the roller in segment position 3 are lower. in Table 7 the temperature given for the strand size 1760 mm χ 229 mm is the average of 7 casts during which 23 ladles were cast with the roller in segment position 5. in general. 26 for all casts recorded. The temperature values given in Tables 5-8 are the average maximum of all the strands of the same section size cast in each trial. These results and those discussed earlier on niobium grades and presented in Fig. as shown for example in Fig. It can be observed from these results that in all cases the roller temperatures recorded with air mist strand cooling are significantly higher. 25 are the temperatures for each section size cast with the second roller. The results also show that.7 m/min there was no obvious increase in roller temperatures. Similarly. and give the temperature levels attained after the initial warm-up period when the roller has reached thermal equilibrium. 28 are as follows. A direct comparison of air mist with conventional spray strand cooling for one typical strand size 1280 mm χ 229 mm is shown in Fig. The temperature rise of the roller surface at starting point J was 13 . as the strand width increases so does the temperature of the roller. 25. This is thought to be due mainly to both the reduced axial heat flow within the roller (i.FR 71-9 831 3. in both segment positions 3 and 5. During the trials with the second roller. The quasi steady state temperature for both types of cooling are given in Fig.e. at a reduced strand speed of between 0. There are similar differences for the other section sizes. the increases in the roller heating and cooling per revolution. 3. These are referred to as 'quasi' steady-state temperatures. In addition.CA/808 Effects of Casting Conditions on 'Quasi' Steady State Temperatures Tables 5-8 summarise the temperatures measured within the roller during uninterrupted casting for each of the four trials. for each segment position.4 Surface Temperature Variation During Normal Production The variation in the roller surface temperature for a single revolution is shown in Fig. The information from this type of analysis enables the different heating and cooling conditions to be examined. 28 and was obtained from the data collected during the casting of a strand 1760 χ 229 mm in segment position 5. although this difference does tend to reduce slightly with increase in strand size. demonstrate that when casting section of size 1530 and 1510 mm χ 305 mm. without the surface thermocouple. Thus.3. 24 are the quasi steady-state temperatures recorded for each section size cast with the first roller. tended to have cancelled out and the roller temperatures therefore showed little change. again in both segment positions 3 and 5. The details of the temperature record shown in Fig. shown in Fig. 23. 27 and from which the difference in roller temperature for the different types of cooling can be quite clearly seen. the effects of strand speed on roller temperatures. Shown in Fig.3. During the trials with second roller in segment position 5. there would also be a corresponding increase in the amount of heat removed during the extended period of external cooling by the strand sprays. This was due to the fact that although more heat would be transferred to the roller during the increased contact period with the strand.3 7210. different types of strand cooling were used and the results of these are recorded separately. heat flow from the centre of the barrel to the colder ends) when casting wider sections and the amount of water used for cooling the strand being varied with changes in strand width.

typical maximum temperatures reached were between 100 and 110°C approximately (Fig. However. variations in its thickness would have had a significant effect on the amount of heat transferred from the strand to the roller. In segment 3. This was followed by a more rapid rise in temperature due to contact with the strand. The differences in the rates of surface temperature increase are particularly obvious in this figure. and are representative of the averages for some 80 to 90% of all roller revolutions. From the roller surface temperature history the variations in heat transfer coefficients have been calculated between the strand and the roller. 3. In both segment positions. Confirmation is provided by the variation in heat transfer coefficient which rose rapidly during this 2 period to reach a maximum of 1300 W/m K and then reduced rapidly again. A severe thermal loading situation was simulated in the mathematical modelling of the different roller designs. The following rapid rise to point K was due to contact with the strand. these may be attributed largely to variations in the thicknesses of scale adhering to both the strand and the roller surfaces. From this.5 Heat Transfer Conditions Within Strand/Roller Contact Area As has been noted above. At point L a slight depression in surface temperature was produced by water from the strand cooling sprays and similarly at M. 21). appreciable differences may be seen between segments 3 and 5 in the maximum roller surface temperatures attained during contact with the strand. in comparison with between 150 and 160°C approximately in segment 5 (Fig.FR 71-9 831 7210. The further differences between the two segment positions. Further analysis of the roller surface temperature history enables the strand/roller contact angle to be determined together with the variation in heat transfer coefficient between the strand and the roller. Because scale is a thermal insulator. 22). In contrast. The variations in roller surface temperature at the contact zone with the strand are shown in detail. see below. 30 are typical for the two segment positions.CA/808 due to radiation from the approaching strand surface. the angle of roller contact with the strand can be seen to have been 4° in the segment 5 position. at segment 3 the effect of the strand contact is not as clearly visible. by taking a maximum heat transfer coefficient of 14 . the initial rise in roller surface temperature in the strand contact zone was due to radiation' from the approaching strand surface. together with the corresponding variations in heat transfer coefficients. The variations in heat transfer coefficient shown in Fig. At segment position 3 the surface temperature gradually increased to a maximum during an angle of rotation of the roller of some 45°. As has been noted previously. This was followed by a greater depression at N probably caused by a layer of cooling water trapped between the roller and strand. A typical set of results are shown in Fig. and attained a maximum of only 300 W/m2 K approximately. Nevertheless. This type of detailed information enables the boundary conditions to be found for the construction of mathematical models to investigate both roller and strand operating conditions. The heat transfer coefficient in the contact area can be seen to have been considerably less than at the segment 5 position. This is due to both the lower maximum temperature reached and the extended period of rise in temperature. considerable differences were observed in the maximum roller surface temperatures attained from revolution to revolution. at segment position 5 the surface temperature reached a maximum after only 8° of roller rotation. In general. examination of the surface temperature history and the heat transfer coefficient variation has shown that area of roller/strand contact extended over approximately 20° in this segment. and consequently on the maximum roller temperature attained. after which the roller surfaced cooled mainly by conduction into the roller. as has been noted above. 30 for each segment position. however.3.

Thus. The differences between the conditions at the strand/roller contact zone at the two segment positions may be attributed to the effects of the differences in the thicknesses of the solid shell of the strand at the two positions. The packing arrangement consists of fixed stops.CA/808 5000 W/m2 K for the strand/roller contact zone. Due to the reduced contact pressure. 3. This value is representative of the upper 5% of the values determined for segment 5 and corresponds. which are permanently bolted to the underside of the top frame. MATHEMATICAL MODELLING OF ROLLER DESIGNS A suite of mathematical models has been developed to enable the performance of different roller designs to be compared under varying operating conditions. 4. At the segment 3 position some 50% of the total ferrostatic load was supported by the strand and at the segment 5 position with an increased amount of solid skin the strand supported 65% of the total ferrostatic load and only 35% was transferred to the rollers. the clamping force from the hydraulic cylinder must be in excess of the separating force exerted on the segment by the slab.4 Mechanical Load Measurements Measurement of the mechanical loads applied to the roller by the strand were carried out using load cells. between the upper and lower halves of the segment. the average contact pressure between the strand and the roller would have been considerably less in segment 3. being more flexible. In order to maintain the correct thickness of strand therefore. Each of the four roll segments in the Ravenscraig No. During casting the ferrostatic pressures from the liquid core of the slab attempts to separate the two halves of the segment. modified by fitting strain gauges. In the upper part of the diagram the roller loads have been plotted as a percentage of the theoretical total ferrostatic force. In the lower part of the diagram the loads produced by the strand on a single roller are shown plotted against the strand width. Thus. and removable packing pieces which are changed according to the thickness of strand being cast. therefore. The two halves of the segment are clamped together by means of hydraulic cylinders fitted to each side of the segment. 31.FR 71-9 831 7210. To fix the desired gap between the top and bottom set of rollers (to cast slabs of a specified thickness). would have tended to deform more around the circumference of the roller to extend the arc of contact. The mechanical loads transmitted from the strand to the rollers were determined by using a set of fixed stops. the mean heat transfer coefficient would have been less in segment 3 than in segment 5. and it can be seen that the roller loads increased with strand width within both segments 3 and 5. because the measurements of mechanical loads applied to the roller (see below) have shown that the loads were approximately the same in the two segment positions. to act as load cells. 5 machine comprise of a top and bottom assembly both with four rollers each. the total net clamping force between the top and bottom halves of the segment could be measured continuously. These results show that the solid skin of the strand carried a significant portion of the total ferrostatic load. the area of strand/roller contact would have been greater than in segment 5 where the strand would have been more rigid due to its thicker shell. Emphasis has been given in this work to the analysis of roller conditions 15 . The load applied to the roller by the strand could then be determined from the difference between the net clamping forces before and after the strand had entered the segment. as the results have shown. The results of these measurements are shown in Fig. to the highest maximum temperatures measured. Consequently. At segment 3 the shell would have been much thinner and the strand. since the roller loading by the ferrostatic force reduces the segment clamping force applied by the hydraulic cylinders. therefore. 32. which assumes that the solid skin of the strand has no load carrying capacity. see Fig. For both segment positions the proportion of loading carried by the rollers can be seen to have decreased with reducing strand width due to the increasing contribution of the loading supported by the solid skin at the edge of the strand. The loads are the average for the four rollers in a segment. packing pieces of the required thickness are placed at each corner.

Elements which model convective heat transfer conditions have been used in the internal cooling passages of the rollers. For short periods of strand stoppages this bending is wholly elastic. 4. as indicated in Fig. This temperature information is then input to the second model which determines the amount of bending due to these thermal loadings.FR 71-9 831 7210. during prolonged strand stoppages higher temperatures are produced in the roller which lead to greater thermal strains. only one half of a roller and a portion of the strand need to be modelled for the temperature analysis. It should be noted that the roller bending calculated by these models is the temporary bending that occurs during the strand stoppage. the effects of reducing the flow rates of internal coolant on both the roller temperatures and bending have been analysed. and a scrolled roller. The most severe loadings on the rollers have been shown to occur during these situations due to the extremely high thermal loadings which are produced within the rollers. since the roller straightens again when casting is resumed. 35. 33. In addition. 16 . These can cause localised permanent deformation of the roller material in contact with the strand which will result subsequently in permanent bending of the roller. However. the likely performances of new roller designs can be readily anticipated and compared with those of existing designs. a peripheral bore roller. 3 casting machine. Three roller designs have been modelled and these are shown in Fig. the effects of an alteration in detail design of a roller such as changing the position or size of an internal cooling channel can be rapidly predicted. The designs include a conventional centre bore roller. The amount of permanent bending is considerably less than the temporary bending. High thermal strains are produced within the roller material on the hotter side which causes the roller to bend into the strand. Thus. These high loadings are the result of the side of the roller in contact with the strand becoming significantly hotter than the other side. These elements enable the effects of change in coolant flow rate to be simulated by variation of the heat transfer coefficients and coolant temperatures. Because temperature conditions during the strand stall situation may be considered to be symmetrical about the centrelines of both the strand and the rollers. For example. not the permanent bending which may be expected to remain after a lengthy stoppage. The corresponding finite element meshes used to determine the temperature variations within the three roller designs are shown in Fig. The second model also calculates directly the bending due to the mechanical loadings which are applied to the roller by the strand ferrostatic pressure. Use of the models enables the effects on the roller designs of different operating conditions to be assessed. A three dimensional non-linear elastic/plastic finite element analysis is required and this is not yet available in the 'PAFEC' system. The models are based on the 310 mm diameter rollers which are used in the strand guide region of the Ravenscraig No. or 'temporary'. for a particular roller design the amount of permanent bending will be a function of the temporary bending produced during the strand stoppage period. The models are based on the finite element technique using the 'PAFEC' system3. The first model is used to calculate the temperature distribution within the roller at different times during a strand stoppage. the comparison of different roller designs on the basis of the temporary bending produced under similar conditions will provide a comparison of their likely performances with regard to resistance to permanent bending.1 Details of Models The determination of roller bending due to thermal loading requires two finite element models.CA/808 during strand stoppages. are frequently employed in finite element analyses because the sizes of the models are reduced and considerably reduced computer run times are needed for the solutions. Nevertheless. Such techniques. see Appendix 3. but its calculation is complex and cannot be performed at present. Because the models may be readily modified. 34. based on symmetry.

the analysis simulates a severe or 'worst case' thermal loading situation for the three roller designs. 4. in the peripheral roller the cooling effects produced by the peripheral cooling holes close to the strand contact region significantly limit 17 . The liquid core was taken to be at a temperature of 1500°C and the temperature within the shell was assumed to vary linearly from 1500°C at the liquid/shell interface to 1000°C at the surface of the strand.FR 71-9 831 7210. as shown in Figs. Considerable differences may be seen between the temperature contours of the centre bore roller and the peripheral bore and scrolled designs. conditions have been simulated corresponding to internal coolant flow rates of 35 litre/min. This is the flow rate specified by the roller manufacturers for these designs. only one half of the roller has needed to be modelled. As has been observed. see Section 3. 3 machine. 38 are based on measurements of thermal diffusivity made on actual roller materials using a laser pulse technique1*. The conditions assumed are given in Table 9. and corresponds therefore to the higher peak temperatures. However. the finite element solution rotates the mesh about its X axis to effectively simulate a complete half roller by forming a solid of revolution.2 Conditions Assumed for Comparison of Three Roller Designs For the comparison of the likely performances of the three roller designs. because the roller is also symmetrical about its central axis. A strand stoppage lasting 40 min has been simulated. Figures 39-41 show comparisons of the resulting predicted temperature profiles at 5. 36.3 Comparison of Roller Performances During a Strand Stoppage (a) Performances With Full Internal Coolant Flow Rates For the first analysis of the relative performance of the three roller types. Fig. The data given in Fig. and as indicated in Fig. Conditions have been simulated which are similar to those occurring at roller position 26 of the Ravenscraig No. 4. The varying conditions within the contact zone in different positions of a casting machine can be simulated by changing the heat transfer coefficients and by altering the size of the elements to vary the length of the contact arc. 18. Mild steel material was assumed for the strand and 16CrMo44 material for the rollers. In addition. These differences are due to the relative effectiveness of the internal cooling arrangements. At the start of the simulated stoppage the strand was assumed to have a solid shell 75 mm in thickness. The thermal properties of both materials were allowed to vary with temperature during the analyses. The value of the heat transfer coefficient taken for the present analysis is representative of the upper 5% of all values determined for roller position 26. The mesh used for the calculation of the amount of roller bending is given in Fig. The heat transfer conditions within the arc of contact between the roller and the strand have been derived from the measurements of roller surface temperature in this position. 20 and 40 min during the strand stoppage period. In the centre bore roller the internal cooling is remote from the strand contact region and therefore heat readily conducts into the main body of the roller. a strand stoppage of 40 min has been modelled. but the meshes for the other two roller types are similar. whereas the temperature increases within the other two designs are limited to the region adjacent to the contact with the strand. a strand thickness of 305 mm was modelled. The increases in temperature within the centre bore roller can be seen to progress steadily with time throughout the roller. particularly as the time of strand stoppage lengthens. The particular mesh shown corresponds to the centre bore roller. The rollers were set at an initial uniform temperature of 25°C in order to simulate the effects of cold rollers at the start of casting when the resulting thermal loadings may be expected to be more severe than later on in casting when the general roller temperatures would have been higher. some considerable variation in heat transfer conditions was evident from the results. due to symmetry about the middle of the roller (Y axis).CA/808 Similar element types have been used to model the contact zone between the roller and the strand. 37 and 38. Thus. 35. Again.

The likely effects have been assessed of reduced flow rates of internal coolant on the amounts of roller bending attained during a strand stoppage. as the flow rate is reduced to 5 litre/min. Because the rollers have attained steady-state temperature conditions by then. as steady-state temperature conditions are eventually approached. 44 that a reduction in the internal coolant flow rate from 35 to 0. Bending due to the thermal loading alone is shown together with that for the thermal loading combined with the mechanical loading which is applied by the strand ferrostatic pressure. the temperature contours begin to penetrate further into the rollers. appreciably higher temperatures are attained within the latter roller. These lower roller temperatures have been shown to produce significantly reduced bending of the peripheral and scrolled designs.2 litre/min causes little change in the temperature contours of the centre bore roller. It may be seen from Fig. It is along these radii that the maximum radial temperature distributions are attained.9 mm within 5 min from the start of the strand stoppage. steady-state temperature conditions are attained approximately within 5 min of the start of the strand stoppage period in both the peripheral and scrolled rollers. However. this bending remains constant throughout the remainder of the 40 min period. In particular. A considerable difference can be seen in the behaviour of the centre bore roller and the other two designs due to the differences in internal temperature distributions. The directions of roller bending produced by each type of loading are in opposition: thermal loading causes the rollers to bend into the strand and mechanical loading causes bending away from the strand. the maximum roller surface temperatures are 430°C compared with 540°C for the centre bore design. (b) Performances With Reduced Internal Coolant Flow Rates Further analysis of the performances of the three roller designs has been performed with the finite element models. As has been observed above. Little effect may be observed also on the temperature profiles within the peripheral bore and scrolled rollers for a reduction in flow rate from 35 to 20 litre/min. the temperature contours are still confined to the region adjacent to the strand even with the reduced flow rate. It can be seen that the bending produced by the thermal loadings are predominant by far.1 mm after some 35 min. whereas steady-state conditions are approached only towards the end of 40 min in the centre bore roller due to the greater heat input. particularly. The bending of both the peripheral bore and the scrolled rollers due to the combined loading quickly stabilises at some 0.CA/808 heat conduction into the main body of the roller. The figures show the temperature profiles at 10 min after the start of the strand stoppage. Due to the considerable effectiveness of their internal cooling. However. 42 which shows the increases in predicted temperatures along the radii normal to the strand during the 40 min period. this is due to the remoteness of the central cooling bore from the strand contact region and the resulting ease by which heat may be conducted into the main body of the roller. These differences in roller temperatures can be seen clearly in Fig. the maximum temperatures attained within the former two designs are at least 100°C lower than those within the centre bore design. This can be seen in the scrolled rolled. similar to that of the previous analysis.FR 71-9 831 7210. and is due to the reduced cooling on the inner surface of the roller shell permitting increased conduction of heat around the shell in the circumferential 18 . Consequently. A similar effect is produced by the cooling channel of the scrolled roller. the bending of the centre bore roller continues to increase throughout most of the period to reach 4. Up to a depth of 65 mm from the roller surface. The predicted temperatures reached within the peripheral and the scrolled designs can be seen to be significantly less at a given depth than those within the centre bore roller. Figures 44-46 show a comparison of the predicted temperature profiles within each of the three roller designs for different flow rates of internal coolant. Figure 43 shows the variation in bending for the three roller designs over the 40 min strand stoppage period. Thus.

produced by the strand ferrostatic pressure. as the flow rate is reduced further below 20 litre/min.4 Summary of Comparison of Roller Performances During a Strand Stoppage The finite element analysis of roller conditions during a 40 min strand stoppage has shown that. the bending of this roller is still only about one half of that of the centre bore and scrolled rollers at a flow rate of 5 litre/min. since the bending due to mechanical loading is small. the temperature contours have penetrated further into the scrolled roller than the peripheral roller. the performance of the peripheral bore roller can be seen to be the best over the total range of flow rates. roller bending due to the thermal loading is considerably greater than that due to the mechanical loading. The effects of the reduced flow rates on the amount of predicted roller bending are shown in Fig. the amounts of bending predicted for all three roller designs increase with reduced flow rate to become the same with zero flow rate. In general. However. Of the three roller designs. the predicted temporary bending of the peripheral and scrolled rollers are identical and considerably less than that of the centre bore roller. This is caused by the temperature effects of the increasing circumferential heat conduction into the shell of the scrolled roller as the flow rate is reduced. at a flow rate of 5 litre/min. their resistance to permanent bending should not be reduced significantly. At the greatly reduced flow rate of 0. 47 for strand stoppages of 5 and 10 min. This may be attributed to the effects of both the coolant and the reduced area for heat conduction in the radial direction because of the presence of the helical cooling channel itself. However. A significant increase in bending of the peripheral bore roller only begins to occur when the flow rate is reduced to below approximately 10 litre/min. as noted above.CA/808 direction.2 litre/min the temperature profiles of both these rollers can be seen to be similar. The amounts of bending of the peripheral and scrolled rollers are virtually identical over the range of flow rates from 20 to 35 litre/min. its bending approaches that of the centre bore roller. although the temperatures within the scrolled roller tend to be slightly higher in the circumferential direction and less in the radial direction than in the peripheral roller. The bending shown is due to thermal loading only.due to the effectiveness of their internal cooling arrangements. causes the bending of the scrolled roller to increase rapidly until. however. Reduction of flow rate below 20 litre/min. The bending of the centre bore roller is appreciably greater than that of the other two designs for flow rates between 10 and 35 litre/min. The effect of reduction in the flow rate on the bending of the centre bore roller is slight due to the small changes in roller temperature distributions that are produced because of the remoteness of the central cooling bore from the strand contact region. 45 and 46 shows that. This is due to their significantly improved internal cooling. at this flow rate of 5 litre/min. as has been seen previously. Comparison of Figs. 4. bending is very little affected by a change in flow rate in this range due to the small changes produced in the internal temperature distributions of the rollers. the peripheral and scrolled roller designs should have an appreciably greater resistance to permanent bending than the centre bore roller. In addition. Therefore.FR 71-9 831 7210. as specified by the roller manufacturers. With internal cooling flow rates of 35 litre/min. for the situation studied. Nevertheless. the characteristics of the individual rollers are different because of the varying effects of reduced flow rate on their temperature distributions. For strand stoppages of up to 10 min. the temporary bending of the scrolled roller begins to increase rapidly with reducing flow rate until 19 . Because any resulting permanent roller bending will be a function of the temporary bending produced. the reduction of the internal coolant flow rate from 35 to 20 litre/min results in only a slight increase in temporary bending of the peripheral and scrolled rollers .

instrumented rollers and mathematical modelling by deriving data concerning the variations in mechanical properties of candidate roller materials. The alloys fall within three broad categories. These alloys were also tested in the fully heat treated condition and both forged and cast forms. Table 10 describes the chemical compositions of those candidate materials which were subjected to more detailed evaluation. which details the position. All fracture and fatigue cracking during this test programme was carried out on a 200 kN capacity electrohydraulic facility under force control. 48. (b) Room temperature and elevated temperature mechanical properties. It was decided to adopt the cut-up testing configuration shown schematically in Fig. i. low alloy steels. high integrity submerged arc welding techniques. The casting is intended for use as a sleeve in the production of slab casting machine rolls. The performance of the peripheral bore roller has been shown to be the best of the three roller designs over the full range of flow rates. The testing and analytical procedures used to devise the fracture toughness data are fully explained in the appropriate British Standards 6 ' 7 . Thus. The latter process route usually employed centrifugal casting technology in order to provide greater homogeneity and cleanness of the working shell and surface of the cylindrical roller.e. 5. low base material toughness and the occurrence of high stresses due to random operating abnormal loads caused by thermal-mechanical changes at the roller surface. It is only when the flow rate is reduced to less than 10 litre/min would a loss be anticipated in its resistance to permanent bending. It was anticipated that the low alloy grades would exhibit moderate elevated temperature mechanical strength and excellent toughness following quality heat treatment. The second category of candidate materials is based predominantly upon the super 12% chromium steels. the performance of this roller at a flow rate of 5 litre/min should still be appreciably better than the other two roller designs. Even so. at this flow rate the resistance to permanent bending of the scrolled roller would be significantly reduced and would become similar to that of the centre bore roller. direction and types of test pieces adopted for this part of the research programme.Fracture Properties Premature roller failure has been shown to be associated with two contributory factors. Class II (5) containing 12% to 13% chromium. medium alloy steels and weld surfacing consumables. The first two categories are readily available in both cast and wrought forms from electric melted degassed steels.CA/808 the bending approaches that of the centre bore roller at 5 litre/min. The peripheral bore roller is much less affected than the scrolled roller by a reduction in internal coolant flow rate. 5.2 Materials Evaluation . i. up to 1% molybdenum and further additions of other carbide forming elements such as vanadium.1 Introduction During the course of the research project an attempt has been made to enhance the results of plant trials. Measurements have been made of the fracture properties of a 12% chromium steel cylinder manufactured using the centrifugal casting technique. 20 . SUPPORTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT 5.FR 71-9 831 7210. (c) Thermal fatigue properties (mainly surfacing materials). Due to the limited volume of material available then these alloys were subjected to limited testing involving thermal fatigue property derivations and temper response characteristics only.e. This involved measurements of:(a) Fracture properties. The final range of candidate alloys was based upon low alloy and 12% chromium bearing weld surfacing consumables usually deposited on the roller surface using modern.

The centrifugal casting process is designed specifically to improve the integrity and homogeneity of the cast sleeves and therefore is characteristic of the best manufacturing proce ss currently available for roll making.1 110. The results facilitate not only a comparison of different materials but permit the calculation of the size of defect necessary to cause fracture under specified loading conditions. The significance of the possible scatte r in results must be taken into account when attempting to 21 . The casting exhibits a coarse columnar grain structure occupying 75% of the cylinder wall thickness with an equiaxed structure at the inner surface.4 71. however. an attempt was made to determine the impact transition temperature based upon 50% fibrous fracture using standard Charpy V-notch samples.1 89.512 0. Adequate toughness can be achieved in cast and/or forged sleeves.9 131.07 0.3 / 2) m COD (mm) Longitudinal 73.7 0. there are two probi ems. Fracture toughness tests were performed at room temperature (+20°C) for a wider range of materials in order to compare and contrast their behaviour. A limited amount of testing was performed at temperatures between -40°C and +40°C in order to derive valid fracture toughness values. 50. 49. scatter in the test programme and hence mean values have been taken when comparing the mater ial properties as shown in Table 11.0 0.7210. variations in macrostructure and microstructure can produce variations in mecha nical properties particularly in castings.2 82. These differences in behaviour are associated with the localised fracture characteristics in the region of the fatigue cracks induced in the specimens prior to testing.2 137.8 138. Details of these results and typical impact transition curves are summarised in Table 11 and Fig. as considerable plasticity may occur at the crack tip in non-va lid fracture toughness tests. The significance of structure property relationships will be the subject of a more detailed assessment later in this report. The most important fracture plane for rolls is the through-thickness transverse plane and this was studied using specimens notched from both the inner and outer faces.8 71.0 88.CA/808 FR 71-9 831 The purpose of this fracture study was to determine if the fracture properties of the casting were adequate for such an application.2 145. Examples of these characteristics are shown in Fig. these results have shown a considerable the materials teste d.739 Through-thickness (inner face) (outer face) 82. the occurrence of low fracture toughness results in positions X and Y a nd the different behaviour of the inner and outer shell material. Three fracture orientations were studied using the largest compact tension and bend test pieces that were appropriate. Clearly.80 It is clear from the foregoing results that the toughness of this 12% chromium steel is very variable and dependent upon the orientations tested. then COD (crack opening displacement) value s should be used to compare the fracture toughness levels of However. Detailed testing results obtained were as follows:K (MN m _ 3 / 2) Κ (MN m .165 0. These results confirm the superior toughn ess levels achieved in the more recently specified 16CrMo44 and 21CrMoV511 mate rials supplied as fully heat treated forgings (Appendix 1). Linear elastic stress intensities (K) and crack opening displacement (COD) results were recorded for all the tests.413 0. It should be noted from the foregoing table describing the results obtained from the 12% Cr cas t sleeve that. In addition.122 1. The fracture properties were measured using the experimental techniques and analysis procedures of fracture mechanics.1 131.7 134.

It is anticipated also that such residual stresses may influence the behaviour of rollers both during normal and abnormal casting conditions where the resistance to thermal shock cracking and permanent roller bending are most critical. 51. the resistance to permanent bending is a function of high temperature yield strength which has been shown to vary considerably within the range of materials studied. Technical details of the test method were detailed in Technical Report No. It should be remembered that in practice the elastic bending of a selected support roller design is a function of Young's Modulus for the roller material. 53 and 54. It was not possible to determine such properties for weldments although an indication of their high temperature strength may be deduced from the results of hot hardness measurements (Fig. The significance of these results will be discussed in the later sections of this report. low alloy weldments and 12% chromium containing weldments are shown in Figs. This aspect will be discussed further in Section 6 of this report.EA/80l(8). Typical values for the medium alloy 12% chromium weldment are shown in Fig. The method adopted is described in detail in Ref. An important feature of the weld surfacing method which has not been explored to date is that related to the residual stresses which may be in-built during the welding and post-weld heat treatment cycle.3 Influence of Temperature Upon the Mechanical Properties of Candidate Materials A comparison of the mechanical properties of forged and cast low alloy and medium alloy steels is shown in Table 12 and Fig. An attempt was made to refine the thermal fatigue simulation testing by reproducing the thermal loading using larger specimens and thermal mechanical loading.4 Properties of Hard Surfacing Consumables Whilst the mechanisms leading to surface deterioration of concast plant support rollers is not well understood it is clear that the surfaces degenerate by both corrosive erosive wear and by thermal fatigue cracking. An attempt was made to measure the surface and sub-surface residual stresses on the weld cladding which was 10 mm thick. 52). It is imperative that the enhanced properties of these weldments are maintained during the full service life of the roller and with this in mind the temper response characteristics of the materials are important. A technique has been developed to establish the level and direction of residual stresses present in rollers after manufacture with a view to establishing a basis to judge the effect of subsequent normal and abnormal service conditions upon roller stresses. 5 Í 9 ) . Details of the test methods employed are described in the final report of ECSC Project 7210. Data for conventional forgings. It is well known that in-built residual compressive stresses are advantageous at the surface of components which may undergo fatigue damage during service. The severity of these mechanisms may vary with position in the strand and with changes in the plant environment when casting different grades of steel. 10 and was performed on a 430 mm diameter roller weld surfaced with 12% Cr weldment to the detailed specification outlined earlier. 5. However. The potential benefits of adopting the medium alloy 12% chromium surfacing consumable are clearly demonstrated both in terms of wear resistance and resistance to thermal fatigue cracking. 5.FR 71-9 831 7210.CA/808 design rollers and in the selection of materials with optimum mechanical properties. It is clear that both the wear test and thermal fatigue tests are appropriate to the evaluation of other materials which may be intended for roller manufacture in the future. The residual stresses were measured at the quadrant positions around the sample 22 . 17. This approach unfortunately produced unreliable crack nucleation and growth characteristics and could not be used to compare the properties of the candidate materials. During the early part of this research programme an attempt was made using available data to characterise the wear and thermal fatigue resistance of potential weldments for improving the overall performance of the rollers. in contrast. These values are seen to vary little with the changes in composition or" manufacturing route.

This involved cutting a circular groove around a rosette strain gauge with measurement of the stress relief at every 0.5 mm increment of depth. Although the original intention had been to make two determinations of residual stress at each quadrant.FR 71-9 831 7210. the effectiveness of the roller design (in terms of stiffness and intrinsic cooling characteristics). and (b) The detailed analysis of selected variables such as mechanical and thermal loading situations which occur during normal and abnormal casting conditions. It was not possible to estimate quantitatively the change in sub-surface residual stresses albeit likely that within a few mm of the cladded surface there would be a change from compressive to tensile residual stresses. The results were calibrated against a fully stress relieved piece of weld material. DISCUSSION The performance of transport rollers in continuous casting plant is clearly dependent upon the physical and mechanical properties of the roller material. It is particularly important to determine quantitatively the working environment of the support roller system and the mechanical and thermal loading which occurs during normal and abnormal casting conditions. The results for surface residual stress were compressive and were large in magnitude as follows:- Position Stress. the necessary data having been gained from actual measurements or computed thermal profiles of a variety of roller designs. and the plant environments (imposed mechanical and thermal stresses and external water cooling systems). The strain gauges used were FRA-2. 6. It is clear from the measured and computed thermal profiles that under all conditions the thermal stresses are significantly greater than the mechanical stresses arising from the ferrostatic pressure exerted by the molten steel within the 23 . This research programme has endeavoured to blend the results of a multi-disciplined engineering and metallurgical approach to explain the differences in performance of a variety of selected materials and roller designs and to provide guidelines to the selection of these in future designs of plant and equipment. N/mm 2 Hoop Axial 0° -319 -286 -283 -233 90° -329 -303 -273 -248 270° -296 -248 360° -294 -242 The accuracy of these tests was considered to be ±10 N/mm 2 . The interplay of these factors is complex yet may be more clearly understood by studying:(a) The actual metallurgical and physical changes which have occurred during service of known roller materials in continuous casting plant producing large tonnages of wide slab. A 12 mm bore cutter with a 3 mm wall thickness was driven manually into the roller to a maximum depth of «13 mm. 2 mm gauge length. three element rosettes. the measurements were such that repeats were considered unnecessary at the 270 and 360° position. At this depth the relaxation of stress in the central pillar left by the machining operation was complete.CA/808 using the trepanning technique. These latter stresses would be adequately contained within the body of the roller material.

The distribution of Von Mises stress contours are shown for the centre plane of the roller. From Fig. can create stresses which exceed the yield strength of the roller material. and this would depend on the roller temperatures attained during the strand stoppage. These stress contours have been determined on the assumption that the roller material remains completely elastic. severe temperature rises occur. although care should always be taken to ensure the material retains its inherent lower temperature toughness characteristic in order to prevent catastrophic roller failure from brittle fracture. Thus. In addition. In determining the boundary of this shaded area. If the yield stress is exceeded by the Von Mises stress. For a point in a body with a complex stress distribution. a limited amount of roller stress analysis has been performed. The most critical parameter is that of roller stress particularly during a prolonged stall situation. As has been noted earlier. Fig. At first sight the results of the three independent assessments 24 . In addition. and cause instability and permanent bending of the roller. in turn. Fig. 40. It is important to utilise the data generated in this research programme to select the combination of material and roller design which best suits individual plant requirements. Under normal casting conditions with adequate roll cooling the bulk operating temperatures of the roller are below 200°C. However. then the local material may be assumed to have yielded and taken up a permanent deformation. allowance has been made for the effect of material temperature on yield stress. the period of the strand stoppage. the onset of thermal fatigue cracking is related to surface operating temperature as earlier work2 has shown that steels and irons do not readily fail by cracking if the operating temperature is maintained below _400°C. The use of the Von Mises stress forms a convenient criterion to determine whether the material of the body would have failed at that position. The amount of permanent bending would be a function of the extent of the material which had become permanently deformed. will depend on the heat transfer conditions at the roller/strand interface. coupled with substantial thermal gradients. the shaded area in Fig.depending on the material temperature. Further practical experience with the higher strength 16CrMo44 and 21CrMoV511 materials should confirm this view. Thus. These. it would be expected that materials with higher yield strength at high temperatures would be more resistant to the onset of permanent bending. and the internal cooling arrangements of the particular roller design. the value of the Von Mises stress is compared with the yield stress of the material measured by a simple tensile test. The roller material within the shaded area would have become permanently deformed. thermal shock cracking might occur which could lead to catastrophic roller failure. i. These. However.e. corresponding to a strand stoppage of 20 min. Hence the strength levels available from the CrMo steels are more than adequate to resist the imposed forces. 55 it can be seen that the Von Mises stresses due to the mechanical loading are very low in comparison with the stresses due to the thermal loading. Figure 55 shows a comparison of the calculated stress distributions through a centre bore roller due to mechanical and thermal loadings. The maximum Von Mises stress contour due to mechanical loading is 12 N/mm2. when the plant conditions become more severe. using minimal external water cooling and particularly when a stall condition is reached. However.CA/808 solidifying slab. the Von Mises stress is a single stress value which is determined from the maximum shear strain energy within the material. 56. This localised permanent deformation of the roller material would result subsequently in the permanent bending of the roller. the calculation of the amount of permanent bending is complex and cannot be performed at present. 55 indicates where the roller material would have failed due to the local Von Mises stresses exceeding the tensile yield stress. whereas the stress contours due to thermal loading increase rapidly towards the roller/strand contact region from 100 to 900 N/mm2 due to the high temperatures within this area of the roller. Using the finite element models. the yield stress of the roller material varies between 380 and 250 N/mm2 .FR 71-9 831 7210.

g. The steel weldments reduces dramatically was measured even after 100 000 t of cracking is related to chemistry and and hence weld surfacing was used to use of 12% chromium martensitic stainless the wear and little reduction in diameter slab were cast through the machine.FR 71-9 831 7210. (b) The overall wear and thermal microstructure of the roller surface enhance the roller performance. temperatures measured are approximately 250°C maximum and computed stall results were approximately 500°C maximum. when the plant environment is more hostile. The scroll-roll design monitored during this research project exhibited some anomalous results which require further detailed metallurgical and engineering investigation. and peripheral bored roller designs. (NB. in the case of low toughness roller arbors. then the 'cold' roll designs offer greater resistance to permanent roller bending. the thermocouple position was located at the centre position only and that external water cooling from the process water was particularly effective in cooling the roller surface. However. CONCLUSIONS 7. It is interesting to note that results from earlier work11 involving roller surface temperature measurements confirmed the view that surface temperatures may exceed 500°C.e.1 Roller Trials and Performance Evaluation (a) Variations in the performance of rollers have been followed by metallurgical examination of roller surfaces after long term in-plant service campaigns. may lead to catastrophic failure by brittle fracture. In practice. Further metallurgical observations of the rollers showed very clearly that the thermal fatigue/thermal shock cracking also occurred at positions w 3 and 2 / 3 distance along the roller barrel. the top rollers always appeared to operate hotter presumably due to the lesser effect of process water there. The maximum temperatures recorded were around 590°C. e. It is postulated that some process water may be carried along with the slabs on entering the straightener section and leads to the temperature distributions observed in this trial. These particular rollers experience little cooling from external process water due to their position outside the spray chamber zone. (NB. (c) Specifications have been designed for roller materials manufactured as prime forgings followed by weld surfacing. It is postulated that without the influence of external water cooling then roller surface temperatures could easily attain 500-600°C especially after a 5 or 6 h casting sequence. There are various reasons why this situation has arisen. This programme of work involved an assessment of the surface temperature of rollers within the straightener-withdrawal area of a slab casting machine. In addition.) 7. Each of these factors could have contributed to the observed metallurgical effects observed during the roller trials described earlier in Section 2 of this report. i. Rollers situated in the bottom position exhibited less major firecracking and greater uniformity of surface degradation. Temperature measurements were performed using an AGA thermovision camera and typical temperature scans are shown in Fig. In the first place the surface temperatures at slab contact position were never measured for a true stall condition as by chance the thermocouples were away from the strand contact position at this time.CA/808 of roller temperature appear to vary. The instrumented rollers were sensitive to changes in plant environment associated with the different grades of steel slab cast and gauge changes. 57. Surface degradation takes place by both corrosive/erosive wear and thermal fatigue cracking which. metallurgical assessment predicts 600°C. Special 25 . during a stall condition. which occurred at a position l/3 distance along the roller barrel.) 7. (d) The evaluation of results of works trials involving 'hot' and 'cold' roller designs showed that under normal operating conditions there was little to choose between the conventional centre-bored 'hot' roll design and the more sophisticated scroll-roll.2 Plant Monitoring and the Development of an Instrumented Roller (a) Specially instrumented roller segments and individual thermocouple implants have been used to measure the mechanical loading and temperature profiles in rollers during normal and abnormal casting conditions.

improving the high temperature yield strength of the roller shell material is also likely to be beneficial. The heat transfer coefficient varied with segment position with calculated values at 300 W/m 2 K in segment 3 and 1300 W/m 2 K at segment 5 position. (c) Taking a typical stall condition for a simple centre-bored roller and calculating the Von Mises maximum stress shows that local yielding will occur during a stall. The role of residual stresses in limiting roller bending is. steels are more than adequate to resist the mechanical-thermal stresses occurring during normal casting conditions.4 Supporting Research and Development (a) The results of a comprehensive test programme have shown that two low alloy steels possess excellent combinations of fracture toughness and mechanical strength in the forged and heat treated condition. (b) The mathematical models have established that thermal loading. particularly that arising from stall conditions. (d) The high temperature strength of the low alloy. e. Less of the ferrostatic load was transferred to the roller in the lower strand segments.FR 71-9 831 7210. and the performance of the 'cold' roller designs involving both scroll cooling and peripheral bored cooling channels is less dependent upon the volumes of cooling water used. (b) Weld surfacing using 12% chromium martensitic stainless steels offers the best combination of wear and thermal fatigue resistant roller surfaces. the improved toughness levels achievable even at low temperatures should lead to major improvements in performance with respect to resistance to catastrophic brittle failure in the presence of pre-existing thermal fatigue cracking. (b) Generally the maximum roller operating temperatures did not exceed 200°C even when the casting speed was reduced or during a short stall. is significantly greater than the mechanical loading arising from the ferrostatic pressure within the solidifying slab. 7. The influence of roller cooling design is significant in reducing the degree of permanent roller bending.CA/808 surface thermocouple implants were used to establish conditions at the slab/roller interface and to provide base-line data for use in the mathematical modelling of roller designs. whilst recording a fairly rapid temperature rise. It is significant that in these latter situations the surface thermocouple implant. (c) In-built residual stresses were shown to exist in fully heat treated weld surfaced rollers. as yet. 7. It is postulated that these stresses are beneficial in resisting the nucleation and growth of thermal fatigue cracks. Centrifugally cast low alloy and 12% chromium steels have adequate combinations of mechanical properties but exhibit anisotropic properties. The suite of models has utilised the results of the instrumented roller trials in order to establish operating conditions for rollers of different design to those observed in practice. In addition. uncertain.3 Mathematical Modelling and Roller Design (a) Finite element mathematical models have been derived to simulate roller performance during normal operating conditions where both roller and strand move continuously and during stall conditions when the machine stops for a long period. Results also showed that the strand cooling water played a significant part in maintaining low operating temperatures. was some distance from the position of the slab/roller contact zone. The degree of improvement resulting from changing to a cold roll design has not been calculated in this project but is likely to be beneficial.g. In addition. 16CrMo44 and 21CrMoV511. (c) Mechanical loading increased with strand width. 26 . 50% of the calculated ferrostatic load was measured at segment 3 and 35% at segment 5 position.

. J. 'Increasing Work Roll Life by Improved Roll Cooling Practice'.E.CA/808. BSC Ref. 5. Butter.CA/808. J. Sept. No. 'Methods for Crack Opening Displacement (COD) Testing'. Development and Design of Transport Rollers in Continuous Casting Plant'. 7210.CA/808 8. Sidgwick. 5. Heat Capacity and Thermal Conductivity'.. Parker..D.. and Parker. 1979. Britisrrstandards Institution.EA/801.FR 71-9 831 7210. 'Flash Method of Determining Thermal Diffusivity. 1961. 6. BS5447. 71-2(STF)801. McCann. 3.. J. and Harper. Eisenhuttenwes. Final Report. 9. et al. McCann. England. No.P. 1971. E. T.. 8. Jenkins. EJF 27 . Strelley Hall.. Strelley. 'Pafec 75 Theory. 1977. ECSC Agreement No. Briggs. S. No. 3. BS5762. 'Methods for Plane Strain Κ r Fracture Toughness Testing of Metallic Materials'. 'Evaluation.. Journal of Applied Physics. P. H. 'The Effect of Lubrication. 2. 2. W. 7210. ECSC Agreement No. Results'. and Abbot. ECSC Agreement No. BSC Ref.. 9.. 4. 11. 3. Wolf. Arch. ECSC Agreement No. 48. Climax Molybdenum Company Publication. K. No.Ζ. Development and Design of Transport Rollers in Continuous Casting Plant'.J. Development and Design of Transport Rollers in Continuous Casting Plant'. 71-5(STF)812. J. JISI. 71-3(STF)802. 7. G.CA/808.P. REFERENCES 1. 32. 'Evaluation. Technical Report No.G. Technical Report No. and McCann. Vol. March 1977. R. Ivens. 10. P. Pafec Ltd. 'Evaluation.. British Standards Institution. 7210. Jan. J. pp 1679-1687. C. 7210. and Stucker. Nottingham. 'The Super 12% Cr Steels'. BSC Ref. Cooling and Metallurgy Upon the Performance of Hot Mill Work Rolls'. Technical Report No. McCann. Stevens.

1 Posn.01 243.21 244.) 1.63 244.08 Nil .61 243.37 243.49 243.03 Loss in Dia.47 244. 1 Posn.50 243. mm Posn. 2 Posn.35 0.Min.56 310. Material Cooled Cooled Cooled Cooled Cooled Cooled Edge Centre Edge En20A Forged En20A Forged En20A Forged 12% Cr Welded 12% Cr Welded 12% Cr Welded 270 260 240 380 370 360 220 230 210 260 260 205 170 175 180 300 250 190 250 180 180 290 270 245 250 190 270 400 380 350 Scroll Cooled Scroll Cooled Scroll Cooled 13CrMo44 Forged Low Alloy Welded Low Alloy Welded 220 280 280 185 180 260 180 160 270 185 175 280 230 280 280 Journal Cooled Only 12% Cr Welded 440 360 280 350 430 28 . mm (Min.54 309.56 243. 3 243. Bore Bore Bore Bore Bore Bore Hardness Equivalent Vickers No. mm Roller No.90 242.30 244.48 243.97 243. Work Dia.75 244.88 243.CA/808 TABLE 1 HARDNESS OF ROLLERS USED IN LACKENBY SLAB CASTER PLANT TRIALS Roller Position Mean HV 350-400 470-510 440-480 400-415 380-415 370 495 460 410 400 Low Low Low Low Low Top Entry Top Exit 26 30 12% Cr Weld 12% Cr Weld 380-390 380-400 385 390 Top Second Top Third Top Fourth 27 28 29 Low Alloy Forge Low Alloy Forge Low Alloy Forge 220-250 240-260 230-240 230 250 235 - Spray Coat 690-730 710 Strand Guide Zone III Entry Second Third Fourth Exit - TABLE 2 Alloy Alloy Alloy Alloy Alloy Weld Weld Weld Weld Weld WEAR OF ROLLERS USED IN LACKENBY SLAB CASTER PLANT TRIALS Shoulder Dia.02 1. ROLLER HARDNESS AFTER SERVICE Roller Type Design Centre Centre Centre Centre Centre Centre Hardness Range Equivalent Vickers No.86 244.56 309. 2 Posn.7210.49 242.45 0. Roller Type 27 29 21 22 26 30 Low Alloy Forge Low Alloy Forge Low Alloy Weld Low Alloy Weld 12% Cr Weld 12% Cr Weld Spray Coat TABLE 3 Work Area Dia.53 243.83 243.31 242. 21 22 23 24 25 Bottom Bottom Bottom Bottom Bottom Strand Guide Zone II Roller Type Roller No..75 244. .48 310.80 244.98 242.56 243.59 244.07 0.56 309. Shoulder Dia.56 243.51 243.46 0.97 242.56 244.

0 1.6 1. 29 Spray Spray Spray Spray Spray Depth from Surface Roll.9 0.85 Strand Cooling Conv.0 0 0 30 9 6-9 3-5 1. Conv.5 16 69 118 103 105 100 117 126 83 83 82 102 . Spray Conv.7 2.6 0. Spray Conv.0 0. Spray Conv. Conv.7210. mm 5.0 0.7 Strand Cooling Conv. mm 5.9-1.5-0.CA/808 TABLE 4 RESULTS OF ROLLER CONDITION MONITORING IN STRUCTURED WORKS TRIALS Roller Cooling Design Roller Surface Bend mm Wear mm Top Entry Top Exit Bottom Entry Bottom Exit 12% Cr 12% Cr 12% Cr 16CrMo44 3.5 16 69 118 109 115 113 132 138 169 91 89 96 100 106 147 74 71 80 80 84 100 62 62 62 60 67 95 QUASI STEADY STATE TEMPERATURE DURING UNINTERRUPTED CASTING (TRIAL 2) Quasi Steady State Roll Temperature.1 0.5 4.0 0. Spray Soft Cooling Depth from Surface Ro11. 98 68 69 70 74 78 55 53 60 65 66 . Conv. °C Strand Size mm 920 1100 1280 1550 1810 χ χ χ χ χ 229 229 229 229 229 Casting Speed m/min 1.0 1.0 0.8 22 4 7 8 4-8 1-4 3-5 2-6 6.0 Scrolled Scrolled Top Third Bottom Third 12% Cr 12% Cr Peripheral Bore Peripheral Bore Top Second Bottom Second 12% Cr 12% Cr Centre Centre Centre Centre Roller Position Bore Bore Bore Bore TABLE 5 Crack Depth mm Max.1 1.2 0 0 13 3 7-9 1-3 QUASI STEADY STATE TEMPERATURE DURING UNINTERRUPTED CASTING (TRIAL 1) Quasi Steady State Roll Temperature. °C Strand Size mm 920 1280 1310 1530 1850 1530 χ χ χ χ χ χ 229 229 229 305 229 305 TABLE 6 Casting Speed m/min 1. Others 0 0 0 3. Conv. Spray Conv.

95 1.9 0.9 0.95 1.0 0.0 1.95 0.9 0. mm Mist Mist Mist Mist Mist Mist Mist 4.95 UNINTERRUPTED Quasi Steady State Roll Temperature.7 0.7210.85 0. Air Mist Conv. Air Mist 4. liquid core temperature = 1500°C Material of Rollers 16CrMo44 Cooling of Rollers No external cooling Internal coolant flow rate = 35 litre/min Coolant temperature = 25°C 30 . Air Mist Air Mist Conv.95 0.9 0. Conv.5 17 48 83 122 81 119 93 90 111 127 104 133 98 122 66 97 76 80 95 106 87 106 85 100 61 89 69 71 85 97 81 95 78 88 52 78 62 67 81 85 75 85 71 78 43 62 54 60 63 70 62 71 63 65 QUASI STEADY STATE TEMPERATURE DURING CASTING (TRIAL 4) Strand Size mm 1100 1190 1280 1530 1760 1790 1850 Casting Speed m/min Quasi Steady Stat ï Roll Temperature.9 0.90 Strand Cooling Depth from Surface o f Roll. mm Conv.5 17 48 83 122 96 98 101 97 105 102 102 90 91 94 88 99 94 98 79 81 82 76 87 83 86 70 72 75 68 78 76 77 63 68 69 63 72 69 72 PHYSICAL PARAMETERS FOR ROLLERS STUDIED BY MATHEMATICAL MODELS Strand Dimensions 1830 χ 305 mm Roller Mechanical Load Applied by Strand 169 kN Roller/Strand Contact Area Contact angle = 2° Heat transfer coefficient = 5000 W/m 2 K Initial Temperature of Rollers 25°C Initial Strand Conditions Solid shell thickness = 75 mm. 3 C 229 229 229 305 229 229 229 Casting Speed m/min 0. shell temperature.CA/808 TABLE 7 QUASI STEADY STATE TEMPERATURE DURING UNINTERRUPTED CASTING (TRIAL 3) Strand Size mm 1100 1100 1190 1280 1280 1510 1760 1760 1850 1850 χ χ χ χ χ χ χ χ χ χ 229 229 229 229 229 305 229 229 229 229 TABLE 8 χ χ χ χ χ χ χ TABLE 9 0. Air Mist Conv.0 0.55 0. linear variation from 1500 to 1000°C through thickness. °C Strand Cooling Air Air Air Air Air Air Air Depth from Surface of Roll.

5/ 1.0 1.60 0.5/ 2.17/ 0.51 1.50 0.35 0.30/ 0. Medium Alloy Class II 12% Chromium Steel 0.90 1.68 0.50 1.20 0.50 1.CA/808 TABLE 10 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF CANDIDATE ROLLER MATERIALS Candidate Roller Material Chemical Composition Si C Mn Cr Mo Ni V 0.30/ 0.13/ 0.10/ 0.3/ 1.20 0.35 Surface Weldment Matching 0.0/ 2.80 0.70/ 1.6 max.0/ 2.30/ 0.80 1.0 10.15/ 0.20/ 1.30 0.80 Centrispun 12% Cr Casting L Τ 47 35 +27 +12 160 142 130 120 0.50 21CrMov511 0.00 0.00/ 1.30/ 11.26 TABLE 11(b) INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE ON THE FRACTURE PROPERTIES OF FORGED 21CrMoV511 Test Temperature.0/ 14.10/ 0.20/ 1.25/ 0.0/ 2.30/ 0.8 - FRACTURE PROPERTIES OF CANDIDATE ROLLER MATERIALS Candidate Roller Material Specimen Orienta­ tion Energy at -20°C J 50% FATT °C Shelf Energy J K COD IC MN m~ 3 / z mm Forged 16CrMo44 L Τ 50/100 0 90/150 134 109 0.16 0.30/ 0.90/ 1.05/ 0.50/ 0.93 0.40 0.40/ 0.15/ 0.20 0.0 0.0 13% Cr 0.10 0.25 0.00/ 1.32 Forged 21CrMoV57 L Τ 50 28 0 70/120 155 125 0.7 Low Alloy Forging TABLE 11(a) 2.7210.0 13.20 0.35 16CrMo44 0.0 1.23 0. °C Specimen Orientation -20 +21 +40 L L L 31 K IC MN m" 3 / 2 90 114 116 .18 Forged 21CrMoV511 L 35 +18 >80 114 - Centrispun Low Alloy Casting L Τ 195 175 -45 -35 260 235 190 140 0.

CA/808 TABLE 12(a) MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CANDIDATE ROLLER MATERIALS Candidate Roller Material 0.2% Yield Strength N/mm* Ultimate Tensile Strength N/mrrr Elongation % Reduction of Area % Forged Roll 16CrMo44 486 616 26 78 Forged Bar 16CrMo44 407 704 19 61 Forged Bar 21CrMoV47 562 968 15 38 Forged Roll 21CrMoV511 1044 1125 17 62 Low Alloy Centrispun Sleeve 545 629 24 80 12% Cr Centrispun Sleeve 475 622 23 73 TABLE 12(b) MECHANICAL PROPERTIES AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURES Roller Material Test Temp. °C 0.7210.2% Yield Strength N/mm2 Ultimate Tensile Strength N/mm2 Elongation % Reduction of Area % Forged 16CrMo44 RT 300 400 500 600 486 432 407 374 270 616 606 572 475 342 26 22 26 25 38 78 75 80 83 92 Forged 21CrMoV511 RT 300 400 500 600 1044 917 827 693 356 1125 1025 948 805 544 17 14 16 18 28 62 52 67 76 82 RT 300 600 475 425 199 622 549 282 23 19 31 73 70 87 Centrispun Sleeve 12% Cr 32 .


./>.//./>.../>/>/>./. 2 )>>>>)> ... Internally Cooled 'Hot' Rolls 'Cold' ¥ V V VA 1 ' ' Rolls V I V V ' V va' KU 'ΥΔ '\¿J I¿J '\ύ ?2+SS 4¿ w ¿¿Í^t&/ >...../>/>//>/>./>./..../>.//////////// \\\\\\\\v\\\ w w w SCHEMATIC REPRESENTATION OF ROLL DESIGNS 34 FIG.///- s.FR 71­9 831 7210.. V tà^tí- KVVVVV là^ù^ùVfci^Ù W ZZ7. / >>>>>>>> >} > {/y.////.../>/>./.CA/808 Externally Cooled ΖΖΖΖΖΖΖΔ \.. ν/λ >////////////////////// ZZZZZ22 VZZZZZÀ kasfi&g&g&B&ëS3 wwwwwwww^:^ j ?¿J ./>. Y/YYYY./.

· . · ! ' · ■ · ■ .. ' ■ χ 140 Metal spray coated roller showing chromium carbides and borides in a nickel matrix RESULTS OF METALLOGRAPHIC EXAMINATION USI NG REPLICA TECHNIQUES 35 FIG.. .'·. ι'. ...· ' .FR 71-9 831 7210. ■ " * · . ■ ' ■ ■ .· ·· . .'··■ · . * ■··· · '"'· · .:- ' ' . ■■. . * -· .' . · ·· .CA/808 χ 400 Conventional low alloy steel roller showing a microstructure of upper bainite with ferrite χ 400 12% Cr weld surfaced roller showing a microstructure of delta ferrite stringers in a tempered martensite matrix ! · .··■ · . '-·'. . .v . · > ■ · · · . ..■·. ■ . .·'·*? · . . · .. . . ■ "·'·'· . · . · · .·. .· . . . · · . * . ■'.·. ■ .. . * · . · ■:. . I ' . ' . * . ..'·'·'. · · · ' ^ .

.7210. up to 5 mm deep 'Bruising' of a trial spray coated roller (e) SURFACE REPLICAS OF WITHDRAWAL STRAIGHTENER SLAB CASTING ROLLERS EXEMPLIFYING THE PRINCIPAL DEGRADATION MECHANISMS 36 FIG.CA/808 FR 71-9 831 . uneven surface wear . ι mm 'Grooving' damage Extensive thermal fatigue cracking. 4 .^f ·'·> A : l_* -^ 'Plucking out' of roller surface Heavy.

FR 71-9 831 7210. 6 Bottom Position Seg. 2 Seg. 4 Seg. 5 Seg.CA/808 Depth of machined groove — — — Depth. 5 (R1/7270) . 1 Seg. 2 Seg. mm 70 Weld surfaced rollers Top Position 60 50 40 30 20 10 Seg. 3 Seg. mm 70 Seg. 3 CRACK DEPTHS IN STRAIGHTENER/WITHDRAWAL SEGMENTS 37 FIG. 1 Depth. 4 Seg. 5 Seg Seg.

CA/808 Proportion of roll failures cracks/bending 90 Crack 80 70 60 Crack 50 Crack 40 30 Bending 20 10 Bending 0 Strand guide Straightener Withdrawal RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ROLLER FAILURE MECHANISMS AND POSITION IN MACHINE 38 FIG. 6 (R1/7269) .FR 71-9 831 7210.


FR 71-9 831 7210.CA/808 Origin (15 mm long χ 4 mm deep) Arrest point Arrest point FRACTURE FACE OF A ROLLER SHOWING FINAL FAILURE FROM A SMALL SHALLOW CRACK 40 FIG. 8 .




rd Vickers hardness number 00 OJ 400 - Position along roller (a) Longitudinal Survey Bore Design Ji 400 A B C D E F G H E 300 400 300 Centre Peripheral Scroll Centre Centre Peripheral Scroll Centre Position Bottom entry Bottom second Bottom third Bottom exit Top entry Top second Top third Top exit A Position around roller (b) Circumferential Survey Central Position -j to HARDNESS SURVEY . 15 (R1/9481) n > s co o co .RAVENSCRAIG STRAND GUIDE ROLL SEGMENT TRIAL AFTER 2 70 000 t FIG.

°C 650 700 TEMPER RESPONSE FOR 12% CHROMIUM WELDMENT 45 FIG. 16 x 250 SOME ROLLERS Hardness.7210.CA/808 FR 71-9 831 SURFACE REPLICA SHOWING THE MORPHOLOGY OF THE DELTA FERRITE FOUND IN THE TEMPERED MARTENSITE MATRIX OF FIG. 17 (R1/5315) . HV30 550 500 - 450 400 - 350 300 250 400 450 500 550 600 Temperature.

3 MACHINE FIG.rd CO OJ * Instrumented roller inserted into these positions 4^ Spray chamber L ^J to LAYOUT OF RAVENSCRAIG NO. 18 (R1/8124) η CO o CO .

rd JO­ CO OJ Slip ring unit Special surface thermocouple Tapered plug fitted with thermocouples at various depths χ. 19 (R1/9482A) η > CO o CO . ^J Thermocouple junction formed at roll surface by grinding to produce a cold weld Mica insulation to Enlarged view of surface thermocouple ROLL INSTRUMENTATION F I G .

20 .CA/808 Instrumented plug prior to force fitting into roll Roll frame used to force fit plug 48 FIG.FR 71-9 831 7210.

/ 100.1850 χ 229 mm STRAND SEGMENT POSITION 5 . min ROLL TEMPERATURES . 21 . 5 mm 0 10 ί0 200 I « 30 1 ISO 50 60 70 M 90 100 110 120 130 I HO 150 Average maximum steady state' 100 17.0 10 W M « 250 M 60 70 M 90 100 HO 120 Î3B HO ISO 200 0 mm 10 2" 30 200 <0 1 30 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 MO ISO Average maximum steady state' 4.0 J U^" L_i g "I \ J w Cu CO 0. 30 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 HO ISO 'Average Average maximum maxin steady state' • 48 mm 83 mm 120 mm 50 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 110 ISO Time.CA/808 t.5 mm 30 0 10 M 30 Ί0 130.3 Capping off Ladle change 1.FR 71-9 831 7210.PLATE/STRIP GRADE STEEL 49 FIG.

"C 150 100 Ο mm 50 H Ι­ -t Ι­ 150 100 4.. m/min 3 2.CA/808 Speed.FR 71-9 831 7210. min ROLL TEMPERATURES . H 1 I 1- I I 100 48 mm 83 mm 120 mm 50 I I 20 40 60 80 H l·- 100 120 HO 160 180 200 Time. 22 . 1 . 0. m f Η 1- Temperature.1850 χ 229 mm STRAND SEGMENT POSITION 3 PLATE/STRIP GRADE STEEL 50 FIG.5 mm 50. 5 mm 50 . H 1- Η 1 1 h 100 17.

180 200 (2) 1 6 mm 80 100 120 MO 160 180 69 mm 100 (4) 118 mm 150 60 80 100 120 MO 1C0 160 TIM«.CA/808 FR 71-9 831 itoli temperatures .1530 χ 305 mm strand . 5 mm 150 0 20 40 E0 80 100 120 " 140 1C0.segment position 5 niobium grade steel 0 ao 40 60 BO v—nr 100 120 MO ISO 1H0 eoo Distance from Surface of Roll (1) Ξ. ((1IN3) ROLL TEMPERATURES DURING CASTING 51 FIG. 23 .7210.

^ "— . 1810 χ 229 mm 1550 χ 229 mm 1280 χ 229 mm 1100 χ 229 mm 920 χ 229 mm \ 1 1 1 1 1 k Water spray strand cooling Segment position 5 140 120... \ Y D x 0 + 1530 χ 305 mm (niobium steel) (casting speed 0. ^^^5^^^. mm QUASI STEADY STATE TEMPERATURES 1ST ROLLER ALL STRAND SIZES CAST IN SEGMENT POSITIONS 3 AND 5 52 FIG.. ^. 24 .FR 71­9 831 7210. 20. "*~*«-=:^' ' -K ^^TJ Y □ * 0 + 40 20 0 1 \ 160. 60 40 .7 m/min) 1850 χ 229 mm 1530 χ 305 mm (casting speed 0.6 m/min) 1310 χ 229 mm 1280 χ 229 mm 920 χ 229 mm All strands cast at a speed of approximately 1 m/min except where stated 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 Distance from roller surface.>. ** _^ ' ~~*~ ' ΗΪ **^^~^ ­— 60 .CA/808 Water spray strand cooling Segment position 3 ^ 120 \ V CD UJ □ 100 \ ■ \\1 *·'K. CD JJJ5 1 0 0 80 . " ^·^ V* a = I — ­ ^ _ '>* ■^"~ ^"*­»^_ UJ Q_ ­.5-0. \ Œ er 80 .

55 m/min) mm mm mm 20 . 40. D χ Y 0 + 1850 1760 1510 1280 1100 χ χ χ χ χ 229 mm 229 mm 305 mm (casting speed 0.. mm QUASI STEADY STATE TEMPERATURE 2ND ROLLER ALL STRAND SIZES CAST IN SEGMENT POSITIONS 3 AND 5 53 FIG. Air mist strand cooling Segment position 5 140 + 120 100 80 £ 60. 100 .7 m/min) 229 mm 22 9 mm 20 All strands cast at a speed of approximately 1 m/min except where stated 20 40 60 80 100 120 MO Distance from roll surface.ν .^k^ 80 60 40 . 25 . S^áS**^-^-^ — 1850 λ 1790 Y 1760 D 1530 Χ 1280 01190 +1100 χ χ χ χ χ χ χ 229 229 229 305 229 229 229 mm mm mm mm (casting speed 0..CA/808 Air mist strand cooling Segment position 3 120.FR 71-9 831 7210.

20 Air mist strand cooling (all cases) Segment position 5 D 18 50 x 17 60 Y 1510 0 1280 + 1100 140 120 α J5 mm mm mm mm mm χ χ χ χ χ 229 mm 2 29 mm 305 mm (casting speed 0. 20 40 60 80 100 Distance from roll surface.CA/808 Water spray strand cooling (all cases) Segment position 5 NB. 26 .FR 71-9 831 7210. Using air mist nozzles without the air γ 1850 mm 0 1760 nun χ 1280 mm 0 1190 mm + 1100 mm 120 100 X 229 mm X 229 mm X 229 mm X 229 mm X 229 mm o 60 1U 60 40. mm 120 110 COMPARISON OF WATER SPRAY STRAND COOLING AND AIR MIST STRAND COOLING SEGMENT POSITION 5 r >J. FIG.7 m/min) 229 mm 229 mm 100 80 60 40 All strands cast at a speed of approximately 1 m/min except where stated 20 ..

60 80 -L 100 J_ 120 140 Distance from roll surface. °C ι CO CJ 140 Γ 120 100 O._ 80 . 27 (R1/9483) O > CO o CO .Air mist strand cooling Ui 60 Conventional water spray strand cooling 40 20 20 40 J. mm -J 1\J COMPARISON OF CONVENTIONAL WATER SPRAY STRAND COOLING AND AIR MIST STRAND COOLING SEGMENT POSITION 5 FOR A STRAND 1280 χ 229 mm F I G .TI 50 Temperature.. O.

s SJ TYPICAL VARIATION IN ROLLER SURFACE TEMPERATURE DURING A SINGLE REVOLUTION FIG.•ή ■pa ι CO Temperature. °C CO 200 η 180 - 160 - 140 120 - 100 - 80 - 60 - 40 20 - -τ— 30 —r35 -1— —Γ- 40 45 —r . 28 (R1/9483A) > CO O co .I — 50 55 — I 60 65 Time.

'C E 169 ΓI HO ! 120 \ IOC 60 V —^λ V ^ / κ pv/ to <0 20 η 0 20 <0 60 80 100 120 HO 160 120 Strand size 1790 χ 229 mm Segment position 3 Temperature. 29 .CA/808 Strand size 1850 χ 229 mm Segment position 5 Temperature.FR 71-9 831 7210. °C iea r ■(0 63 £0 100 120 HO 160 IC3 Time. s COMPARISON OF SURFACE TEMPERATURE FOR TWO ROLLER REVOLUTI ONS IN SEGMENT POSI TI ONS 3 AND 5 37 FIG.

CA/808 Roller surface temperature.100 1000 800 - Heat transfer coefficients calculated on basis of strand temperature remaining constant at 1000°C throughout contact period 600 - 400 - 200 - 0 10 20 Angle of roller rotation. 30 (R1/9484) . °C Angle of roller contact 100 Heat transfer coefficient. degree Roller surface temperature.FR 71-9 831 7210. degree COMPARISON OF TYPICAL VARIATIONS IN ROLLER SURFACE TEMPERATURES AND HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENTS AT ROLLER/STRAND CONTACT ZONES IN SEGMENT POSITIONS 3 AND 5 58 FIG.140 1400Γ 120 1200 . W/m2 K 400 200 20 Angle of roller contact with strand = 4° Heat transfer coefficient W/m2 K 30 40 Angle of roller rotation. °C 160 .

CA/808 Top roll Top frame ixed stop Packing pieces ■Bottom roll Bottom frame INSTRUMENTED FIXED STOP IN SEGMENT 59 FIG. 31 .FR 71-9 831 7210.

mm 1500 j 1600 MEASUREMENTS OF ROLLER LOADS DUE TO FERROSTATIC PRESSURE 60 FIG. mm Load applied to roller due to ferrostatic pressure. assuming solid skin of strand has no load carrying capability _i_ 1000 _i_ 1100 J_ _i_ 1200 1300 Strand width.0 m/min 40 20 - 900 _!_ 1000 _1_ 1100 1200 1300 1400 Strand width. kN 120 J_ 1400 -1- J 1500 1600 Segment 3 Segment 5 O 100 80 60 Strand thickness = 229 mm Casting speed = 0.8/1.e.CA/808 Roller load as a percentage of theoretical total ferrostatic force* 80 r 60 Segment 3 40 •Segment 5 20 k 900 i. 32 (R1/8127) .FR 71-9 831 7210.

33 (R1/9485) η :. holes Scrolled Roller Centre Bore Roller Peripheral Bore Roller CROSS SECTIONS OF ROLLER DESIGNS MODELLED FIG.Details of Scroll All dimensions in mm 20 5 f\ \ \ Vfe\ λ 1\ / 2 45 PCD 11 equispaced 20 dia.·■ .

FR 71-9 831 7210.CA/808 Strand centreline Portions of roller and strand modelled PORTIONS OF ROLLER AND STRAND MODELLED TO DETERMINE TEMPERATURE VARIATION WITHIN ROLLER DURING STRAND STOPPAGE FIG. 34 (R1/8129) 62 .

35 n > .· internal coolant FINITE ELEMENT MESHES USED TO DETERMINE TEMPERATURE VARIATIONS WITHIN ROLLERS DURING A STRAND STOPPAGE Peripheral Bore Roller Centre Bore Roller Scrolled Roller Heat transfer elements used to model roller/strand contact zone HJNJ Ξ ΙΛ Ul ω c o ■Η A: g m in II £ •Ρ I •α cΠ ε αι ω JJ ■Η 'Y A l< 01 VJ 0 ίϊϊΐ Heat transfer elements used to model effects of ii·.·'.


W/m 2 K 55i- Specific heat capacity. °C VARIATION WITH TEMPERATURE OF THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY AND SPECIFIC HEAT ASSUMED FOR STRAND 65 FIG. J/kg K 1600 1400 - 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 Temperature.FR 71-9 831 7210.CA/808 Thermal conductivity. 37 (R1/9486] .

7210. 38 (R1/9487) . W/m 2 K 40 30 - 20 - 10 - Specific heat capacity. J/kg K 600 500 400 300 200 100 _L 100 X 200 J_ 300 J_ 400 500 600 700 800 Temperature.CA/808 FR 71-9 831 Thermal conductivity. °C VARIATION WITH TEMPERATURE OF THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY AND SPECIFIC HEAT ASSUMED FOR 16CrMo44 ROLLER MATERIAL 66 FIG.











100 C



















9 7210.CA/808 831 DEPTH ΠΚΙ.OW 1101. 42 . /·/ ) J I n t e r n a l Coolant Flowrate = 35 L/min for a l l designs COMPARISON OF PREDICT ED RADIAL ROLL T EMPERAT URE DURING A 40 m i n ST RAND ST OPPAGE 70 FIG.FR 7 1 .1.KM SURFACE ( mm¿ 5 10 "C 200 —Γ 10 — 15 20 25 30 r~ 40 Time (mins) | 1'KHI P H E K A L BORE DEPTH UELOW ROLLER SURFACE (mm) ROLLI 5 L0 100 65 125 10 15 20 Time (mins) I SCROLLED ROLLER] DEPTH BELOW ROLLER SURFACE (mm) 5 c 10 200 Temperature D i s t r i b u t i o n s Shown Along T his Radius I 1 /->.

Min "Ί 40 Scrolled Roller _ 1 ­I rn η χ co ^1 Π Η Ο Ji.i.•Xl I CD CO CO η ο -./min| 0 C M Ci Cu 2 r l Peripheral Bore Roller H 0 K UH 0 en C 1 ■H n c 01 ca Thermal Loading Mechanical and Thermal Loading 0 ΓΠ ~ Ό α ω . Centre Bore I Roller —ι 1 Γ­ ιο 20 30 Duration of Strand M ro Μ X Χ η α Η ΗΗ M Χ Ci ΓΠ Η ο a τι > χ α m Η ο τι Τ) > Ο σ Μ η A3 Μ Χ 1-3 Λ r^ Ο ίτ< Mechanical and Thermal Loading 3 Internal Flowrates = 35 ü. ■α 5 > Λ rH ÙJ Thermal Loading Ο Χ ο Π τι π Λ TJ hH XI Χ π o σ ΗΗ > O i 4 ε ■Ό* C tu η Η η o α Cj 4J Ol ΡΪ JJ . CO η > OD O CO .

2 ϋ./min 5fi./min 0. 44 n .Internal Coolant Flow Rate = 35 g./min 100-C 200°C 250°C WÆ 400 °cK EFFECT OF COOLANT FLOWRATE ON CENTRE-BORE ROLLER TEMPERATURE CONTOURS AFTER A 10 MINUTE STRAND STOPPAGE FIG./min 20 ϋ.

2 £/min CO 100°C 150°C 200°C ?50°C 300°C 350°C 350° C Strand EFFECT OF COOLANT FLOW RATE ON PERIPHERAL BORE ROLLER TEMPERATURE CONTOURS AFTER A 10 min STRAND STOPPAGE ^i M FIG. 45 (R1/8137) π > CO o CO .90 Internal Coolant Flow Rate ι 35 Ä/min 20 ¿/min 5 ί./min CD 0.

/min EFFECT OF COOLANT FLOW RATE ON SCROLLED ROLLER TEMPERATURE CONTOURS AFTER A 10 MINUTE STRAND STOPPAGE 0./min FIG.2 8. 46 n > .«1 Internal Coolant Flow Rate 35 t/min 20 ϋ./min 5 ϋ.

TI sa co CO n π Tl n ri 10 MINS STRAND STOPPAGE H O TI n o o r > ·'! F Cl 0 ~ > β ~ jo X rH 13 re M α rH η rJ M Π CO M Χ D CENTRE BORE ROLLER Ό c η o - ~~" 4-1 Ul S 3 Ë X 1-3 O Ul Ε 777777777 NS STRAND STOPPA' C H CU 0 | SCROLLED κ ROLLERI ΜΗ 0 Di C •Η Ό C Θ m 1 - ^Η Χ ο ο π PERIPHERAL ROLLER BORE Õ D fH Γ1 Π » en Ti Η f71 Τ 10 -r- 20 20 Internal Flowrate τ 30 (L/min) -ι 40 η > 00 o co .

CA/808 FR 71-9 831 430 mm YX I 0 LC LT Longitudinal compact tension Single edge notch bend notched from inner face Single edge notch bend notched from outer face Longitudinal Charpy specimens from outer and inner surface Longitudinal tensile specimens from outer and inner surface CUT UP TESTS SPECIMEN ORIENTATION 76 FIG.7210. 48 (R1/4504) .


7210. 50(a) (R1/9486A) . °C IMPACT TRANSITION DATA.CA/808 FR 71-9 831 Impact energy Fracture appearance Impact energy. LOW ALLOY STEELS 78 FIG. J 100% brittle 21CrMoV511 ■100 ■60 -40 -20 Temperature.

CA/808 Impact energy. °C I 30 I 40 I 50 I 60 IMPACT TRANSITION DATA FOR PRODUCTION CASTS 16CrMo44 STEEL FIG.20°C FATT -6°C FATT +20°C X FATT -2°C 20 I I I I I ■ J I ■60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 Temperature. 50(c) (R1/9486B) . °C 30 40 50 IMPACT TRANSITION DATA FOR 12% Cr CAST MATERIAL 79 60 FIG. J 240 r 220 U FATT <. 50(b) Impact energy. J 180 ■60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 Temperature.FR 71-9 831 7210.

χ 900 χ 800 \ \ 700 O _ .2% Proof stress Ultimate tensile strength χ 1 100 χ. \ o 600 ^^Ο 16CrMo44 500 "O. · ­_jnCrMoV51ï"·*^^ 1000 χ.FR 71­9 831 7210.CA/808 0. °C ELEVATED TEMPERATURE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF LOW ALLOY STEELS 80 FIG. 51 (R1/9487C) . χ \ Ό " o—­ — Ο 400 Ο 300 Λ \\ \ Ν ο 200 100 n ι I 100 200 I 300 Ι 400 ι 500 J 600 Temperature.

CA/808 Vickers hardness number 450r 400 350 300 - 250 - 13% Cr weldment 200 - Matching weldment 150 12% Cr cast 100 16CrMo44 50 X 100 j 200 L 300 400 J 500 L 600 Test temperature.FR 71-9 831 7210. °C COMPARISON OF HIGH TEMPERATURE 81 HARDNESS F I G . 52 (R1/9487A) .

54 (R1/9487B) .0 - 1. loss/metre of slip Maximum Hertzian contact stress: 600 N/mm2 10 Slip speed: 3 m/min Forged steel (200 HV) Matching weldment (300 HV) V/////A 12% Cr weldment (400 HV) Material LABORATORY EVALUATED WEAR RATES FIG.5 12% Cr weldment 0 Material LABORATORY EVALUATED THERMAL FATIGUE 82 FIG. 53 Crack depth.FR 71-9 831 7210. mm after 5000 cycles RT 600°C 2.0 - 0.CA/808 Wear rate.5- Forged steel 1 .5 2. mg wt.

CA/808 Stress Distribution Due to Mechanical Loading Stress Distribution Due to Thermal Loading Total load applied by strand = 169 kN Strand dimensions = 1830 χ 305 mm Strand stall period = 20 min Internal coolant flow rate = 35 litre/min Temperature distribution given in Fig. Y2 are shear stresses on corresponding planes XX σ ΥΥ σ ΖΖ σ COMPARISON OF VON MISES EQUIVALENT STRESS CONTOURS DUE TO MECHANICAL AND THERMAL LOADINGS 83 FIG. σ ΖΧ. Oyjj = where U if xx .FR 71-9 831 7210.YZ2) = Direct stress in roller axial direction = Direct stress in roller radial direction = Direct stress in roller circumferential direction ΧΥ.σ γ γ ) ζ + (σ χχ -r + (σ YY 'zz' J XY 'zx . 55 (R1/9488) . 40 shown lly The shaded area adjacent to the strand indicates where the material may be assumed to have yielded and consequently to have taken up a permanent set Von Mises equivalent Stress.

56 (R1/9489A) . °C V A R I A T I O N I N T E N S I L E YIELD WITH TEMPERATURE OF 1 6 C r M o 4 4 STRESS MATERIAL F I G .CA/808 Tensile yield stress. N/mm 2 400r 300 200 100 100 _L 200 300 _L 400 500 600 Temperature.FR 71-9 831 7210.

57 .Top half of slab 470 to 535°C Hot slab Bottom half of roll 23 min after start of cast 335 to 405°C 405 to 460°C 510°C Roll raised 60 min after start of cast THERMOGRAPHIC SURVEY OF STRAIGHTENER ROLLER SURFACE TEMPERATURES 85 FIG.

2% proof strength at 20°C 480 N/mm 2 Elongation at 20°C 15% 0. A. For forgings of a smaller finish diameter the forging ratio should be 5:1. The hydrogen level is to be reduced to a level commensurate with a forging free from hairline cracks. 1. Charpy samples are to have their notch running transverse to the longitudinal 86 A .3 (a) Testing and Inspection Chemical Testing One sample analysis is required from every individual melting furnace cast. A.l.80 0.90 0.1. Following proof machining the forging is to be hardened and tempered to give the following minimum sample properties:Ultimate tensile strength at 20°C 650 N/mm 2 0. (b) Mechanical Testing The mechanical properties are to be gained from samples taken from the roll neck extension forged and heat treated as an integral part of the forging. After machining to drawing ensure the roller is identified and marked in a position and manner with a unique number as instructed by the works. (b) Heat Treatment If the cast has not been vacuum treated then it will be necessary to anneal the forging to remove hydrogen.25 0.l Material The material is based on the German Specification Werkstoff No.50 The steel is to be fully killed with aluminium to give a final grain size of ASTM5-8.FR 71-9 831 APPENDIX 1 7210.1. grain size and hydrogen sample must be taken from the forging.) (c) Finish Machining Before finish machining confirm that all tests have been conducted and the results agreed.2% proof strength at 500°C 325 N/mm 2 Charpy V-notch impact transition temperature as determined by the 50% crystallinity fracture appearance (FATT) shall be less than 0°C Charpy V-notch minimum impact energy at -20°C to be 30 J (A typical treatment could be oil harden from 930°C and temper at 625°C furnace cooled.2 Manufacture (a) Forging For roller forgings with a finish diameter of 380 mm or more the minimum forging ratio for the roller body must be 3:1.7337 (Kurzname 16CrMo44) with an aim composition of:C Si Mn Cr Mo 0.CA/808 MANUFACTURING OUTLINE A.l CONVENTIONAL LOW ALLOYED FORGED STEEL ROLLER A.16 0.

The roller is rejected for defects with responses equivalent to.35 The steel is preferred vacuum treated to give a hydrogen level commensurate with a forging free from hairline cracks.50 0.30/ 0. 0. LOW ALLOYED FORGED STEEL ROLLER A.20/ 1.CA/808 roller axis.6 max.00/ 1.FR 71-9 831 7210. A.1.2% proof strength at 20°C 600 N/mm 2 Elongation 18% 0.11) with composition in the range:C Si Mn S Ρ 0. (d) Surface Inspection After finish machining the roller surface is to be inspected by magnetic particle (British Standard BS4124 Part 2) or liquid penetrant (British Standard BS4124 Part 3 ) .2. Inspection of the central third of the barrel shall be 100% and the remainder 20%. hardness is to be 210-230 Vickers Hardness number. A. or greater than.25/ 0.8070 (Kurzname 21CrMoV5.2 (a) .2% proof strength at 500°C 400 N/mm 2 Charpy V-notch minimum longitudinal impact energy at 20°C .) 87 .02 max. The instrument to be used and any hardness number correlation must be agreed. Cr Mo V 1. 1.60 0.-.30/ 0. In the event of any results being unacceptable then the remainder of the test sample may be wired to the parent roller and reheat treated. (c) Ultrasonic Inspection Each roller is to be tested ultrasonsically by the roller supplier in accordance with British Standard BS4124 Part 1.25 0. Cracks of any description are not acceptable.20 0. a 6 mm flat bottomed hole.2 HIGH STRENGTH.2 Manufacture (a) Forging As per A. Following proof machining the forging is to be hardened and tempered to give the following minimum sample properties:Ultimate tensile strength at 20°C 750 N/mm 2 0. If forgings from more than one steel melt are heat treated in any one batch then tests are required for each steel melt. The tests are to be conducted on samples taken from the end of one forging per heat treatment batch.1 Material The The material is based on the German Specification Werkstoff No. (e) Hardness Test The surface hardness is to be recorded on each roller at positions corresponding to the roll centre and 100 mm from both roller ends.2. (A typical treatment could be water quench from 930°c followed by a temper at 680-700°C. . Each test is to be recorded and the size and position of any defect is to be reported.17/ 0.50 1.035 max. (b) Heat Treatment If the cast has not been vacuum treated then it will be necessary to anneal the forging to remove hydrogen. Ni 0.

FR 71-9 831



Testing and Inspection

As per A.1.3 with the exception of the hardness range which will be 230-270 HV.




The material is based on the 12% chromium martensitic stainless steel.
composition will be in the range:C


















This fine grained steel must have a hydrogen level commensurate with freedom
from hairline cracking.




As per A.1.2(a).

Heat Treatment

The steel is to be hardened and tempered to give the following typical
properties:Ultimate tensile strength at 20°C

700 N/mm2

0.2% proof strength at 20°C

550 N/mm2

Elongation at 20°C


0.2% proof strength at 500°C

375 N/mm2

Charpy V-notch minimum longitudinal impact
energy at 20°C



(A typical treatment could be harden from 975°C and
tempered at 700°C.)

Testing and Inspection

As per A.1.3 with the exception that the hardness range be 210-230 HV.




The surfaced roller should have a minimum depth of 6 mm of martensitic low
carbon 13% chromium steel within the composition range:C










The composition is to be balanced to gives a final microstructure of not more
than 10% delta ferrite and no retained austenite.


FR 71-9 831






The roller shall be machined to remove all previous service damage and to
permit the required depth of sound weld deposit.
The depth shall be such as
to accommodate weld dilution and ensure the peripheral 6 mm is within


A preheat should be employed to prevent cracking of the arbor material.
interpass temperature should be used to maintain the weldment in the austenitic
state during welding.

Heat Treatment

Following welding the roller should be cooled to allow full transformation
prior to a stress relief/temper treatment to attain a through working depth
deposit hardness of 350-400 HV.
(A typical tempering temperature would be in the range 570-610°C.)

Non-destructive Testing and Inspection


Surface Inspection

After finish machining the roller surface is to be inspected by magnetic
particle (BS4124 Part 2) or liquid penetrant (BS4124 Part 3 ) .
Cracks of any
description are not acceptable.

Ultrasonic Inspection

The deposit on each roller is to be tested ultrasonically (BS4124 Part 1 ) .
Lack of interrun and base metal fusion is not permitted.
Single defects
greater than 1 mm diameter χ 5 mm long are not allowed and aggregated defects
asre subject to approval.

Hardness Test

The surface hardness is to be recorded on each roller at positions
corresponding to the roll centre and 100 mm from each end.
The hardness must
be within the range 350-400 Vickers Hardness Number.




The roller is to be spray fuse coated by a nickel-chromium-boron hardfacing




The roller shall be machined below finish diameter by an amount equivalent to
the thickness of the deposit.
The surface must be crack and defect-free. The
area to be coated must be grit blasted.
After blasting the area must not be
touched or contaminated.


The roller is to be heated above 150°C and spray coated whilst still warm.

Heat Treatment

The spray coating is to be fused to the roller.
order of 1050°C is normally employed.)


(A surface temperature of the


FR 71-9 831



A close visual inspection is to ensure:(a)

Adequate fusion.


No surface blisters from contamination.


No porosity from gas evolution during spraying.


*1 ro I CD Γ ' i ■»"«■«■Ι ν­»— TAPERED PLUG PRIOR TO FITTING OF THERMOCOUPLES FIG.1 o > v. A2. CO o 03 .

A2.00 CO 1 .2 (R2/1417) η > 00 o OJ .sheathed thermocouples.insulated incone cemented into slots with epoxy resin Tapered plug of roller material Thermocouple lead wires Surface thermocouple fitted within small tapered plug of roller material Section A-A 50 0 ι ι ι 1 S c a l e . 1mm diameter Mineral . mm 1 1 |NJ FiFTAILS OF INSTRUMENTED ROLLER PLUGS FIG.

19. Framington Centre. The temperatures below the roller surface was measured by means of mineral-insulated sheathed thermocouples. 20. was fitted within a small tapered plug which was pressed into the main tapered plug. This surface thermocouple assembly was both manufactured and fitted by the Nanmac Corporation. 9-11 Mayhew Street. described previously (p 10). Figure (B) shows the plug arrangement after the thermocouples had been installed.FR 71-9 831 APPENDIX 2 7210. Figure (A) shows one of the plugs after machining. Fig. the roller temperatures were measured by means of thermocouples which were embedded at different depths below the roller surface. which had been force-fitted into matching tapered holes machined in the rollers. which were cemented with epoxy resin adhesive into the slots machined in the plug. The special thermocouple to measure the roller surface temperature. Fig. Inconel sheathing was selected due to its ability to be able to be bent relatively without cracking.CA/808 DETAILS OF INSTRUMENTED ROLLER PLUGS As described previously (ρ 10). Mass. USA. A specially constructed frame was used to press the thermocouple plugs into the rollers. The thermocouples were fitted into tapered plugs of roller material. 93 . before the thermocouples were fitted. 01701. 1 mm in diameter.

1 Kutateladze.CA/808 ROLLER MODELLING : DETERMINATION OF INTERNAL COOLING CONDITIONS In the finite element modelling of roller performance. Fig.1. 'A Concise Encyclopaedia of Heat Transfer'.. Pergamon Press (Translated from the Russian by J. an equivalent circular pipe diameter. For the cooling ducts of rectangular cross-section of the scrolled roller. has been assumed:4A where D E = p— 9 where A (m¿) = cross sectional area of duct P (m) = wetted perimeter REFERENCE A3. (p 15).B. S. D E . and Borishanski. V.M.FR 71-9 831 APPENDIX 3 7210. the coefficients of heat transfer between the walls of the internal cooling ducts of the rollers have been derived assuming steady flow in straight circular pipes. Reference A3. Arthur) 94 . 33.S.




CDNA09813ENC .