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Application of research in various function of management

Testing New Products

Business research tests the potential success of new products. Companies
must know what types of products and services customers want before
they market them. For example, a restaurant chain may initially interview
focus groups to test a half dozen types of fish meals. The focus groups will
likely consist of small groups of customers. The objective of the focus
group may be to determine which fish meal customers like the best. The
company may even use customer input in naming the entree and ask how
much consumers would spend for the meal. Eventually, the company may
test the fish meal through surveys with larger groups of people.

Ensuring Adequate Distribution

Companies may also use business research to ensure the adequate
distribution of their products. For example, a telephone directory publisher
may conduct a distribution followup study to make sure phone directories
have been delivered to all residential customers. Publishers of telephone
directories base their advertising rates on distribution. Therefore, ensuring
that all residences receive phone books is crucial to the success of the
publisher's business clients. Similarly, a consumer products company may
want to talk to retailers about all the different brands they sell. The results
of the business research will help marketing managers determine where
they need to increase their product distribution.

Measuring Advertising Effectiveness

Companies use business research to determine the success of their
advertising. For example, a milk manufacturer may want to know what
percentage of the population saw its most recent television commercial.
The milk company may find that more people become aware of its
advertising the longer the television ad runs. The milk company may need
to run its television advertisements at different times if few people have
seen the commercials. Companies also use business research to see if
consumers recall the message or slogan of their commercials.

Studying the Competition

Companies often use business research to study key competitors in their
markets. Companies will often start with secondary research information
or information that is already available. For example, a software company
may want to know the percentage of customers in the market who
purchase its products versus competitors' products. The researchers can

then study the purchasing trends in the industry, striving to increase their
company's share of the market. Companies will often need to increase
their market share in an industry to increase sales and profits

Difference between Qualitative Research and Quantitative Research?

Qualitative Research is primarily exploratory research. It is used to gain an
understanding of underlying reasons, opinions, and motivations. It provides insights
into the problem or helps to develop ideas or hypotheses for potential quantitative
research. Qualitative Research is also used to uncover trends in thought and opinions,
and dive deeper into the problem. Qualitative data collection methods vary using
unstructured or semi-structured techniques. Some common methods include focus
groups (group discussions), individual interviews, and participation/observations. The
sample size is typically small, and respondents are selected to fulfill a given quota.

Quantitative Research is used to quantify the problem by way of generating numerical
data or data that can be transformed into useable statistics. It is used to quantify
attitudes, opinions, behaviors, and other defined variables – and generalize results
from a larger sample population. Quantitative Research uses measurable data to
formulate facts and uncover patterns in research. Quantitative data collection methods
are much more structured than Qualitative data collection methods. Quantitative data
collection methods include various forms of surveys – online surveys, paper surveys,
mobile surveys and kiosk surveys, face-to-face interviews, telephone interviews,
longitudinal studies, website interceptors, online polls, and systematic observations.

Measures are the items in a research study to which the participant responds. They
can be survey questions, interview questions, or constructed situations, to name a
few. When constructing interviews and surveys, it is important that the questions
directly relate to the research questions.
Question: What's an independent variable?
Answer: An independent variable is exactly what it sounds like. It is a variable that stands
alone and isn't changed by the other variables you are trying to measure. For example,
someone's age might be an independent variable. Other factors (such as what they eat, how
much they go to school, how much television they watch) aren't going to change a person's
age. In fact, when you are looking for some kind of relationship between variables you are
trying to see if the independent variable causes some kind of change in the other variables, or
dependent variables.
Question: What's a dependent variable?
Answer: Just like an independent variable, a dependent variable is exactly what it sounds like.
It is something that depends on other factors. For example, a test score could be a dependent
variable because it could change depending on several factors such as how much you
studied, how much sleep you got the night before you took the test, or even how hungry you
were when you took it. Usually when you are looking for a relationship between two things you
are trying to find out what makes the dependent variable change the way it does.

Many people have trouble remembering which is the independent variable and which is the
dependent variable. An easy way to remember is to insert the names of the two variables you
are using in this sentence in they way that makes the most sense. Then you can figure out
which is the independent variable and which is the dependent variable:

A variable that is observed in a statistical experiment, but is not
specifically measured or utilized in the analysis of the data. It is
sometimes necessary to correct for concomitant variables in order to
prevent distortion of the results of experiments or research. Also called
an incidental, secondary, or subordinate variable.
Extraneous Variables are undesirable variables that influence the relationship between the
variables that an experimenter is examining. Another way to think of this, is that these are
variables the influence the outcome of an experiment, though they are not the variables that
are actually of interest.
Definition of a Control Group
Imagine that you want to know if salt makes water boil faster. You would want to heat one
pan of water without salt and one pan of water with salt at the same temperature. Then you
would compare how long it takes each pan of water to boil. In this experiment, the water
without salt is your control group.
A control group is the group in a study that does not include the thing being tested and is used
as a benchmark to measure the results of the other group.

Importance of Control Groups
There must be at least two groups in any valid experiment: The experimental group and the
control group. The experimental group is the group in which you are testing something.
For the experiment described above, the pan of water with salt added is the experimental
group. The only difference in the two groups is the addition of the salt. This means that salt
is the variable. A variable is the condition that is allowed to change.
In order for you to know exactly what causes a difference in the results between groups,
only one variable can be measured at a time. You would compare the results from the
experimental group with the results of the control group to see what happens when you
change the variable you want to examine. A control group is an essential part of an
experiment because it allows you to eliminate and isolate these variables.
Control groups are particularly important in social sciences such as psychology. This is
because it is practically impossible to completely eliminate all of the bias and outside
influence that could alter the results of the experiment, but control groups can be used to
focus on the variable you're trying to test. Failure to provide evidence of strong control
groups can cause a study to be considered invalid.

Types of Control Groups
There are two main types of control groups:

Positive control groups

Negative control groups

*In a positive control group the control group is designed to produce the effect you are
trying to reproduce in the experimental group.