Stresses in Beam (Basic Topics)
5.1 Introduction
Beam : loads acting transversely to the longitudinal axis
the loads create shear forces and bending
moments, stresses and strains due to
and
V
M are discussed in this chapter
lateral loads acting on a beam cause the
beam to bend, thereby deforming the axis of
the beam into curve line, this is known as
the deflection curve of the beam
the beams are assumed to be symmetric about xy
plane, i.e.
yaxis
is an axis of symmetric of the cross section, all loads are assumed to act in
the xy plane, then the bending deflection occurs in the same plane, it is
known as the plane of bending
the deflection of the beam is the displacement of that point from its
original position, measured in y direction
5.2 Pure Bending and Nonuniform Bending
pure bending :
M =
constant
V =
dM / dx
=
0
pure bending in simple beam and cantilever beam are shown
1
nonuniform bending :
M
g
constant
V
=
dM / dx
g
0
simple beam with central region in pure
bending and end regions in nonuniform
bending is shown
5.3 Curvature of a Beam
consider a cantilever beam subjected to a
load
P
choose 2 points
m1
and m2 on the
deflection curve, their normals intersect at
point O', is called the center of curvature,
m1O' is called radius of
the distance
curvature
,
and the curvature
is
defined as
=
1/
and we have
d
=
if the deflection is small
=
1
C =
ds
ds
j
dx, then
d
d
C = C
ds
dx
sign convention for curvature
+ : beam is bent concave upward (convex downward)

: beam is bent concave downward (convex upward)
2
5.4 Longitudinal Strains in Beams
consider a portion
ab
positive bending moment
of a beam in pure bending produced by a
M,
the cross section may be of any shape
provided it is symmetric about yaxis
under the moment
section
mn
and
pq
M,
its axis is bent into a circular curve, cross
remain plane and normal to longitudinal lines
(plane remains plane can be established by experimental result)
∵ the symmetry of the beam and loading, it requires that all elements of
the beam deform in an identical manner (∴ the curve is circular), this are
valid for any material (elastic or inelastic)
due to bending deformation, cross sections
each other about axes perpendicular to the
xy
mn and pq
rotate w.r.t.
plane
longitudinal lines on the convex (lower) side (nq) are elongated, and on
the concave (upper) side (mp) are shortened
the surface
ss
in which longitudinal lines do not change in length is
called the neutral surface, its intersection with the crosssectional plane is
called neutral axis, for instance, the
z axis is the neutral axis of the cross
section
in the deformed element, denote
the distance from O' to N.S. (or
N.A.), thus
d
=
dx
3
L = 4. 0.consider the longitudinal line ef.y) d <ef then = L1 and the strain of line x <ef CC dx = x = ef y .CCCC 0.C dx is y C = L1 after bending is y C dx  . and (midpoint deflection) = y C x = . S. S.S.00125 .) =  y < 0 (below N.150 = .) = + the longitudinal strains in a beam are accompanied by transverse strains in the y and z directions because of the effects of Poisson's ratio Example 51 a simply supported beam AB.) 0 (above N.00125 120 m 4 .9 m bent by bottom h = 300 mm into a circular arc M0 = = x determine .dx = vary linear with y y > dx the length =  y (the distance from N. = L1 ( .
∴ the deflection curve is very flat then sin then L/2 CC = 8 x 12 CCCC = 2 x 2.400 = 0.S.020 1. and negative above N.e.∫E y dA = 0 are constants at the cross section.4 Normal Stress in Beams (Linear Elastic Materials) ∵ occurs due to bending. x ∴ the longitudinal line of the beam is subjected only to tension or compression.146o = 0.cos ) is large.146o) = 24 mm 5. ∵ Fx = E and ∫ dA = .02 rad = = 120 x 103 (1 .cos 1.1 C = = = ∵ 8. stresses are positive below N. the only resultant is M. thus we have 5 . ∵ no axial force acts on the cross section. thus two equations must satisfy for static equilibrium condition i.S.33 x 103 m1 (1 . if the material is linear elastic then = E y vary linear with distance y x E x = from the neutral surface consider moment a M positive bending applied.
E y (CC) EI = My . t. r. and EI is called flexural rigidity +M => + curvature M => . = z thus y dA x y2 dA ∫E y dA = E ∫y2 dA = I ∫y2 dA = is x is the moment of inertia of the crosssectional axis = 1 C = M CC EI this is the momentcurvature equation. the origin of coordinates O y axis must is located at the centroid of the cross section the moment resultant of stress dM then  x M = .∫y dA = 0 we conclude that the neutral axis passes through the controid of the cross section. the stress stresses or flexural stresses 6 x is called bending .∫ M = E where I area w. hence. the pass through the centroid.curvature the normal stress is x = E y = M .CC I this is called the flexure formula. also for the symmetrical condition in y axis.
t.CC I = M C S for rectangular cross section I = b h3 CC 12 S = b h2 CC 6 for circular cross section I = d4 CC 64 S = d3 CC 32 the preceding analysis of normal stress in beams concerned pure bending.r.x vary linearly with y x j M j x 1/I the maximum tensile and compressive stresses occur at the points located farthest from the N. 1 2 where M c1 M .A.C I S1 M c2 M = CC = C I S2 = S1 = I C . then thus S1 = c1 = c2 = S2 and axis (double symmetric cross c = 1 z  2 = Mc . shear force produces warping 7 . no shear force in the case of nonuniform bending (V g 0).CC = . section). c1 I C c2 S2 = are known as the section moduli if the cross section is symmetric w.
stress concentration occurs) example 52 a steel wire of diameter d = 4 mm is bent around a cylindrical drum of radius R0 = E 0.5 m = 200 GPa determine M pl and = 1200 MPa max the radius of curvature of the wire is = M R0 + EI = C = d C 2 = 2 EI CCCC 2 R0 + d (200 x 103) 44 CCCCCCC 32 (2 x 500 + 4) M M = C = CCC max S I / (d/2) = Ed4 CCCCC 32(2R0 + d) = = 5007 Nmm = Md CC = 2I 8 2 EI d CCCCCC 2 I (2 R0 + d) 5. or by discontinuous in loading (otherwise.007 Nm = Ed CCCC 2 R0 + d . plane section no longer remain plane after bending.(out of plane distortion). but the normal stress calculated from the flexure formula are not x significantly altered by the presence of shear force and warping we may justifiably use the theory of pure bending for calculating x even when we have nonuniform bending the flexure formula gives results in the beam where the stress distribution is not disrupted by irregularities in the shape.
018 m3 139.8 MPa < 1.200 MPa (OK) Example 53 a simple beam AB of length L = 6. construct the Vdia and Mdia occurs at the section of Mmax max Mmax = 193.= 200 x 103 x 4 CCCCCC 2 x 500 + 4 = 796.9 kNm CCCCC = 0.7 m q = 22 kN/m P = 50 kN b = 220 mm h 700 mm = determine the maximum tensile and compressive stresses due to bending firstly.8 MPa .8 MPa Example 54 an overhanged beam ABC subjected uniform load of intensity q = 3.22 x 0.10.018 m3 .9 kNm the section modulus S = b h2 CC 6 S = of the section is 0.72 CCCC = 6 t = 2 = M C S c = 1 = M C = S = 0.2 kN/m for the cross section (channel section) 9 10.
672 c1 = CCC = CCC = 18.Mmax = .6 kNm next. we want to find the N.48 mm 3. first = 2.312 6 19.2t) t3 12 d1 = c1 I z1 = similarly A1 d12 .872 A2 960 40 38.205 kNm .482 = = 39744 mm4 956.232 96.600 mm4 . A.312 x 12.400 total 5.t/2 39. of the section A(mm2) y(mm) A y (mm3) A1 3.48 mm Ai 5.400 A3 960 40 38. we can find and + Mmax Mdia.3.744 + I z2 Iz3 = = = 1 C 276 x 123 = 12 12.672 Ai yi 96.52 mm moment of inertia of the section is I z1 I zc = Izc + 1 = C (b .000 mm4 10 555.t = 12 mm b = 300 mm h = 80 mm determine the maximum tensile and compressive stresses in the beam construct the Vdia.232 c2 = h  c1 = 61.
3.5 MPa 40.CCCCCCC = .600 mm3 c1 2. loads and environmental conditions 11 .025 x 103 x 103 .025 x 103 x 103 CCCCCCC = 50.89.2 MPa 133.9 MPa .5 MPa occurs at the section of maximum negative moment = .8 MPa occurs at the section of maximum positive moment = 50.3.100 mm3 at the section of maximum positive moment t c = = 2 1 2.15.100 = M C S2 = M C = S1 = 2.6 x 103 x 103 .6 x 103 x 103 .89.100 = = 26.600 at the section of maximum negative moment t c thus = = 2 ( t)max ( t)max and 1 ( c)max ( c)max = M C S1 = M C = S2 = .600 . materials.then the centroidal moment of inertia Iz is Iz = Iz1 + S1 = Iz2 + I z3 = Iz C = 133.CCCCCCCC 40.469 x 106 mm4 S2 = Iz C c2 = 40.CCCCCCC 133.6 Design of Beams for Bending Stresses design a beam : type of construction.8 MPa 5.
25" (97 mm x 195 mm) after it 12 . 314 kgf/m etc other sections : S shape (I beam). doubly symmetric section is logical to choose if allow are different for tension and compression. such as 4" x 8" (100 mm x 200 mm). allow Smin = Mmax / allow is based upon the properties of the material and magnitude of the desired factor of safety if allow are the same for tension and compression. wideflange section W 30 x 211 depth = 30 in.5" x 7. but its actual size is 3. C shape (channel section) L shape (angle section) aluminum beams can be extruded in almost any desired shape since the dies are relatively easy to make wood beam always made in rectangular cross section. aluminum and wood beams are manufactured in standard sizes steel : American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) Eurocode e.g.e. 211 lb/ft HE 1000 B depth = 1000 mm. but also the smallest crosssectional area Beam of Standardized Shapes and Sizes steel.beam shape and size : actual stresses do not exceed the allowable stress for the bending stress. the section modulus S must be larger than M / i. unsymmetric cross section such that the distance to the extreme fibers are in nearly the same ratio as the respective allowable stresses select a beam not only the required S.
125 d 0.5 A h I .125 Scircle 1.148 CC = CCCCC = CCCCCCC = CCC = 0.167 A h a rectangular cross section becomes more efficient as h increased.is surfaced consider a rectangular of width b S = b h2 CC 6 = Ah CC 6 = and depth h 0. then A h2 CC 4 = 0.125 A d comparing the circular section to a square section of same area h2 d 2 / 4 => h = = √ d/2 Ssquare 0.184 ∴ the square section is more efficient than circular section the most favorable case for a given area have to distribute A / 2 at a distance h / 2 I = A h 2 C (C) x 2 2 2 S = I CC h/2 = = Ah CC 2 the wideflange section or an A and depth h would from the neutral axis.section with most material in the flanges would be the most efficient section 13 .125 A d 0. but very narrow section may fail because of lateral bucking for a circular cross section of diameter S = d3 CC = 32 Ad CC 8 = d 0.167 √ d / 2 0.167 A h 0.
5 kNm 0.11 N/m (c) now the uniform load on the beam is increased to 77.4 kN/m3 = 12 MPa select the size of the beam (a) calculate the required q L2 CC 8 Mmax = S Mmax CC = = allow = S (4 kN/m) (3 m)2 CCCCCCC 8 4. ∵ much of the material in rectangular beam is located near the neutral axis where it is unstressed.456 x 106 mm3 and weight 77. wideflange section have most of the material located in the flanges. wideflange shape is wider and therefore more stable with respect to sideways bucking Example 55 a simply supported wood beam carries uniform load L = allow 3m q = 4 kN/m wood weights 5.35 A h wideflange section is more efficient than rectangular section of the same area and depth.375 x 106 mm3 (b) select a trial size for the beam (with lightest weight) choose 75 x 200 beam. S S j is approximately 0. in addition.5 kNm CCCC = 12 MPa = 4.11 N/m 14 .for standard wideflange beams. S = 0.
456 x 106 mm3) (O.03356 d24 CCCCC d2 / 2 = Mmax CC allow solve for = = = 0.5 = = d2 / 8 30 kNm (a) wood post S1 d1 = = d13 CC 32 = 30 x 103 x 103 CCCCCC 15 Mmax CC = allow = 2 x 106 mm3 273 mm (b) aluminum tube I2 S2 S2 = C [d24 64 .03356 d24 0.06712 d23 30 x 103 x 103 CCCCCC = 50 d2 => d2 = 208 mm 15 600 x 103 mm3 .077 (0.5 m high support a lateral load (a) P = 12 kN at its upper end for wood allow = 15 MPa determine the diameter (b) allow for aluminum tube determine the outer diameter Mmax = Ph = d1 = 50 MPa d2 if t 12 x 2.(d2 .K.2 t)4] = I2 C = c 0.375 x 106 mm3) CCC 4.0 = 0.382 x 106 mm3 < S of 75 x 200 beam (0.) (d) Srequired Example 56 a vertical post 2.Srequired = 4.
296. we have = 2.3 x 106 Nmm CCCCCCCC 110 MPa Srequired.4 kN V = 0 => Mmax = at S = 2.Example 57 a simple beam AB q = 60 kN/m of length 7 m allow = 110 MPa select a wideflange shape firstly.4 kN 0 ≦ x ≦ 4 m is the shear force V for for V = RA  V 0. Mmax. determine the support reactions RA = 188.896 cm3 140 kg/m.6 kN CCCC 60 kN/m = 3. now recalculate the reactions.7 KNm 16 . RA 193. the distance = x1 = qx RA CC q = x1 is 188.151 m 304.6 x 3.143 / 2 = 296.143 m and the maximum moment at the section is Mmax = 188.2 kN 3.3 kNm the required section moudlus is S = Mmax CC = allow from table E1.6 kN RB = 171.694 x 106 mm3 select the HE 450 A section with the weight of the beam is and = RB x1 = = 176.
) allow Example 58 the vertical posts B are supported planks A of the dam post B are of square section the spacing of the posts water level = allow h = s = bxb 0.770 cm3 < 2.0 MPa determine b the post B is subjected to the water pressure (triangularly distributed) the maximum intensity = q0 q0 is hs the maximum bending moment occurs at the base is Mmax q0 h h = CC (C) 2 3 S Mmax CC = and = allow b3 = b = h3 s = CCC 6 h3 s CCC 6 allow = b3 C 6 9. K.007848 m3 = 7.81 x 23 x 0.8 m 2.8 h3 s CC = CCCCCC = 0.848 x 106 mm3 8 x 106 allow 199 mm use b = 17 200 mm .0 m 8.896 cm3 (O.Srequired Mmax CC = = 2.
S varying with x.dA)C] 32 32 L P x. take d => x = L/2 18 1 / dx = 0 . = M / S. machinery. = = 32 P x CCCCCCCCCC [dA + (dB . x = L. building etc.5. so we cannot assume that the maximum stress occur at the section with Mmax Example 59 a tapered cantilever beam AB load dB / dA = P at the free end with determine B and Sx d x3 x 3 = CC = C [dA + (dB . bridges.dA) (x/L)]3 dB = 2 dA. (dB  x dA) C L = = 2 max dx ∵ Mx dA + of solid circular cross section supports a then the maximum bending stress at any cross section is 1 Mx = C Sx at support B B. then 4PL CCC dA3 to find the maximum stress in the beam. such beams are found in automobiles.7 Nonprismatic Beams nonprismatic beams are commonly used to reduce weight and improve appearance. airplanes.
741 CC dA3 it is 19% greater than the stress at the builtin end Example 510 a cantilever beam of length L a load P support at the free end cross section is rectangular with constant width max b. the maximum is 128 P L = CCCC 27 dA3 max = PL 4.at that section (x = L/2). we have hx = 6 P x 1/2 ( CCC ) b allow at the fixed end hB = (x = L) 6 P L 1/2 ( CCC ) b allow 19 . = the height may vary such that for every cross section allow (fully stressed beam) determine the height of the beam b hx2 M = Px S = CC 6 M Px = C = CCC = allow S b hx2 / 6 6Px CC b hx2 solving the height for the beam.
then the shear stress must be vanish.r. we isolate a small act vertically and accompanied horizontally as shown ∵ the top and bottom surfaces are free. to prevent sliding. each beam will be in compression above its N. the lower longitudinal line of the upper beam will slide w. = 0 at y = ! h/2 for two equal rectangular beams of height load h P. subjected to a concentrated if no friction between the beams. i. shear stress must exist along N. thus single beam of depth 2h stronger than two separate beams each of depth h 20 will much stiffer and . element the shear stresses mn.A.A. V with rectangular cross section the shear stress acts parallel to the shear force V assume that is uniform across the width of the beam consider a beam section subjected the a shear force V.then x 1/2 hB ( C ) L = hx the idealized beam has the parabolic shape 58 Shear Stress in Beam of Rectangular Cross Section for a beam subjected to having width b and height M and h. the upper line of the lower beam for a solid beam of height 2h.e..t.
A. M acts on m1n1. acting on mp x m1p1 must be equal.. consider dA at the distance y hence the total horizontal force on mp My ∫CC dA I similarly F2 = (M + dM) y ∫CCCCC dA I and the horizontal force on F3 = pp1 is b dx equation of equilibrium F3 = F2  F1 21 and M + dM form N.consider a small section of the beam subjected M and V in left face and M + dM and V + dV in right face for the element p 1p mm1p1p. and no stress on acts on mm1 if the beam is subjected to pure bending (M = constant). then on mn My CC dA I = x dA F1 = mn is acts on . then = and 0 on pp1 for nonuniform bending.
~Q for a rectangular cross section Q h h/2 .y1) (y1 + CCC) 2 2 = then = = at 0 y1 at = ∵ V = = ! h/2.∫CC dA I I dM 1 V CC C ∫y dA = CC ∫y dA dx Ib Ib b dx = = denote Q = ∫y dA is the first moment of the cross section area above the level y (area mm1p1p) at which the shear stress VQ CC Ib = for V. I. ∴ V and in the same direction Limitations the shear formula are valid only for beams of linear elastic material with 22 .y12) 2I 4 y1 = max = b h2 C (C .A.) V h2 CC = 8I is 50% max V h2 CC (C .y12) 2 4 V h2 CCCC 8 b h3/12 larger than = 3V CC 2A = 3 C 2 ave ave resultant of shear stress. max occurs 0 (N. b acts.y1 b (C .(M + dM) y My ∫CCCCC dA . then shear stress formula are constants.
and maximum shear strain occurs on N. if V remains constant along the beam. ∵ max = max / G. it is quite justifiable to use the flexure formula in the case of nonuniform bending. true max larger than the value given by the shear formula Effects of Shear Strains ∵ vary parabolically from top to bottom.e. the warping of cross sections due to shear strains does not substantially affect the longitudinal strains by more experimental investigation thus. and the distribution of the normal stress is the same as it is in pure bending for shear force varies continuously along the beam. i. no shear strains occur on the surfaces. mm1 = pp1 = …. except the region near the concentrate load acts of irregularly change of the cross section (stress concentration) Example 511 a metal beam with span L q = 28 kN/m = 1m b = 25 mm h = 100 mm 23 . and = / G must vary in the same manner thus the cross sections were plane surfaces become warped. the warping of all sections is the same.A.small deflection the shear formula may be consider to be exact for narrow beam (∵ is is about 13% assumed constant across b). when b = h. the stretching or shortening of the longitudinal lines produced by the bending moment is unaffected by the shear strain.
24 x 106 Nmm x 25 mm = .8 MPa .400 VC Q C CCC = CCCCCCC Ib 2.083 x 103 mm4 C.5 mm AC yC = 23.8.4 kN the moment of inertia of the section is I b h3 CC 12 = normal stress at C My = CC C I shear stress at 1 C x 25 x 1003 = 2.083 x 103 mm4 12 = is 2.9 MPa 150 mm 24 = 3.400 x 23. calculate AC = 25 x 25 = 625 mm2 QC C = = QC first yC = 37.26.083 x 103 x 25 the stress element at point C is shown Example 512 a wood beam concentrated loads b = AB supporting two P 100 mm h = .400 mm3 8.24 kNm VC = .CCCCCCCCCCC = 2.determine and C the shear force moment C at point and VC C bending at the section through MC C are found MC = 2.
2 MPa Pmax the maximum shear force and bending moment are Vmax = P Mmax = Pa the section modulus and area are S = b h2 CC 6 A = bh maximum normal and shear stresses are Mmax = CC = S max 6Pa CC b h2 max = 3 Vmax CCC 2A = 3P CCC 2bh b h2 11 x 100 x 1502 Pbending = CCCC = CCCCCCC = 8.a = 0.250 N = 8.25 kN 89 Shear Stresses in Beam of Circular Cross Section = VQ CC Ib I = r4 CC 4 for solid section the shear stress at the neutral axis Q = Ay = r2 4 r (CC) (CC) 2 3 25 = 2 r3 CC 3 b = 2r .2 x 100 x 150 2 allow b h Pshear = CCCC = CCCCCCCC = 12.000 N = 12 kN 3 3 allow ∴ = Pmax 8.5 m determine = allow 11 MPa = allow 1.25 kN 6a 6 x 500 2 x 1.
is max = where VQ CC Ib = 4 V r22 + r2r1 + r12 CC (CCCCCC) 3A r22 + r12 (r22 .r14 for P = 6.68 MPa (b) for a solid circular pole.A.675 N in the pole (b) for same P and same max.r14) 4 b = 2 (r2 .max = V (2 r3 / 3) CCCCCC ( r4 / 4) (2 r) 4V CCC 3 r2 = = 4V CC = 3A for a hollow circular cross section I = C (r24 . max is 26 4 C 3 ave .r13) 3 then the maximum shear stress at N.675 N max = r2 = 50 mm r1 = 40 mm 4.r12) A = Example 513 a vertical pole of a circular tube d2 = 100 mm d1 = 80 mm (a) determine the max P = 6.r1) Q = 2 C (r23 . calculate d0 of a solid circular pole (a) The maximum shear stress of a circular tube is max = 4 P r22 + r2r1 + r12 CC (CCCCCC) 3 r24 .
the upper flange and the area between bc and ef in the web 27 = t t .21 mm the solid circular pole has a diameter approximately 5/8 that of the tubular pole 510 Shear Stress in the Webs of Beams with Flanges for a beam of wideflange shape subjected to shear force V.42 x 103 m2 49. i.e.e.max 4P CCCCC 3 (d0/2)2 = 16 P = CCCC 3 max d 02 then d0 = = 16 x 6.68 2. // y axis and uniformly distributed across VQ CC Ib = is still valid with b the first moment Q the shaded area is into two parts. the same assumption as in the case in rectangular beam. of divided i.675 CCCCC = 3 x 4. shear stress is much more complicated most of the shear force is carried by shear stresses in the web consider the shear stress at ef.
. = + V CC (b h2 8It b h 12 + y1 = 0 t h12) minimum shear stress occurs where the web meets the flange.y1 CCCC) 2 t C (h12 .r.h1/2 A1 (C + CCCC) 2 2 = b 2 C (h .b h13 + t h13) 12 b h3 CC 12 maximum shear stress in the web occurs at N.y1) A2 w.t) h13 CCCC 12 = 1 C (b h3 . a rectangle of area h1 min and a parabolic segment of area b h1 ( Vweb = h1 min + b h1 ( max 28  max min)  min) .A.h12) 8 VQ CC Ib = where I = = .A.C) 2 then the first moment of Q A2 = A1 and h1 h/2 . is A2 (y1 max h1/2 . = + h1 t (C 2 + N.t.h12) 8It 8 + t C (h12 .4 y12) 8 V b CC [C (h2 .h b (C 2 A1 = h1 . y1 = ! h1/2 min Vb = CC (h2 8It h12) the maximum stress in the web is from 10% to 60% greater than the minimum stress the shear force carried by the web consists two parts.4 y12)] 8 (b .
g.45 x 106 mm4 12 29 . error is within when considering y be made. = is max ! 10% in the flange. the stresses would become very large at the junction if the internal corners were square Example 514 a beam of wideflange shape with b = 165 mm. e. t = 7. h = 320 mm. the approximation to calculate = max V CC t h1 <= total shear force <= web area for typical wideflange beam. and h1 = 290 mm. must be zero. at y1 = on bc. constant across h1/2. but t at ab and cd b cannot min actually the stress is very complicated here. vertical shear force V = 45 kN determine max.= t h1 CC (2 3 Vweb = 90% ~ max + min) 98% of total V for design work. min and total shear force in the web the moment of inertia of the cross section is I = 1 C (b h3 – b h13 + t h13) = 130.5mm.
A c 22 b h3 = CC 3 = 75.33 mm .the maximum and minimum shear stresses are V CC (b h2 – b h12 + t h12) = 21.0 MPa 8It Vb = CC (h2 – h12) = 17.4 MPa 8It = max min the total shear force is t h1 CC (2 3 = Vweb max + min) = 43.7 MPa Example 515 a beam having a Tshaped cross section b = 100 mm t = 24 mm h = 200 mm V = 45 kN determine c1 nn = (top of the web) and 76 x 24 x 12 + 200 x 24 x 100 CCCCCCCCCCCC = 76 x 24 + 200 x 24 c2 = 200 I = Iaa Iaa A c 22 max  c1 = 124.23 x 106 mm3 30 = 128.t) h13 .CCCC 3 102.77 mm (b .0 kN tnd the average shear stress in the web is V CC t h1 = ave = 20.56 x 106 mm3 .
33 x 106 5.x) S.23 x (124.A. cantilever beam subjected to an inclined force P. Qmax = 153 x 103 mm3 100 x 24 x (75.12 Beams with Axial Loads beams may be subjected to the simultaneous action of bending loads and axial forces.9 MPa we want to find Qmax at N.012) to find max ( = Q1 1 1 10. then V=Q N=S and the stresses in beams are My = .23/2) = 185 x 103 mm3 = 45 x 103 x 185 x 103 V Qmax CCC = CCCCCCCC = 13. = t c2 (c2/2) = 24 x 124.2 MPa It 26. e. components it may be resolved into two Q and M = Q (L .I 26.33 x 106 x 24 max.CC I VQ = CC Ib N =C A the final stress distribution can be obtained by combining the stresses 31 .33 x 106 mm3 = to find the shear stress nn).77 .11 Builtup Beams and Shear Flow 5. calculate Q1 first = 45 x 103 x 153 x 103 V Q1 CC = CCCCCCCC = It 26.g.
the neutral axis no longer passes through the centroid of the cross section Eccentric Axial Loads a load P the x axis.CC Ae increased. y0 = if e nn I . moves away from the centroid Example 515 a tubular beam ACB force P of length L = 1.A. moves closer to N. reduced.500 mm2 . the centroid.A.associated with each stress resultant My = .CC + I N C A whenever bending and axial loads act simultaneously.A. N = acting at distance e e from is called eccentricity P M =  Pe then the normal stress at any point is = Pey CC + I P C A the position of the N.5 kN d = 140 mm b = 150 mm 32 A = 12. lies below zaxis N.5 m loaded by a inclined at mid length P = 4. if e can be obtained by setting = 0 minus sign shows the N.A.
y = .86 x 106 mm4 = Ph = P sin 60o = 3.116.75 mm ( t)max N = C A = My .CC = I 0.79 MPa the maximum compressive stress occurs at the top of the beam. shear force and bending moment diagrams are sketched first the maximum tensile stress occurs at the bottom of the beam.312 + 3.897 CCC 12.500 2.8 x 103 (75) CCCCCCCC 33.86 x 106 2.116.897 x 140 = 545.8 x 103 x 75 CCCCCCCC 33.897 CCC 12.I 33.474 =  1.500  1.897 N 2.6 x 103 Nmm the axial force.86 x 106 .250 N Pv = P cos 60o = M0 = Ph d = 3.CC I = 33 3. y = 75 mm ( c)left = N C A My .
474 My .16 MPa = = .312 N C A .16 MPa 0  571.13 Stress Concentration in Beams 34 .CC I = .= ( c)right thus ( c)max point = 0.2.265 MPa = .86 x 106 occurs at the top of the beam to the left of C 5.2.1.2 103 x 75 CCCCCCC 33.2.