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# CE 434 – L 11

Pedestrian Studies

separation from traffic. . sidewalks.What Pedestrians Need: Lower volumes of motor vehicle traffic moving at slow speeds.

we describe the basic pedestrian characteristics and their application to planning and designing of pedestrian facilities.Lecture Objectives • In this section. • Evaluation of Pedestrian facilities using levelof-service concept. .

This is the inverse of density • Pedestrian Platoon refers to a number of pedestrians walking together in a group.Terminology • Pedestrian speed is the average pedestrian walking speed (m/s) • Pedestrian flow rate is the number of pedestrians passing a point per unit of time (p/min). • Pedestrian space or area module is the average area provided for each pedestrian in a walkway (m2/p). . • Pedestrian unit width flow is the average flow of pedestrians per unit of effective walkway width (p/min/m). • Pedestrian density is the average number of pedestrians per unit of area (p/m2).

on an average. Fruin suggests about 7 to 10 ft2/person. as shown in Figure. For personal comfort.HUMAN SPACE REQUIREMENTS • Individual persons. which is known as the body ellipse. . require a minimum area when standing.3ft2/person is not sufficient if human beings are carrying luggage or backpacks. Note that these space requirements are for persons standing without motion. • This minimum space requirement of 2. It measures 18 in. by 24 in..

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TRB. A theoretical speed-density-flow relationship is shown in Figure.Pedestrian Speed-Density-Flow Relationship • Pedestrian flow is described in terms of speed and flow. 1934. . 2000). which can be approximated by a parabolic curve that is similar to motor vehicle flow (Greenshields.

Theoretical speed-density-flow relationship .

using a peak 15-minute period of flow as the basis for analysis.• Pedestrian demand is expressed as ped/15 min.(1) Where • V = peak pedestrian flow (ped/15min) • WE = effective walkway width (ft) . The average pedestrian flow (v) is then computed as • v = V / 15WE ---------.

signs. reduce the effective walkway width. . Poles. and benches. for example.Effective Walkway Width The width of a walkway that can effectively be used by pedestrians is called the clear walkway width.

Walking Speeds Many researches have contributed to measuring walking speeds. Figure show that there is a wide range of speeds among pedestrians. Trip purpose. . and other environmental factors all affect walking speeds. land use. age.

3 m/s is computations for walkways.1 m/s .0 m/s walking speed is recommended. In addition. If 0 to 20 percent elderly.DETERMINING PEDESTRIAN WALKING SPEED Pedestrian walking speed depends on elderly pedestrians ( 65 years of age walking population. an upgrade of 10 percent or greater reduces walking speed by 0. the proportion of and older) in the of pedestrians are recommended for If elderly pedestrians constitute more than 20 percent of all pedestrians. a 1. a walking speed of 1.

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Pedestrian flow modeling methodology – A Case Study (Mumbai) .

PEDESTRIAN FACILITIES TYPES OF FACILITIES •Pedestrian facilities along urban streets – designated pedestrian sidewalks on urban streets. . incurring the impacts of both uninterrupted flow and fixed interruptions. •Pedestrian crosswalks – pedestrian crossings at signalized and unsignalized intersections.

. and street crossings. and other non motorized traffic. transit platforms.• Pedestrian queuing areas – areas where pedestrians stand temporarily. • Shared off-street paths – paths physically separated from highway traffic for the use of pedestrians. while waiting to be served. bicycles. Queuing areas are found at elevators.

to guide pedestrians with Visual impairments to its location 2/16/2012 IIT BOMBAY 18 . • A coloured tactile marking strip at least 600 mm wide should mark the beginning and the end of a traffic island.Traffic Islands • Traffic islands to reduce the length of the crossing should be considered for the safety of all road users Raised islands in crossing should: • Be cut through and level with the street or have curb ramps at both the sides and have a level area of not less than 1500 mm long in the middle.

• The time interval allowed for crossing should be programmed according to the slowest crossing persons. pedestrian crossings should be equipped with traffic control signs. 2/16/2012 IIT BOMBAY 19 . and/or tactile signals which indicate when the green light is displayed and it is safe to cross should be provided.Traffic Signals • At road intersections. bleeper. • For the benefit of blind or partially sighted people audible signals.

Sky walk • Foot over bridge • Pedestrian subway • Shelters 2/16/2012 IIT BOMBAY 20 .

Crossing islands should be designed to accommodate pedestrians who don’t make it all of the way across a wide intersection .

grade on ramps. malls meant only for pedestrians. stair suitable for elderly. and other factors that contribute to the ease of pedestrian movement • Safety: separation of pedestrian traffic from vehicular traffic. crime-free environment • Economy: minimization of travel delays . transit shelter.The following factors should be considered (TRB. directory maps. climate control. 2000) in designing pedestrian facilities: • Comfort: such as weather protection. directness. traffic control devices that safeguard the lives of pedestrians • Security: lighting. line of sight. skywalks • Convenience: walking distances.