You are on page 1of 4

Purdue OWL
Writing Lab
OWL News
Engagement
Research
Contact
Site Map






Research and Citation

APA Style

APA Overview and Workshop

APA Formatting and Style Guide

General Format

In-Text Citations: The Basics

In-Text Citations: Author/Authors

Footnotes and Endnotes

Reference List: Basic Rules

Reference List: Author/Authors

Reference List: Articles in Periodicals

Reference List: Books

Reference List: Other Print Sources

Reference List: Electronic Sources

Reference List: Other Non-Print Sources

Additional Resources

Types of APA Papers

APA Stylistics: Avoiding Bias

APA Stylistics: Basics

APA Headings and Seriation

Kristen Moore. Jodi Wagner. 2nd printing). This resource. Note: APA style requires authors to use the past tense or present perfect tense when using signal phrases to describe earlier research.. Lars Soderlund. endnotes/footnotes. second printing of the APA manual.. Russell Keck Last Edited: 2013-11-23 08:32:11 Reference citations in text are covered on pages 169-179 of the Publication Manual. For more information. in-text citations.. for example. What follows are some general guidelines for referring to the works of others in your essay. APA PowerPoint Slide Presentation  APA Sample Paper  APA Tables and Figures 1  APA Tables and Figures 2  APA Abbreviations  Statistics in APA  APA Classroom Poster  APA Changes 6th Edition  OWL Mail APA FAQs  Giving to the OWL  Suggested Resources o -MLA Guide o -APA Guide o -How to Navigate the New OWL o -Media File Index o -OWL Exercises In-Text Citations: The Basics Summary: APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. (6th ed. please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. . Elizabeth Angeli. Elena Lawrick. Jones (1998) found or Jones (1998) has found. revised according to the 6th edition. offers examples for the general format of APA research papers. Michael Anderson. and the reference page. Contributors:Joshua M. Allen Brizee. Paiz.

nouns. you only have to make reference to the author and year of publication and not the page number in your in-text reference. . television series. There Is Nothing Left to Lose.  If you refer to the title of a source within your paper. capitalize both words in a hyphenated compound word:NaturalBorn Cyborgs."  Italicize or underline the titles of longer works such as books. you will need to include the author. Exceptions apply to short words that are verbs. and adverbs: Writing New Media. quotes. and song titles: "Multimedia Narration: Constructing Possible Worlds". adjectives. All sources that are cited in the text must appear in the reference list at the end of the paper." Short quotations If you are directly quoting from a work. (Note: in your References list. The Wizard of Oz. (Jones. edited collections. movies. "The One Where Chandler Can't Cry. or albums: The Closing of the American Mind. year of publication. capitalize all words that are four letters long or greater within the title of a source: Permanence and Change. and italics/underlining  Always capitalize proper nouns. and the page number for the reference (preceded by "p. for example. 1998). This means that the author's last name and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text. or making reference to an entire book.  Put quotation marks around the titles of shorter works such as journal articles.  Capitalize the first word after a dash or colon: "Defining Film Rhetoric: The Case of Hitchcock's Vertigo."). In-text citation capitalization. Jones. pronouns. If you are referring to an idea from another work but NOT directly quoting the material. article or other work. articles from edited collections. only the first word of a title will be capitalized: Writing new media. including author names and initials: D.APA citation basics When using APA format. television series episodes. documentaries. Friends. follow the author-date method of in-text citation. and a complete reference should appear in the reference list at the end of the paper. Introduce the quotation with a signal phrase that includes the author's last name followed by the date of publication in parentheses.)  When capitalizing titles.

and the page number in parentheses after the quotation. Type the entire quotation on the new margin. and indent the first line of any subsequent paragraph within the quotation 1/2 inch from the new margin. Long quotations Place direct quotations that are 40 words. especially when it was their first time" (p. the year of publication.According to Jones (1998). Jones's (1998) study found the following: Students often had difficulty using APA style. indented 1/2 inch from the left margin. 1998. Maintain double-spacing throughout. The parenthetical citation should come after the closing punctuation mark. especially when it was their first time citing sources. or longer. 199) Summary or paraphrase If you are paraphrasing an idea from another work. (p. what implications does this have for teachers? If the author is not named in a signal phrase. She stated. APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners. and omit quotation marks. p. but APA guidelines encourage you to also provide the page number (although it is not required. 199). "Students often had difficulty using APA style.e. Jones (1998) found "students often had difficulty using APA style" (p. Start the quotation on a new line. APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners (Jones. but she did not offer an explanation as to why. place the author's last name. you only have to make reference to the author and year of publication in your in-text reference. 199).. i. "Students often had difficulty using APA style" (Jones. in the same place you would begin a new paragraph. 199).) According to Jones (1998). This difficulty could be attributed to the fact that many students failed to purchase a style manual or to ask their teacher for help. 199). . 1998. p. in a free-standing block of typewritten lines.