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BNN 40304





: AN120228




: 17th NOVEMBER 2015







Background and History of Food Irradiation






Gamma Irradiation


3.1 How Gamma Rays Works?


3.2 Effect of Radiation Dosage


3.3 Radiation Processing


3.4 Irradiation Equipment and Facilities


3.4.1 Gamma Irradiator Facility
3.5 Advantages and Limitation of Gamma Irradiation
3.6 Importance of Gamma Irradiation for Future Trend in
Food Application.


3.7 Foods Suitable For Irradiation


3.8 Application of Gamma Irradiation on Malaysian Food






ii. Research on food irradiation only begins in 1974 due to the installation gamma radiation facility of Cobalt-60 at National University of Malaysia. radiation is one of the latest methods in food preservation. The research and development on food irradiation have been escalating since then and more pilot-scale study is conducted and commercialized (Proceedings of the Workshop on The Applications of Ionizing Technology in Food Preservation. More scientific discoveries were done by scientists in ionization radiation related to food science and microbiology. Since then.0 LITERATURE REVIEW 2. followed by the discovery of radioactivity by Henri Becquerel. Paul Villard discovered the gamma radiation. food irradiation refers to the application of ionizing radiation to food which is a technology used to improve the safety and extends the shelf life of foods by reducing or eliminating microorganisms and insects. History of Food Irradiation in Malaysia is very recent. In other words. lack of expertise and other preservation methods can be improved with lower capital output. a group of researchers conduct a feasibility studies using irradiation techniques to solve several problems associated with paddy and rice.S Food and Drug Administration (2014). 2011 was summarized in Table 1. In 1982. several studies conducted to study the effect of irradiation on food preservation but the development are slow due to limited facilities and technology. The technology started when Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen successfully produced and detected electromagnetic radiation in a wavelength range known as X-rays. The food radiation technology continues to grow in the early 1920s when a French scientist discovered that irradiation can be used to preserve food. 1985) Gamma Irradiation|1 . 2. To discuss the basic principle and mechanism of Gamma Irradiation on food processing and food preservation. To study the uses and application of Gamma Irradiation on Food.0 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY The aims of this study are: i. iii. Method of food radiation has a long history of researches before it can be applied in food preservation.1. The historical milestone of food irradiation as suggested by Andres.1 Background and History of Food Irradiation According to U. Then. To examine the Malaysian food product that suitable to use Gamma Irradiation technology.

FDA approves irradiation for insect disinfestation of wheat and powder. FDA approves to control and inhibit insects growth and delay ripening of some fruits and vegetables FDA approves irradiation to control pathogens such as Salmonella in fresh and frozen poultry. produced and detected electromagnetic radiation in a wavelength range known as X-rays Henri Becquerel is a physicist who first discover radioactivity.1950s 1963 1964 1965 1983 1985 1986 1990 → → → → → → → → → → → → → → 1997(FDA) and 1999 (USDA) → Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen a German physicist. Approval to kill insects and control microorganisms in a specific list of herbs. U.S. FDA approves irradiation to control Trichinella spiralis in pork and to disinfest dry enzyme preparations. Approval of irradiation to control pathogens in fresh and frozen red meats (beef. U. spices and vegetable seasonings.Table 1: Historical Milestone of Food Irradiation (E. Andress.S. first approval of food irradiation when FDA approved its use to control insects in wheat and wheat flour. private industries and universities conduct research on food irradiation. Food Irradiation. and British patents are issued for the proposed use of killing bacteria in food with ionizing radiation. Gamma Irradiation|2 . government. 2011) 1885 1886 1900’s 1903 1904 1905 1940 . discovered gamma radiation while studying radiation emitted from radium Villard's radiation was named "gamma rays" by Ernest Rutherford. U.S. a French chemist and physicist. Paul Villard . lamb and pork). Samuel Cate Prescott publishes effects of ionizing radiation on bacteria and become the pioneer in Food Science and Microbiology.L. FDA approves irradiation to extend the shelf life and inhibit the development of sprouts in white potatoes.

mpoweruk. Microorganisms also undergo alteration so it is no longer pathogenic or killed and genetically modified to be dormant or cannot reproduce. invisible lightwaves radiation (Andress. X-rays or electron beams that are part of the invisible lightwaves range of the electromagnetic spectrum (refer Figure 1). World Health Organization. 1984). The method of radiation in food started from ancient times where people used the radiation from sun to dry and preserve food. The radiation energy given to the food can cause the changes in molecules such as breaking chemical bonds. exposing foods either prepackaged or in bulk to very high-energy. 1 Codex Alimentarius or ―Food Code‖ established by FAO and WHO to develop harmonized international food standards to protect consumer health and promote fair practices in food trade. Gamma Irradiation|3 .gif) There is 3 principles type of radiation sources (refer Table 2) use in food irradiation according to the Codex Alimentarius1 (Food and Agriculture Organization. Irradiation processing of food involves the controlled application of energy from ionizing radiations such as gamma (Source: http://www.2.2 Irradiation Radiation is not a modern and man-made creation as we get natural radiation from sun. The modern food irradiation is a method in other hand. Figure 1: Electromagnetic Radiation Spectrum. 2011). alter properties and condition of the food such as ripening and sprouting rate.

bremsstrahlung (X ray) sources emit photons with a broad energy spectrum. Gamma ray are naturally produced by the decay of atomic nuclei as they transition from a high energy state to a lower state known as gamma decay. In contrast to the radioisotope sources. 2002).33 MeV. This radiation commonly has energy of a few hundred keV. Types of radiation Description (a) Gamma rays The γ rays used in food processing are obtained from large Cobalt60 or Caesium-137 radioisotopes sources. Gamma Irradiation|4 . (b) Electrons beam Electrons emitted by accelerators have fairly narrow spectral energy limits (usually less than ±10% of the nominal energy).3 Gamma Irradiation Gamma radiation or gamma rays is an electromagnetic radiation of an extremely high frequency which consists of high-energy photons denoted by the Greek letter γ. Gamma rays are ionizing radiation that known to be biologically hazardous.Table 2: Types of Radiation Energy Use in Food Irradiation (Dosimetry for Food Irradiation IAEA. if applicable. and almost always less than 10 MeV.An extended source of X rays is achieved by distributing the primary electron beam over a target (X ray converter) of sufficient size. This type of radiation is essentially monoenergetic. Gamma rays typically have frequencies above 10 exahertz (or > 1019 Hz) with energies above 100 keV and wavelengths less than 10 picometers (10−12 meter). The energy of the electrons reaching the product is further controlled by the bending magnets of the beam handling system. The range of an electron in a medium is finite (unlike that for photons) and is closely related to its energy. for example 60Co (most common used) emits simultaneously two photons per disintegration with energies of 1. but may also be produced by other processes and sources such as sunlight. (c) Bremsstrahlung (X-rays) Bremsstrahlung irradiator design principles are essentially the same as those for electron irradiators . which emit nearly monoenergetic photons. which is less than the diameter of an atom (refer Figure 1).17 and 1. 2.

nrc.  The rad is the deprecated CGS unit. For gamma rays. 100 rad = 1 Gy.  The röntgen (R) is an obsolete traditional unit of exposure. is the amount of radiation required to create 1 coulomb of charge of each polarity in 1 kg of matter. 1 Sv = 100 rem.html) Gamma Irradiation|5 .01 J deposited per kg.  The sievert (Sv) is the SI unit of equivalent dose.  The rem is the deprecated CGS unit of equivalent dose. represented by the amount of radiation required to create 1 esu of charge of each polarity in 1 cm3 of dry air. The equivalent dose is the measure of the biological effect of radiation on human tissue. 2 Measuring Gamma radiation exposure (adapted from: http://www. is the SI unit is the amount of radiation required to deposit 1 joule of energy in 1 kg of any kind of matter. it is equal to the absorbed measure of gamma rays' ionizing ability is called the exposure2:  The coulomb per kilogram (C/kg) is the SI unit of ionizing radiation exposure.58×10−4 C/kg The effect of gamma and other ionizing radiation on living tissue is more closely related to the amount of energy deposited rather than the charge.  1 röntgen = 2. This is called the absorbed dose:  The gray (Gy) equal to units of (J/kg). which for gamma rays is numerically equal to the gray (Gy).01 J of energy deposited per kg. equal to 0. For gamma rays it is equal to the rad or 0.

germination or sprouting. Applications of this include the sterilization of medical equipment (as an alternative to autoclaves or chemical means). The primary mechanism in which food irradiation can kills bacteria is through the splitting of water molecules into hydrogen (H+). The effects of irradiation are mainly due to the indirect action of these transient chemicals rather than by the direct effect of the radiation itself. 3. until some of those excited electrons fly out of their orbits. proteins and cell membranes.3. Those radicals react with and destroy or deactivate bacterial components such as DNA. Radiation also capable to damage or breaking large molecules such as DNA and enzymes. Absorbed radiation energy excites electrons such as accelerates their revolution in their atomic orbits in food molecules. retard or arrest decay processes. This method also sometimes referred as ―cold‖ process as radiation energy that applied is converted to heat during treatment but the process normally increases the product temperature by about 1oC only. prevent premature ripening. The gamma radiation initially interacts with food nutrients to produce similar reactive chemical intermediates that are transient and disintegrate rapidly after exposure to ionizing radiation. This ionizing effect splits molecules. some of the energy of the radiation is absorbed by molecules in the food.0 PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION Food irradiation uses the principle of exposing foods to the ionizing. A given amount of radiation energy absorbed by the food is called the irradiation dose. For example. The process controls the amount of radiation the food absorbs. Gamma Irradiation|6 . and rid foodstuffs of organisms harmful to plants or plant products. creating charged particles. hydroxyl (OH-) and oxygen (O-2) radicals. These reactions prevent bacteria from replicating destroy the pathogen population’s growth and effectively kill germs in the food. the removal of decay-causing bacteria from many foods and the prevention of the sprouting of fruit and vegetables to maintain freshness and flavor. such amount of doses of gamma radiation can be used to inactivate pathogenic and spoilage organisms. in a process called irradiation.1 How Gamma Rays Works? When gamma radiation passes through biological tissues such as foods. Gamma radiation is often used to kill living organisms. the very high-energy of invisible lightwaves radiation.

diet calorie) per kilogram of food. (Source: http://www. The rad has been replaced by the gray (Gy). texture. short for "radiation absorbed dose.  The gamma radiation dosage given is not strong enough to change the quality. The dose is controlled by the intensity of radiation and the length of time the food is exposed. High Dose Level ( 10 kGy – 100 kGy) – Radappertization Table 3 below shows the level of dosage approved by FDA and the application of gamma radiation on different type of food (adapted from Kalyani and Manjula. The dose (number of kGy) permitted varies according to the type of food and the desired action. (0. Exposing strawberry to the gamma rays of Cobalt-60.2 Effect of Radiation Dosage The dose for food irradiation is the amount of radiation absorbed by the food and it is not the same as the level of energy transmitted from the radiation sources.e. flavor and taste of the strawberry. equal to 1000 Gy.kentchemistry. 2014)." which is 100 ergs absorbed by 1 gram of matter. Treatment levels are categorized by FDA as follows: i.0001 Calorie per pound.htm) 3.00024 Calorie per kilogram equals 0. Gamma Irradiation|7 .com/links/Nuclear/radioisotopes. Figure 2: Example of gamma radiation application on strawberry..00024 Calorie (i.) The FDA's regulations describe radiation levels in terms of the kilogray (kGy). Low Dose Level (10 Gy to 1 kGy) – Radicidation ii.  Energy from gamma ray passing through the strawberry is enough to destroy many pathogenic bacteria and enzyme activities that cause the food to spoil. In the past. Medium Dose Level (1 kGy – 10 kGy) – Radurization iii. the term used was rad. One gray is equal to 100 rads or 0.

0 – 3.Table 3: Level dosage of Gamma Radiation and the Application Type of dosage Dosage (kGy) 0. root ginger. natural additives gum and ingredients Industrial sterilization (in combination Meat.15 Low Dose (Radicidation) 0.50 0. seafood. strawberries. onions. yam Insect disinfestations and parasite Cereals. garlic.0 – 7. Gamma Irradiation|8 .0 – 7.0 (Radurization) 2. mushrooms Elimination of spoilage and pathogenic Fresh and frozen seafood.0 High Dosage (Radappertization) 10 – 50 30 – 50 Application Inhibition of sprouting Examples of food Potatoes. with mild heat) sterilized hospital diets. enzyme preparations. dehydrated vegetables (reduced cooking time) Decontamination of certain food Spices.15 – 0. dried fish disinfection and meat.0 Medium Dosage 1. Extension of shelf-life Fresh fish. raw or frozen microorganisms poultry and meat Improving technological properties of food Grapes (increasing juice yield).0 1. poultry. fresh pork Delay of physiological processes such as ripening and browning Fresh fruits and vegetables. fresh and dried fruits.05 – 0.25 – 1. prepared foods.

Disinfestation  Irradiation is used to stop reproduction of both storage and quarantine insect pests. a) Irradiating ground beef to make it safe from E. onions and garlic to impair cell division and hence allow them to go through the off season without sprouting. Each process has an optimal dose of ionizing energy (radiation) dependent on the desired effect. b) Irradiating papaya is to eliminate fruit flies. irradiation delays ripening and/or sprouting. For example. which are quarantined pests. b) Irradiating fresh fruits to extend their market reach. For example. iv. For example. herbs and other dried vegetable substances. Some of the major processes are: i. Sanitation  Irradiation is widely used to reduce organisms for spices. coli O157:H7. a) Certain foods are sterilized for NASA astronauts and for immunedeficiency patient. for import to the US. For example. a) Spice blends that are added to meat for hot dogs and other ready to eat products that may not be cooked again. a) Irradiating foreign produced mangoes to eliminate the seed weevil. iii. Sterilization  Irradiation is used at a very high dose to eliminate all organisms so that refrigeration is not required (shelf stable). Shelf – life Extension  On certain fruits and tubers.3 Radiation Processing There are several processes that are referred to as Food Irradiation. For example. Gamma Irradiation|9 . The aim of each process is to kill or inhibit the growth of unwanted living organisms or to affect the product morphology in a beneficial way that will extend shelf-life. a) Irradiating berries to reduce mold. which is a quarantined pest. Pathogen Reduction  Irradiation is used to efficiently eliminate pathogenic organisms including bacteria and parasites.3. for import from Hawaii or foreign countries into the US mainland. c) Irradiating potatoes. ii. v.

A method of product conveyance. Food irradiation using Cobalt-60 is are the most preferred compared to Cs-137 due to the deeper penetration that enables controlling treatment of entire industrial pallets or totes. All commercial irradiators have four primary components: i. Thus. Co-60 decays with a half-life of 5.1 years.4 Irradiation Equipment and Facilities Food is irradiated in ―irradiators‖ that use electron beams or gamma rays or x-rays as their source of ionizing energy (radiation). The example of commercial gamma irradiator is shown in Figure 3. ii. iii. dose uniformity requirements and. During operation this is achieved by substantial concrete shields. logistics. Cs-137 emits gamma rays that are approximately half the energy of those emitted by Co-60. Cs-137 is very rarely used as a gamma ray source although it has a longer half-life of 30. ―Shields‖ to prevent exposure of personnel. The environment to radiation and safety systems. the product dose.3 years (every 5. Irradiators are designed to enable the irradiation of the food products to the desired dose and dose uniformity.4. products are usually irradiated after they are fully packaged. Ionizing radiation is penetrating energy and thus. reducing the need for material handling. However. most important. without exposing workers or members of the public to radiation and without any effect on the environment. Radioactive material must be monitored and carefully stored to shield workers and the environment from its gamma rays. Gamma Irradiation|10 . Co-60 are the most used radioactive in gamma facility. A source of radiation. how it is packaged. The choice of which irradiator is most cost effective for a particular product depends on the type of product. the metallic form of Co-60 has higher gamma ray energies for large irradiation facilities. Cesium also occurs as an anion in a chemically stable ionic salt. Under normal conditions. 3.1 Gamma Irradiator Facility Gamma rays are emitted spontaneously through the radioactive decay of Co-60 and Cs-137.3. iv.3 years the amount of Co-60 will half in value).

wikimedia.) (Source: https://upload. After treated with radiation the products automatically taken out by conveyor and stored at the irradiated product area.Figure 3: Gamma Irradiator Device Model JS9600 (Registered by the International Atomic Energy Agency with serial number IR-185. INC. Source pencils are double encapsulated in stainless steel tubes and both ends are formed in a leakage proof Gamma Irradiation|11 . Each phase of irradiation process is controlled in a very sensitive mode. Process Control (Control Room) .) consists of: 1.jpg) Gamma Irradiation Device Model JS9600 – Registered by the International Atomic Energy Agency with serial number IR-185 (Adapted from GAMMA-PAK STERILIZATION & TRD. powerful and reliable computer system (Programmable Logic Control) is important for irradiation process. Product Transportation System . The source pencils that are 45 cm long and with a diameter of 0. 2.Source rack contains of a stainless steel frame that has specific dimensions and rectangular intermediate components.81 cm located on each module. Metallic formed Co-60 slugs used as gamma source are placed in these source pencils. Source and Source Rack .org/wikipedia/su/1/15/Commercial_gamma_irradiator. 3. Irradiator turns off automatically and gives audio and visual alarms when unexpected situation occurred. The product boxes are moved around the gamma radiation source by pneumatic pistons.In the Gamma Irradiation Facility.The products are placed inside the aluminum tote boxes on the conveyor system and sent to the irradiation room.

The personnel and product entry doors of the irradiation cell can be accessed after a maze for protection purposes.This is the shielded room in which the irradiation process. Co-60 source continues emitting gamma radiation inside the water. The protective concrete barriers are called biological shield.33 MeV and transformed to stable Ni-60 atom. Source Storage Pool . The products received are taken to the unprocessed products storage area and after they are prepared for irradiation process loaded to the conveyor. The source pencils must protect their leakage proof characteristics for 20 years. After the irradiation process the treated products are taken to the processed products storage area for loading to the vehicles. Gamma Irradiation|12 .The gamma irradiation facility consists of two product storage which is unprocessed products storage area and processed products storage area.method. Co60 isotope discharges one beta and two gamma rays with energy levels of 1.In order to turn the irradiation process off in the Irradiator. The thickness of the biological shield depends on the activity of the employed cobalt source and it was designed to meet the requirements of the International Radiation Protection Regulations. the Co-60 source rack is taken out of the water pool and placed among the boxes full of products. Irradiation Cell (Biological Shield) . Product Storage Area . On the other hand the water mass within 3. 5. 6. Co-60 source panels is immerse into a pool full of water with 6-meter depth.2 meters thick from the upper part of the source rack avoids the gamma lights to reach in the irradiation cell so that the personnel can enter to the irradiation cell without being exposed to the gamma rays and carry out the maintenance and repair works safely.17 MeV and 1. Operating the Irradiation Facility. Unstable Co-60 isotopes is gained from the stable Co-59 atom by adding a neutron into its nucleus through neutron bombardment in the nuclear reactors. 4.

leaving free radicals that in turn either recombine into water or react with other chemicals that change in the taste. warm water dips) that not effective.  Insufficient or incorrect amounts of radiation could lead to mutations among microbial strains. Gamma Irradiation|13 .  Irradiation serve as alternative treatments for fresh fruits and vegetables that capable of reducing bacterial populations by only 90 to 99 percent as traditional treatment such as Chemical preservation (e.  Radiolytic products are formed by the radiation breaking molecular bonds in water.  Help people with immune deficiencies to be able to have safe foods to eat The Disadvantages and Limitation  Irradiated food can be more expensive.g: washing. germination or sprouting. due to the initial costs of a food irradiation facility.  Psychological and acceptance issues due to the safety concern of induction of radioactive on food.5 Advantages and Limitation of Gamma Irradiation The use of Gamma Irradiation on food is a big issue that created a hot debate. color or texture of food.  Get rid of organisms that harmful to plant or plant products (phyto-sanitary treatment). odor.  Can be used to treat heat sensitive food product as irradiation is non-thermal food preservation. There may many advantages beyond safety and some disadvantages to be consider such as: The Advantages  Reduce the occurrence of food-borne disease by destroying pathogenic organisms without affecting the sensory quality the food.  Reduce spoilage of foodstuffs by retarding or arresting decay processes and destroying spoilage organisms. A typical commercial facility cost about $3 to $5 million to be build.  Reduce loss of foodstuffs by inhibit or slowing ripening.  Provide minimal further processing for food that is not intended to be cooked such as salad. becoming resistant to the radiation and harder to kill. The term of ―radiation‖ usually indicate the potential harm and hazard.  Packaged and frozen food may also be treated. can maintain freshness and physical states of the food. chlorination.3. creating more dangerous bacteria and long-term use of irradiation will cause bacteria and microbes to adapt.

6 Importance of Gamma Irradiation for Future Trend in Food Application. packaging and distribution of foods. undergo an appreciable reduction when exposed to radiation. irradiation of food using gamma rays is an effective alternative to protect food against insect damage and reducing the dependence on chemical pesticides. being hot and humid throughout the years also contributes to the food lost due to organism infestation and spoilage. Thus. According to Food and Agriculture Organization (2005). it is estimated about 25 to 50% of all food product is lost due to bacteria. Thus. Gamma Irradiation also important for food quarantine treatment against major insects species and food diseases. sprouting is the major cause of losses. Malaysia is among the food producers country that involves actively in food trades which import food product from other country and export food to others. Macronutrients (proteins. particularly thiamine. all areas in which food irradiation has demonstrated practical benefits when integrated within an established system for the safe handling and distribution of food. The interest in the irradiation process of food in Malaysia is growing persistently due to high number of food loss from infestation. irradiation is an effective alternative to protect food against insect damage and reducing the dependence on chemical pesticides. 3. For tubers and roots. fats and carbohydrates) and minerals (iron. fungi and pest worldwide. In addition. contamination. It is also applied to the physiological process such as browning and ripening of fruits and wilted of vegetables (WHO. Irradiation serves a better technique to inhabit the sprouting. and spoilage caused by bacteria. fungi and pest. Thus. gamma radiation processing offers an alternative for other preservation treatments and solves all the problems of post-harvest. 1988). The increasing need also due to the rising concerns over food-borne diseases and growing international trade in food products that must meet strict import standards of quality and quarantine. some vitamins. Malaysia’s climate which categorized as equatorial. restricted regulations or complete prohibition on the use of a number of chemical fumigants for insect and microbial control in food. but it also can play an important role in cutting losses and control foodborne diseases. Gamma Irradiation|14 . In addition. there is a concern to find alternative methods to preserve the tubers and roots instead the use of chemicals. phosphorous and calcium) are substantially unaffected by radiation doses at approved levels but not at higher dosage. due to environmental concern.

seafood. Food irradiation is a positive alternative method that has been proven to be safe and versatile.8 Application of Gamma Irradiation on Malaysian Food Malaysia aim to increase food production. the problem of storage. Malaysian Standard was developed by the Working Group on Food Irradiation under the authority of the Food and Agricultural Industry Standards Committee. fruit. spoilage and diseases. However. transportation and quality is of utmost importance. among the Malaysian food product that include under the general title Code of good irradiation practice: Part 2: Bulb and tuber crops for sprout inhibition Part 3: Fresh fruits and vegetables for insect disinfestations and as quarantine treatment Part 4: Cereal grains for insect disinfestations Part 5: Dried fish and dried salted fish for insect disinfestations Part 6: Bananas. control molds and reduction of pathogenic microorganisms Gamma Irradiation|15 . although the EU Scientific Committee for Food has issued favorable opinions on a number of other food types. mangoes and papayas for shelf-life extension Part 7: Fish. herbs and vegetable seasonings for the control of pathogens and micro flora Part 10: Dried meat and dried salted meat of animal origin for insect disinfestations. frog legs and shrimps for the control of micro flora Part 8: Prepackaged meat and poultry for the control of pathogens and/or to extend shelf-life Part 9: Spices. other type of food can undergo gamma irradiation treatment after the food being frozen or packaged.7 Foods Suitable For Irradiation The main types of food that have been classified as safe to irradiate are meat.3. vegetables. supply and decrease the loss due to infestation. However. ingredient and packaging material. The EU authorized list of irradiated foods currently only contains dried aromatic herbs. herbs and spices. It will find a place among the traditional food and food raw material. 3. MS 1265 consists of the following parts. spices and vegetable seasonings.

Papayas Fruit Irradiation for Shelf-Life Extension This Malaysian Standard describes the code of good irradiation practice for the following fresh tropical fruits such as papaya (Carica papaya L. The container size may vary depending on the range of the fruit size. the fruits undergo fungal control where the irradiation treatment to control fungi requires doses might be phytotoxic. The fruits are separately wrapped in clean white paper and packed in fibre board or wooden containers with wood wool as a packing material.). Approved chemical fungicide may be added in the water to maximize the fungi control. Papayas are climacteric fruits and should be harvested during the hard mature greenish state. The irradiation is applied for the purpose of delaying papaya ripening so that the papaya ripened upon arrival at their destination markets. After harvested. Absorbed doses in the range of 750 Gy to 1000 Gy given to papayas in the preclimacteric state are effective. This irradiation process will ensure that the papaya will have extended shelf life and delayed in ripening and only be ripened upon arrival at the destination. and without microbial spoilage or insect infestation. Irradiated papayas have acceptable sensory characteristics. are satisfactory and ship well. Irradiation can be performed in the package. In order to control spoilage due to fungi by irradiation treatment. such as scalding of the skin. these fruits are to be given a pre-irradiation treatment with hot water. papayas are pre-irradiated for 20 min at 49oC or 10 min at 50 oC. Gamma Irradiation|16 . clean and free of any physical damages or physiological condition. For example. The purpose of irradiation of papaya fruits is to extend the normal shelf-life by delaying their ripening and for the reduction of microorganisms spoilage or insect disinfestation. Absorbed dose above 1500 Gy may cause changes in physical characteristics. Papaya to be irradiated should be freshly harvested. Hot-water treated fruits should be dried well before wrapping and packing in containers. for example 20 min in 49 water for disease control and 750 to 1000 Gy. Papayas given a combination heat-radiation treatment. The fruits should be harvested at the suitable maturity stage and before starting their climacteric changes.

2. Irradiation has been researched more than any other food process. Thus. It has come a long way since the pioneering days of early 1900’s. Irradiation treatment permits the conservation of foods in the fresh condition. Gamma Irradiation|17 . canning. USDA and WHO. Perishable foods can be kept longer without noticeable quality loss. a fact that many people do not understand. and freshness. salting and others.0 Conclusion Food irradiation technology has exceptional advantages over conventional methods of preservation such as chemical. flavour. odour. marine and food products. Irradiation treatment up to the recommended dose leaves no residue. changes in nutritional value such as loss of some vitamin. Important UN agencies such as the World Health Organization and the Food and Agriculture Organization now recognize irradiation as another important method of controlling pathogens and food spoilage. Previous technology of post-harvest practices and inadequate storage and preservation facilities includes adverse climatic conditions cause tremendous losses in agricultural. the method of irradiation is more effective and does not leave hazardous toxic residues in food. 5. texture. and increase imports and exports trades. Foods can undergo treatment even after packaging. food irradiation technology potentially serves as an effective method for minimizing these losses and increasing their availability. dehydration. but if following best management practices and standard operating procedures we can gain the benefits of the technology with minimal consequences. This process not contributes to the loss of nutrient content. Concerns will always remain. Foods processed under recommended conditions for irradiation do not become radioactive. Food irradiation is also regulated and endorsed as safe by agencies as the FDA. 3. Compared to chemical fumigants. The cost of irradiation and the low energy requirements compare favorably with conventional food processing methods. The World Health Organization (WHO) (1987) summarizes advantages of the irradiation technique over conventional food processing methods including: 1. freezing. Food irradiation technology safely preserves food and controls pathogens.4. 4.

. 18(1). World Health Organization. Food Irradiation1. S. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences. Proceedings of the Workshop on the Applications of Ionizing Technology in Food Preservation (1985). Code of Good Irradiation Practice: MS 1265. World Health Organization (Ed. E.. — Vienna : International Atomic Energy Agency. European Food Safety Authority. K. Novel food processing technologies. Josephson. ISSN 0074–1914 . L. Food & Agriculture Org. Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods and Recommended International Code of Practice for the Operation of Radiation Facilities used for the Treatment of Food.. 409) STI/DOC/010/409 ISBN 92–0–115502–6 4. Tamura. N. Gamma irradiation facilities. (2014). processing and handling of food. 549-555. 375-404. Codex Alimentarius. Scientific Opinion on the Chemical Safety of Irradiation of Food. 6. 1997. M. and Manjula K. A. — (Technical report series. 13. FDA. J.REFERENCES 1. Andress. (1983). 9. S. Trends in Food Science & Technology. History and future of food irradiation. J. 5. ISBN 92 4 154240.). (1981). 14. Irrdiation in the production. Radiation Physics and Chemistry (1977). (2011). 11. Gamma Irradiation|18 .. Geneva. H. 121-126.p. E. 2002. Delaplane. 24 cm. (1998). (2007). Federal Register 62(232):64107-64121. M. J. Kuala Lumpur. Joint FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission. 12. Food irradiation—an emerging technology. 3. 10. Food And Agriculture Organization. Preservation of food by ionizing radiation.. Codex Alimentarius: Fresh Fruits and Vegetables. 15. 521-524. Dosimetry for food irradiation. no. Gamma Irradiation of Food. Canadian Journal of Public Health/Revue Canadienne de Sante'e Publique. Department of Standard Malaysia (2005). . Moy. Rome (1984). 7. (2005). A Technique for Preserving and Improving the Safety of Food. pp. & Mohácsi-Farkas. (1965). Vol. ISSN: 23197706 Volume 3 Number 4. 15. 281-291. Kalyani B. & Peterson. & Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme. 8. 2. Farkas. EFSA Journal 2011. 22(2).9(4):1930. C. Food Irradiation .Technology and Application. S. G. World Health Organization (1988). Wetherill. & Schuler. FAO/WHO.