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10/3/2014

Cyber Aspects Of Non Kinetic Warfare Politics Essay

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Cyber Aspects Of Non Kinetic Warfare Politics
Essay
Post World War-II, there has been a paradigm shift in the nature of conflict and pattern of statecraft primarily due
to; advent of nuclear weapons, Revolution in Military Affairs, rapid advancement in information technologies, rise
of Non State Actors and effects of globalization. These transformations have made use of military or kinetic
options for advancing states’ policies less attractive, as not only the war is too costly, it is also too damaging –
even to the victor. Consequently, the non-kinetic dimensions of statecraft i.e. Informational, Diplomatic and
Economic have gained ascendancy and prominence in shaping the global security narratives. Historically, the Cold
War model is the most sustained and successful application of non-kinetic domains where dissolution of USSR
was brought about through application of non-kinetic means.
Since our independence, Pakistan has remained in a state of perpetual conflict with its arch rival India. Until 28
May 1998, the main threats to Pakistan were primarily in the kinetic domain and so were our responses. However,
after the overt nuclearization of South Asia, the threat paradigm has been further compounded to involve host of
kinetic as well as non-kinetic challenges not only from India but also from other hostile or potentially hostile actors.
In our case, there are many drivers for this shift, but nuclear capability and the ongoing conflict in Afghanistan
remain the most important ones. A strategic reappraisal of our security calculus particularly within the non-kinetic
domain is extremely important.
Aforesaid, carry out an in-depth study of Non Kinetic Warfare and its application in today`s environment and the
challenges it poses to Pakistan with a view to recommending suitable response options to prepare armed forces to
effectively meet challenges it poses to Pakistan with a view to recommending suitable response options to prepare
armed forces to effectively meet challenges at hand.

SUB THEME
During last two decades, role of information technology has enhanced considerably in warfare. Today, through the
application of latest cyber technology, massive quantities of information concerning individuals or organizations
can be collected, processed, stored and targeted. Attacks in the domain of cyber warfare can disable official
websites and networks, disrupt or disable essential grids – among many other possibilities. With the rapid spread
of information technology in Pakistan, vulnerability to such attacks has also increased manifold.
Aforesaid, carry out an in-depth study of cyber Warfare as an element of Non Kinetic Warfare, its application in
today`s environment and the challenges it poses to Pakistan with a view to recommend suitable response options
at national and army level.

ABSTRACT OF RESEARCH ON CYBER ASPECTS OF NON
KINETIC WARFARE
The non kinetic warfare is a new buzzword these days. To lay the conceptual foundations of non-kinetic warfare, it
is pertinent to understand the terms kinetic and non-kinetic. We can differentiate between “kinetic” and “nonkinetic” actions basing on whether it has a physical damage i.e. injuring, killing or destruction of an intended
enemy. In the modern context, non kinetic warfare is a synonym to unconventional or non-traditional
methodologies. To be effective, non kinetic warfare may precede or succeed kinetic application. This study briefly
dilates upon the concept of non kinetic warfare, its materialization in different forms with main focus on cyber
aspects of non kinetic warfare.

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To this end, an attempt has been made to study the whole range of cyber warfare, assess threat to Pakistan and
suggest suitable measures to exploit the true potential of this new phenomenon, simultaneously defending own
vulnerabilities. Laying down short and long term measures, establishment of a policy making organization at
national level and a cyber warfare cell at armed forces level has been recommended. The starting point of the

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Chapter II – Conceptual Contours of Non Kinetic Applications a. relishing triumph. all change is not for the better. versatile and unpredictable in nature. though. Threat Response 15 16 17 http://www. Conclusions 3 4 5 8 3. True face of the enemy might never reveal whereas the damage is caused beyond proportions. PREFACE When history is at its turning point.php 2/14 . Chapter III – Cyber Warfare – An Emerging Non-kinetic Dimension a. would be the improvement of awareness about information technology among masses. Cyber Warfare – Definition. Within the sphere of non kinetic warfare. TABLE OF CONTENTS Serial Subject Page 1. Chapter I – Introduction. The Conceptual Foundation and Definition b. In this paper. Indian Threat Potential b. Aim and Scope 1 2. the enemy will be much more dynamic. Own Vulnerabilities / Response c.10/3/2014 Cyber Aspects Of Non Kinetic Warfare Politics Essay whole structure however.com/essays/politics/cyber-aspects-of-non-kinetic-warfare-politics-essay. Contemplation of such scenarios has led the world to the conceptualization of rather a new dimension called non kinetic warfare. elaborating myths. I have dilated upon the subject of cyber warfare as an emerging arena for waging non kinetic wars. First is to live in the past. Cyber Warfare and non-kinetic Warfare c. I would like to thank here my Sponsor DS Lt Col Sajid Amin for his valuable guidance and my wife who assisted me in compiling this paper. Historical Perspective c. The second choice is to fight change. Conclusions 10 11 14 4. Uncertainty has always been essential part of war. The third alternative is to embrace the future with all of its uncertainties and becoming part of the change. threats emanating from use of cyber space assume greater importance and are hence the focal point of this research study. and eventually becoming a part of the past. In the end. Chapter IV – Threat Perception and Response a. Certainly. nations have three choices. Tools and Techniques b. With a large variety of war waging means available. Various Dimensions of Non-kinetic warfare d. I have examined cyber threat in the context of Indo-Pak Sub-continent and put forth some useful recommendations to prepare ourselves for the future.ukessays.

It is potentially damaging too – even to the victor. splitting up of states` power between State and Non State Actors (NSAs) and second. it is critical for Pakistan to work out a strategy to utilize the benefits of the information technology. That is why. cyber warfare is also waged in political.g. but also the inherent difficulty to keep them limited. like others.e. as we address the challenges of the 21st century. Characteristics of Cyber War B. and interoperability of friendly information assets. Potential Cyber Attack Weapons C. connectivity. Pakistan is in the evolution process of developing a meaningful approach to develop and employ Cyber warfare http://www. many believe to be the beginning of a postindustrial age. reliability. we must take into account rapid technological developments in information management and dispensation.10/3/2014 Cyber Aspects Of Non Kinetic Warfare Politics Essay 5. economic.’ It capitalizes on the growing sophistication.” Sun Tzu Introduction Post Cold War developments have brought about two paradigm changes in the international relations. Pakistan’s Armed forces. disrupting or destroying decision making process. not only because of the cost/consequences of all such conflicts. In this situation. Several models and analogies have been argued to explain deterrence and conflict in cyberspace. United Nations and other regional / economic forums. and reliance on information technology (IT). ranging from methods that prohibit the enemy from exploiting information to corresponding measures to guarantee the availability. Prospective Cyber Attack Targets 26 27 29 CHAPTER – I CYBER DIMENSION OF NON-KINETIC WARFARE “To win one hundred victories in one hundred battles is not the acme of skill. Bibliography 23 Annexes A. As a result. Get help with your essay Read more about our Essay Writing Service > Looking for examples of OUR work? Click here to see our Essay Writing Examples > Want to know more about our services? Take a look at our Writing & Marking Service Index > Conflict and war are inherently kinetic in execution. The active role of supranational organizations e. Chapter V – Recommendations 19 6. while revitalizing itself against the threats posed by Cyber warfare. The technological advantage afforded by faster communications. proliferation of nuclear weapons.com/essays/politics/cyber-aspects-of-non-kinetic-warfare-politics-essay.ukessays. the Information Age. Informational. first. As Carl von Clausewitz said. Computer network based warfare is rising in utilization. surfacing of geo-economics as the essential ingredient of interstate relationships. have gained significance in moulding the global security narratives. Economic. Revolution in Military Affairs and advancements in information technology have rendered the use of military or kinetic options less attractive for the developing states. Cyber warfare involves non physical attacks on information data and its collection process aimed at damaging. . While eventually military in nature. are becoming increasingly dependent upon the civilian information infrastructure. as mutual destruction would surely occur. precision guided munitions and improved surveillance and reconnaissance means is difficult to ignore.php 3/14 . which is essentially world-wide. To subdue the enemy without fighting is the acme of skil [1] l. It is both offensive and defensive. true competitors would rarely engage in conflict. that are indicative of. and psycho-social arenas and is applicable over the entire national security spectrum from peace to war and from ‘tooth to tail. the non-kinetic dimensions of statecraft i. and Diplomatic. Commercial systems are no less vulnerable than their military counterparts.

The sphere of Cyber warfare falling in the strategic domain requires response at the national level in general and at army level in particular. although. Scope An Endeavour will be made to seek answer to the following questions:- a. How to prepare ourselves for the future? CHAPTER – II CONCEPTUAL CONTOURS OF NON KINETIC APPLICATIONS General 6. such as a computer network attack on an enemy system or a psychological operation aimed at enemy troops. material means like bombs. While non-kinetic actions have a physical component. there is a need to develop an understanding of the cyber warfare. systemic. This word is absent from the “DoD Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms” [3] and not clearly defined in other major doctrinal publications of the United States Joint Staff. the Army. Sun Tzu had already described the non-kinetic approach as “the pinnacle of the art of war” [2] . to project power. To lay the conceptual foundations of “non-kinetic warfare” it is pertinent to understand the terms “kinetic” and “non-kinetic”. The prospects of cyber threat in our scenario? e. or behavioral. Navy or Marine Corps. the document states that:“Kinetic actions are those taken through physical. The growing significance of non-kinetic approaches and methods in present strategic environment necessitate the development of credible non-kinetic capabilities by the contemporary states. Aim To carry out an in-depth study and analysis of cyber aspects of Non Kinetic Warfare. however non-kinetic actions are http://www. How does Non Kinetic Warfare manifests in various forms? c. The above quoted document uses means to characterize kinetic actions. It is about time to reject the conventional concept of war fighting in the kinetic realm and think about solving conflicts in ways other than those of causing destruction and bloodshed. rockets. In this chapter an effort will be made to examine the rapid growth in the arsenal of non-kinetic warfare. so as to highlight appropriate actions that states and their predominantly kinetic armies could undertake in the future. 8. and other munitions. “The Air Force Doctrine Document 2 (AFDD2) – Operations and Organization” is perhaps the only major United States’ doctrinal publication that attempts to define the terms “kinetic” or “non-kinetic”. analyze the threat to Pakistan. during the 6th century BC. response options and directions for the future with particular reference to Pakistan. Therefore.php 4/14 . The nuclear overhang and the rising cost of warfare both in men and material. solve problems and secure interests. These wars will incorporate the will of the people as primary target. Under the heading “Effects-Based Considerations for Planning”. envisage that the future wars will predominantly be fought in the non-kinetic domain. bullets. The conceptual contours of cyber warfare? d. psychological. the effects they impose are mainly indirect— functional. Non-kinetic actions are logical. 7. or behavioral” [4] . What is the genesis of Non Kinetic Warfare? b. Very few “United States Department of Defense (DoD)” resources define the term “kinetic”.com/essays/politics/cyber-aspects-of-non-kinetic-warfare-politics-essay.ukessays. The terms ‘kinetic’ and ‘non-kinetic’ are new buzzwords in the military literature at present. electromagnetic.10/3/2014 Cyber Aspects Of Non Kinetic Warfare Politics Essay means against the enemy and defend against such attacks. in addition to the kinetic deterrence. Get help with your essay Read more about our Essay Writing Service > Looking for examples of OUR work? Click here to see our Essay Writing Examples > Want to know more about our services? Take a look at our Writing & Marking Service Index > The Conceptual Foundation and Definition 7. and recommend measures to enhance national war effort. highlighting threat dimensions.

Lind proposed that “the emerging Fourth Generation Warfare would be dispersed. to win one hundred victories in one hundred battles. publishing houses. For example: firing a warning shot into the air can be classified both as kinetic and non-kinetic? It fits into both of the Air Force Doctrine Document (AFDD) – 2 definitions— i. this test fire may be termed as a non-kinetic action. hence non relevance with their agenda is a convincing threat scenario. To capture the enemy’s army is better. 14. Thus. These conflicts are mostly in the psychological domain. It may not satisfy all the situations. 18. is not the acme of skill. bankers. Non State Actors. traders. non-kinetic strategy was superior to one that was kinetic. children and labor laws. Prevalent Environment. Many of history’s greatest generals had a natural sense for it.10/3/2014 Cyber Aspects Of Non Kinetic Warfare Politics Essay describe with the help of effects. Various Dimensions of Non-kinetic Warfare 15. For. avoids the enemy’s strength and probes for weakness. thereby moving them into the ideological. to subdue the enemy without fighting is the acme of skill……… Thus. either depending upon “use of means” or “the ensuing effects”. World Trade Organization and International Atomic Energy Agency etcetera. It is. While the similar means may be employed for both “kinetic” and “non-kinetic” actions.com/essays/politics/cyber-aspects-of-non-kinetic-warfare-politics-essay. is more of a liability than at any time in history.H. human right organizations. he argued. Resource wars are the new phenomena.e. according to him. Domains of Non Kinetic Challenges http://www. For example. imperative to define both terms in a uniform manner. those skilled in war subdue the enemy’s army without battle. a company or a five-man squad is better than to kill them. While Sun Tzu’s immense work on the art of war is primarily about the way of fighting. b. reducing space for kinetic conflicts. economic. William S. Military (to compliment the non-kinetic domains). At present. even though North Korea’s nuclear test in early February 2013. coming up in the face of quickly depleting resources and rapidly growing population. With expansion in the IT and growing globalization. ideological.ukessays. think tanks. therefore. while “non-kinetic” is the effect of that damage. killing or destruction of an intended enemy. the advancements in the informational. Historical Perspective 11. Liddell Hart advocates “the indirect approach” in strategy. to take Allunder-Heaven intact. politicians. to take intact. Non-Kinetic apparatus.” 16. “kinetic” results into inflicting physical damage on the anticipated target. injuring. undefined due to nonexistent distinction between war and peace” [6] . its intended effects were a show of strength and deterrence to the enemies. and technological means have relegated the military prong to merely a support role. This is because of the prevalent sociopolitical-economic environment that the kinetic warfare.php 5/14 . He preferred to win through ideas without resorting to fighting and destruction. international media. In the middle of the 20th century. today. than to destroy it. to ruin it. European Union. economists. Non-governmental Organizations & international organisations like United nations. Trans-national Companies. intellectual and writing forums. a battalion. 13. We can differentiate between “kinetic” and “non-kinetic” actions basing on whether it has a physical damage i. Diplomatic tentacles. informational and cyber domains. use of physical means (kinetic) as well as indirect effects it causes (non-kinetic). Like the Sun Tzu began his discourse on warfare in his famous book “Art of War” by saying: “Generally. Strategic Prospects. Geo-economic environment has intensified interstate competition. involved physical destruction. World Bank etc. the British strategic theorist B. In this kind of warfare the objective has transformed into “non-kinetic impairment of the enemy`s will” instead of “the kinetic destruction of military forces”. This is an incongruent way of defining a pair of antonyms. 17. The commonly used apparatus is:a. The concept of non-kinetic approach towards warfare is as old as warfare itself. it is evident from the above mentioned quotation that. More often than not. Informational. the anarchic state structure almost globally leads to a state of continued conflict. Nations are being exploited by adversarial states. In addition. non-state actors. Multi-national Companies. Hence.e. This is the art of offensive strategy [5] ”. Get help with your essay Read more about our Essay Writing Service > Looking for examples of OUR work? Click here to see our Essay Writing Examples > Want to know more about our services? Take a look at our Writing & Marking Service Index > 12. International Financial Institutions. The wisest strategy. Military & Economics) matrix. In simple words. So your troops are not worn out and your gains will be complete. Hence. and international trade agreements like. They capture his cities without assaulting and overthrow his state without prolonged operations. a single action can have both tangible and intangible effects. is inferior to this. Your aim must be. “it has become possible now to generate desired effects through non-lethal components of DIME [7] (Diplomatic. Supernational organizations or aligned states have greater share in defining economies and policies worldwide. In 1989. diplomatic. International Court Justice. in war the best policy is to take a state intact. he did not idealize kinetic operations as the perfect route to victory. the method / technique of their employment will decide its kinetic or non kinetic application.

Conclusions. Following important conclusions emerge which help assimilate non-kinetic challenges and thus merit attention:Non-kinetic means will be preferred over the kinetic means to achieve national aims and objectives. policies and institutions. Visible expressions are evident in present times.10/3/2014 Cyber Aspects Of Non Kinetic Warfare Politics Essay a. ethics. Contracting out of oilfields in Iraq to western oil companies is a clear expression. It proposes tampering of ionosphere & geo-physical domain for purposeful military and civilian application [12] . It is the ability to use others through co-option and luring in and its currencies are values. where while remaining under full blown military / kinetic applications. Search Extremely Low Frequency & Directed Energy Weapons [16] . Sub Conventional Warfare & Proxies. Applications in this domain are presently experimental in nature but fast reaching operational status. it is a potent threat for the future [15] . Non-kinetic energy weapons. New technology has also enabled states to cause extensive damages within the natural and human spheres to their adversaries. Mind Control Sciences [14] . disrupt or disable vital services. The theory revolves around making a deliberate attempt to manage public’s perception on a subject through sensitization. These are kinetic application tools of Smart Power. culture.1haarp_wave_propagation. In 21st Century. Whether information is believed.php 6/14 .ukessays. Dissertations c. 4th Generation Warfare. Quality Contact Account Writing Services Essay writing Dissertation writing Assignment writing All Services Free Content Essay Help Referencing Guides All Free Resources About UK Essays About Us Is this cheating? Contact Us ORDER NOW INSTANT PRICE Search UK Essays Enter your search terms. Indian and Pakistan hackers defacing and hacking each other’s websites. This theory asserts that states deliberately profit from public perplexity following man-orchestrated or natural disasters. Visible signs of its manifestation exist in terms of weather and geo-physical manipulations [13] . Although in its early stages of development. they work to induce enemy's political decision makers that their strategic goals are either unattainable or too expensive for the perceived benefit. (Diagram – 1) ELF uses radio waves as a weapon to create incapacitation and disruption without resorting to destruction. d. Get help with your essay Read more about our Essay Writing Service > Looking for examples of OUR work? Click here to see our Essay Writing Examples > Want to know more about our services? Take a look at our Writing & Marking Service Index > http://www.com/essays/politics/cyber-aspects-of-non-kinetic-warfare-politics-essay. Salient ones are:Creative Chaos Theory [9] . e. UK Essays Services Instant Price Order Now Essays Russia and China employ armies of cyber experts for hacking while raising of a US Cyber Command and declaration by US to consider a cyber attack as an act of war speaks of its current and future importance. Information & Media Operations. b.jpg HAARP Theory.. The sole aim of the information and media operations is to flood massive volume of information into the mind of the consumer. steal or modify classified data and cripple financial systems & electricity grids -. Disruptive Technologies [11] . Most recent applications are [8] :- Get help with your essay Read more about our Essay Writing Service > Looking for examples of OUR work? Click here to see our Essay Writing Examples > Want to know more about our services? Take a look at our Writing & Marking Service Index > Attack on Iranian Natanz nuclear enrichment facility by Stuxnet virus. Soft Power. Shock Doctrine/ Disaster Capitalism [10] . Diplomacy. Attacks in this domain can disable / deny official networks and websites. f. diplomacy has eclipsed military as the most important tool of statecraft as now it alone can impair the will of an adversary to a level of shaking down willingness without having to resort to kinetic actions. whereas Directed Energy weapons are the newest in the range of destructive weapons but with tremendous potential and range of utility. To enhance the efficacy of Non kinetic Applications certain explicit theories have been devised which aim to draw benefits out of chaos and disorganization. ignored or distrusted will depend upon the intellectual standing of the receiver and reputation and credibility of the sender. Cyber Warfare. Here existing chaos is either aggravated or deliberately created to force major adjustments / modifications in state structures. Pakistan needs to draw lessons from these situations as similar applications are within the realm of possibility. There is even talk of US predator drones’ command & control systems becoming a victim of cyber warfare.. Libya & Arab Spring are recent examples.among many other possibilities. 18. Diagram . This flooding leaves the audience unable to filter the right from wrong.

may cause a wide spread disorder of every tier of society including military systems. It’s unraveling . Cyber warfare is defined as “Non-kinetic. [20] From the definition. Cyber domain will be used to augment these means. cyber warfare appears to be the sub-set of IW that involves actions taken within the cyber space as opposed to the physical space or world. One most relevant to cyber warfare is the internet and related networks (military or civil) that share media within or with the internet. 24. brings with it the threat of more. CHAPTER – III CYBER WARFARE . offensive actions taken to achieve information superiority by affecting enemy information based processes. Potential Cyber Attack Weapons. The cyber space is a virtual reality enclosed within a collection of computers and networks. internet. Cyber warfare is an outcome of information age paraphernalia like satellites. and information systems. not fewer.AN EMERGING NON KINETIC DIMENSION It has belatedly begun to dawn on people that industrial civilization is coming to an end. [18] This being universal in nature does not demarcate the military aspects of IW. while defending one’s own information. The Conceptual Framework Get help with your essay Read more about our Essay Writing Service > Looking for examples of OUR work? Click here to see our Essay Writing Examples > Want to know more about our services? Take a look at our Writing & Marking Service Index > a. Ever improving technology will add to its effectiveness. Military related definition on IW. The tools. 27. [19] b. electronic mailing system. remains the use of cyber space as a medium to wage war and cause massive disruption. so as to magnify future threats. Characteristics of Cyber Warfare.php 7/14 . the government. Once we talk of cyber dimension of non-kinetic warfare then all the related terms like software war. Cyber warfare can manipulate all three components of the nation-state: the people.10/3/2014 Cyber Aspects Of Non Kinetic Warfare Politics Essay The main purpose of non-kinetic application will be to trigger. hackers’ war.S. This necessitates establishment of versatile management structures. instead computer viruses and logic bombs in microprocessor control units and memory chips.ukessays. makes it mandatory for various elements of national power to absorb. wars—wars of a new type [17] . information based processes and information systems’. information based processes. Dominant feature. exploit. .com/essays/politics/cyber-aspects-of-non-kinetic-warfare-politics-essay. however. evaluate. [22] Attached as Annex B. cyber attacks and cyber terrorism converge at one point becoming synonymous to each other. Cyber Warfare – Definition. These systems invariably contain inbuilt strengths and vulnerabilities. store. actors and even the underlying philosophy. [21] Attached as Annex A. Cyber Dimension of Non Kinetic Warfare 28. Definition a. . This is a new pattern of warfare in which there is no need to send formations of soldiers or armada of warships. in the technical sense has been defined as ‘Actions taken to achieve information superiority by affecting adversary’s information. Department of Defence is. Kinetic domain will remain relevant as means of deterrence. use and exchange large volumes of information. net war. http://www. it is important to understand Information Warfare (IW) which. Growing use of these tools in all fields of life. computers and micro-chip. or amplify internal instabilities and fault lines of the target nations in order to impair national will and resolve. Exploiting such vulnerabilities of the enemy has come up as a new dimension of war craft termed as cyber warfare. modus operandi. and the military. Before we can define cyber warfare. Tools and Techniques 25. while non-kinetic means are concurrently strengthened and developed. Information technology and electronic & print media will be the primary means of application. all become part of Non Kinetic warfare. Alvin and Heidi Toffler General 23. as used by U. ‘Actions taken to achieve information superiority in support of national military strategy by affecting adversary’s information and information systems while leveraging and defending our information and information systems’. information systems and computer-based networks”. 26.

Anyone with a computer. National Governments. crumple the air traffic control system and cause failure of all utilities. leaving a country vulnerable to conventional. in fact. but also U. Get help with your essay Read more about our Essay Writing Service > Looking for examples of OUR work? Click here to see our Essay Writing Examples > Want to know more about our services? Take a look at our Writing & Marking Service Index > c. Weapons of Mass Destruction attacks. undetected leaks in oil pipelines and the bursting of dams. Pro-Beijing Chinese hackers over the past three years have conducted mass cyber protests in response to events such as the 1999 NATO bombing of Chinese embassy in Belgrade and the more recent EP-3 incident. b. In the near future. such hackers pose insignificant threat of widespread or long-duration damage to national-level infrastructures. however. drowning from burst dams. Such attacks can be launched by terrorists to spread terror. Most international hacktivist groups.S. appear bent on propaganda rather than damage to critical infrastructures. but can also attack more highvalue targets such as the networks that control vital economic or power infrastructures. (5) Misroute trains. riots etcetera. change the composition of steel at a mill to make it susceptible to cracking in extreme hot/cold weather or manipulate components of a food product to add some amounts more than the normal so that it is large enough to become toxic. revealed increasing use of cyber means by the terrorist groups. institutions or persons. Terrorists and their Sympathizers. [23] This is a small population of politically motivated hackers. (4) Zero out financial accounts of the important government or private offices. 29. exposure to extreme temperatures caused by power failures. f. despite their intentions to damage a nation’s interests are less developed in their computer network capabilities. Possible scenarios of cyber attacks in the realm of non-kinetics can be:(1) Deny the target nation.10/3/2014 Cyber Aspects Of Non Kinetic Warfare Politics Essay b. Sudan and Libya could possibly develop cyber warfare capabilities and direct those against U.php 8/14 . by criminals for petty financial gains or by nation-states who cannot afford to wage war against their adversaries through conventional means. Thrill Seekers. which may include individuals and groups who have intentions against their own or foreign governments. c. The threats from institutionalized cyber warfare programmes would range from misinformation and low-level nuisance web page defacements to espionage and serious infrastructural disruption with loss of life. (8) Cause widespread environmental damage through explosions at computer-controlled chemical factories. Any conflict that plays out in cyberspace will invariably draw a huge number of hackers who simply want to gain notoriety through high profile attacks. http://www. their large worldwide population poses a relatively high threat of an isolated or brief disruption causing serious damage. respectively. Prospective Targets. groups of people or even nations could be considered as potential actors. Actors and their Motives. Hot pursuit after the 9/11 attacks. Several nation-states. [26] This breed of actors has emerged especially after the 9/11 incident and is mainly the concern of U. (2) Cause an absolute failure of the telephone and electrical supply systems. and telephone can access almost any portion of the information from any location whereas. [27] Attached as Annex C. (9) Fatalities that would result from these attacks include deaths from transportation accidents. Due to inexpensive availability of IT tools.com/essays/politics/cyber-aspects-of-non-kinetic-warfare-politics-essay. such as Syria. A bulk of hackers does not. including not only Afghanistan. (7) Through computer malfunctions. Iraq. Although most publicized cyber intrusions are credited to lone computer-hacking hobbyists. (3) Use internet (which includes sites from all the major news sources) to spread fake information or simply disable all the news sources on the internet. terrorists are likely to stay focused on traditional attack methods as bombs still work better than bytes. The identified actors are:a. [24] International corporate spies and organized crime organizations also pose a medium-level cyber threat through their ability to conduct industrial espionage and large-scale monetary theft. g. These will not only target the web sites of government organizations and private companies.S. Designated supporters of terrorism. They pose a medium-level threat of carrying out an isolated but damaging attack. The loss of electrical power only can result in chaos and disorder due to a variety of problems. modem. 30. Hundreds of individuals. however. d. Iran.S and her allies. Targeted Nation-States. likelihood of cyber attacks as means of non-kinetic warfare has become high.ukessays. its communications and financial resources. cause detonation or failure of military weapon systems. Hackers. or worse. (6) Through hacking. have a motive to do so. for planning. e. Nevertheless. Industrial Spies and Organized Crime Groups. [25] Conventional terrorists. Hacktivists. detecting and tracing such activity can be extremely difficult. financial transactions and communication security.

there has been a rise in irregular or non-kinetic warfare. it is being felt that nuclear weapons have contributed more to prevention of a major war rather than war-fighting in the region. CHAPTER . it is the lack of any significant military edge in the conventional capabilities of both nations and. the inability to achieve a clear and decisive military victory which has contributed to the absence of a large-scale conventional war. In the context of the Indo-Pak Sub-continent. Due to inexpensive availability and the effects achieved.S. Besides the prohibitive cost of a conventional war. and in the case of India and Pakistan. Military operations are no exception. folding civilians into military will become an integral part of future combat. Far from taking months to assemble the forces necessary to carry out a huge conventional kinetic attack. Clearly. especially at operational and tactical levels. a cyber attack could cause the same damage instantly. neither side has such a high stake in the war and its outcome to risk a nuclear exchange. Further. f. presence of a credible conventional deterrence also prevents the adversary from resorting to war. This again points towards possibilities of a limited war as contended earlier. A review of the global scene over the past few decades reveals that potential nuclear warfare has given way to restricted nuclear deterrence. the belligerents will exploit IW related facets in an overall limited conflict to degrade the will of the other. are likely to be short with limited objectives as the presence of nuclear deterrence mitigates the possibility of occurrence of protracted conventional war. d. It is a low budget/low risk. thus. [28] Indian Defence Review Assessing the Chances of a Cyber War in the Sub-continent 32.IV THREAT PERCEPTION AND RESPONSE “One ounce of silicon and effective information exploitation may be worth more than a ton of uranium”. only government sponsored programs are likely to develop capabilities of causing widespread. The tradecraft needed to employ technology and tools effectively remains an important limiting factor for individuals or groups to fulfill their agenda. safe to assume that given the constraints of nuclear war. Assumption. and will increasingly become critical to military operations. the attack could originate from a great distance. and high-technology vehicle for mass destruction. Post-1971. Salient aspects of transitory indicators of warfare in Indo-Pak Sub-continent are:- Get help with your essay Read more about our Essay Writing Service > Looking for examples of OUR work? Click here to see our Essay Writing Examples > Want to know more about our services? Take a look at our Writing & Marking Service Index > General. Both offensively and defensively. e. Cyber warfare has enormous potential for mass destruction. giving little warning or opportunity for defence. as seen today. have become non-relevant means of seeking political goals likely to be considered appropriate by modern nationstates [30] . There is also a widespread belief that nuclear war cannot be won and must not be fought. computer technology is the way of the future and computers are at the heart of every aspect of our existence. It is therefore. and there has been an increasing propensity on the part of nation-states to demonstrate their military power rather than actually use it. Starry of the U. http://www.10/3/2014 Cyber Aspects Of Non Kinetic Warfare Politics Essay Conclusions 31. All future wars therefore. computer technology is. Similarly. General Donn A. there has been no major war since 1971. cyber warfare will become a popular tool of weaker nations or aggressive groups for waging non-kinetic wars against stronger adversaries. Because of civilian domination in this sector.php 9/14 . long-duration damage to critical infrastructures. Following conclusions can be drawn from the preceding discussion:a. Absence of Major War in the Subcontinent. Army had also felt that nuclear weapons. total war has given way to limited war. among the array of cyber threats. c. Myth of Nuclear War Contrary to Western media propounding the theory of South Asia becoming a nuclear ‘flashpoint’ [29] . b. Cyber warfare may be distinguished from other weapons of mass destruction (WMD) as one that is only a weapon of mass destruction as applied under circumstances and not a WMD . Therefore.ukessays.com/essays/politics/cyber-aspects-of-non-kinetic-warfare-politics-essay.

These nonkinetic vulnerabilities however.10/3/2014 Cyber Aspects Of Non Kinetic Warfare Politics Essay Indian Threat Potential 33. IT Awareness.php 10/14 . amply reflects their current standing and the potential in computer related fields. dollars 1 billion.ukessays. l. j. Software services contribute 7. insistently stressed upon the message that "Cyber war is to the 21st century what Blitzkrieg was to the 20th". As a long term measure IT culture is required to be promoted in our schools/colleges. Among other initiatives. k. Present Indian share of software export in the international market to the tune of U. d. two located at Sikanderabad and one at Pune. To guard against our cyber vulnerabilities we need to develop a vision that should include determination to harness and leverage IT as an essential part of the requirement to maintain the military strength of Pakistan in the global arena and to protect against non-kinetic vulnerabilities arising from foreign exploitation of IT. a degree of awareness about the potential http://www. Indian dominance in the computer software and hardware manufacture and availability of her experts all over the world provides her a great strategic advantage over Pakistan. Exports in the IT sector will account for 35% of total exports from India by 2008. The Need for a Change in Mindset. The document has decreed that all its officers and junior leaders will become computer literate by the year 2002. e. The military is no exception. We lack not only in general awareness about IT but also in the expertise required to effectively employ and counter its various war related dimensions. With this formidable computer base. In the backdrop of the same. Malik ex Indian Army Chief. Following extracts from various articles and studies [31] will serve as an estimate of Indian threat potential:a. To meet the existing cyber threat on the contrary. o. Tools like electromagnetic pulse (EMP) ‘bombs’ that can fry electronic circuit boards and computer viruses are some areas India is looking at with great interest. Simultaneously. g.2 million jobs in IT by year 2008. the Army Institute of IT began its first course at its temporary campus in Hyderabad to teach combat leaders the rudiments of IW and its related facets. the celebrated National Defence Academy has started offering a BSc in computer sciences since year 2000. h. In India there will be 2. it is logical to conclude that should Indians decide to exploit computer advantage to wage a cyber war against Pakistan. three army technology institutes.com/essays/politics/cyber-aspects-of-non-kinetic-warfare-politics-essay. India has brand named information technology (IT) as India Tomorrow. In year 2000 a classified ‘IT Roadmap’ spelt out the objectives and action plan for the spread of IT in the Indian army. The capabilities of Indian agencies in this field are though not known but our vulnerabilities are likely to grow as we increase our dependence on imported and hired computer software and hardware systems. what oil is to Gulf. To catch up with rest of the world. b. A coherent response at national level will thus be needed integrating civil and military both. He took series of measures and initiated modernization plans in this regard.P. f. West acknowledges that India has the potential to become a global superpower in the knowledge economy. IT sector by 2010 will attract foreign direct investment of $4. To our misfortune we have not benefited from the revolution in IT to the desired level. suggested response measures are:- a. Indians claim that IT is to India. m. Threat Response 34. b. began to introduce it as part of their syllabus.5% of the GDP growth of India”.S. Get help with your essay Read more about our Essay Writing Service > Looking for examples of OUR work? Click here to see our Essay Writing Examples > Want to know more about our services? Take a look at our Writing & Marking Service Index > c. the threat could be quite potent. we need a quick change in our mindset from conventional to more dynamic field of IT in all its manifestations. The explosion of IT has set in motion a virtual tidal wave of change that is profoundly affecting organizations and individuals in multiple dimensions. General V. n.5 billion. In year 2001. cannot be combated by the Armed Forces alone. India is being recognized as the cyber giant of tomorrow. Overall revenues from the IT sector will be nearly $90 billion including $50 billion in exports by 2010.

f.” Guilio Douhet 35. Raising awareness of the threat. The private sector must protect itself against targeted hacker attacks aiming at economic espionage. is a lesson of history which is being seen more vividly as a result of this new dimension of warfare. Working out an elaborate set of rules to address information security issues and establishment of a cyber organization at national level may help formulating a code of conduct in this regards. isolation of military. d. Re-look at the Intelligence Setup. Intelligence organizations will have to be strengthened and reorganized. therefore. Cyber Warfare Policy.php 11/14 . Use of internet to boast issues of national interest. India’s advances in the field and own response parameters. With internet in everyone’s reach. theft of information etcetera. Armed forces. Effects of cyber warfare can best be synchronized if these are coordinated at the http://www. Establishment of a Policy Cell. It must start at the university level. national. Encourage private sector to establish web sites to promote national and foreign policy. with required facilities already in place. They need to be split into specialized branches for dealing with specific threats such as net and cyber crimes and all other issues related to the cyber warfare. The focus on following areas will greatly help to achieve the desired goals:(1) Our existing standing operating procedures for controlling information activities in the country are not in consonance with the information age. h. There is. Role of Private Sector. g. must make concerted efforts to harness offensive and defensive cyber warfare capabilities. Unfortunately. a definite need to have a comprehensive IT and cyber warfare policy weaving all the elements for a coherent response. Cyber warfare in the realm of asymmetry is also the application of a destructive force against the nation's critical infrastructures. Research and Development. e.V RECOMMENDATIONS “Victory smiles on those who anticipate the changes in the character of war. public and private information systems is impossible today.com/essays/politics/cyber-aspects-of-non-kinetic-warfare-politics-essay. PME must serve as a change agent for the military grappling with the information age. Having dilated upon various aspects of cyber warfare. opportunities. Internet as a Medium for Propaganda. Get help with your essay Read more about our Essay Writing Service > Looking for examples of OUR work? Click here to see our Essay Writing Examples > Want to know more about our services? Take a look at our Writing & Marking Service Index > (2) General awareness with regards to cyber threat especially for personnel handling/operating the computer systems in government/private sector as well as in Armed Forces. Following need to be carefully addressed for formulating a more cogent policy towards this aspect:Inclusion of elaborate rules governing internet in National Media Policy. c. CAHPTER .10/3/2014 Cyber Aspects Of Non Kinetic Warfare Politics Essay threat is required to be developed at required levels.ukessays. War must not be considered an exclusive domain of the military. Professional Military Education (PME) and Training. Measures to offset the propaganda by adversaries through the internet. non-availability of funds mars requisite efforts in this direction. there is dire need in the country to enhance the level of awareness about this media tool. not upon those who wait to adapt themselves after the changes occur. These can pose serious economic security risks for the nation. Barring rare instances. few recommendations are offered for consideration. and vulnerabilities inherent in the changes underway can best be done through the PME structure. (3) Introduction of various facets of cyber activities as a separate discipline in technical universities/institutions to broaden the base of understanding and awareness at grass roots level.

vital data bases and communication centers against physical and EMP threat. on the line of Atomic Research Commission. headed by a single competent executive authority. media. At present there is no policy formulating body in Pakistan. (c) Attain complete self sufficiency in operation and maintenance of all computerized systems. political. Therefore. (d) Develop expertise to monitor all computer related systems on induction. In the long term our education system should produce sufficient expertise for various segments of cyber warfare programme. (b) Shielding and hardening of computer sites. http://www. c. Our education system should progressively bring about awareness of IT.ukessays. A competent research organization be created at the national level. A combined team of experts. Media Policy on Internet. psychological and military fields. All elements of national power be employed to develop a viable cyber warfare capability. (c) Develop credible deterrence against internal and external cyber warfare threats. (6) Subordination to Military Strategy. A suitable organizational set-up within respective Signals/Electronic Warfare Directorates of each service be also created to co-ordinate and execute all cyber warfare related measures flowing downwards. Determine parameters of advances required in the field of cyber warfare and policy measures required to be implemented.com/essays/politics/cyber-aspects-of-non-kinetic-warfare-politics-essay. establishment of a ‘Cyber Policy Cell’ preferably in the Ministry of Science and Technology is recommended. A Cyber Warfare Cell at Joint Staff Headquarters be established to co-ordinate offensive/defensive measures as part of military strategy. A strong media policy offering incentives in this particular form of media must be promoted. which can clearly define strategic direction and also ensure coordinated execution of cyber warfare. Representative from Military Operations and Intelligence Directorates. Representatives from Pakistan Navy and Air Force. It should integrate following:SUPARCO. National media should also have a clear mandate in this field. Country’s leading software development companies. Defence Policy. to detect any possible signs of chipping and use of microbes. Attainment of cyber warfare capability should be added in our list of national objectives. economic. The research organization.php 12/14 .10/3/2014 Cyber Aspects Of Non Kinetic Warfare Politics Essay highest policy level as they combine more than one agency. Development of Cyber Warfare Capability Joint Research. Comprehensive education in Computer Sciences must be immediately introduced. persons from IT field and others should be formed to frame a time targeted and money bounded cyber warfare policy. with adequate staff must evaluate and harness the potentials in the field of cyber warfare. This cell should undertake in-depth study of cyber warfare with a view to:Ascertaining existing IT potential within the country that can be integrated towards achievement of goals in the field of cyber warfare. to guarantee safety and redundancy of information assets against cyber attacks in the short term and credible deterrence through cyber strike capability in the long term. d. Get help with your essay Read more about our Essay Writing Service > Looking for examples of OUR work? Click here to see our Essay Writing Examples > Want to know more about our services? Take a look at our Writing & Marking Service Index > National Objectives in the Field of Cyber Warfare. Cyber Warfare Policy. Army. Carryout assessment of the threat in its totality with its implications for Pakistan. Role played by our private sector in exploiting the advantages of internet is dismal. Cyber warfare policy and the actions initiated thereto must fit carefully into an overall strategy of war. National Policy Guidelines on Cyber Warfare Education Policy. (2) Long Term – 10 Years (a) Develop industrial base for indigenous development and production of computer hardware. Attain indigenous capability of software development. Following is recommended in this regard:- Short Term – 3 to 5 Years Standardize and streamline acquisition and development of vital information systems for all elements of national power.

Additionally. it contains opportunities.. 37. Security of Information Systems. Curriculums must be amended so that students become current in IT. and space. The discussion is intended primarily to stimulate thinking in unique and more meaningful ways about how warfare in the 21st century may be fundamentally different than it is today. Due recognition should also be given to the computer hackers. Indian dominance in computer industry amply reflects her potentials and standing in the computer related technologies. Get help with your essay Read more about our Essay Writing Service > Looking for examples of OUR work? Click here to see our Essay Writing Examples > Want to know more about our services? Take a look at our Writing & Marking Service Index > Offensive Cyber Plans. land. PME. Ensure Contractor’s Accountability. or Google+ just click on the buttons below: submit Share Tweet 0 0 http://www.. And. the process needs to be accelerated. information system managers and general public in cyber warfare. Print Email Download Reference This Send to Kindle Reddit This 0 comments Sign in or Post as Guest 1 person listening + Follow Share Post comment as. Should India decide to exploit her domination. which if exploited in the right earnest will afford maximum security to the nation. especially for systems that affect national security. In the non-kinetic calculus. By making them contractually responsible for the security of information systems that they supply. The description of non-kinetic warfare and its cyber aspects. It would be much cheaper and easier to plan and launch a cyber attack as compared to organizing defence against own systems. Institute measures for increasing awareness of policy makers. e. Newest | Oldest | Top Comments Share This Essay To share this essay on Reddit. We should commence building our own software. They should be constructively employed to check the system integrity and wage cyber attacks against the adversary when required. evaluating what we should be doing now in order to prepare ourselves for the present and the future alike. given in this monograph is neither definitive nor conclusive. The information revolution. of equal importance.” Joint Vision 2020 36. carryout regular security analysis of vital information systems and make users security conscious. Increase security of information systems by use of encryption technology and security software. It must however be remembered that in the field of cyber warfare best defence lies in the offensive cyber actions. The recommendations proffered in the study will not only help to create awareness in the field of cyber warfare but in tandem will also reduce our vulnerabilities. shows no signs of slowing.com/essays/politics/cyber-aspects-of-non-kinetic-warfare-politics-essay. However. startlingly fast as it is. In our environment its problems are not so compounded as in the case of developed nations.ukessays. Employment of Hackers. Conclusion “Operations within the information domain will become as important as those conducted in the domains of sea. As in other forms of warfare. While some progress has been made toward bringing PME into the information age. air. But the serious dangers resulting from ignoring its importance can only be ignored at the peril of the national sovereignty. offensive cyber plan would also turn out to be the best defence against cyber attack. Facebook. Cyber warfare stands as the predominant defining feature of warfare in the 21st century.php 13/14 .10/3/2014 Cyber Aspects Of Non Kinetic Warfare Politics Essay Increase Awareness. Twitter. the threat could become meaningful. our quest for modernization and growing dependence on computers is likely to fully expose us to cyber threat in near future.

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