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',lk; ngah;e;j kf;fis Ra nfsutj;Jld;

mth;fspd; nrhe;j ,lq;fSf;F jpUk;gpr;
nry;y toptpLq;fs;"

aho;g;ghz khtl;lj;jpd; ,lk;ngah;e;j kf;fs;
njhlh;ghd Ma;T mwpf;if

Njrpa kPdt xj;Jiog;G ,af;fj;jpd; ntspaPL

“,lk; ngah;e;j kf;fis Ra nfsutj;Jld; mth;fspd;
nrhe;j ,lq;fSf;F jpUk;gpr;nry;y toptpLq;fs;”

Ma;T mwpf;if
aho;g;ghz khtl;lj;jpy; cs;ehl;by; ,lk;ngah;e;j kf;fs; kw;Wk; ngz;
jiyikf; FLk;gq;fspd; tho;f;ifapd; cz;ik epiyik kw;Wk; epyk;
tho;thjhuk;
kdpjhgpkhd
gpur;rpidia
Njrpa
fye;Jiuahlypy;
cs;slf;Ftjd; Clhf tpidj;jpwd; kw;Wk; cldbahd jiyaPl;bid
rk;ke;jg;gl;l nghWg;ghd gq;fhsh;fs; Nkw;nfhs;Sjy;

nrg;nlk;gh; - 2015

Njrpa kPdt xj;Jiog;G ,af;fk; kw;Wk; gpu[h mgpyhi\ tiyaikg;G
,y.10;> ky;tj;j tPjp> ePh;nfhOk;G> ,yq;if.
njh.Ng:

+94 312239750 njh.e: +94 314870658

kpd;dQ;ry;: nafsosl@gmail.com
,izaj;jsk;: www.nafso-one.org

',lk; ngah;e;j kf;fis Ra nfsutj;Jld; mth;fspd;
nrhe;j ,lq;fSf;F jpUk;gpr; nry;y toptpLq;fs;"

Njrpa kPdt xj;Jiog;gpd; ntspaPl;L ,y : 49
Kjy; gjpg;G : 2015 etk;gh; 21
gjpg;ghrpah;fs; FO :

`h;kd; Fkhu

gpuhd;rp]; uhId;

gpupaq;fu nfh];jh

md;ldp NIRjh]d;

ytPdh `re;jp jPgh Rgh\pzp
ngdbf; F&]; vd;.,d;gehafk;
j.td[h vk;.vr;.,]jPd;
I{ypa]; nry;tkyh; vr;.vk;.u`Pk;
fahd; mk;Ngnfhl n[arpju; h jh;kypqf
; k;
rQ;[dh re;jdjh];
mwpf;if jahhpg;G : Ma;T FO
mwpf;if njhFg;G : `h;kd; Fkhu
fzdpahf;fk;

: gpujPg; yf;rpup

• 01 •

“,lk; ngah;e;j kf;fis Ra nfsutj;Jld; mth;fspd;
nrhe;j ,lq;fSf;F jpUk;gpr; nry;y toptpLq;fs;”

Ma;T mwpf;if
aho; khtl;lj;jpy; ,lk; ngah;e;j kf;fs; kw;Wk; ngz;
jiyikj;Jt FLk;gq;fspd; tho;f;ifapd; cz;ik epiyik.

aho; khtl;lj;jpy; ,lk; ngah;e;j egh;fSld; ,ize;J Njrpa kPdt xj;Jiog;G
,af;fk; kw;Wk; gpu[h mgpyhi\ tiyaikg;gpdhy; ntspaplg;gl;lJ
nrg;nlk;gh; -2015
• 02 •

mwpKfk;

,yq;if kf;fs; fle;j 3 jrhg;jq;fspy; kpf nfhLukhd Aj;jj;jpid
mDgtpj;jth;fs; kw;Wk; Aj;jj;jpd; vr;rq;fs; ,d;Dk; njhlh;e;j tz;zk;
cs;sd. cs;ehl;by; ,lk;ngah;e;j kf;fs;(IDPs)> fhzhky; Nghd
cWg;gpdh;fisf;nfhz;l FLk;gq;fs;> Cjpak; ngWNthiu ,oe;j> ngz;
jiyikj;Jt FLk;gq;fs; (WHF)> CdKw;Nwhh;> gy;NtW tifahd
ghjpg;Gf;Fs;shfpa r%fq;fs; kw;Wk; ehl;bd; jdpj;J tho;gth;fs; midthpYk;
kpf ghhpa ghjpg;Gf;F cs;shfpath;fs; ngz;fs; kw;Wk; rpWth;fSkhFk;.
,th;fs; ngUk; rpukj;Jf;F kj;jpapy; tho;e;J tUfpd;wdh;. Aj;jk; epiwtile;J
6 Mz;Lfs; fle;j epiyapYk; Njrj;jpy; fz;zpaj;JlDk; Ra nfsutj;JlDk;
tho;e;j kf;fs; jw;nghOJ Mjutw;W kw;Wk; tpuf;jpaile;Js;sdh;> mur
mlf;FKiw nghwpKiw kpf ghuJ}ukhdjhf cs;sik Aj;j fhyj;ij
tplTk; Aj;jj;jpd; gpd;duhd epiyik kpfTk; Nkhrkhf cs;sJ.
ehl;by; jw;nghOJ cs;ehl;by; ,lk; ngah;e;j kf;fs; ,y;iy vd
$Wtjw;Fk; n[dpth kdpj chpikfs; Nguitapd; mkh;Tfspy; cyf
ehLfs; midj;jpw;Fk; ngha;Aiuf;fTk; Kd;da murhq;fj;jpdhy; gadw;w
Kaw;rp Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;lJ.
fUj;J Rje;jpuk; kw;Wk; ghjpf;fg;gl;l r%fq;fis xd;wpidf;Fk; cupik
vd;gd mDkjpf;f gl;bUf;fhikapd; fhuzj;jpdhy; mePjp kw;Wk; ngha;
gpur;rhuj;jpw;F vjpuhf Fuy; vOg;g Kbahj R+o;epiyapy; mikjpahf ,Ue;jdh;.
vdNt> ve;j tpjkhd ek;gpf;if czh;Tkpd;wp cs;ehl;by; ,lk;ngah;e;j
kf;fs; rpukq;fis njhlh;e;Jk; vjph;nfhs;fpd;wdh;. cs;ehl;by; ,lk;ngah;e;j
Mapuf;fzf;fhd kf;fs; tlf;F kw;Wk; fpof;F khfhzq;fspy; nrwpthf
tho;tJld; kw;Wk; rpyh; ehl;bd; Vida gFjpfspy; tho;e;J tUfpd;wdh;.
jw;nghOJ I.eh epWtdq;fs;> rh;tNjr/mur rhh;gw;w epWtdq;fs;> J}jufq;fs;
kw;Wk; r%f ,af;fq;fs; cs;ehl;by; ,lk; ngah;e;jth;fspd; nghJ eyDf;fhf
xj;Jiof;f KbAk;. ,jw;F Xu; tphpthd> vy;NyhuhYk; Vw;Wf;nfhs;sj;jf;f>
eilKiwg;gLj;jf;$ba Xh; nraw;jpwdhd jpl;lk; fhzg;gl Ntz;Lk;. vkJ
vjph;ghh;g;G> cs;shl;by; ,lk; ngah;e;j kf;fis kPs; FbNaw;wp mbg;gil
trjpfis Vw;gLj;jp Xh; fz;zpakhd Ranfsutj;Jld; Xh; xOf;fkhd
tho;f;ifia Vw;gLj;JtjhFk;. cs;ehl;by; ,lk;ngah;e;jth;fs; cs;sdh;
vd;gjid mq;fPfupj;jy; Xh; Kf;fpakhd tplakhFk;. ,k; kf;fis kPs;
FbNaw;Wtjw;fhd Njrpa kw;Wk; rh;tNjr gq;fhsh;fis ,izj;J
• 03 •

nray;gLj;Jtjw;fhd kj;jpa];jk; tfpf;f Ntz;ba fhyk; jho;j;jpa Neuk;
te;Jtpl;lJ. fle;j fhyq;fspy; I.eh epWtdq;fs; $l> Xh; kf;fs; $l;lk;
kdpj tho;tjw;F nghUj;jkw;w R+oYila tpj;jpahrkhd cyfnkhd;wpy;
tho;e;J tUfpd;whh;fs; vd;gjid ntspg;gilahf mq;fPfhpf;f jaf;fk;
fhl;baJ.
2015 k; Mz;L [dthp khjk; 8k; jpfjp Vw;gl;l Ml;rp khw;wj;jpd; gpd;dh;
kf;fspd; murpay; R+oypy; Xh; fzprkhd khw;wk; Vw;gl;lJld; Gjpa
[dhjpgjp mth;fs; Gwf;fzpf;fg;gl;l cs;ehl;by; ,lk;ngah;e;j kf;fspd;
,Ug;ig Vw;Wf;nfhz;lJld;> ,uhZtj;jpduhy; Mf;fpukpf;fg;gl;l epyq;fis
tpLtpf;FkhW mwptpj;jhh;. mj;Jld; ,lk;ngah;e;j rpy kf;fis nrhe;j
,lq;fSf;F nry;y mDkjpj;jhh;. ,J vt;thwhapDk; cj;juthjk; cila
fl;lis my;yJ nraw;gLj;jy; topfhl;ly;fs; Clhf mikjpahd Kiwapy;
Mf;fpukpf;fg;gl;l epyq;fs; tpLtpf;fg;gLtJld;> midj;J kf;fisAk;
Rje;jpukhf jkJ nrhe;j ,lq;fspy; kPs; FbNaw;wp jkJ tho;tpid kPs;
fl;bnaOg;g toptif nra;ag;gly; mtrpakhFk;.
,Nj Nghd;W Gjpjhf njhpT nra;ag;gl;l gpujkh; jpU uzpy; tpf;fpukrpq;f
mth;fs; 2013k; Mz;L ,lk;ngah;e;j kf;fshy; xOq;F nra;ag;gl;bUe;j
epfo;tpy; gq;Nfw;wpath; vd;w mbg;gilapy; ,lk;ngah;e;j kf;fspd; epiyik
gw;wp ed;F mwpe;jth;. Mh;g;ghl;lj;jpd; NghJ ,th; ,lk;ngah;e;j kf;fspd;
,Ug;gpid cWjpg;gLj;jpaNjhL tlf;F fpof;F gFjpfspy; cs;ehl;by;
,lk;ngah;e;j kf;fspd; gpur;rpidfs; Fwpj;Jk; typAWj;jpdhh;. ,it ,e;J
gj;jpupifAldhd
mtUila
Neh;fhzypy;
Mtzg;gLj;jg;gl;Ls;sJ.
Kfhkpy; thOk; kf;fspd; gpur;rpid kw;Wk; mth;fis mth;fsJ nrhe;j
,lq;fspy; kPs; FbNaw;WtJ Nghd;wtw;wpid ntspf;nfhzh;tjw;fhd fhyk;
,JthFk;. NAFSO ,lk; ngah;e;j kf;fs; r%fj;Jld; fuj;jpw;F fuk;
,ize;J mth;fis tYg;gLj;jp> ,th;fs; jkJ nrhe;j ,lq;fspy; kdpj
Nea mbg;gilapy; kPs; FbNaw;wg;gLk; tiu NghuhLk;.

gpd;dzp
1983k; Mz;by; ,yq;ifapy; cUthfpa ,d gpur;rpid
cs;ehl;by;
,lk;ngah;e;j kf;fs; Fwpj;j tpNrl mtjhdj;jpid nrYj;j Ntz;ba
epiyapid Njhw;Wtpj;Js;sJ. ,yq;if murhq;fj;jpd; Kg;gilfSk;
L.T.T.E mikg;gpw;Fk; ,ilapy; ,lk;ngw;w MAj Nghuhl;lj;jpdhy; Vw;gl;l
tho;tpay; kw;Wk; cilikfspd; ghjpg;Gf;fspdhy;> tlf;F fpof;F kf;fs; jkJ
tho;tplq;fis tpl;L ,lk;ngah;e;J Kfhk;fspy; jQ;rkile;jdh;. jw;nghOJ
• 04 •

aho; khtl;lj;jpd; typfhkk; tlf;F gFjp kf;fspy; rpyh; ntspehLfSf;F
,lk;ngah;e;jpUg;gpDk; gyh; Kfhk;fspNyNa tho;e;J tUfpd;wdh;.
1996k; Mz;L> ,yq;if murhq;fk; aho; khtl;lj;jpd; Vwj;jhs KO
gFjpapidAk; kPs; ifg;gw;wpapUe;j NghJk;> ,lk;ngah;e;j kf;fis jkJ
nrhe;j ,lq;fSf;F kPs; jpUk;g re;jh;g;gkspf;fg;gltpy;iy ,Nj Nghd;Nw tl
gFjp> fpof;F khfhz kf;fs; ,lk;ngah;e;jJld; ,d;Wk; kPs; FbNawtpy;iy.
2002k; Mz;L rh;tNjr jiyaPl;by; murhq;fj;jpw;Fk; L.T.T.E mikg;gpw;Fk;
,ilapy; rkkhd Ngr;Rthh;j;ij Muk;gpf;fg;gl;lJ. ,jd; %ykhf kf;fs;
XusT tpLjiy ngw;W jiu khu;f;fkhf aho;g;ghzk;> Ky;iyj;jPT kw;Wk;
fpspnehr;rp gFjpfSf;F nry;Yk;> Kd;dh; kWf;fg;gl;bUe;j tha;g;gpidg;
ngw;wdh;.
vdpDk; 2006k; Mz;by; rkhjhd Ngr;Rthh;j;ijapd; Kwptpd; fhuzkhf
Aj;jk; kPz;Lk; njhlq;fpaJ. ,jidj; njhlh;e;J> 2005k; Mz;L gjtpf;F
te;j [dhjpgjp kfpe;j uh[gf;r> kdpjhgpkhd kPl;G eltbf;if vd;w ngahpy;
Aj;jj;ij jPtpug;gLj;jp L.T.T.E ia 2009k; Mz;L Nk 18k; jpfjp Njhw;fbj;J
ehL KOtJkhd ghhpa rf;jpia ngw;whh;. gy jkpo; kf;fs; Aj;jj;jpd; filrp
rpy thuq;fspy; vd;Wkpy;yhj kpfTk; kpNyr;rj;jdkhd Nfhukhd Aj;jj;jpd;
jkJ mDgtj;jpid ciuj;jdh;. rh;tNjr kdpj chpik Nguitapd;
,yq;if murhq;fj;jpd; kPjhd mOj;jk; fhzg;gl;l NghjpYk; ,f;;Nfhu
rk;gtk; ,lk; ngw;wJ. Aj;j ntw;wpia jkJ Njh;jy; thf;FWjpahf uh[gf;r
gad;gLj;jpa NghjpYk; > gpd;dh; ,tuJ cghaq;fs; kdpj chpikfs; kw;Wk;
[dehafj;jpw;F vjpuhdJ vd ntspahfpaJ.
2009k; Mz;by; 500>000w;Fk; Nkyhd ,lk;ngah;e;j kf;fs; Kfhk;fspy;
trpj;jJld;> tlf;F fpof;F khfhzq;fspy; Fiwe;jJ 84>000 ngz;fs;
tpjitfshf;fg;gl;Ls;sdh;. (LLRC ,d; mwpf;ifapd; gpufhuk; 59>000
tpjitfs;)
UNHCR kw;Wk; Vida rh;tNjr mikg;Gf;fs; Kfhk;fSf;F kdpjhgpkhd
epthuz cjtpfis toq;fpaJld; kPs;FbNaw;wq;fSk; Muk;gpf;fg;gl;lJ.
vt;thwhapDk; kPs; FbNaw;w kf;fSld; fye;Jiuahbajpy;> ,yq;if
murhq;fk; kPs; FbNaw;w eltbf;iffspd; NghJ gpd;gw;Wtjw;nfd
jahhpf;fg;gl;L jahh; epiyapy; cs;s gpd;tUk; Mtzq;fs; vijAk;
gpd;gw;wtpy;iy vd mwpaf;fpilj;jJ. 2004k; Mz;L OCHA cs;ehl;L
,lg;ngah;T nfhs;if topfhl;ly;; (2004 OCHA Guiding Principal on Internal
• 05 •

Displacement Principals) 28 – 30> mfjpfs; kw;Wk; ,lk; ngah;e;NjhUf;fhd tPL>
nrhj;J rPuikj;jy; nfhs;if (pin herio principals) 2007k; Mz;L kPs;FbNaw;w
fl;lisr; rl;lk; ,y-09> ,j;Jld; murpay; mikg;gpdhy; cs;thq;fg;gl;L
kPs; FbNaw;w nrad;Kiwapd; NghJ ghJfhf;fg;gl Ntz;ba mbg;gil
kdpj chpikfs;.
2011k; Mz;L brk;ghpy; cUthf;fg;gl;l mur Mizf;FO> fw;Wf;nfhz;l
ghlq;fs; ey;ypzf;f mwpf;ifia Kd;nkhope;jJ. ,jid eilKiwg;gLj;JtJ
gaDs;sJ. njhlh;r;rpahf kPs; FbNaw;wk; kWf;fg;gl;l tlf;F fpof;F
tho; kf;fspd; xUikg;ghl;bid fl;bnaOg;Gtjw;fhf 285 ghpe;Jiufis
,t; mwpf;if nfhz;Ls;sJ. ,yq;if murhq;fj;jpdhy; ,t; ghpe;Jiufs;
KOikahf eilKiwg;gLj;jtpy;iy.
ehl;bd; xUikg;ghL kpfTk; tpUj;jpaile;Js;sJ cz;ik Nghd;W
typAWj;Jtjhf mur mwpf;iffs; mikfpd;wik mtjhdpf;fg;gLfpd;wJ.
Kd;dhy; ghJfhg;G nrayhsh; Nfhjhgha kw;Wk; mikr;rh; grpy; ,UtUk;
1990 k; Mz;by; ,lk;ngah;e;j 24 fpuhk Nrtfh; gphpTfis Nrh;e;j kf;fs;
midtUk; kPs; FbNaw;wg;gl;Ls;sdh; vd mwptpj;jdh;. ,t; mwpf;ifapid
fUj;jpw;nfhz;L kf;fs; jkJ nrhe;j epyj;jpw;F jpUk;gpa nghOJk;> ghJfhg;G
gilapduhy; mth;fs; cs; Eiotjw;F mDkjp kWf;fg;gl;lJ. ,k; kf;fs;
mtek;gpf;if kw;Wk; Vkhw;wj;Jld; Kfhkpw;F jpUk;gpdh;. kPs;FbNaw;w
mwptpj;jypd; fhuzkhf epthuz jpl;lq;fs; iftplg;gl;lJ. ,t;thW
xd;Wkpy;yh tPl;bw;F jpUk;gpa kf;fs; kPz;Lk; Kfhkpw;F jpUk;gpa NghJ
mq;Fk; vJTk; fhzg;gltpy;iy. ,lk; ngah;e;j kf;fs; jhk; Kfhk;fspy;
tho;tJ kpfTk; fbdk; vdTk; ghJfhg;G gphptpdhpd; mOj;jk; jkJ tho;tpid
NkYk; ghJfhg;gw;wjhf;FfpwJ vd $wpdh;. NkYk; NkhrkhdJ ahnjdpd;>
ve;jnthU mur epWtdKk; Kfhk;fs; njhlh;ghd jfty;fis ntspapl
jilnra;ag;gl;Ls;sJ. murhq;fk; jk; ew;ngaUf;F fyq;fk; Vw;gLtjid
tpUk;gtpy;iy.
NkYk; tLf;fSf;F mtkhdj;ij Nrh;j;J> ,yq;if murpd; gpujpepjpfs;
I.eh kdpj chpik rigapd;>2012 nrg;nlk;gh; 26k; jpfjpf;F gpd;dh; ve;j xU
KfhKk; ehl;by; ,y;iy vd $wpAs;sdh;.
,e;j R+o;epiyapy; murhq;f R+oypy; ajhh;j;jq;fis ntspg;gLj;j
ahUk; ijhpakhf Kd;tutpy;iy. Kfhk; jiyth;fSf;Fk;> rptpy; r%f
mikg;GfSf;Fk; mur Gydha;T Nrit kw;Wk; Fw;wtpay; tprhuid
jpizf;fsj;jpdJk;
ghhpastpyhd
gy;NtWgl;l
mr;RWj;jy;fs;
• 06 •

tpLf;fg;gl;ld. vt;thwhapDk; NAFSO Nghd;w gy;NtW rptpy; r%f
mikg;Gf;fs; xd;wpize;J> typfhkk; tlf;F> jpUNfhzkiy khtl;lj;jpy;
rk;G+h;> kd;dhh; khtl;lj;jpy; Ks;spf;Fsk; kw;Wk; gs;spKid> mk;ghiw
khtl;lj;jpy; jpuha;f;Nfzp kw;Wk; ghzk Mfpa gpuNjr Kfhk;fspy; cs;s
,lk; ngah;e;j kf;fs; kw;Wk; kdpj chpik> epy chpikf;fhd FOf;fSld;
,ize;J> ,lk; ngah;e;j kf;fSf;fhd chpikfis ntd;nwLg;gjw;fhd
nghJthd jpl;lnkhd;W njhlq;fg;gl;lJ. gjtpapy; ,Ue;j gpujkhpd; 2013k;
Mz;L ngg;uthp 15k; jpfjp njy;ypg;gis tUifapd; NghJ> tl gFjpapy;
cs;s kf;fspd; Njitfs; G+h;j;jp nra;ag;gLk; vd $wpdhh;. ,J midtuJ
ftdj;ijAk; ,jd;ghy; nfhz;Lte;jJ. vdpDk; ,jid njw;F ,d thjpfs;>
ehl;il gpsTgLj;Jk; nrayhf gug;Giu nra;jdh;.
aho; cjad; gj;jphpif mYtyfk; jPapl;L vhpf;fg;gl;l rk;gtj;jpid
epidTgLj;JtJ mtrpakhFk;. Kfhkpy; thOk; kf;fs; kPs; FbNaw;wg;glhj
epiyapy; tlf;fpd; tre;jk; jpl;lj;jpd; Clhf aho; khtl;l cl;fl;likg;G
trjpfs; tpUj;jp nra;ag;gl;ld. ,jw;F vjpuhf kf;fs; Mh;g;ghl;lq;fspy;
<Lgl;ldh;. NkYk; ,e;j vjph;g;G Nghuhl;lj;jpd; %yk; ,lk; ngah;e;j kf;fspd;
G+h;tPf fhzpfspy; cy;yhr tpLjpfs; mikf;fg;gl;Ls;sik kw;Wk; fPhpkiy
njhlf;fk; njhz;lkhdhW tiuapy; 11 fp.kP flw;fiu kPdth;fs; gad;ghl;bw;F
jilnra;ag;gl;Ls;sik ntspg;gLj;jg;gl;Ls;sJ. ,t; vjph;g;G Nghuhl;lk; $l
ePjp kd;wj;jpdhy; jilnra;ag;gl;lJ. vdpDk; ,t; Nghuhl;lk; aho;. tPurpq;fk;
muq;fpy; elj;jg;gl;lJ.

Gjpa vjph;ghh;g;Gf;fs;
Gjpa ek;gpf;if kw;Wk; vjph;ghh;g;Gld; fle;j [dthp 8k; jpfjp [dhjpgjp
ikj;jpupghy rpwpNrdit gjtpf;F nfhz;LtUtjpy;> aho; ,lk;ngah;e;j
r%fj;jpd; gq;fspg;G ghhpajhFk;. ,t; kf;fspd; vjph;ghh;g;Gf;fs; mtuJ
100 ehl;fs; Ntiyj;jpl;lj;jpy; cs;thq;fg;gltpy;iyahapDk; rptpy; gpujpepjp
xUth; tl khfhz MSduhf epakpf;fg;gl;lik> Kfhk;fspy; thOk; kf;fs;
kPjhd ,uhZt mOj;jk; Fiwf;fg;gl;Ls;sik> kPs; FbNaw;w mikr;rpdhy;
,d;Wk; ,lk;ngah;e;j kf;fs; Kfhk;fspy; tho;fpd;wdh; vd;gjid
Vw;Wf;nfhz;lik> aho; khtl;lj;jpy;1200 Vf;fh;> jpUNfhzkiy khtl;lj;jpd;
rk;G+hpy; 818 Vf;fh;> mk;ghiw khtl;lj;jpd; ghzktpy; 340 Vf;fh; fhzpfis
kPs; FbNaw;wj;jpw;fhf tpLtpf;f jPh;khzpf;fg;gl;Ls;sik Nghd;w Neh; kiw
tpisTfis fhzf;$bajhf cs;sJ.
• 07 •

Gjpa murhq;fj;jpdhy; 2015k; Mz;L [dthp 30k; jpfjp mstpy; aho;
khtl;lj;jpy; 38 Kfhk;fspy; 1318 FLk;gq;fisr; Nrh;e;j 4747 ,lk; ngah;e;j
kf;fs; tho;fpd;wdh; vd Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gl;lJ. ,t; Ma;thdJ> Kfhk;fSf;F
nrd;W mq;Fs;s kf;fSld; fye;JiuahLtjw;F fpilj;j re;jh;g;gj;jpid
gad;gLj;jp Kd;da murhq;fj;jpd; cz;ikf;F Gwk;ghd gpur;rhuj;jpd;
ngha;ikj; jd;ikia vLj;Jiuf;f cjtpaJ.
,t; Ma;tpd; aho; khtl;lj;jpy; ,lk; ngah;e;J thOk; kf;fs; njhlh;ghd
tpguq;fs; kl;LNk fUj;jpw; nfhs;sg;gl;Ls;sJld; jpUNfhzkiy> kd;dhh;>
mk;ghiw> fpspnehr;rp kw;Wk; Ky;iyj;jPT khtl;lq;fspYk; Kfhk;fs;
fhzg;gLfpd;wikia ehk; kwe;Jtplf;$lhJ. rh;tNjrj;jhy; mq;fPfhpf;fg;gl;l
Kiwfspy; ,k; kf;fspd; mbg;gil chpikfis toq;fp mth;fis
kPs;FbNaw;WtJ murpd; jiyaha nghWg;ghFk;. ,Nj Nghd;W cwtpdh;fspd;
tPl;by; tho;e;J tUk; ,lk; ngah;e;j kf;fisAk; kwf;fyhfhJ.

kPs;FbNaw;w mikr;rpd; fUj;jpd;gb 12115 FLk;gq;fisr; Nrh;e;j 39361
,lk;ngah;e;j kf;fs; cs;sdh; : (%yk; kPs;FbNaw;w mikr;R). ,jDld;
,e;jpahtpy; thOk; ,yq;if mfjpfisAk; fzf;fpy; vLf;f Ntz;Lk;.
nrd;id cjtp cah;];jhdpfhpd; jftypd; gb> 110 Kfhk;fspy; 19>916
FLk;gq;fisr; Nrh;e;j 67>436 NgUk;> cwtpdUld; 102>000 NgUk; mfjpfshf
tho;fpd;wdh;. 2011k; Mz;L [{iy khjk; 31k; jpfjp tiuapy; 43>411 Ngh;
ehL jpUk;gpAs;sdh;.(jfty;-nrd;id cjtp cah;jhdpfh;)
,t; Ma;thdJ> 2015k; Mz;L Mf];l; khjk; 17k; jpfjp Ml;rpf;F te;j
Gjpa murhq;fj;jpw;F> ,lk; ngah;e;j kf;fis mth;fspd; nrhe;j ,lj;jpy;
Fbakh;j;jp mth;fspd; mbg;gil chpikfis ngw;Wj;jUtjw;F Njitahd
eltbf;iff;F mtrpakhd gpd;dzpia toq;FtNj Nehf;fkhFk;.

• 08 •

Ma;T mwpf;ifapd; Nehf;fq;fs; :
gpujhd Nehf;fk; :tlf;F fpof;F khfhzq;fspy; thOk; ,lk; ngah;e;j kf;fspd; epy
cupikapid milahsg;gLj;jy;>mj;Jld; ,lk;ngah;e;j kf;fspd; cldb
kPs; FbNaw;wj; Njit> mbg;gilj; Njit kw;Wk; ngz; jiyikj;Jt
FLk;gq;fspd; ghJfhg;gpidf; fz;lwptJ.

Fwpg;gpl;l Nehf;fk; :
1. aho; tisFlhtpy; Gwf;fzpf;fg;gl;l 41 Kfhk;fspy; thOk; kf;fspd;
Ra tpguq;fis> ,lk; ngah;e;j kf;fspd; kw;Wk; Kfhk; thrpfspd;
czh;Tfis mbg;gilahff; nfhz;L jpul;Ljy;.
2. ,lk; ngah;e;j kf;fs;/Kfhk; thrpfspd; tpN;\lkhf ngz; jiyik
FLk;gq;fspd; Ez;zwpT kw;Wk; czh;Tfis ngw;Wf;nfhs;sy;.
3. ,lk; ngah;e;j kf;fs;/Kfhk; thrpfSf;fhd cldb kPs;FbNaw;wk;
kw;Wk; ePz;l fhy mbg;gilapyhd tYT+l;lg;gl;l tho;f;iff;fhd
epiyahd jPh;TfSf;fhd mgpyhi\fs; kw;Wk; ghpe;Jiufis
ngw;Wf;nfhs;sy;.
tpiuthd gq;Nfw;G Ma;T mwpf;if %ykhf ngwg;gLk; juTfs; kw;Wk;
jfty;fs; kpfTk; mtrpakhdJk; Xh; fUtpAk; MFk;.
tl khfhzj;jpy; aho; tisFlhtpy; Gwf;fzpf;fg;gl;l 41 Kfhk;fspy; thOk;
kf;fspd; mDgtq;fs; kw;Wk; epyikfis ,t; mwpf;ifapid thrpg;gth;fs;
kw;Wk; midj;J gq;F jhuh;fSf;Fk; mwptpj;jy;.
 ,lk;
ngah;e;j
kw;Wk;
ngz;
jiyikj;Jt
FLk;gq;fspy;
jPh;f;fg;glhky; fhzg;gLk; epy gpur;rpidia jPh;g;gJ njhlh;ghd
Xh; tphpthd jpl;lj;jpid tFj;J ,jDld; njhlh;Gila nfhs;if
tFg;ghsh;fSf;F Kd;itj;jy;.
 ehl;bd;
tptfhu
tlf;F
chpik

Gjpa jiyth; kw;Wk; gpujkh;/kPs; FbNaw;w mikr;rh;/ngz;fs;
mikr;rh; MfpNahiu mZfp Aj;jj;jpdhy; ghjpf;fg;gl;l
fpof;F khfzq;fspy; thOk; ,lk; ngah;e;j kf;fspd; epy
njhlh;ghf fye;Jiuahly;
• 09 •

 rptpy; r%f mikg;Gf;fs;> J}Jtuhyaq;fSld; ,ize;J ,lk;
ngah;e;j kf;fs; kw;Wk; ngz; jiyikj;Jt FLk;gq;fspd; epy chpik
njhlh;ghd xd;wpize;j gpur;rhu eltbf;iffis tYg;gLj;jy;.
 ,lk; ngah;e;j kf;fs;/ngz; jiyikj;Jt FLk;gq;fspd; epy
gpur;ridfis jPh;g;gjw;F gpuhe;jpa xj;Jiog;gpid ngwy;> njd; Mrpa
tWik xopg;G $l;lzp kw;Wk; gy;NtW gpuhe;jpa>rh;tNjr r%fj;Jld;
,ize;J nraw;gly;.
 kpFjpAs;s
,lk;
ngah;e;j
kf;fspd;
kPs;
Jhpjg;gLj;Jtjw;fhd jiyaPl;bid Kd;itj;jy;

FbNaw;wj;jpid

Kfhkpd; epiyikfs;
1990k; Mz;by; ,Ue;J typfhkk; tlf;F kf;fs; gy;NtW ,lq;fspy; gy;NtW
tpjkhf tho;e;J tUfpd;wdh;. mNdfkhNdhh; “eyd; Ghp epiyak;” vd;W
miof;fg;gLk; Kfhk;fspy; trpf;fpd;wdh;. jw;Nghija murhq;f jfty;fs;
%yj;jpd; mbg;gilapy;> 2015k; Mz;L [dthp 8k; jpfjpf;F Kd;tiu
aho;ghzj;jpy; 38 eyd;Ghp epiyaq;fs; mike;jpUe;jd. vt;thwhapDk;
cs;ehl;by; ,lk; ngah;e;jth;fspd; vz;zpf;if ,jid tplTk; mjpfkhFk;.
kw;Wk; aho; Flh ehl;by; gy fpuhkq;fspy; ,lk; ngah;e;j FLk;gq;fs;
tho;fpd;wd. vkJ %d;W ehs; Ma;tpw;fhd tp[aj;jpd; NghJ> aho; Flhehl;by;
cs; ehl;by; ,lk; ngah;e;j kf;fs; thOk; 5 fpuhkq;fs; milahsk;
fhzg;gl;lJ. NkYk; gy ,lk; ngah;e;j kf;fs; ehL KOtJk; Mq;fhq;F
tho;e;J tUfpd;wdh;.
vkJ Ma;tpd;gb> aho;Flh ehl;by; typfhkk; tlf;fpd; 15 fpuhk Nrtfh;
gphpTfshd njy;ypg;giy> cLtpy;> re;jpupghiy> Nfhg;gha;> gUj;jpJiw kw;Wk;
ey;Y}h; nrayfj;jpw;F cl;gl;l 1536 ,lk; ngah;e;j FLk;gq;fs; jw;nghOJ
27 fpuhk Nrtfh; gphpTfspy; cs;s 38 Kfhk;fspy; trpj;J tUfpd;wdh;.
,tw;wpy; 35 Kfhk;fs; 1990k; Mz;Lfspy; ,Ue;Nj fhzg;gLfpd;wJ.
milahsk; fhzg;gl;l NkYk; gy ,lk; ngah;e;j kf;fs; 5 fpuhkq;fspy;
mry; fpuhk kf;fspd; ,Ug;gplq;fSf;F mUfpy; jw;fhypf FbirfspYk;
NkYk; rpyh; flw;fiuia mz;b nfhl;by;fspYk; tho;fpd;wdh;. NkYk; gyh;
thlif tPLfspy; trpf;fpd;wdh;.
• 10 •

ml;ltid ,y 01y;> neLthpir 6y; murhq;f %yhjhuj;jpy; mbg;gilapy;
gjpT nra;ag;gl;l FLk;gq;fspd; vz;zpf;if fhl;lg;gl;Ls;sJ. ,j; juT
Fog;gj;ij Vw;gLj;Jfpd;wJ. ,jd; fhuzk;> fpuhk thrpfspd; jftypd;
gb ,q;F tho;gth;fspd; vz;zpf;if khWgl;ljhf cs;sJ. cjhuzkhf
ml;ltiz 01y; fpU];zh; Nfhtpy; Kfhkpy; gjpT nra;ag;gl;lth;fspd;
vz;zpf;if 78 MFk;. vdpDk; Kfhk; kf;fsplk; mwpaf;fpilj;j vz;zpf;if
65 MFk;. ,Nj Neuk; fl;Lil 3 Kfhkpy; gjpag;gl;l FLk;gq;fspd; vz;zpf;if
2 MFk;> vdpDk; ,q;F 10 FLk;gq;fs; tho;fpd;wdh;. kWGwk;> Ma;T
fhyg;gFjpapy; Kfhk;fspy; tho;e;jth;fspd; vz;zpf;if kpf FiwthFk;.

• 11 •

ml;ltiz ,y – 01 Kfhkpd; nghJ jfty;
$l;Lf; FLk;gq;;fspd; vz;zpf;if
#

kPsF
; bNawpa egh;fspd; vz;zpfi
; f #

Kfhkpy; cUthf;fpa Mz;L *

17

17

85

-

-

1999

2

ePjthd; ,y;yk;;

J/213

J/255

60

58

58

 

2

1990

Cuzp e.ep

J/214

J/247

32

30

130

-

2

1990

Nfhzl;Gyk;

J/214

J/246

201

201

668

-

-

1990

5

msntl;b fpof;F e.ep

J/217

J/247

23

23

66

-

-

2002

6

gps;isahh; e. ep

J/218

J/240

10

10

42

-

-

2004

7

nghpa kjtb e.ep

J/196

J/246

21

22

84

1

-

1990

8

gps;isahh; e. ep
/,f;fpuhid-01

J/199

J/236,
J/250

32

43

172

11

-

1990

,f;fpuhid-02 e.ep

J/200

J/226

9

10

31

1

-

1995

101

153

600

52

-

1990

121

114

340

-

9

njy;ypg;gis

4

cLtpy;

3

10

fz;zfp e.ep

J/196

J/246,
J/247,
J/248,
J/249,
J/250

11

rghgjpg;gps;is e.ep

J/196

J/246

• 12 •

FLk;g cWg;gpdh;fspd;
vz;zpf;if #

J/246

jw;NghJ Kfhkpy; cs;s
FLk;gq;fspd; vz;zpf;if #

J/212

gjpT nra;ag;gl;l FLk;gq;fs; *

,lk;ngah;tpw;F Kd; GN gphpT *

Jk;G njhopw;rhiy e.ep

khtl;l nrayf gphpT

1

,y

jw;Nghija GN gphpT *

# - NAFSO – Ma;T

Kfhkpd;; ngah;; * #

*- murhq;fk; - %yhjhuk;

7

1992

,Dtpy; kpy; e.ep

J/190

J/

1

5

20

4

-

1990

13

rpe;J e.ep

J/187

 

10

16

42

6

-

2000

14

,ye;ijab e.ep

J/185

J/237

14

16

89

2

-

2001

15

ePjthd; e.ep

J/185

J/247

21

14

47

-

7

1990

16

Myb e.ep

J/185

 

11

22

97

11

-

1990

klfr;rp e.ep

J/184

 

2

2

12

-

-

1990

fl;Lil 01

J/140

 

4

 

 

Kfhk;
,y;iy

4

1990

19

fl;Lil 02

J/140

J/246

12

10

32

-

2

1992

20

fl;Lil 03

J/140

J/260

2

10

49

8

-

2000

21

nfhk;gdpg;Gyk;

J/144

J/256

5

5

23

-

-

1997

22

rz;bypg;gha; GTMS

J/144

J/250

11

3

15

-

8

1990

23

fpU];zh; Nfhtpyb e.ep

J/265

J/241

78

65

300

20

1993

,e;Jfy;Yhhp e.ep

J/266

J/241

33

35

132

7

1995

NahfGuk; e.ep

J/265

J/237

61

58

236

-

23

1992

,Og;igab (A) e.ep

J/265

J/240

55

20

165

-

8

1995

jw;Nghija GN gphpT *

,lk;ngah;tpw;F Kd; GN
gphpT *

18

24
25

Nfhg;gha;

17

rd;bYg;gha;

12

2

-

1995

129

2

17

1992

19

71

4

-

1990

 

-

5

 

,Og;igab (B) e.ep

J/265

 

26

nry;tGuk; e.ep

J/265

J/254

30

32

cLg;gpl;b njw;F e.ep

J/354

 

15

rpd;df;fhydp e.ep

J/353

 

5

 

• 13 •

FLk;g cWg;gpdh;fspd;
vz;zpf;if #

Kfhk; Muk;gpf;fg;gl;l Mz;L *

jw;NghJ Kfhkpy; cs;s
FLk;gq;fspd; vz;zpf;if #

gjpT nra;ag;gl;l FLk;gq;fs;

Kfhkpd;; ngah;; * #

khtl;l nrayf gphpT

kPs;FbNawpa egh;fspd;
vz;zpf;if #

30

$l;Lf; FLk;gq;;fspd;
vz;zpf;if #

29

-

Kfhk;
,y;iy

28

Nfhg;gha;

27

funtl;b

,y

*

26

-

 

31

K.K.S e.ep

J/393

32

rpd;dhtiy e.ep

J/410

Rg;gh; klk; e.ep

J/393

Midf;Fl;b e.ep

J/399

epytd; e.ep

36

10

39

2

-

2005

46

43

174

-

3

1990

75

47

126

-

28

1990

J/248

69

41

148

-

-

1990

J/398

J/255

42

45

172

3

-

1991

ghyhtp e.ep

J/394

J/254

52

53

237

1

-

1992

37

rf;Nfhl;il e.ep

J/394

11

10

58

-

1

1990

38

jpf;fk;

J/398

 

64

248

-

56

1990

Xlf;fiu

J/397

J/284
J/251,
J/248,
J/216,
J/254,
J/255
 

 

7

45

-

-

 

gUj;jpj;Jiw
(Nfhl;;lb)

J/401

J/254

 

25

202

-

-

1990

41

gUj;jpj;Jiw Kid

J/403

J/248,
J/246,
J/251

 

100

482

-

-

1990

42

,d;ghrpl;b

J/398

J/251

 

35

135

-

-

1990

J/117

J/240

12

17

62

5

-

1992

 

 

1312

1536

5863

115

200

 

35

39

43

ey;Y}h;

40

gUj;jpj;Jiw

34

gUj;jpj;Jiw

8

33

fhiuf;fhy; e.ep

 

 

nkhj;jk;

J/254
J/254,
J/255
J/251,
J/255

NkNy $wg;gl;l ,lkhw;w epiyik fhuzkhf gpd;tUk; r%f>
nghUshjhu> fyhr;rhu kw;Wk; murpay; gpur;rpidfis ,lk; ngah;e;Njhh;
Kfk; nfhLf;fpd;wdh;.

nghUshjhu gpur;rpid :,lk; ngah;e;j kf;fs; jkJ fpuhkq;fspNyNa kPd;gpb kw;Wk; tptrha
eltbf;iffis jkJ gpujhd tUkhd khh;f;fkhf nfhz;bUe;jdh;. mf;
fhyj;jpy; jkJ nrhe;j epyj;jpy; gaph;r;nra;ifia Nkw;nfhz;ldh;. kPdth;fs;
jkJ nrhe;j glFfspy; kPd;gpbapy; <Lgl;ldh;. FLk;gg; ngz;fSk; tUkhdk;
ngWk; nray;fspy; <Lgl;ljdhy; FLk;gg; nghUshjhuk; epiyahdjhf
fhzg;gl;lJ. ,jd; fhuzkhf FLk;g Rik Fiwe;J nrhe;j tUthapy;
thOk; r%fkhf jkJ nrhe;j fpuhkq;fspy; tho;e;jdh;. vt;thwhapDk; ,lk;
• 14 •

ngah;T kw;Wk; Kfhk; tho;f;ifahdJ ,th;fsJ tho;tpid ghpjhgfukhd
epiyf;F js;spAs;sJ. Ranjhopiy tUkhd khh;f;fkhf nfhz;bUe;j
kf;fs; jw;nghOJ md;whl $ypj;njhopypy; <Lgl;L tUfpd;wdh;.
rpyh; Nkrd;> jr;rd;> kPd; tpahghhp> rpwpa ngl;bf; fil Nghd;w eltbf;iffspy;
<Lgl;Ls;sdh;. jw;nghOJ Mz;fs; 1000.00 &ghit ehshe;j rk;gskhfTk;>
ngz;fs; 350.00 – 500.00 &gha; tiuapy; kl;LNk ngWfpd;wdh;. ,th;fspd;
nkhj;j FLk;g tUkhdk; ruhrhpahf 21>000.00 &gha; njhlf;fk; 25>000.00
&gha; tiuahdJld;> khjhe;j FLk;g nrytPdk; 25>000.00 njhlf;fk;
30>000.00 &ghit tpl mjpfkhFk;. 5 gps;isfis nfhz;l FLk;gq;fspd;
khjhe;j nryT 45>000.00 &ghit tpl mjpfkhFk;. ,t; Fiw tUkhd epiy
fhuzkhfNt ,f; FLk;gq;fspd; fld; Rik khjhe;jk; mjpfhpj;J tUfpd;wJ.
ngz;fs; jiyik jhq;Fk; (WHF) FLk;gq;fspd; nghUshjhu epiy kpfTk;
jho;thdjhFk;. ,jw;F fhuzk;> Mz;fis NghyNt ngz;fs; rkkhd Ntiy
GhpapDk; Fiwthd rk;gsk; ngwy; kw;Wk; ghugl;rk; fhl;lg;gLfpd;wik MFk;.
ngz;fs; ruhrhpahf 350.00 -500.00 &gha; ehshe;j tUkhdk; ngWfpd;wdh;.
,J FLk;gj;ij elhj;j NghjhJs;sJ. mj;Jld; ehshe;j kw;Wk; tof;fkhd
Ntiy fpilg;gjpy;iy. khjhe;jk; 15 – 18 ehl;fSf;F kl;LNk Ntiy
fpilf;fpd;wJ. ,lg;ngah;T> tWik fhuzkhf ghuhgl;rkhd Ntjdj;jpw;F
Ntiyf;F js;sg;gLfpd;wdh;. tUkhdk; fhzg;gl;l NghjpYk; tho;f;if juk;
Nkk;gltpy;iy. FLk;g nghUshjhu gpur;rpid NkYk; tphptile;J tWik
epiy Vw;gLfpd;wJ. cjhuzkhf ngz;fs; muprp> gUg;G> fUthL> Fok;G
nghb> rikay; vz;nza; kw;Wk; Njq;fha; Nghd;wtw;wpid thq;fpdhYk;
mit gps;isfSf;F Nghjpa Cl;lr;rj;jpid nfhz;litay;y. Ngh\
hf;F Fiwtpdhy; gps;isfs; Neha;tha; gLtJld; ghlrhiyapYk; jpwd;gl
nraw;gl Kbtjpy;iy. tWik njhlh;fpd;wJ.
cjhuzkhf ghyhtp Kfhkpy; vkJ Ma;T khiy 3.00 kzpastpy;
epiwtile;j gpd;dh;> ehk; 10 taJ rpWtd; xUtid re;jpj;Njhk;. ehk;
mtdplk; “kjpa czT cz;lhah? vd tpdtpNdhk;. Mdhy; mr; rpWtd;
gjpyspf;f jaq;fpdhd;. mtid mZfp rw;W el;ghf fijj;jjd; gpd;dh;
mtd; “,y;iy. vdJ tPl;by; ,d;W rikf;fNt ,y;iy” vd;whd;. ehk;
re;jpj;j mNefhpd; gjpy;fSk; ,jw;F xj;jjhfNt mike;jJ. cjhuzkhf
ePjthd; Kfhkpy; xU ngz;id ehk; tpdtpa NghJ mts; vijAk; rikf;f
tpy;iy. kw;WnkhU FLk;g ngz; $wpaJ “mNef ehl;fspy; ehk; gfy; czT
vijAk; cz;gjpy;iy> vdJ gps;isfs; ,d;W xd;Wk; cz;ztpy;iy”.
• 15 •

vt;thwhapDk; vkJ Neh;fhzypd;
NghijAld; te;jile;jhh;.

NghJ

,f;

FLk;gj;

jiytd;

Fb

r%f – fyhr;rhu gpur;rpidfs;
eyd;Ghp epiyaq;fspy; thOk; kf;fs; jkJ nrhe;j epyj;jpy; tho;e;jnghOJ
nfsutkhfTk;> Rje;jpukhfTk; tho;e;jjhf $wpdh;. vt;thwhapDk; ,e; epiy
jw;nghOJ khwptpl;lJ. ,d;W kpfTk; nehpryhd FWfpa rpwpa epyj;jpy;
tho;fpd;wdh;. gy FLk;gq;fs; rpwpa epyg;gug;gpy; nrwpthf tho;tJld;>
Fiwe;j vz;zpf;ifahd kyry$lq;fs; kw;Wk; jz;zPh; trjpfis gfph;e;J
tUfpd;wik, ngz;fs;> ,sk; ngz; gps;isfspd; jdpg;gl;l nray;fs;
ghjpf;fpd;wd. mz;ila fpuhkq;fspy; thOk; kf;fs; kw;Wk; mry; fpuhk
kf;fshy; “mfjpfs;” vd juk; Fiwthf elj;jg;gLfpd;wdh;. Vidath;fisg;
Nghd;W Rje;jpukhf nraw;gl KbahjJld; jkJ ,d;g Jd;gq;fis
ntspg;gilahf gfph;e;J nfhs;s KbahJ cs;sdh;. Njh; jpUtpohf;fspy;
gq;Nfw;f KbahJ rkdw;W elhj;jg;gLfpd;wdh;. vdpDk; thpirapy; epd;W
topghLfis Nkw;nfhs;syhk;.kuz rlq;Ffspy; $l ,th;fshy; rhjhuz
toikfis gpd;gw;w KbahJ. ,lk; ngah;e;J kf;fs; jkJ cwTfspd;
,Wjpf; fphpiafis 1 ½ ehl;fSf;Fs; Nkw;nfhs;s Ntz;Lk; khwhf mry;
fpuhkj;jth;fs; jkJ ,Wjp rlq;Ffis %d;W ehl;fs; tiu njhluyhk;.
Vida ngz;fisg; Nghd;W ngz; jiyikj;Jt FLk;gq;fspd; ngz;fs;
rkkhf> nfsutkkhf elhj;jg;gLtjpy;iy.
ngz; jiyikj;Jt FLk;g cWg;gpdh;fs; tiyay;fs;> ml;bif kw;Wk;
mofhd Glit mzpe;J ntspapy; nry;Yk; NghJ> Vida Kfhk;
cWg;gpdh;fshy; ,th;fs; clk;ig tpw;W gzk; rk;ghjpf;f nry;tjhf Fw;wk;
Rkj;Jfpd;wdh;. vkf;F Ngl;baspj;j xUth; $wpaJ “kf;fs; ehk; vd;d
nra;fpNwhk; vd;gjwpa kpfTk; Mh;tk; fhl;Lfpd;wdh;. vkJ FLk;g tplakhf
gpuNjr nrayf mYtyfj;jpw;F nrd;whYk; ehk; tpgr;rhuj;jpy; <LgLtjhf
re;Njfpf;fpd;wdh;. ,J kpfTk; tUj;jkhd epiyahFk;.
“vkJ ,wg;gpw;fhf nrhe;j ,lj;jpw;F jpUk;g Ntz;Lk;. vkJ nrhe;j epyj;jpy;
capiu tpl Ntz;Lk; mg;NghJjhd; vkJ ,Wjp fphpiafSf;F mjpf
kf;fs; tUthh;fs;” (v];.yl;Rkp> taJ-87> rptGuk; Kfhk;)

• 16 •

Kfhk; tho; ftiyaile;j ngz;

rpWth;fs; ehl;bd; vjph;fhyk;

;

vjph;ghh;g;Gld; ,lk; ngah;e;j
FLk;gq;fs; - aho;g;ghzk;.
mNj Neuj;jpy; gy ngz;fs;> jkJ jpUkz taij mile;Js;sdh;.
jdpikg;gLj;jg;gl;Ls;sik> NtWgl;l Kfhk; tho;f;if> kw;Wk; rPjdk;
nrYj;j ,ayhik Nghd;w fhuzq;fspdhy; ntspf;fpuhkq;fspy; ,Ue;J ,t;
,sk; ngz;fSf;F tuz; fpilg;gjpy;iy. vdpDk; Kfhk;fspy; ,staJ
jpUkzk; Xh; nghJthd mk;rkhFk;.
Kfhk; tho; Mz;fspd; kJ ntwpahl;lk; kw;Wk; jtwhd elj;ij rpWth;fspd;
ghJfhg;G kw;Wk; cstpay; ey;tho;it ghjpf;fpd;wJ. ,t; Mz;fs; Kfhk;
tl;lhuj;jpw;Fs; gaj;jpid Vw;gLj;Jfpd;wdh;. vt;thwhapDk; ghypay;
njhy;iy ,sk; ngz;fspd; gpur;rpid kw;Wky;y. ,J ,sk; taJ Mz;
gps;isfspdJk; gpur;rpidahFk;. ePjthd; Kfhkpy; Xh; rk;gtk; gjpthfpAs;sJ.
Xh; ,lk; ngah;e;j Kfhk; thrpapd; nraw;ghl;bdhy; Fwpj;j ,isQd;
jpUkz nraw;ghl;bd; filrp jUthapy; jpUkzj;ij epWj;jptpl;lhd;.
nkhj;jj;jpy; ,lk; ngah;e;j fpuhk kf;fis mry; kw;Wk; mz;ila fpuhk
kf;fs; kjpg;gspg;gjpy;iy. ,jd; jhf;fk; Kfhk; FLk;gq;fspd; cstpay;
ghjpf;fg;gLtjdhy; jkJ MSik ghjpg;gile;J jkJ tho;f;ifia jhNk
cah;j;jpLk; chpikf;fhf NghuhLk; typikia ,of;fpd;wdh;.
• 17 •

“vkJ gps;isfSf;F jpUkz tuz; tUtjpy;iy. ehq;fs;
vd;gjdhy; ghugl;rk; fhl;Lfpd;wdh;” ( uhjh-NahfGuk; Kfhk;)

mfjpfs;

murpay; gpur;rpidfs;

fle;j 25 tUlq;fshf kPs;FbNaw;wj;jpw;fhd njspthd eltbf;if
xd;Wk; ,y;yhky;> murpay; thjpfs; ,lk;ngah;e;j Kfhk; kf;fis mZfp
tUfpd;wdh;. Njh;jy; fhyq;fspy; kl;Lk; murpay; thjpfs; ,th;fsplk;
tUfpd;wdh;.
“mth;fs; vkJ thf;Ffis mgfhpg;gth;fs;. mtu;fsplk; kf;fspd; epyq;fis
kPsg;ngWtjpy;> Kfhk; kf;fspd; mbg;gil trjpfis ngWtjpy; kw;Wk; jkJ
,yl;rpaq;fis miltjpy; vt;tpj murpay; czh;T kw;Wk; mh;g;gzpg;G
fpilahJ. gy;NtWgl;l thf;FWjpfs;; epiwNtw;wg;glhikapdhy; kf;fs;
murpay; thjpfis ntWg;gJld; ek;gpf;if ,oe;Js;sdh;. ,th;fs; tpN\
lkhf ,lk;ngah;e;j kf;fspd; gpur;rpid njhlh;gpy; murpay; thjpfs; kPJ
Fw;wk; Rkj;Jfpd;wdh;. 25 tUlq;fspd; gpd; jkJ nrhe;j epyj;jpw;F nry;y
mDkjpg;gjw;F ,JNt rhpahd fhyk; vd vk;kplk; $wpdh;.
Rje;jpukhd Xh; mikg;gpd; Clhf jkJ vjph;fhyj;ij fl;bnaOg;g
Njit cs;sJ vd ,lk; ngah;e;j kf;fs; ntspf;fhl;bdh;.
mt;thwhd nrad;Kiw xd;Wk; fpilahJ. fle;j fhyq;fspy;
jiyaPl;bd; fhuzkhf kf;fspd; nraw;ghLfs; eL epiyahdJld;
FuYk; mlf;fg;gl;lJ.

Ntz;ba
jw;NghJ
,uhZt
kf;fspd;

murpay; rhh;gw;w epWtdq;fs; kw;Wk; rptpy; r%f mikg;Gf;fs; njhlh;gpy; ,lk;
ngah;e;j kf;fspd; fUj;J vd;d? vd Ma;Tf;FO kf;fsplk; tpdhtpa nghOJ>
mth;fs; ,f;FOf;fspd; jiyaPl;bid kpfTk; NtjidAld; vjph;j;jdh;. ,jw;F
fhuzk;> ,k;kf;fs; rh;tNjr/mur rhh;gw;w epWtdq;fspdhy; elhj;jg;gl;l
gy;NtW mstPLfs;> kw;Wk; Neh;fhzy;fSf;F gjpyspj;Js;sdh; vdpDk;
vt;tpjkhd Fwpg;gplj;jf;f khw;wKk; mth;fsJ tho;tpy; ,lk;ngwtpy;iy
vd;gjdhyhFk;.
vkJ jw;Nghija Ma;T Fwpj;J cq;fs; fUj;J vd;d vd tpdhtpa
NghJ> mth;fs; gjpy; vkf;F kpfTk; rthyhf mike;jJ. “,t; Ma;T
Vida mur rhh;gw;w epWtdq;fspd; Ma;T Nghd;w xd;Wjhd; vd vkf;F
njhpahJ. ,y;iynadpy; vkJ jfty;fis mbg;gilahff; nfhz;L Xh;
nraw;wpl;lj;jpid Nkw;nfhs;shtpbd;> ,JTk; Xh; gadw;w Kaw;rp kw;Wk;
fhyj;jpd; tPz; tpuak; vd epidf;fpd;Nwhk;.”
• 18 •

jw;NghJ ,lk; ngah;e;j Kfhk; kf;fspd; kPs;FbNaw;wk;> tho;thjhuq;fis
GJg;gpf;f kw;Wk; mgptpUj;jp Nkk;gLj;jy; nraw;ghl;by; kPz;Lk; <Lgl
Ngr;Rthh;j;ijf;fhd tha;g;gpid Vw;gLj;jpf; nfhLg;gjw;fhd vkJ tha;g;G
,JthFk;.

FbePh;

kpd;rhuk;

ghJfhg;G

Rfhjhuk;

epyj;jpd; msT
(1 gug;G = 10 gu;r];)

W

VW

N

W

15

cs;Su;

58
30
201

S
S
S

Y
N
Y

Y
N
N

S
W
W

20
20
84

cs;Su;
cs;Su;
njupahJ

23

W

W

N

W

10

cs;Su;

10
22

W
Y

W
W

Y
Y

W
W

20
32

cs;Su;
ntspehL;

gps;isahh; e. ep
/,f;fpuhid-01

43

W

W

Y

W

42

cs;Su;

,f;fpuhid-02 e.ep
fz;zfp e.ep
rghgjpg;gps;is e.ep

10
153
114

N
Y
W

N
Y
W

Y
N
Y

N
N
W

4.5
110
90

cs;Su;
ntspehL;
ntspehL;

12

,Dtpy; kpy; e.ep

5

N

N

N

VW

 

 

13
14
15
16
17
18

16
16
14
22
2
 

Y
N

S
W
W
W
W
 

Y
W
W
W
W
 

 
18
5
 
1
 

cs;Su;

 

 

ntspehL;

 

 

ntspehL;

W
W
 

N
Y
Y
Y
N
 

 

 

njupahJ

 

 

ntspehL;

 

 

19

rpe;J e.ep
,ye;ijab e.ep
ePjthd; e.ep
Myb e.ep
klfr;rp e.ep
fl;Lil 01
fl;Lil 02

10

N

Y

W

W

46

 

 

ntspehL;

20

N

N

N

W

36

 

fl;Lil 03

10

 

ntspehL;

21

5

W

Y

W

W

6

 

 

nfhk;gdpg;Gyk;
rz;bypg;gha;
GTMS

cs;Su;

 

 

3

Y

Y

Y

Y

5.5

cs;Su;

 

 

5

9
10
11

22

rd;by;g;Ng

8

cLtpy;

6
7

Jk;G njhopw;rhiy
e.ep
ePjthd; ,y;yk;;
Cuzp e.ep
Nfhzl;Gyk;
msntl;b fpof;F
e.ep
gps;isahh; e. ep
nghpa kjtb e.ep

VW

• 19 •

Vida

muR

jdpahu;
vdpd;
ntspehL;
/cs;Su;

fhzp cupik

 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 

 
 
 

 
 
 

 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 

 

 

Nfhtpy;

2
3
4

njy;ypg;gis

1

Kfhkpd;; ngah;;

17

,y

FLk;gq;fspd;
vz;zpf;if

khtl;l nrayf gphpT

ml;ltiz -02 Kfhk;fspy; fhzg;gLk; mbg;gil trjpfs;

fpU];zh;
Nfhtpyb e.ep

65

Y

Y

Y

N

150

ntspehL;
& cs;Su;

24
25

,e;Jfy;Yhhp e.ep
NahfGuk; e.ep
,Og;igab (A)
e.ep
,Og;igab (B)
e.ep
nry;tGuk; e.ep

35
58

N
Y

W
S

S
S

S
W

 
100

njupahJ
njupahJ

20

VW

N

W

S

15

ntspehL

26

S

S

Y

S

 

ntspehL

32

Y

Y

Y

N

16

ntspehL

cLg;gpl;b njw;F
e.ep

19

W

Y

VW

S

10

cs;Su;

rpd;df;fhydp e.ep

5

 

 

 

 

 

cs;Su;

K.K.S e.ep

10

N

N

Y

S

14.5

ntspehL

rpd;dhtiy e.ep
Rg;gh; klk; e.ep
Midf;Fl;b e.ep
epytd; e.ep
ghyhtp e.ep
rf;Nfhl;il e.ep
jpf;fk;

43
47
41
45
53
10
64

N
Y
N
W
N

N
Y
W
Y
N
N
W

VW

ntspehL

N
Y

9
50
 
14
58
5
 

cs;Su;
cs;Su;
cs;Su;

W

N
W
S
W
N
N
Y

cs;Su;
cs;Su;
cs;Su;

Xlf;fiu
gUj;jpj;Jiw
(Nfhl;;lb)

7

 

 

 

 

 

 

25

W

N

W

VW

32

cs;Su;

gUj;jpj;Jiw
Kid

100

W

Y

N

W

15

cs;Su;

,d;ghrpl;b

35

N

Y

N

S

 

cs;Su;

17

W

N

S

N

3

 

 

Nfhtpy;

1536

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

26

Nfhg;gha;

23

27

31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41

gUj;jpj;Jiw

30

gUj;jpj;Jiw

29

funtl;b

28

43

ey;Y}h;

42

fhiuf;fhy; e.ep

 

 

nkhj;jk;

VW

W
W
S
VW

Y- Mk; (trjpfs; cz;L) S- XusT w-FiwT VW - kpff; FiwT

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

N- ,y;iy

FbePh; trjpfs;:ml;ltiz ,y 02 ,d; jftypd; mbg;gilapy;> 70%khd Kfhk; kf;fSf;F
md;whl ghtidf;fhd FbePh; trjp Nghjpa msT fpilg;gjpy;iy my;yJ
• 20 •

Kw;whfNt ,y;iy. ghyhtp Kfhk; FLk;gq;fs; jdpahh; tpahghhp xUtuplk;
,Ue;J 1 yPw;wh; xU &gha; tPjk; FbePh; thq;Ffpd;wdh;. ,JNghd;W fl;Lil-03
Kfhk; kf;fs; Nfhtpypy; ,Ue;J jz;zPh; nfhz;LtUk; jdpahh; tpahghhpaplk;
,Ue;J FbePh; thq;Ffpd;wdh;. fl;Lilapy; xt;nthU FLk;gj;jpw;Fk; jyh
xU fyd; ePh; thq;f mDkjpf;fg;gl;Ls;sjhapDk; ,jw;F khjhe;jk; 50
&gha; ePh; toq;fSf;F nrYj;jNtz;Lk;. gpuNjr rigAk;
mt;tg;NghJ
ePh; toq;fp tUfpd;wJ. mNefkhd re;jh;g;gq;fspy; Kfhk; kf;fs; Kfhkpw;F
ntspapy; cs;s fpuhkq;fspy; ,Ue;Nj jz;zPiug; ngw;Wf; nfhs;fpd;wdh;.
14 Kfhk;fspy; thOk; FLk;gq;fspy; vj;jid FLk;gq;fspd; FbePh;
G+h;j;jpahfpAs;sJ vd;gjid ehk; fzf;nfLj;j NghJ mJ 30% -40%
kl;LN;k fhzg;gl;lJ. 4 Kfhk;fspy; 50% -70% jkJ ePh; Njitapid fpzW
kw;Wk; Foha; fpzWfs; %yk; ngWfpd;wdh;. 8 Kfhk;fspy; kl;LNk jz;zPh;
trjp G+h;j;jp 70% nra;ag;gl;Ls;sJ.

kpd;rhuk; :55% Kfhk;fspy; NghJkhd my;yJ kpd;rhu trjpfs; ,y;iy.1990k;
Mz;Lfspy; ,Ue;J fhzg;gLk; Kfhk;fis fUj;jpw;nfhs;Sk; NghJ
Kfhk;fs; Gwf;fzpf;fg;gl;Ls;sik kpf njspthf GydhfpwJ. kpd;rhu
trjp Fiwtpdhy; ghy; epiy td;Kiw kw;Wk; Fw;wq;fs; mjpfhp;g;gJld;
kpd;rhuj;ij rhh;e;J FLk;g tUkhdj;ijg; ngWk; FLk;g epWtdq;fspy;
rhj;jpaj;jd;ik Fiwtilfpd;wJ. ,jw;F Nkyhf gps;isfspd; fy;tp fw;wy;
ghjpg;giltjdhy; gps;isfspd; fy;tpj; juk; Fd;Wfpd;wJ.

Rfhjhuk;:Kfhk; kf;fspd; Rfhjhu epiyikfis mstpLtjw;F mUfpYs;s Rfhjhu
epiyak; kw;Wk; itj;jpa rhiyia tpdht Ntz;ba mtrpak; fhzg;gltpy;iy
fhuzk; Kfhk; kf;fspd; tho;f;ifr; R+oypd; epiyik ,th;fs; vt;thwhd
Neha;fSf;F cl;gLth; vd;gjid njspthf fhl;LfpwJ. ghJfhg;ghd FbePh;
kw;Wk; kpd;rhuk; vd;gtw;wpidg; ngWjy; vd;gd Xh; rpwg;ghd Fwpfhl;bahFk;.
nrhe;j tPL kw;Wk; epy chpik ,og;G kw;Wk; Ra nfsutkpd;ik vd;gd
cstpay; hPjpapy; ghhpa mr;RWj;jiy Vw;gLj;Jfpd;wd. ngz; jiyikj;Jt
FLk;g cWg;gpdh;fs; gy;NtW nraw;ghLfspy; <LgLtjdhy; Fiwe;j
cwf;fk; kw;Wk; mjpf fisg;G fhuzkhf ,uj;j Nrhif kw;Wk; ,d tpUj;jp
njhlh;ghd Rfhjhu tplaq;fs; fUj;jpw; nfhs;sg;gly; Ntz;Lk;.
• 21 •

NghJkhd Rj;jkhd kyry$l trjpapd;ik> Rw;W R+oy; Rfhjhuk; vd;gd Kfhk;
kf;fspy; Rfhjhu epiyapy; jhf;fj;jpid nrYj;Jfpd;wd. rpy Kfhk;fspy;
midtUf;Fk; nghJthf ,uz;L kyry$lq;fNs fhzg;gLfpd;wd. rpy
re;jh;g;gq;fspy; kio fhyq;fspy; ,t; kyry$lq;fspid gad;gLj;j
KbahJs;sJ.
gUj;jpj;Jiw gPr; Nwhl; Kfhk; kf;fs; jkJ fhiy
flikia flw;fiu Xuq;fspy; Nkw;nfhs;Sfpd;wdh;. ghyhtp Kfhkpy; cs;s
ngz; xUth;> “jdpahf kyry$l trjpapd;ik ghJfhg;gw;w jd;ikapid
Vw;gLj;jpAs;sJ” vd;whh.; ,uT Neuq;fspy; kyry$lj;ij gad;gLj;j
ngz;fs; nry;y KbahJ. ,e; epiy ngz;fs; kw;Wk; rpW gps;isfSf;F
ghJfhg;gw;wJ. ,jdhy; ,th;fsJ cstpay; ghjpg;gilfpd;wJ. gak; kw;Wk;
kpd;rhukpd;ik fhuzkhf rpWePh; fopg;gij fl;Lg;gLj;jpf; nfhs;sy; rpWePh;
ghij njhw;WNeha; Vw;gl tha;g;G mjpfk;.

jw;fhypf Fbir

Kfhkpd; fopg;giw trjp

FbePh; trjp

• 22 •

vkJ Ma;Tf; FO Kfhk; kf;fspd; Rfhjhu epiyia tpsf;Ftjw;fhd
Xh; Kaw;rpahf Xh; jiyg;gpid Kd;itj;J mjD}lhf Rfhjhu epiyia
fhl;Ltjpy; kw;Wk; tpopg;Gzh;T nra;jiy Nkw;nfhz;lJ. ,jd; jiyg;Gf;;
Fwpfhl;bfshtd> Kfhkpy; NghJkhd ,ltrjp (Fiwe;j nehpry; kw;Wk;
jdpg;gl;l ghJfhg;G)> NghJkhd msT ,aq;Ffpd;w Rfhjhu kyry$l
trjp> gy;NtW Njitf;fhd NghJkhd jz;zPh;> Rj;jkhd Rw;Wg;Gw $oy;
vd;gdthFk;. ,t; ehd;F Fwpfhl;bfspy; xd;wpid kl;Lk; nfhz;l Kfhk;fs;
kpf Fiwe;j Rfhjhu epiyik nfhz;litahFk;. khwhf ,jd; vjph; epiy
ehd;F Fwpfhl;bfisAk; nfhz;litahFk;.
,f; Fwpfhl;bapy; ehd;fpid R+o;epiy Fwpfhl;b nfhz;l 3 Kfhk;fspy;
70% -90% MFk;. vdpDk; ,it gjpT nra;ag;gl;l Kfhk;fs; my;y.
ehd;F Fwpfhl;bfspy; %d;wpid cila Ntz;ba Fwpfhl;b 8 Kfhk;fs;
jpUg;jpfukhd epiyapy; 50%-70% Kfhk;fs; cs;;sd. rpy Kfhk;fspy;
NghJkhd kyry$lk; my;yJ jz;zPh; trjp fhzg;gltpy;iy. 19 Kfhk;fs;
30-50% tifg;gLj;jypw;Fs; (ehd;fpy; ,uz;L) fhzg;gLk; my;yJ NghJkhd
trjp cz;L. ehd;F Kfhk;fs; 10-30% tifg;gLj;jypw;F cl;gl;ld (ehd;fpy;
xd;W) vt;thwhapDk;> MW Kfhk;fs; jpUg;jpahf Fwpfhl;bapidf; $lf;
nfhz;bUf;ftpy;iy.
mjhtJ ,e;j Kfhk;fspy; ,uz;L kyry$lk; kl;LNk cs;sJ. kw;Wk;
mtw;Ws; xd;W Kfhk; kf;fshy; gad;gLj;j Kbah epiyapy; cs;sJ.
mj;Jld; ,th;fSf;F FbePh; trjp fpilahJ.
Cl;lr;rj;J ghJfhg;gpid Nehf;Fkplj;J> Nghrhf;F Njitapid G+h;j;jp
nra;tjw;fhd Kiwahd mZFKiw xd;W ,y;iy. Kfhkpy; cs;s xNu
xU FLk;gk; Cl;lr;rj;J jpl;lj;jpd; fPo;> fh;g;gpzpfs;> ghY}l;Lk; jha;khh;
kw;Wk; rpWth;fSf;fhd Guj gjpyPlhd “ jphpNghrhit” ngWfpd;wdh;.
,ijtpl ehl;bd; Vida gFjpfspy; toq;fg;gLk;
jpl;lq;fSk; ,lk;ngah;e;j kf;fSf;F fpilg;gjpy;iy.

• 23 •

ve;jnthU

Rfhjhu

ghJfhg;G
“2015k; Mz;L [dthp 8k; jpfjpf;F Kd;;tiu> Kfhk;fspy; ghJfhg;G gilapdh;
fhzg;gl;l NghjpYk; ghJfhg;G fhzg;gltpy;iy”
Kfhk; kf;fspdhy; xU $l;lj;ijNah xd;W $lyNah Nkw;nfhs;s ,ayhJ
,Ue;jdh;. ,Nj Neuk;> ntspahl;fs; my;yJ cwtpdh;fs; ghJfhg;G
gilapdhpd; tprhuid kw;Wk; njhe;juT fhuzkhf tp[ak; nra;tjpy;iy. ,it
midj;J kf;fis gphpj;J kw;Wk; ePjpf;fhf ,izj;J NghuhLk; Kaw;rpia
,y;yhky; nra;jdh;. Kfhk; tho; kf;fspilapy; rpyiu jftyspg;gtuhf
milahsg;gLj;jp kw;Wk; mk;kf;fis NgrtplhJ gphpj;J MSk; vz;zj;jpd;
Clhf kpf tphpe;j kl;lj;jpy; mOj;jq;fid Nkw;nfhz;ldh;.
vt;thwhapDk;> mNef kf;fs; Neh;fhzy;fspd; NghJ> Ml;rp khw;wj;jpd;
gpd;duhd czh;Tfspid vk;kplk; gfph;e;J nfhz;ldh;. Kfhk;fspy;
ghJfhg;G gphptpdhpd; gpurd;dk; Fiwtile;jJ. jw;nghOJ Rje;jpuj;ij
czh;tJld; jkJ kw;Wk; jk;gps;isfspd;; vjph;fhyk; Fwpj;j vjph;ghh;g;G
mjpfhpj;Js;sJ. Gjpa murhq;fk; Kfhk; kf;fSf;fhd ePjpia ngw;Wj;jUk;
vd epidf;fpd;wdh;. Kfhk; kf;fs; jw;nghOJ kpf Fiwe;j mstpNyNa
tprhuizf;F cl;gLj;jg;gLtJld; njhe;juTfs; ,lk; ngWtjpy;iy.
mz;ikapy; mur rhh;gw;w epWtdk; xd;wpdhy; elj;jg;gl;l fUj;juq;F xd;wpy;
Kfhk; kf;fs; fye;J nfhz;ldh;. cLtpy; fz;zfp Kfhk; jiytiu
Fw;w tprhuid jpizf;fs (CID) egh;fs; tprhuiz nra;j NghjpYk;
njhe;juT nra;atpy;iy. mNj Neuj;jpy; ,lk; ngah;e;j kf;fs; ePjthd;
Kfhk;fspy; NAFSO Ma;tpid elj;Jk; Ntiyapy; ,uz;L NIB egh;fs;
Ma;thsh;fis mZfpdh;. jhk; mz;kpj;j ,uhZt Kfhikr; Nrh;e;jth;fs;
vdTk; vd;d elf;fpd;wJ vd ghh;g;gjw;fhf te;jjhf $wpdh;. 2015k; Mz;L
[dthp 8k; jpfjpf;F Kd;dh; Nghd;W ehk; mDgtpj;j ve;jnthU njhe;juTk;
,lk;ngwtpy;iy. vdNt> Kfhk; kf;fspd; ghJfhg;G vd;gJ jw;nghOJ
,uhZtk; njhlh;ghdJ my;y khwhf ifapy; cs;s trjpfs; kw;Wk;
tsq;fisr; rhh;e;jJ. ghJfhg;gw;w R+oiy vjph;nfhz;l fhuzj;jpdhy; jkJ
czh;Tfis ntspg;gilahf gfph;e;Jnfhs;s jaq;Ffpd;wdh;. vt;thwhapDk;>
ehk; vg;gb czh;fpd;Nwhk; vd;gjid nghyP]py; Kiwg;ghL nra;a
jaq;Ffpd;wdh;. Vnddpy; ,jdhy; jq;fSf;F ePjp fpilg;gjpy;iy kw;Wk;
NkYk; njhe;juTfSf;F Kfk; nfhLf;f Ntz;b Vw;gLk; vd;gjdhyhFk;.
rpy ngz;fs; vk;kplk; gfph;e;J nfhz;l fUj;Jg;gb gy re;jh;g;gq;fspy;
nghyPrhuhy; Kiwg;ghLfs; Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gLtjpy;iy. vdNt ePjp Nfl;L
nghyP]; epiyak; nry;tjw;F ngz;fs; jaq;Ffpd;wdh;.
• 24 •

mNefkhf Kfhk;fspy; ,lk;ngah;e;j Kfhk; kf;fspd; ghJfhg;G my;yJ
eyd; Ghp jpl;lq;fs; Fwpj;J milahsg;gLj;Jtjw;fhd Kfhk; jiyth;
xUth; ,y;iy.

epy chpj;Jilik
ml;ltiz ,y 02 ,d; gb mtjhdpf;Fk; NghJ> 1056.05 gug;G (66
Vf;fh;) fhzpapy; 1536 FLk;gq;fs; trpf;fpd;wd. ,jid Rw;wpYk; ,lk;
ngah;e;jth;fspd; Kfhk;;fs; cs;sd. ,lk; ngah;e;j kf;fspd; Kfhk;fspy;
,uz;bidj; jtpu (,Ztpy; kpy;> kw;Wk; fhiuf;fhy;) Vida midj;Jk;
jdpahUf;F nrhe;jkhd fhzpfspNyNa mike;Js;sJ.
12 IDP Kfhk;fspd; chpikahsh;fs; ntspehLfspy; trpg;gJld;> 21
Kfhk;fspd; fhzp chpikahsh;fs; ,yq;ifapy; trpf;fpd;wdh;. 2 IDP
Kfhk;fspd; epy chpikahsh;fs; Nfhtpy; epyj;jpy; mike;Js;sJ. 4 IDP
Kfhk;fspd; epy chpikahsh;fs;> ,d;W tiu tp[ak; nra;ahjjdhy;
milahsk; fhzg;glhky; cs;sd.
vdpDk; Kfhkpd; epy chpikahsh;fs; ngUe;jd;ikia ehk;> vg;nghOJk; IDP
Kfhkhf gad;gLj;j toq;fpAs;sdh; vd fUjyhfhJ. ghjpf;fg;gl;l kf;fis
KbAkhdtiu kpf tpiutpy; kPs; Fbakh;j;jp
mth;fspd; tho;f;ifia
toikf;F jpUg;GtJ murhq;fj;jpd; nghWg;ghFk;.
“vkJ nrhe;j fhzpapy; ehk; Rje;jpukhf thoyhk;” (fpU\;zh; Nfhtpy;
Kfhk; ngz;kzp)

• 25 •

,y

Kfhkpd;; ngah;;

rKu;jp

epthuz
cjtp

KjpNahu;
epthuzk;

Mk;

,y;iy

mur rhu;gw;w
epWtdk;

murhq;fk;

epthuzk;
filrpahf
toq;fg;gl;l
tUlk;

epy
cupikahsu;fs;
epyj;jpid kPs
Nfhupaik

murhq;f khdpa
jpl;lq;fs;

ml;ltiz - 03:-

1

Jk;G
njhopw;rhiy e.ep

,y;iy

,y;iy

,y;iy

X

 

2006

2000

2

ePjthd; ,y;yk;;

,y;iy

,y;iy

,y;iy

X

 

 

2009

3

Cuzp e.ep

,y;iy

,y;iy

,y;iy

 

X

2009

2009

4

Nfhzl;Gyk;

,y;iy

,y;iy

,y;iy

X

 

2009

2009

5

msntl;b
fpof;F e.ep

,y;iy

,y;iy

,y;iy

X

 

 

2005

6

gps;isahh; e. ep

,y;iy

,y;iy

,y;iy

X

 

 

2009

7

nghpa kjtb
e.ep

,y;iy

,y;iy

,y;iy

X

 

2010

2010

8

,y;iy

,y;iy

,y;iy

X

 

2007

2006

,y;iy

,y;iy

,y;iy

X

 

2010

2010

,y;iy

,y;iy

Mk;

X

 

2009

2010

,y;iy

,y;iy

,y;iy

X

 

2010

2010

12

gps;isahh; e. ep
/,f;fpuhid-01
,f;fpuhid-02
e.ep
fz;zfp e.ep
rghgjpg;gps;is
e.ep
,Dtpy; kpy; e.ep

,y;iy

,y;iy

,y;iy

X

 

2010

2010

13

rpe;J e.ep

,y;iy

,y;iy

Mk;

 

X

2010

2010

14

,ye;ijab e.ep

,y;iy

,y;iy

Mk;

X

 

2007

2010

15

ePjthd; e.ep

,y;iy

,y;iy

,y;iy

X

 

2011

2011

16

Myb e.ep

,y;iy

,y;iy

Mk;

 

X

2010

2010

17

klfr;rp e.ep

,y;iy

,y;iy

,y;iy

X

 

 

2006

18

fl;Lil 01

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

19

fl;Lil 02

,y;iy

,y;iy

Mk;

X

 

2009

2009

9
10
11

• 26 •

20

fl;Lil 03

21

nfhk;gdpg;Gyk;
rz;bypg;gha;
GTMS

22

xUtu;
kl;Lk;
,y;iy

,y;iy

Mk;

 

X

2006

2006

,y;iy

,y;iy

 

X

2010

2010

,y;iy

,y;iy

,y;iy

 

X

2010

2010

23

fpU];zh;
Nfhtpyb e.ep

,y;iy

,y;iy

Mk;

X

 

2004

2006

24

,e;Jfy;Yhhp e.ep

,y;iy

,y;iy

Mk;

 

X

2004

2006

25

,y;iy

,y;iy

Mk;

 

X

2004

2006

,y;iy

,y;iy

Mk;

X

 

2004

2006

,y;iy

,y;iy

Mk;

X

 

2004

2006

,y;iy

,y;iy

Mk;

 

X

2004

2006

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

31

NahfGuk; e.ep
,Og;igab (A)
e.ep
,Og;igab (B)
e.ep
nry;tGuk; e.ep
cLg;gpl;b njw;F
e.ep
rpd;df;fhydp
e.ep
K.K.S e.ep

,y;iy

,y;iy

,y;iy

X

 

2010

2010

32

rpd;dhtiy e.ep

,y;iy

,y;iy

Mk;

X

 

2010

2010

33

Rg;gh; klk; e.ep

,y;iy

,y;iy

Mk;

X

 

2008

2010

34

Midf;Fl;b e.ep

,y;iy

,y;iy

Mk;

X

 

2004

2006

35

epytd; e.ep

,y;iy

,y;iy

Mk;

X

 

2004

2006

36

ghyhtp e.ep

,y;iy

,y;iy

Mk;

X

 

2010

2010

37

rf;Nfhl;il e.ep

,y;iy

,y;iy

,y;iy

X

 

2006

2006

38

jpf;fk;

,y;iy

,y;iy

Mk;

X

 

2006

2006

39

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

,y;iy

,y;iy

,y;iy

X

 

2006

2006

,y;iy

,y;iy

,y;iy

X

 

2009

2000

42

Xlf;fiu
gUj;jpj;Jiw
(Nfhl;;lb)
gUj;jpj;Jiw
Kid
,d;ghrpl;b

,y;iy

,y;iy

,y;iy

X

 

2008

2009

43

fhiuf;fhy; e.ep

,y;iy

,y;iy

,y;iy

 

X

 

2006

26
27
28
29
30

40
41

• 27 •

Kfhkpw;fhd epthuzq;fs;
aho; khtl;lj;jpy; 48 Kfhk;fspy; trpf;Fk; 1536 FLk;gq;fspy;>fl;Lil-03
Kfhkpy; trpf;Fk; ngz; xUth; khj;jpuNk rKh;j;jp eyd;Ghp jpl;lj;jpdhy;
ed;ikailfpd;whh;. ,jid jtpu NtW xUth; $l eyd;Ghp epthuzq;fs;
ngwtpy;iy. vt;thwhapDk;> 19 Kfhk;fspy; Kjpath;fs; Kjpath; epthuz
cjtp ngWtjhf jfty; cz;L. kpf rhpahd vz;zpf;if fpilf;ftpy;iy.
njhpT nra;ag;gl;l Gjpa murhq;fk; KjpNahh; epthuz nfhLg;gdtpid 200.00
&ghtpy; ,Ue;J 2000.00 &ghthf mjpfhpg;gjhf thf;FWjpaspj;jpUe;jJ.
nkhj;j Kfhk;fspYk; mjpfhpf;fg;gl;l ,j;njhif 3 Kjpath;fshy; kl;LNk
ngwg;gLfpd;wJ.
1990k; Mz;L my;yJ 2005k; Mz;L fhyg;gFjpapy; mikf;fg;gl;l Kfhk;fSf;fhd
khdpak; my;yJ eyd;Ghp cjtpfs; vijAk; 2010k; Mz;;bw;F gpd;dh; mur
rhh;gw;w epWtdq;fNsh murhq;fNkh toq;ftpy;iy ePjthd; Kfhk; kl;Lk; 2011k;
Mz;L tiu khdpaq;fis ngw;wJ. Xh; Kf;fpa tplak; ahnjdpy;> 2010k; Mz;L
kPz;Lk; njhpT nra;ag;gl; [dhjpgjp kfpe;j uh[gf;r> ehl;by; ,lk;ngah;Njhhpd;
Kfhk;fs; ,y;iy vd ep&gpf;f Kaw;rp nra;jhh;. epthuz/khdpa nfhLg;gdtpd;
epWj;jk;> Kd;dhy; ghJfhg;G nrayhsh; Nfhjhgha uh[gf;r kw;Wk; nghUshjhu
mgptpUj;jp mikr;rh; grpy; uh[gf;r mth;fSk; NahfGwk; Kfhk; kf;fis
gpioahf topelj;jpaJ tiu njhlh;e;jJ.
“[dhjpgjp kfpe;j uh[gf;r mjpfhuj;jpw;;F te;j gpd;dh; eyd;Ghp Kfhk;fs;
midj;Jk; %lg;gl;ld” (NahfGuk; Kfhk; - cUk;gpuha;)
ehq;fs; th;j;jftpyhd; fpuhkj;jpy; nrhe;j tPl;by; trpj;J te;Njhk;. tptrhaj;ij
tho;thjhujkhff; nfhz;L tho;e;J te;Njhk;. 2015k; Mz;L tlf;fpd; tre;jk;
jpl;lj;jpd; mbg;gilahf nfhz;L grpy; uh[gf;r mth;fs; ehtw;Fsk; fpuhkj;jpy;
fe;jrhkp Nfhtpypy; re;jpg;G xd;iw Nkw;nfhz;lhh;. ehk; vkJ nrhe;j fpuhkj;Jf;F
jpUk;gyhk; vd fUj;J ntspapl;lhh;. ,j; jPh;khdk;
Fwpj;J ehk; kpfTk;
kfpo;tile;Njhk;. 2010k; Mz;L [dthp khjk; vkJ fpuhkj;jpw;F jpUk;gpNdhk;.
vdpDk;> ,uhZtg;gil vkJ fhzpfSf;F nry;y mDkjpf;ftpy;iy. vdNt
kPz;Lk; Kfhkpw;F jpUk;gpNdhk;. murrhh;gw;w epWtdq;fspdhy; Kfhk;fSf;F
toq;fg;gl;l cjtpfs; epWj;jg;gl;ld kw;Wk; mitfspdhy; elhj;jg;gl;l
midj;J eyd;Ghp jpl;lq;fSk; epWj;jg;gl;ld.
“ehk; kPz;Lk; Vkhw;wg;gl;Nlhk;”. ,jid tpl kpf ghuJ}ukhd tplak; ahnjdpy;>
murhq;fj;jpd; midj;J kdpjhgpkhd cjtpfSk; epWj;jg;gl;ld”. ehl;by;

• 28 •

Kfhk;fs; ,y;iy mj;Jld; ,lk;ngah;e;j kf;fSk; ,y;iy vd cyfpw;F
,yq;if murhq;fk; $w Kw;gl;lJ. ehk;
Kw;wpYk; iftplg;gl;l epiyia
mile;Njhk;. ,lk; ngah;e;j kf;fs; Kfhkpid tpl;L nrd;W tho;thjhuk;
ngwf;$ba gpuNjrj;jpid
NjLk; Kaw;rpapy; <Lgl;ldh;. ,t; mDgtj;jpd;
Clhf ehk;> ,yq;if murhq;f jpl;lq;fs; kw;Wk; mur rhh;gw;w epWtdq;fs;
vk;ik Kw;wpYk; iftpl;ljhf fw;Wf;nfhz;Nlhk;. Kfhk; fhzpfspd; chpik
jdpahsh;fSf;F chpj;jhdjhFk;. 2009k; Mz;L Aj;j ntw;wpapd; gpd;dh;> ,lk;
ngah;e;j kf;fsplk; ,Ue;J jkJ epyj;jpid kPsg;ngw Kaw;rpj;jdh;. vkJ
Ma;tpy; jpul;lgl;l jfty;fspd; mbg;gilapy;> 41 Kfhk;fspy; 10 Kfhk;fisj;
jtpu Vidatw;wpd; epyj;jpid epy chpikahsh;fs; kPsg;ngw vjph;ghh;f;fpd;wdh;.
,f; fijapd; kpf Nrhfkhd tplak; ahnjdpy;> ,lk; ngah;e;j kf;fis ,yq;if
murhq;fk; Kw;W KOjhf iftpl;L tpl;lJ
kf;fs; jkf;Fs;s Fiwfis ,t;thW $wpdh;> “ ehk; vkJ jha; kz;zpNyNa
mfjpfshfpNdhk;”
“ vkJ epyq;fSf;F vd;d ele;jJ vd vkf;F njhpahJ” (v];.nry;yk;kh>
taJ-75> fpU~;zh; Nfhtpyb Kfhk;)

fhzhky; Nghd
cWg;gpdu;fis nfhz;l
FLk;gq;fspy; ngz;fspd;
vz;zpf;if

gps;isfspd; vz;zpf;if

ghlrhiy nry;Yk;
gps;isfspd; vz;zp;f;if

20 taij fle;j ngz;
gps;isfspd; vz;zpf;if

Vidait

9

ePjthd; ,y;yk;;
Cuzp e.ep
Nfhzl;Gyk;
msntl;b fpof;F e.ep
gps;isahh; e. ep
nghpa kjtb e.ep
gps;isahh; e. ep
/,f;fpuhid-01
,f;fpuhid-02 e.ep

ngz; jiyikj;Jt
FLk;gq;fspd; vz;zpf;if

8

Jk;G njhopw;rhiy e.ep

gjpT nra;ag;gl;l
FLk;gq;fs;

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Kfhkpd;; ngah;;

,y

ml;ltiz ,y-04 ,lk;ngah;e;j Kfhk;fspy; cs;s ngz;fs;
kw;Wk; rpWth;fs;

17
60
32
201
23
10
21

6
15
6
56
9
2
5

 
 
 
 
 
 
 

30
14
33
180
16
38
25

30
14
33
165
16
38
25

25
8
6
15
20
 
3

 
 
 
 
 
 
 

32

8

 

12

12

8

 

9

3

 

3

3

 

 

• 29 •

10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22

101
121
1
10
14
21
11
2
4
12
2
5
11

33
32
1
3
 
2
3
 
 
4
5
1
1

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

185
124
9
8
20
65
20
5
 
2
12
4
6

179
80
9
8
20
65
20
5
 
2
12
4
6

40
40
 
 
5
5
 
2
 
5
1
 
4

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

78

6

 

80

80

 

 

33
61
55
 
30
15
5
8
46
75
69
42
52
11
 
 

7
9
1
7
8
6
 
1
7
13
8
7
10
1
16
 

2
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

42
95
16
62
40
10
 
7
90
35
45
45
67
6
104
17

30
85
15
37
35
2
 
7
88
35
41
40
65
6
104
15

20
 
6
 
20
4
 
1
12
5
43
10
5
2
 
2

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

5

 

25

25

10

 

 

30

 

 

250

30

 

41

fz;zfp e.ep
rghgjpg;gps;is e.ep
,Dtpy; kpy; e.ep
rpe;J e.ep
,ye;ijab e.ep
ePjthd; e.ep
Myb e.ep
klfr;rp e.ep
fl;Lil 01
fl;Lil 02
fl;Lil 03
nfhk;gdpg;Gyk;
rz;bypg;gha; GTMS
fpU];zh; Nfhtpyb
e.ep
,e;Jfy;Yhhp e.ep
NahfGuk; e.ep
,Og;igab (A) e.ep
,Og;igab (B) e.ep
nry;tGuk; e.ep
cLg;gplb
; njw;F e.ep
rpd;df;fhydp e.ep
K.K.S e.ep
rpd;dhtiy e.ep
Rg;gh; klk; e.ep
Midf;Fl;b e.ep
epytd; e.ep
ghyhtp e.ep
rf;Nfhl;il e.ep
jpf;fk;
Xlf;fiu
gUj;jpj;Jiw
(nfhl;;lb)
gUj;jpj;Jiw Kid

42

,d;gh;rpl;b

 

9

 

27

27

4

 

43

fhiuf;fhy; e.ep

12

5

 

9

9

20

 

 

nkhj;jk;

1312

351

2

1883

1742

381

0

23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40

• 30 •

ehk; milahsk; fz;Lnfhz;ljd; mbg;gilapy;> midj;J ,lk;ngah;e;Njhh;
Kfhk;fspYk; kpfTk; ghjpg;gilaf;$ba> kpfTk; Xuk;fl;lg;gl;l FOthf
ngz;fs; kw;Wk; rpWth;fSk; fhzg;gLfpd;wdh;. Ma;tpy; Xh; ngz; $wpajd;
gb> ngz; jiyikj;Jt FLk;g cWg;gpdh;fSk; rpWth;fSNk kpfTk;
mjpfkhf ghjpf;fg;gl;l FOthFk;. Ma;tpw;F cl;gLj;jg;gl;l 41 Kfhk;fspy;
351 ngz; jiyikj;Jt FLk;gq;fs; (WHF) cs;sd. vd;whYk;> gy;NtW
mwpf;iffs; kw;Wk; Clf ntspghLfspd; mbg;gilapy; tlf;F fpof;F
khfhzq;fspy; 84>000 ngz; jiyikj;Jt FLk;gq;fs; cs;sd. vdpDk;
,yq;if murhq;fj;jpdhy; topelj;jg;gLk; LLRC mwpf;ifapy; cs;sJ
NtWgl;l vz;zpf;ifahapDk; 59>000 WHF vd $wg;gl;Ls;sJ. ,lk;
ngah;e;j kf;fs; kw;Wk; ngz; jiyikj;Jt FLk;gq;fs; Nkyjpf mtjhdk;
nrYj;jg;gl Ntz;bath;fs;.

Kfhkpy; thOk; gps;isfspd; fy;tp kw;Wk; Ngh\hf;F
ml;ltiz ,y-04 ,y; fhl;lg;gl;Ls;sjd; gb IDP Kfhk;fspy; 1833 rpW
gps;isfs; cs;sdh;> ,th;fspy; 1742 gps;isfs; my;yJ 92 rjtPjkhdth;fs;
ghlrhiyf;F nry;fpd;wdh;. nghUshjhu f\;lq;fspw;F kj;jpapYk; ngw;Nwhh;fs;
gps;isfis ghlrhiyf;F mDg;Gfpd;wdh;. ,t; cah; rjtPjk; fhl;LtJ
ahnjdpy; gps;isfspd; fy;tpf;F Kd;Dhpik mspf;fg;gl;Ls;sikahFk;.
vt;thwhapDk;> Kfhkpy; cs;s rpy FLk;gq;fspd; fUj;Jg;gb> rpy
gps;isfs; ghlrhiy tpl;L ,iltpyfpapUg;gpDk; ,jid ntspg;gLj;j
jaq;fp jk; gps;isfs; ghlrhiyf;F nry;tjhf ghrhq;F nra;fpd;wdh;.
vdNt gps;isfspd; fy;tp njhlh;gpy; Fwpg;ghf $ba ftdk; nrYj;jg;gl
Ntz;baJld; mJ Fwpj;J kpf Mokhf Muha;e;J gFg;gha;T nra;J
gps;isfs; rpwg;ghf nraw;gl Njitahd cjtpfis toq;f Ntz;Lk;.
,Nj Ntis> rpy ,isQh;fspd; fUj;Jg;gb> ,lk; ngah;e;j kf;fspd;
Kfhk;fspy; r%f rPuopT nraw;ghLfs; mjpfhpj;J tUfpd;wJ> cjhuzkhf
Nghijf;F mbikahjy;> kw;Wk; rpWth; J];gpuNahfq;fis $wyhk;. ,g;
gpur;rpidia jPh;g;gjw;F murhq;fk; my;yJ mur rhh;gw;w epWtdq;fspdhy;
cldbahf Xh; nghwpKiw mtrpak; vd fUj;Jiuj;jdh;. ,y;iynadpy;
vjph;fhyj;jpy; Xh; ghhpa r%f rPuopT Vw;gLk;.
,lk; ngah;e;j Kfhk;fspy; thOk; ngz; jiyikj;JtFLk;gq;fspd; ngz;
gps;isfs; gy;NtW ,d;dy;fSf;F Kfk; nfhLg;gJld;> FLk;gj;jpw;fhd
• 31 •

tUkhdk; ngWk; khh;f;fq;fis jhNk fz;lilfpd;wdh;. mNdfkhd ,sk;
taJ gps;isfs; Mil njhopw;rhiyf;F my;yJ gpiog;gpw;fhf NtW
VjhtJ njhopYf;fhf nry;fpd;wdh;. 12/13 taJila gps;isfs; $l> jdJ
jhahhpdhy; ftdpf;fKbahikapdhy; rpy $yp Ntiy nra;fpd;wdh;. rpy
jha;khh; gps;isfspd; fy;tpapd; Kf;fpaj;Jtj;jpid mwpe;jpUg;gjpy;iy.
mNj Neuj;jpy; rpy jha;khh; mjpf Kaw;rp nra;J gps;isfis fy;tp
fw;gpf;fpd;wdh;. ,e;j R+o;epiyAld; njhlh;ghd rpy gpur;rpidfs; Fwpj;J
vkJ Ma;Tf; FOtpdhy; ftdk; nrYj;jg;gl;lJ. mitahtd ,uz;L
jrhg;jj;jpw;F Nkyhf Kfhk; tho;f;ifapid ,k; kf;fs; njhlh;tjd;
fhuzkhf ,th;fspd; r%f mq;fPfhuk; Fiwthf cs;sJld; Fiwe;j r%f
nghUshjhu R+o;epiy fhuzkhf Xuk;fl;lg;gl;Ls;sdh;.

fhuzk;

nrhe;j ,lj;jpw;F jpUk;g vz;zk; ,y;iy

fhuzk;

Jk;G
njhopw;rhiy
e.ep

Y

Rje;jpukhf
thoyhk;

 

 

 

epyk;> tPL>
tho;thjhuk;

2

ePjthd;
,y;yk;;

Y

vkf;F nrhe;j
epyk; cz;L

 

 

 

epyk;>
jz;zPu;

3

Cuzp e.ep

Y

vkf;F nrhe;j
epyk; cz;L

 

 

 

epyk;> tPL

4

Nfhzl;Gyk;

Y

tho;thjhukhf
kPd;gpb
cs;sJ

 

 

Nghuhl;lj;jpw;fhd
MjuT

epyk;

5

msntl;b
fpof;F e.ep

Y

Kfhk;
tho;ifapd;
rpukq;fs;

 

 

 

epyk;> tPL

• 32 •

murhq;fj;jplk;

kPs;FbNaw;wj;jpd; NghJ
vjpu;ghu;f;Fk; mbg;gil
trjpfs;
mur rhu;gw;w epWtdj;jplk;

Kfhkpd;; ngah;;

1

,y

nrhe;j ,lj;jpw;F jpUk;gy;

ml;ltid – 05. kPs;FbNaw;w mgpyhi\fs;

gps;isahh;
e. ep

Y

kPd;gpb>
tptrhaj;jpw;F
trjp cz;L

 

 

Nghuhl;lj;jpw;fhd
MjuT

epyk;>
epthuz
cjtp

7

nghpa kjtb
e.ep

Y

vkf;F nrhe;j
epyk; cz;L

 

 

epthuz
cjtp

epyk;> tPL>
jz;zPu;

8

gps;isahh;
e. ep
/,f;fpuhid-01

Y

vkf;F
nrhe;j epyk;
tskhdJ

 

 

mbg;gil
trjp

epyk;> tPL>
jz;zPu;

9

,f;fpuhid-02
e.ep

Y

guk;giu
epyk;> njhopy;
tha;g;G mjpfk;

 

 

epthuz
cjtp

epyk;> tPL

Y

vkf;F
nrhe;j epyk;
cz;L> r%f
gpur;rpidfs;
Kfhkpy;
mjpfupf;fpd;wd

N

epthuz
cjtp>
tho;thjhuk;> ghlrhiy> tPL

epyk;> tPL

Y

vkf;F
nrhe;j epyk;>
tho;thjhu
eltbf;if
cz;L

 

 

epthuz
cjtp

epyk;> tPL

 

epthuz
cjtp
jw;fhypf
tPL
(nlz;l);

epyk;> tPL

 

epthuz
cjtp
jw;fhypf
tPL
(nlz;l);

epyk;> tPL

mbg;gil
trjp

epyk;> tPL

11

12

13

14

fz;zfp e.ep

rghgjpg;gps;is e.ep

,Dtpy; kpy;
e.ep

rpe;J e.ep

,ye;ijab
e.ep

Y

Rje;jpukhf
thoyhk;

 

Y

Rje;jpukhf
thoyhk;

 

Y

jw;NghJ
thOk;
,lj;jpd;
epr;rakw;w
jd;ik

N

• 33 •

$l;Lf; FLk;gk;
vd;gjdhy; vkf;F nrhe;j epyk;
,y;iy

10

vkf;F nrhe;j
epyk; ,y;iy>
gps;isfspd; fy;tp

6

15

ePjthd; e.ep

Y

vkJ nrhe;j
,lj;jpy;
tho;thjhuj;jpw;fhd tsq;fs;
cz;L

 

epthuz
cjtp

epyk;> tPL

 

 

 

N

vkf;F
nrhe;j
epyk;
,y;iy

mbg;gil
trjp

epyk;

N

vkf;F
epyk;
,y;iy

mbg;gil
trjp

epyk;> tPL

 

 

 

epyk;

 

 

N

17

klfr;rp e.ep

 

 

N

18

fl;Lil 01

 

 

 

fl;Lil 02

Y

20

fl;Lil 03

 

 

xd;Wkpy;iy

epyk;> tPL>
mbg;gil
trjp

Myb e.ep

19

vkf;F
nrhe;j
epyk;
,y;iy
vkf;F
nrhe;j
epyk;
,y;iy

xd;Wkpy;iy

 

16

vkf;F nrhe;j
epyk; cz;L

 

21

nfhk;gdpg;Gyk;

Y

vkf;F nrhe;j
epyk; cz;L
tho;thjhuj;jpw;fhd
tsq;fs; cz;L

22

rz;bypg;gha;
GTMS

Y

tho;thjhuj;jpw;fhd trjpfs;
cz;L

 

 

epthuz
cjtp

epyk;> tPL

23

fpU];zh;
Nfhtpyb e.ep

Y

vkf;F nrhe;j
epyk; cz;L>
Kfhkpy;
xd;Wkpy;iy

 

 

 

epyk;> tPL

Y

mfjp
vd;gjdhy;
fpuhk kf;fs;
vk;ik
kjpg;gjpy;iy>
nrhe;j
,lj;jpy;
vkf;F epyk;
,y;yhtpbDk;
Rje;jpukhf
thoyhk;

 

 

epthuz
cjtp

tPL

24

,e;Jfy;Yhhp
e.ep

• 34 •

25

NahfGuk; e.ep

Y

jw;NghJ
thOk;
,lj;jpy;
xd;Wkpy;iy

26

,Og;igab
(A) e.ep

 

 

 

 

 

 

27

,Og;igab
(B) e.ep

 

 

 

 

 

 

Y

vkf;F nrhe;j
epyk; cz;L>
Kfhkpy;
xd;Wkpy;iy>
Fwpg;Gepykw;wtu;fs;
nrhe;j ,lj;jpy;
fhzp ngw
tpUk;Gfpd;wdu;>
,y;iynadpy;
khw;W
epyj;jpid
vjpu;ghu;f;fpd;wdu;

 

 

 

epyk;> tPL>
mbg;gil
trjp

 

 

mbg;gil
trjp

epyk;> tPL

 

 

 

 

Y

vkf;F nrhe;j
epyk; cz;L
tho;thjhuj;jpw;fhd tsq;fs;
cz;L

 

 

epthuz
cjtp

epyk;> tPL>
mbg;gil
trjp

Y

vkf;F nrhe;j
epyk; cz;L
tho;thjhuj;jpw;fhd tsq;fs;
cz;L

 

 

xd;Wkpy;iy

xd;Wkpy;iy

Y

vkf;F nrhe;j
epyk; cz;L
tho;thjhuj;jpw;fhd tsq;fs;
cz;L

 

 

epthuz
cjtp

mbg;gil
trjp> epyk;

28

nry;tGuk; e.ep

29

cLg;gpl;b
njw;F e.ep

Y

vkf;F
NghJkhd
tho;thjhu
trjpfs;
cz;L

30

rpd;df;fhydp
e.ep

Y

 

31

32

33

K.K.S e.ep

rpd;dhtiy
e.ep

Rg;gh; klk;
e.ep

 

 

 

tPL

• 35 •

35

36

Midf;Fl;b
e.ep

epytd; e.ep

ghyhtp e.ep

Y

 

 

Y

Kfhk; epy
cupikahsu;fs;
vk;ik
ntspNaw;w
Kidfpd;wdu;

 

 

Y

vkJ nrhe;j
epyj;jpy;
Fbirapy;
tho;e;jhYk;
ahUk; vk;ik
ntspNaw;w
khl;lhu;fs;

 

 

 

 

mbg;gil
trjp

epyk;> tPL

 

 

mbg;gil
trjp

epyk;> tPL

 

 

 

 
mbg;gil
trjpfSld;
kPs;FbNaw;wk;

epyk;> tPL

37

rf;Nfhl;il
e.ep

Y

38

jpf;fk;

Y

39

Xlf;fiu

 

40

gUj;jpj;Jiw
(Nfhl;;lb)

41

gUj;jpj;Jiw
Kid

Kfhkpy;
jz;zPu;
kw;Wk; Rfhjhu
trjpfs;
,y;iy
vkf;F nrhe;j
epyk; cz;L>
nrhe;j
,lj;jpy; $ba
tUkhdk;
ngwyhk;
 

kPd;gpb
cgfuzq;fs;

epthuz cjtp> jw;fhypf
kPs;FbNaw;w
jq;Fkplk;- kio
Nghuhl;lj;jpw;fhd
fhyj;jpy;> etk;gu;> [dtup
MjuT
tiu jw;fhypf jq;Fkplk;

34

nrhe;j
,lj;jpw;F
jpUk;gpr;
nrd;why;
kPd;gpbapy;
<Lglyhk;

Y

cw;whu;
cwtpdu;fSld;
tho
tpUk;Gfpd;Nwhk;

 

 

jw;fhypf
jq;Fkplk;

Y

fpuhk kf;fshy;
mtkjpf;fg;gLfpd;Nwhk;

 

 

kPs;FbNaw;w
Nghuhl;lj;jpw;fhd
MjuT

• 36 •

epyk;> tPL

mbg;gil
trjpfSld;
kPsF
; bNaw;wk;

epyk;> tPL>
mbg;gil
trjp

43

fhiuf;fhy;
e.ep

Y

Y

mbg;gil
trjpfSld;
kdpju;fshf
tho
tpUk;Gfpd;Nwhk;

 

 

 

 

kPs;FbNaw;w
Nghuhl;lj;jpw;fhd MjuT

,d;ghrpl;b

vkf;F nrhe;j epyk; cz;L
tho;thjhuj;jpw;fhd tsq;fs;
cz;L> vkJ ngw;Nwhupd;
tpUg;gq;fis epiwNtw;w
ehk; vkJ nrhe;j ,lj;jpw;F
jpUk;g Ntz;Lk;

42

 

epyk;> tPL

mbg;gil
trjpfSld;
kPs;FbNahw;wk;

kPs; FbNaw;w nrad;Kiwapd; jw;Nghija epiyik
gy;NtW rpukq;fSf;F kj;jpapy; ,lk; ngah;e;j Kfhk;fspy; thOk; kf;fs;
midtUk; cldbahf kPs;FbNaw;wg;gly; Ntz;Lk;. Kd;da murhq;fk;
,lk; ngah;e;j kf;fis kPs; FbNaw;Wtjw;F vt;tpjkhd Kaw;rpapidAk;
Nkw;nfhs;stpy;iy. ,t; Ma;tpd; %ykhf 9 FLk;gq;fs; kl;LNk
KOikahf kPs;FbNaw;wg;gl;Ls;sJ vd mwpaf;fpilj;jJ. mj;Jld; 200
FLk;gq;fs; kPs;FbNaw mDkjp toq;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. Kfhkpy; 100 FLk;gq;fs;
fhzg;gl;lhYk; 20 FLk;gq;fSf;F kl;LNk mDkjp fpilj;Js;sJ. ,e;epiy
gpd;tUk; ,lk; ngah;e;j Kfhk;fspy; gpujpgypf;fpd;wJ> fpU];zh; Nfhtpyb
Kfhk;> ,e;J fy;Y}hp Kfhk;> NahfGuk; Kfhk;> ,Og;gab Kfhk; kw;Wk;
nry;tGuk; Kfhk; vd;gdthFk;.
“ vkJ tho;f;if njhlh;gpd; ve;jnthU jPh;khdKk; ,y;iy. vk; njhlh;gpy;
cldbahd jPh;khdk; xd;W vLf;fg;gly; Ntz;Lk;> ehk; vkJ nrhe;j
epyq;fspy; kPs; FbNaw;wg;gl Ntz;Lk;.” (,Og;gab Kfhk; kf;fs;)

• 37 •

njy;ypg;giy vjph;g;G
Nghuhl;lj;jpy; vjph;fl;rpj;jiyth;
kw;Wk; fl;rpj;jiyth;fs;

2014 [Piy 15 vjph;g;G
Nghuhl;lk; jil nra;ag;gl;l
gpd; elhj;jpa fUj;juq;F.

Kfhk;fs; mike;Js;s ,lj;ij njhpe;Jnfhs;tjw;F ,t; ,iza Kfthpf;F
nry;yTk;
https://www.google.com/maps/d/edit?mid=zsf3oMcSf17U.kaaPJMZoCVsI

vkJ Ma;Tf;FO ,lk;ngah;e;j Kfhk; kf;fsplk; Kfhk; R+o;epiy kw;Wk;
kPs;FbNaw;wk; Fwpj;j mth;fsJ fUj;Jf;fis Nfl;lwpe;Njhk;. 35 Kfhk;fis
Nrh;e;j kf;fs; jkJ nrhe;j epyq;fSf;F jpUk;gr; nry;y Ntz;Lk; kw;Wk;
nrhe;j fpuhkj;jpNyNa kPs;FbNaw;wg;gly; Ntz;Lk; vd cWjpahf $wpdh;.
“vkJ epyk; vkf;F Ntz;Lk;” vkJ fpuhkj;jpy; ehk; nfsutj;Jld;
tho;e;Njhk;. ,lk; ngah;tpd; fhuzkhf vkJ Ra nfsutj;ij ,oe;Js;Nshk;.
ehk; jw;nghOJ jpdf;$yp njhopyhsp Mfptpl;Nlhk;. vt;thwhapDk;> vkJ
tho;tpid ehk; fl;bnaOg;g Ntz;baJld; vkJ epyk; vkf;F Njit”.
,uz;L Kfhk;fspy; tho;gth;fs; kl;Lk; mNj Kfhkpy; njhlh;e;J trpf;f
vjph;ghh;f;fpd;wdh;. Vida ehd;F Kfhkpy; trpg;gth;fs; jkJ nrhe;j
epyj;jpw;F jpUk;g my;yJ mNj Kfhkpy; trpf;f my;yJ khw;W epyq;fis
vjph;ghh;f;fpd;wdh;. ,t;thwhd jPh;khdj;jpw;F gpujhd fhuzk;> jkJ nrhe;j
fpuhkq;fspy; ,th;fSf;nfd nrhe;j epyk; fhzg;glhik kw;Wk; Kfhk;
tho;f;iff;F gof;fg;gl;Ltpl;lik vd;gdthFk;. fhzpapid Ntz;b epw;Fk;
mNdf FLk;gq;fSf;F jkJ nrhe;j fpuhkq;fspy; nrhe;j fhzpfs; ,y;iy>
mj;Jld; $l;L FLk;gq;fspd; vz;zpf;if mjpfk;.
jkJ nrhe;j fpuhkj;jpy; midj;J trjpfSk; cs;sjhf ,lk;ngah;e;j kf;fs;
$Wfpd;wdh;. nrhe;j epyj;jpw;F jpUk;Gtjw;fhd mDkjp fpilj;j kf;fs;>
jkJ epyq;fis Jg;guT nra;tjpy; fye;Jnfhs;stpy;iy> ,jw;F fhuzk;
• 38 •

Fiwe;j tUkhdk;> tho;thjhuk; ,of;fg;gLk; vd;w mr;rk;> gl;bdpg;gak;
kw;Wk; Nghjpa trjpfspd;ik vd;gdthFk;.
,e; epiyik ngz; jiyikj;Jt FLk;gq;fis mjpfk; ghjpf;fpd;wJ.
FLk;gj;jpy; Mz;fs; ,Uf;Fk; nghOJ> FLk;gg; guhkhpg;Gld; njhlh;Gila
Ntiyfis mth;fs; nra;thh;fs;. Mdhy; Kfhk;fspy; kw;Wk; Vida
,lq;fspy; ngz; jiyikj;Jt FLk;gq;fspd; epiyik mt;thwhdjy;y.
vdNt> ,yq;if murhq;fk; ,lk;ngah;e;j kf;fSf;Fk; ngz; jiyikj;Jt
FLk;gq;fSf;Fk; kPs;FbNaw;wj;jpw;Fj; Njitahd midj;J mbg;gilj;
NjitfisAk; G+h;j;jp nra;a Ntz;Lk;. Ma;T jftypd; gb> fpl;lj;jl;l
midj;J kf;fSk; jkJ nrhe;j ,lq;fSf;F jpUk;Gtjid cWjpahf
vjph;ghh;f;fpd;wdh;. vdNt ,yq;if murhq;fk; nrhe;j ,lq;fSf;F jpUk;g
tpUk;Gk; kf;fSf;Fj; Njitahd cjtpfis toq;f Ntz;Lk;.
Kfhkpy; thOk; $l;Lf;FLk;gq;fSf;F epyk; toq;Ftjw;fhd nghwpKiw
xd;W Njit. ,t; midj;J tplaq;fSk; kf;fspd; xg;GjYld; nraw;gLj;jy;
Ntz;Lk;. kPs;FbNaw;w nrad;Kiw rh;tNjr ju topfhl;ly;fSf;F
mikthf ,lk;ngw Ntz;Lk; vd;gjid ehk; kwe;Jtplf;$lhJ. ,yq;if
murhq;fj;jplk; ,lk;ngah;e;j kf;fs; Nfl;Lf;nfhs;tJ jk;ik jkJ nrhe;j
epyq;fSf;F nry;y mDkjpj;J mq;F kPs; FbNaw;WtNj. ,th;fspdJ
vjph;ghh;g;gpid ,yq;if murhq;fk; nrtprha;f;Fk; vd vjph;ghh;f;fpd;wdh;.

KbTiu/ Ma;tpd; KbTfs;
[dthp khjk; 8k; jpfjpf;F gpd;dh; Kjy; Mf];l; 17k; jpfjp 2015k; Mz;L
tiuahd fhyg;gFjpapy;> rpy fhzpfis tpLtpf;f kw;Wk; jkJ nrhe;j
,lj;jpy; ,lk; ngah;e;j kf;fis FbNaw;w vLf;fg;gl;l eltbf;iffs;
vk; Nghd;w epy chpikf;fhf NghuhLk; mikg;Gf;fSf;F cj;Ntfj;ijj;
je;Js;sJ. 2015k; Mz;L ngg;uthp khjk; 11k; jpfjp mikr;ruitapdhy;> ,lk;
ngah;e;j kf;fis jkJ nrhe;j epyj;jpw;F mDg;GtJ rhh;ghf vLf;fg;gl;l
jPh;khdk; Kf;fpakhdJk; ghuhl;lj;jf;fJkhFk;. mikr;ruit jPh;khdj;jpw;F
mikthf tpLtpf;fg;gl;l fhzpfspy; ghzk> rk;G+h; kw;Wk; tyyha; vd;gd
cjhuzq;fshFk;.
jkJ
epyq;fSf;F
nry;y
mDkjpf;fg;gl;l
midj;J
kf;fSk;
,lk;ngah;e;j kf;fs; my;y. jkJ nrhe;j epyq;fSf;F nry;y mDkjpj;jJ
kpfg; nghpa MWjyhf fUjg;gl;lhYk;> kPs;jpUk;gy; nrad;Kiwapd;
NghJ kPs; jpUk;Ggth;fSf;F Njitahd mbg;gil trjpfs; $l
• 39 •

toq;fg;gl;bUf;ftpy;iy. kf;fs; kPs; jpUk;g mDkjpf;fg;gl;l gpuNjrq;fspy;
cl;fl;likg;G trjpfNsh my;yJ jq;Fkpl trjpfNsh fhzg;gltpy;iy.
Mo;e;j fyhr;rhu Kf;fpaj;Jtj;jpd; mopT fhuzkhf epyq;fspd; tpiyapy;
ghhpa tPo;r;rp Vw;gl;Ls;sJ.
rKjhaj;jpy; xU jdpegh; ghjpf;fg;gl;bUg;gpDk;> mtiu fhg;ghw;wp
fl;bnaSg;GtJ rKjhaj;jpd; nghWg;ghFk;. ,yq;ifapy; Aj;jj;jhy;
ghjpf;fg;gl;l r%fk; njhlh;e;Jk; rpukg;gLtjid mDkjpg;gjw;F epahakhd
fhuzk; vJTk; fpilahJ. Aj;jk; Kbtile;J MW tUlq;fs; fle;Jtpl;ld.
vkJ mbg;gil Nfs;tp ahnjdpd;> ,lk; ngah;e;j kf;fs;> ngz;fs; kw;Wk;
gp;s;isfspd; xOf;fkhd tho;f;iff;fhd chpik vd;gtw;wpid Vd; vk;
r%fk; kjpf;ff; $lhJ? mj;Jld; mth;fis jkJ nrhe;j epyj;jpw;F my;yJ
khw;W ,lj;jpw;F nry;y Vd; mDkjpf;ff; $lhJ? vy;yhtw;wpw;Fk; Nkyhf
mth;fs; jkJ nrhe;j epyj;jpidNa Nfl;fpd;wdh;. ,J ,lk; ngah;e;j
kf;fspd; ,lk;ngah;e;j ehs; Kjy; njhlUk; Nghuhl;lkhFk;. kw;Wk; ,t;
tplaj;jpid ,yq;if murpd; ftdj;jpw;F nfhz;L tUtjw;F gy;NtW
Kaw;rpfs; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;ld.
Kd;dhs; [dhjpgjp kfpe;j uh[gf;r Ml;rpapd; fPo; ed;F tpthjpf;fg;gl;l
LLRC ghpe;Jiuapy;> Aj;jj;jpdhy; ghjpf;fg;gl;l r%fj;jpd; kPs;FbNaw;wj;jpd;
Kf;fpaj;Jtk; njspthf ghpe;Jiuf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. LLRC mwpf;ifapd; ruj;J
,y 9.121 njhlf;fk; 9.152 tiuapy; tpN\lkhf kPs;jpUk;gy; kw;Wk; kPs;
FbNaw;w epyg;gpur;rpid njhlh;gpy; ghpe;Jiufs; njspthff; $wg;gl;Ls;sJ.
9.106 egh;fspd; elkhLk; Rje;jpuj;jpd; %yk; nrhe;j ,lj;jpy; kPs;FbNaWtjid
kjpg;gjw;fhd Njit fhzg;gLfpd;wJ. rh;tNjrj;jpdhy; Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gl;l
jd;dhh;tj;Jld; kPs; jpUk;Gtjw;fhd
nfhs;if gpd;gw;wg;gly; Ntz;Lk;.
,J Fwpj;J> kf;fs; kPs; FbNaWtjw;fhd gFjp kw;Wk; ,J njhlh;ghf
kf;fs; kj;jpapy; tpopg;Gzh;T kw;Wk; mth;fSf;fhd fpilf;fg;ngWk;
tha;g;Gf;fs; Fwpj;J njspthd nfhs;ifapid murhq;fk; njspTgLj;j
Ntz;Lk;. kPs;FbNaw;w jpl;lk; njhlh;;ghd kpfj; njspthd kw;Wk; ed;F
Muha;e;j nfhs;if %ykhf kf;fspd; kPs; FbNaw;w tha;g;Gf;fs; toq;Fjy;
Clhf jtwhd Ghpe;Jzh;T kw;Wk; re;Njfk; vd;gtw;wpid milahsg;gLj;j
cjtpahf mikAk;.
LLRC cs;ehl;by; cUthf;fg;gl;l
nghwpKiw kw;Wk; ghpe;Jiufs;>
,lk;ngah;e;Njhhpd; FiwghLfspid vt;thW kpf njspthf vLj;Jiug;gJ
vd $wpAs;sJ. NkYk; cs;ehl;L khjphpfs;> rh;tNjr r%fk;> gpujhdkhf
• 40 •

If;fpa mnkhpf;fh Nghd;w ,lk;ngah;e;j kf;fspd; gpur;rpid njhlh;ghf kpf
cWjpahd xg;ge;jj;jpw;F te;Js;sd.
epyk;> kPd;gpb kw;Wk; fhLfs; Ml;rpAhpik njhlh;ghd nghWg;Gila murhq;fj;jpd;
jd;dhh;t topfhl;ly; (VGGT)> apd; 25k; ruj;J- ,lk;ngah;e;Njhhpd; epyk;>
fhL> kPd;gpb Ml;rpAhpikia kjpg;gspj;jy; njhlh;ghd Kuz;ghLfs;. ,J
Xh; jd;dhh;t jd;ik nfhz;l nfhs;if topfhl;lyhf fhzg;gbDk; ,lk;
ngah;e;Njhh; gpur;rpidia milahsg;gLj;Jtjpy; kpfTk; Kf;fpakhd Xh;
topfhl;lyhFk;.
rh;tNjr kl;lj;jpy; ,lk; ngah;e;Njhh; gpur;rpid njhlh;gpyhd tpthjq;fs;
If;fpa ehLfs; rigapd; ftdj;jpidg; ngw;Ws;sJ. I.eh tpd; mfjpfs;
kw;Wk; ,lk;ngah;e;j egh;fspd; tPL kw;Wk; nrhj;J ,og;gPLfs; nfhs;ifapd;
5k; mj;jpahaj;jpy; njspthf Fwpg;gplg;gl;Ls;sJ;-

,lg;ngah;tpypUe;J ghJfhj;Jf; nfhs;SjYf;fhd chpik
5.1 mtDila my;yJ mtSila tPL> epyk; my;yJ tof;fkhd
thOkplj;jpypUe;J jd;dpr;irahf ,lk; ngah;tjpypUe;J jk;ik ghJfhf;Fk;
chpik midtUf;Fk; cz;L.
5.2 muRfs;> ,lk; ngah;tpw;F vjpuhd ghJfhg;gpid rh;tNjr kdpj chpikfs;>
kdpjhgpkhd rl;lq;fis kw;Wk; njhlh;ghd juq;fs; vd;gtw;wpid cs;ehl;L
rl;lthf;fj;jpy; ,izj;Jf; nfhs;s Ntz;baJld; ,g; ghJfhg;gpid
Ml;rpajpfhuj;jpw;F my;yJ fl;Lg;ghl;bd; fPo; cs;s midtUf;Fk; toq;f
Ntz;Lk;.
5.3 muRfs;> gyte;j ntspNaw;wk;> tPLfs; cilj;jy; kw;Wk; tptrha
epyq;fis mopj;jiy jilnra;jy; Ntz;Lk;. mj;Jld; jz;lid
eltbf;ifahf my;yJ xU topKiwahf my;yJ Aj;j Kiwahf epyq;fis
jd;dpr;irahf mgfhpj;jy; my;yJ gwpKjy; nra;tjid jilnra;jy;
Ntz;Lk;.
5.4 muRfs;> murpdhNy my;yJ muR rhh;gw;w gq;Fjhuh;fspdhNy kf;fs;
,lg;ngah;tpw;F cl;glhky; ,Ug;gjw;fhd eltbf;ifapid Nkw;nfhs;s
Ntz;Lk;. muRfs;> jkJ Ml;rpajpfhuj;jpw;F my;yJ fl;Lg;ghl;bd; fPo;
jdpegh;fs;> $l;Lj;jhgdq;fs; kw;Wk; Vida epWtdq;fs; ,lg;ngah;tpid
elj;Jjy; my;yJ ,lg;ngah;tpy; gq;Fgw;Wjypy; ,Ue;J tpyfp ,Ug;gij
cWjpg;gLj;j Ntz;Lk;
• 41 •

gpui[fs; ,lk;ngauhky; ,Ug;gjid rh;tNjr nfhs;ifs; kpf cWjpahf
ghpe;Jiuf;fpd;wd. ,J kdpjdhy; cUthf;fg;gl;l MAj Nkhjy; my;yJ
,aw;if mdh;j;jkhf ,Ue;jhYk;> ,J murpd; nghWg;ghtJld; ghjpf;fg;gl;l
r%fq;fis kPs; FbNaw;Wtjw;F Njitahd eltbf;iffspid Nkw;nfhs;s
Ntz;Lk;.
vdNt ehl;by; ,lk; ngah;e;j kf;fis kPs;FbNaw;Wtjw;fhd eltbf;iffspid
Nkw;nfhs;tJ kw;Wk; ,lk;ngah;e;Njhh; ,y;yhky; ghh;j;Jf;nfhs;tJ ,yq;if
murpd; flikahFk;. 2015k; Mz;L [dthp
mikjpg; Gul;rpapd; NghJ
ehl;bd; tlf;F fpof;F tho; kf;fspd; ngUk;ghd;ik MjuTld; [dhjpgjp
ikj;jphpghy rpwpNrd njhpthfpdhh;. ,JNt cz;ikapy; Kd;dhy; [dhjpgjp
kfpe;j uh[gf;r Njhy;tpaile;J jkJ nrhe;j Chpw;F jpUk;gpa NghJ $wpa
$w;whFk;. ,jid ehk; ,dthj fUj;jhf fUJtJld;> “tlf;F fpof;F
khfhz jopo; kw;Wk; K];ypk; kf;fs; vd;idj; Njhw;fbj;jdh;” vd mth;
njspthf ntspg;gLj;jpdhh;.
[dthp [dhjpgjp Njh;jypd; gpd;dh; Xh; nrad;Kiw Muk;gkhdJ. vdpDk;
Aj;jj;jpd; NghJ ,lk;ngah;e;j kf;fspy; gyh; ,d;Dk; Mq;fhq;Nf
rpjwpf;fplg;gjdhy; ,t; nrad;Kiw jh;f;fG+h;tkhd Kbtpid milatpy;iy.
,e;jpahtpy; cs;s Mapuf;fzf;fhd mfjpfs; Fwpj;Jk; ehk; ftdk; nrYj;j
Ntz;Lk;. mbg;gil trjp kw;Wk; ghJfhg;G toq;fg;gLk; re;jh;g;gj;jpy; jkJ
jha; ehl;bw;F kPs jpUk;Gtjw;F tpUk;GtJld; Mh;tkhfTk; cs;sdh;.
vdpDk; ,r; R+oypy; cs;ehl;by; ,lk; ngah;e;j kf;fs; Fwpj;J ftdk;
nrYj;j Ntz;bAs;sJld;> ,lk; ngah;e;j ngz;fs; kw;Wk; rpWth;fs;
Fwpj;J $ba Kf;fpaj;Jtk; toq;fy; Ntz;Lk;. Xh; rptpy; r%f gq;fhsuhf>
ghjpf;fg;gl;l r%fj;jpd; ey;tho;it cWjpg;gLj;Jtjpy; murhq;fj;jpd;
rhjfkhd Kaw;rpfSf;F vkJ xj;Jiog;gpid toq;FNthk;.
,yq;ifapd; gpujkh; uzpy; tpf;fpukrpq;f 2015k; Mz;L Mf];l; 27k; jpfjp
myhp khspifapy; ,e;J gj;jphpiff;fhd Ngl;bapd; NghJ $wpajhtJ : “
tlf;F kw;Wk; fpof;fpy; jw;NghJs;s cz;ikahd gpur;rpid ahnjdpy;>
jkJ nrhe;j fhzpapy; ,Ue;J ntspNaw;wg;gl;l ,lk;ngah;e;j kf;fis
kPs;FbNaw;WtjhFk;. – aho;g;ghzj;jpy; kw;Wk; fpof;fpy; ehl;bd; Njrpa
ghJfhg;G Xh; Kf;fpa gpur;rpid> ehq;fs; epyq;fis tpLtpg;Nghk;. Xh; rpwg;ghd
khjphpnahd;wpid mur Nritfs;> MAjk; jhq;fpa gilfs; ,ize;J
jahhpj;Jf;nfhz;bUf;fpd;Nwhk;.”
• 42 •

ehk; vy;NyhUk;> kdpj chpik ghJfhtyh;fs; vd;w mbg;gilapy; xd;Wk;
mjpfkhf vjph;ghh;f;f tpy;iy. ehl;by; cs;s midj;J gpui[fSf;Fk; Xh;
fz;zpakhd tho;f;ifapid Nfl;fpNwhk;. cs;ehl;by; ,lk; ngah;e;Njhh;
midtUk; jkJ rhjhuz tho;f;iff;F jpUk;g Ntz;Lk;> mth;fspd;
tho;thjhuj;ij GJg;gpf;fNtz;Lk;> fyhr;rhuj;ij kPl;ly;> kw;Wk; Njrpa
nghUshjhuj;jpy; gq;Nfw;f Ntz;Lk; vd ehk; vjph;ghh;f;fpd;Nwhk;. Nkw;$wpa
midj;Jk; vy;yh gq;Fjhuh;fspdJ Xj;Jiog;Gld; ,g; ghjpf;fgl;l
kf;fspd; tho;f;iff;F cldb khw;wk; Vw;gLj;jp nfhLf;fg;gLk; vd ehk;
vjph;ghh;fpd;Nwhk;.

ghpe;Jiufs;
• cs;ehl;by; ,lk;ngah;e;j kf;fs; njhlh;gpy; milahsg;gLj;jg;gl;l
jftypid
mbg;gilahff;
nfhz;L>
kPs;FbNaw;wj;jpw;fhd
cldbahd kw;Wk; Kiwahd mZFKiw xd;W fhzg;gl Ntz;Lk;.
• 13k; murpayikg;G jpUj;jj;jpid KOikahf eilKiwg;gLj;JtJld;>
cs;ehl;by; ,lk; ngah;e;jth;fspd; epy chpik cWjpahf;fg;gLjYld;
mth;fis kPs;FbNaw;Wtjw;fhd cldbahd mtjhdk; nrYj;jg;gly;
Ntz;Lk;.
• Rw;WyhJiw> tptrhak;> tpahghu Njitfs; gy;NtWgl;l ,uhZt
%yhghaq;fs;>
nghUshjhu Njitf;fhd gpuNjrq;fs; my;yJ
tyaq;fshf
,uhZt eltbf;iffSf;fhf Mf;fpukpf;fg;gl;l
epyq;fs; tpLtpf;fg;gLtJld;> cs;ehl;by; ,lk;ngah;e;j kf;fis
jkJ nrhe;j ,lq;fspy; kPs;FbNaw;w Ntz;Lk;.
• ,yq;if murhq;fk; kw;Wk; kPs;FbNaw;wj;Jld; njhlu;Gila midj;J
Kftu;fSk;>
nrad;Kiwapd;
jpl;lkply;>
eilKiwg;gLj;jypy;
cs;ehl;by; ,lk;ngah;e;j kf;fspd; jiyikfspd; gq;Fgw;Wjiy
,izj;Jf; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;.
• kf;fspilapy; kpfTk;
FLk;gq;fs; njhlh;gpy;
toq;fg;gly; Ntz;Lk;.

Xuq;fl;lg;gl;Ls;s ngz; jiyikj;Jt
tpN\l mtjhdk; kw;Wk; Kd;Dhpik

• kPs;FbNaw;w nrad;Kiwia Jhpjg;gLj;Jtjw;F> If;fpa ehLfs;
rig kw;Wk; rk;ke;jg;gl;l Kfth;fis cjtpfs; toq;Ftjw;F
miog;G tpLf;f Ntz;Lk;.
• 43 •

• cs;ehl;by; ,lk;ngah;e;j kf;fspd; gpur;rpidfis vLj;Jiug;gjw;fhd
xd;wpize;j nghwpKiw xd;wpid ,yq;if murhq;fk; tpUj;jp
nra;tJld;> rk;ke;jg;gl;l midj;J gq;Fjhuh;fSf;Fk; ,ize;J
nraw;gLtjw;F miog;G tpLf;f Ntz;Lk;
• cs;ehl;by; ,lk;ngah;e;jth;fis kPs;FwpNaw;wk; nrad;Kiwapd;
NghJ> Aj;jj;jpd; NghJ fhzhky; Nghd mth;fsJ rl;l Mtzq;fis
ngw;Wj;jUjy; Ntz;Lk;.
• tPL kw;Wk; Vida nrhj;Jf;fis
nrYj;jg;gLjy; Ntz;Lk;.

,oe;jth;fSf;fhd

,og;gPL

• rdj;njhif
fzf;fpd;gb
%yk;
$l;Lf;FLk;gq;fs;
milahsg;gLj;jg;gly; Ntz;Lk;. ,th;fSf;F ehl;by; Vida
gpui[fs; mDgtj;jpw;F xj;jjhd trjpfs; toq;fg;gly; Ntz;Lk;
• jkJ nrhe;j fpuhkq;fspy;
fhzpfis toq;fNtz;Lk;.

fhzp

,y;yhjtu;fSf;F

NghJkhd

• “vkJ fhzpfis NtW ahUf;Fk; toq;f khl;Nlhk;> vkJ kz;zpy;
ehk; mikjpahf ehk; thoNtz;Lk;”. (Y. Nwh]; Nkhp- Nfhzl;Gyk;
- Kfhk;)
• 25 tUl ,lk; ngah;e;j Kfhk; tho;f;if ,d;Dk; vj;jid tUlq;fSf;F
,J njhlu Ntz;Lk;.? jw;Nghija [dhjpgjp ikj;jphp> gpujkh; uzpy;
murhq;fk; ehl;bd; midj;J gpui[fSf;Fk; ePjp ngw;Wj;jUk; vd;gJ
vk; vjph;ghh;g;G. ,jd; NghJ kpfTk; ghjpg;gilaf;$ba r%fq;fshd
cs;ehl;by; ,lk;ngah;e;j kf;fs; kw;Wk; ngz; jiyikj;Jt
FLk;gq;fs; Fwpg;gplj;jf;fit. rk;ke;jg;gl;l midj;J gq;Fjhuu;fSk;
xd;wpize;J ghjpf;fg;gl;l kf;fspd; tho;f;ifapy; cldbahf Xh;
khw;wj;jpid Vw;gLj;j Ntz;Lk; vd ehk; vjph;ghh;f;fpd;Nwhk;.

• 44 •

,lk; ngah;e;j Kfhk; rpWth;fs; :- ,k; kf;fspd; vjph;fhyj;ij ehk; fUj;jpw;
nfhs;fpNwhkh?

'xLf;F Kiwf;F kj;jpapYk; ehk; nksdkhf ,Uf;f tpy;iy" fhzp
chpikf;fhf kf;fs; Nghuhl;lj;jpy

• 45 •