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CE 434 : Lecture 3

Traffic Studies :

Traffic Volume Study

Dr.PV Lecture Notes

Traffic studies

Dr.PV Lecture Notes

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PV Lecture Notes .Types of Studies ü Volume studies ü Speed studies ü Travel-time & Delay studies ü Accident studies ü Parking studies ü Origin and Destination Study Dr.

PV Lecture Notes .Volume studies and characteristics Dr.

All aspects of traffic engineering require volume as an input . detailed signal timing and others. including highway planning and design.Volume Studies Traffic counts are the most basic of traffic studies and are the primary measure of demand. decisions on traffic control and operations. Dr.PV Lecture Notes .

usually 15 min. hourly. or sub hourly periods. daily.PV Lecture Notes . volumes may be expressed in terms of annual. Dr. Rate of flow—the equivalent hourly rate at which vehicles pass over a given point or section of a lane or roadway during a given time interval less than 1 hr.Volume and Rate of Flow Volume—the total number of vehicles that pass over a given point or section of a lane or roadway during a given time interval.

a design based on the hourly volume (400 vph) would not prove adequate. is zero in two 15-min intervals and 800 vph in the two other 15-min intervals.30-5. Time Period Volume (Veh) 5.45-6.45 5. Thus. however. The rate of flow. The total volume is 400 vehicles.15 5.PV Lecture Notes .30 5.00 5.00 0 200 200 0 400 Rate of Flow (vph) 0 800 800 0 Volumes were observed for four consecutive 15-min periods.15-5. or the sum of the four counts.00-5. Dr.The following examples further illustrate the difference between hourly volumes and flow rates.00-6.

PV Lecture Notes .Peak Hour Factor Peak rates of flow are related to hourly volumes through the use of the peak-hour factor. the PHF may be computed as PHF = V / (4 x V15 ) V= hourly volume (vph) V15 = volume during the peak 15 min of the peak hour (veh/15 min) Dr. This factor is defined as the ratio of total hourly volume to the peak rate of flow with in the hour. PHF = Hourly Volume / Peak rate of flow (with in the hour) If 15-mins periods are used.

PV Lecture Notes .Basic Measurements Dr.

Demand and Capacity Dr.PV Lecture Notes .Volume.

Flow • Average Annual Daily Traffic (AADT) – The average 24-hour traffic volume at a given location over a full 365-day year – Total number of vehicles passing the site in a year divided by 365 Dr.PV Lecture Notes .

Flow • Average Daily Traffic (ADT) – An average 24-hour traffic volume at a given location for a period of time less than a year • Six months or a season • A month or week – ADT is a valid only for the period over which it was measured Dr.PV Lecture Notes .

PV Lecture Notes .• Variations of Volume with time – Monthly – Weekly – Daily – Hourly Dr.

Seasonal and monthly variations Dr.PV Lecture Notes .

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PV Lecture Notes .• Measurement Techniques – Manual counting – Mechanical counters – Video photography – Loop detectors and Sensors Dr.

………… Weather Condition: Motorised ThreeWheeler Motorised Two –Wheeler Bicycle Tri cycle ADV LCV – Light Commercial Vehicle ADV..PV Lecture Notes .………….………………..….………….TRAFFIC SURVEY Date : Day : Traffic Flow Direction : From…….Animal Drawn Vehicle Dr. Time Bus Truck 2 Axle >2 Axle LCV Car Name of the Surveyor: Location: To … ….

TOTAL TRAFFIC ENTEREING INTERSECTION E/W Eastbound Traffic 1631 NOT TO SCALE N/S 1124 TOTAL 2755 719 68 570 818 81 121 388 543 Northbound Traffic 649 140 100 619 416 581 103 87 813 597 768 Westbound Traffic Dr.PV Lecture Notes 84 Southbound Traffic .

Dr.Passenger Car Unit (PCU) Expressing traffic volume as number of vehicles passing a given section of road per unit time will be inappropriate when several types of vehicles with widely varying static and dynamic characteristics are present in the road traffic. The problem of measuring volume of such heterogeneous traffic has been addressed by converting the different types of vehicles into equivalent passenger cars and expressing the volume as Passenger Car Unit (PCU) per hour.PV Lecture Notes .

speed. one vehicle of this type is equivalent to x PCU.PV Lecture Notes . which is based on the performance measure. if the addition of one vehicle of a particular type per hour will reduce the average speed of the remaining vehicles by the same amount as the addition of.…. proposed by Transport and Road Research Laboratory (TRRL. UK has been adopted for this study: “on any particular section of road under particular traffic conditions. say x cars of average size per hour. London.then. Dr.The following definition of PCU. 1965).

Factors Affecting PCU Values Vehicle characteristics Traffic Stream characteristics Roadway characteristics Dr.PV Lecture Notes .

PCU Estimation Method Simulation Technique: Simulation is an innovative tool used to study the behaviour of complex real world systems like heterogeneous traffic flow and facilitates conduct of experiments under controlled situations over a wide range of operational conditions.PV Lecture Notes . Dr. For highly heterogeneous traffic conditions simulation has been found a versatile tool to model complex systems for study of the system characteristics over a wide range of operating conditions. A limited number of simulation studies have been conducted for estimating PCU values taking the speed as the performance measure.

0 Hand Cart 2.PV Lecture Notes * Rural Roads .0 5.4 0.8. Vehicle Type PCU Factors % composition of vehicle % composition of vehicle 5% (up to 9%) 10% and Above Two Wheelers.2 3. India.0 1.4 2.00 Dr.2 2.0 Light commercial Vehicle 1.00 *Small Bullock cart – 6. New Delhi.75 Passenger car 1.1990.0 Cycle 0.0 Truck or Bus 2.5 Cycle rickshaw 1.7 Agricultural Tractor-Trailer 4.5 0.0 *Horse drawn vehicle – 4.00 *Bullock cart . Motor cycles or scooter 0.0 3.0 Auto rickshaw 1. IRC:106.Indian Road Congress (IRC) Guidelines for capacity of urban roads in plain areas.5 2.

) Dr.T.W) Bicycle Convert the field observed Traffic Flow (Veh/hr) into PCU/h.W.Example 1 Vehicle Type Volume (Veh/hr) Bus 220 105 185 1259 984 4008 350 Truck Light Commercial Vehicles Car Motorized Three Wheeler (M.Th.) Motorized Two Wheeler (M. (Using IRC PCU values.PV Lecture Notes .