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Gamma Irradiation

Group 6
SHAHMILA A/P SHANMUGAM

AN120225

KHAIRUL ANWAR BIN ROSLI

AN120228

NUR ELLYNA BINTI YUSUF WOO

AN120227

Overview
Introduction
- Food Irradiation
- Types of Food
Irradiation
- History of Food
Irradiation
- Gamma Irradiation
By: shahmila

Principles of Operation
- How Gamma Rays
Work
- Gamma Dosage &
Application
- Gamma Irradiation
Facility
By: Khairul Anwar

Discussion
- Advantages &
Limitations
- Importance of Gamma
Irradiation & Future Trend
- Suitability of Food
- Conclusion
By: Ellyna

Introduction By: Shahmila .

Objectives • To discuss the basic principles and mechanisms of Gamma Irradiation on food processing and food preservation. • To examine the Malaysian food product that is suitable to use Gamma Irradiation technology. • To study the uses and applications of Gamma Irradiation. .

Like pasteurizing milk and canning fruits and vegetables.Food Irradiation Food irradiation (the application of ionizing radiation to food) is a technology that improves the safety and extends the shelf life of foods by reducing or eliminating microorganisms and insects. . irradiation can make food safer for the consumer.

• Ionizing radiation is radiant energy that has the ability to break chemical bonds.Irradiation • Irradiation is the deliberate process of exposing an item to certain types of radiation energy to bring about desirable changes. .

Obtained naturally from radioactive decay of Cobalt60 or Caeseium-137 .Types of Food Irradiation Gamma Rays .Emits photons with broad energy spectrum .Machine generated .High energy electrons emitted by accelerators .Uses photons Electron Beams .Distribute primary electron beam over a target .Machine generated .Range of electron is finite & closely related to its energy X-rays .

History of Food Irradiation .

• The isotope Cobalt-60 is the most common source of gamma rays for irradiation processing. • Gamma irradiation is known as a ‘Cold Process’ as the temperature of the processed product does not increase significantly. The gamma rays. act as a source of ionizing energy that destroys bacteria and pests. temperature or pressure and can be applied to packaged goods. .Gamma Irradiation • Gamma irradiation is a physical means of sterilization or decontamination where products are exposed to gamma rays. It is also a chemical free process that is not reliant on humidity. which are a form of electromagnetic radiation of very short-wavelengths. • A key characteristic of Gamma irradiation is the high penetration capability.

PRINCIPLE OPERATION OF GAMMA IRRADIATION By Khairul Anwar .

The gamma radiation initially interacts with food nutrients to produce reactive chemical intermediates that are transient and disintegrate rapidly after exposure to ionizing radiation. The primary mechanism in food irradiation that kills bacteria is through the splitting of water molecules into hydrogen (H+).How Gamma Rays Works? • • • • • • When gamma radiation passes through biological tissues such as foods. Those radicals react with and destroy or deactivate bacterial components such as DNA. The irradiation effects are due to the indirect action of these transient chemicals not by the direct effect of the radiation itself. hydroxyl (OH-) and oxygen (O-2) radicals. Radiation also capable to damage or breaking large molecules such as DNA and enzymes that prevent bacteria from replicating. destroy the pathogen population’s growth and effectively kill germs in the food. some of the energy of the radiation is absorbed by food molecules. proteins and cell membranes. .

.  The gamma radiation dosage given is not strong enough to change the quality.  Energy from gamma ray passing through the strawberry is enough to destroy many pathogenic bacteria and enzyme activities that cause the food to spoil. flavor and taste of the strawberry. texture.Example of gamma radiation on Strawberry  Exposing strawberry to the gamma rays of Cobalt-60.

Effect of Radiation Dosage • The dose for food irradiation is the amount of radiation absorbed by the food and it is not the same as the level of energy transmitted from the radiation sources. The dose (number of kGy) permitted varies according to the type of food and the desired action. • The FDA's regulations describe radiation levels in terms of the kilogray (kGy). Low Dose Level (10 Gy to 1 kGy) – Radicidation ii. • The dose is controlled by the intensity of radiation and the length of time the food is exposed. • Treatment levels are categorized by FDA as follows: i. High Dose Level ( 10 kGy – 100 kGy) – Radappertization . equal to 1000 Gy. Medium Dose Level (1 kGy – 10 kGy) – Radurization iii.

Level Dosage of Gamma Radiation and The Application .

• E.g: Certain foods are sterilized for NASA astronauts and for immune-deficiency patient. coli O157:H7 Sterilization • High dose to eliminate all organisms so refrigeration is not required (shelf stable). • E.g: Spice blends that are added to meat for hot dogs and other ready to eat products that may not be cooked again • Delays ripening and/or sprouting • E.Radiation Processing Pathogen Reduction • Efficiently eliminate pathogenic organisms including bacteria and parasites.g: Irridate potatoes. • E. Sanitation Disinfectant • Reduce organisms for spices.g: Irradiating ground beef to make it safe from E. . herbs and other dried vegetable substances • E. onions and garlic to impair cell division so that can delay sprouting • Use to stop reproduction of both storage and quarantine insect pests.g: Irridate papayas & mangoes to eliminate fruit flies (quarantine pest) before export/import.

• Co-60 are the most used radioactive in gamma facility due to the deeper penetration and higher gamma ray energies.  “Shields” to prevent exposure of personnel. . A method of product conveyance. The environment to radiation and safety systems.Gamma Radiation Facility • All commercial irradiators have four primary components: A source of radiation. • Gamma rays emitted spontaneously through the radioactive decay of Co-60 and Cs-137.

Gamma Irradiator Device Model JS9600 (Registered by the International Atomic Energy Agency with serial number IR-185. Source and Source Rack – the sources where gamma rays sources stored 4. Product Storage Area – storage area of processed and unprocessed product . Product Transportation System – pneumatic pistons and conveyor 3. Irradiation Cell (Biological Shield) – where the irradiation process take place. Process Control (Control Room) 2. Source Storage Pool – excess radiation was stored to avoid leaking gamma rays. 5.) Gamma Irradiation Device Model JS9600 (Registered by the International Atomic Energy Agency with serial number IR-185) consists of: 1. 6.

Discussion By: Ellyna .

Advantages of food irradiation Disease causing germs are reduced or eliminated The nutritional value of food is preserved Decreased incidents of food borne illness Reduced spoilage in global food supply Increased level of quality assurance in international trade of food products .

vegetables. such as dairy foods and eggs. cannot be irradiated because it causes changes in flavour or texture.Limitations of food irradiation • Restricted to certain food types Some foods. Fruits. grain foods. • Irradiation causes minimal changes to the chemical composition of the food it can alter the nutrient content of some foods because it reduces the level of some of the B-group vitamins . spices and meats (such as chicken) can be irradiated.

005 to 0.1 to 0. and other products liable to infestation Prevention of loss of stored food or spread of pests Killing or sexual sterilization of insects 0. fresh and dried fruit. bulbs (e.015 Spices and other special food ingredients Minimization of contamination of food to which the ingredients are added Reduction of population of microbes in special ingredient 1 to 3 to 6 to 1. poultry.01 to 0. Mrad Meat. flour. poultry. fish and many other highly perishable foods Reduction of population of Extension of refrigerated storage below microorganisms capable of growth at 3° C these temperatures 0.0 Frozen meat.3 Meat and other foods carrying pathogenic Prevention of parasitic disease parasites transmitted through food Destruction of parasites such as Trichinella spiralis and Taenia saginata 0. fish and many other highly perishable foods Safe long-term preservation without refrigerated storage Destruction of spoilage organisms and any pathogens present. 5 Tubers (e. liable to contamination with pathogens Prevention of food.05 to 1.01 to 0. g. eggs. including animal feeds.poisoning Destruction of Salmonellae b0.. g.Types of food that can be irradiated Food Main objective Means of attaining objective Dosage. 05 Fruit and certain vegetables Improvement of keeping properties Reduction of population of molds and yeasts and/or in some instances delay of maturation 0. botulinum a4 Meat. particularly Cl.. poultry. onions) and other underground organs of plants Extension of storage life Inhibition of sprouting 0.03 Cereals. and other foods.0 . potatoes).

people are confused and fail to differentiate irradiated food from radioactive foods • Commercial application Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) and associated Good Irradiation Practice (GIP) are now available for commercial application of the process • Irradiation as an alternative for chemical fumigation  Irradiation of food is a physical method which unlike chemical fumigants does not leave residues on the products • Improvement of public health standards Elimination of the risk of pathogenic organisms that often contaminate such foods. .Importance Of Gamma Irradiation And Future Trend • Public acceptance The lack of acceptance of food irradiation has been mainly due to misconceptions and irrational fear of nuclear related technologies. Also.

• Also. Campylobacter jejuni.Conclusion • Food irradiation can be used to combat foodborne diseases. food irradiation could be used in place of harmful fumigants used to kill mold and insects on produce and grain. including the emergence of disease causing organisms such as Escherichia coli. and storage of food. cooking. Care must be taken to ensure that irradiated foods do not become decontaminated. • Food irradiation is not a substitute for proper handling. and Listeria monocytogenes. .

Atomic Energy Agency. Vol. Iowa. Ionizing energy in food processing and pest control: II. 1989. 56(10): 882-886. 37(2): 55-61. 1983. Chicago. A Scientific Status Summary by the Institute of Food Technologists’ Expert Panel on Food Safety and Nutrition. 115. IFT.D. Ames. Austria. IAEA. D. Ames. Ill. CAST. Food Protect. CAST. Radiation preservation of foods. Council for Agricultural Science and Technology. 1986. Wholesomeness of food treated with ionizing energy. Task Force Report No. Task Force Report No.References • • • • Derr. 1993. Applications. Food Technol. Ionizing energy in food processing and pest control: I. 19(2). Intl. 109. Supplement. Vienna. 1995. Iowa. Food Irradiation Newsletter. International regulatory status and harmonization of food irradiation. . J. Council for Agricultural Science and Technology.

Thank you .