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0 INTRODUCTION TO GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD
1.1 Genetically Modified Food (GMF)
World Health Organisation defined Genetically Modified Foods (GMFs) as the foods that
produced from or using Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs). Genetically modified
organisms (GMOs) referred as organisms such as animals, plants or microorganisms in
which the genetic material (DNA) has been artificially manipulated or altered in a way
that does not occur naturally by mating and/or natural recombination. The process which
involves laboratory works involves the knowledge of modern biotechnology, recombinant
DNA technology or genetic engineering. This technology allows selected individual genes
to be transferred from one organism into another, also between nonrelated species.
1.2 Purpose of GMFs
Genetically Modified Foods are developed and marketed as there is demand and some
perceived advantage to the food producer and also the consumer. GMF intended to
product a food product with a lower price but with greater benefit such as in the terms of
durability or nutritional value or both. GMF crops could decrease the cost of production
and have positive effects on the environment in both developed and developing countries.
The advancement of GMF also greatly contributed in agricultural industry. Some benefits
of genetic engineering in agriculture especially in plants are:
i.
Increased crop yields
ii.
Reduced costs for food or drug production
iii.
Reduced need for pesticides
iv. Enhanced nutrient composition and food quality
v. Resistance to pests and disease
vi.
Greater food security and medical benefits to the world's growing population.
vii.
Developing crops that mature faster and tolerate extreme environmental condition,
allowing plants to grow in conditions where they might not otherwise flourish
A number of animals have also been genetically engineered to increase yield and decrease
susceptibility to disease. For example:
i.
Cattle have been enhanced to exhibit resistance to mad cow disease. (United States
ii.

Department of Energy, 2007).
Salmon have been engineered to grow larger and mature faster.

1.3 Method of GMFs Production

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GMFs are made through a process known as genetic engineering. Genes of interest are
transferred from one organism to another. Two primary methods currently exist for
introducing transgenes into plant genomes.
i.

The first involves a device called a ‘gene gun.’ The DNA to be introduced into the
plant cells is coated onto tiny particles. These particles are then physically shot
onto plant cells. Some of the DNA comes off and is incorporated into the DNA of

ii.

the recipient plant.
The second method uses a bacterium to introduce the gene(s) of interest into the
plant DNA.

Figure 1: Schematic diagram of how GMF are made
1.4 Example of GMF Application
Some example of GMF application are summarize in Table 1 below:
Table 1: Examples of GMOs Resulting from Agricultural Biotechnology (Adapted from
Phillips, T., 2008)
Genetically

Organisms

Genetic Altered
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Conferred Trait Insect resistance Corn Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a naturally-occurring soil borne bacterium that is found worldwide. targeted against European corn borer. in the edible parts of rice. each with differing Cry proteins. a few produce the Cry1Ac protein or the Cry9C protein. so the timing of Bt application is not a problem. an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids. Plants produce the protein in tissues where larvae feed. Modifying a corn plant to produce its own Bt protein overcomes these problems. There are several ways by which crops can be modified to be glyphosate-tolerant. Cry9C). One strategy is to incorporate a soil bacterium gene. Another way is to incorporate a different soil bacterium gene that produces a glyphosate degrading enzyme. The result is an efficient and consistent Herbicide built-in system to deliver Bt proteins to the target pest. Proteins have been found with insecticidal activity against the European corn borer (Cry1Ab. The research was conducted with the goal of producing 3 | F o o d Te c h n o l o g y ( B N N 4 0 3 0 4 ) a . There are several strains of Bt. Cry1Ac. the protein is present whenever newly-hatched larvae try to feed. produce only the Cry1Ab protein. Glyphosate herbicide kills plants by blocking the Soybean tolerance EPSPS enzyme. Finally. vitamins and many secondary plant metabolites. Agrobacterium tumefaciens. a precursor of vitamin A. Most of the Bt corn hybrids. Vitamin enrichment Rice Golden rice is a variety of rice (Oryza sativa) produced through genetic engineering to biosynthesize beta-carotene. strain CP4 that produces a glyphosate-tolerant form of EPSPS.

Lycopene is then cyclized to beta-carotene by the endogenous cyclase in Golden Rice. pseudonarcissus) crtl (carotene desaturase) from the soil bacterium Erwinia Faster maturation Salmon uredovora A type 1 growth hormone gene injected into fertilized fish eggs results in 6.fortified food to be grown and consumed in areas with a shortage of dietary vitamin A. rather than having to introduce the multiple carotene desaturases that are normally used by higher plants. psy (phytoene synthase) from daffodil (Narcissus ii. GM salmon had reached a size more typical of two-year-old non-GM salmon raised in the hatchery. The GM eggs hatched two days earlier than the non-GM cohort (4 versus 6 days). as well as significantly increased growth rates.2% retention of the vector at one year of age. The one-year-old GM 4 | F o o d Te c h n o l o g y ( B N N 4 0 3 0 4 ) .Golden rice was created by transforming rice with only two beta-carotene biosynthesis genes: i. A key breakthrough was the discovery that a phytoene desaturase single gene (bacterial Crtl) can be used to produce lycopene from phytoene in GM tomato.

it is precise and there are no unwanted genes. Large companies need considerable investments in laboratories. Initially. or less reliant on fertilizer. This means that farmers could spray these crops with herbicide and kill the weeds.5. Economical Farmers were convinced that they stand to make enormous profits from growing GM crops. To produce the GM crops. The GM salmon became sexually mature at two years of age. Concerns range from the environment to risks to our food web or issues concerning disease. equipment and human resources. without affecting other the crops. However GM crops are a far better option as it takes a shorter time to produce the desired product. whereas the nonGM salmon required three years to reach this stage of development. This can reduce the amount of herbicide used which subsequently reduces the costs for farmers and consumers.5 Debate on GMF There are a number of ethical concerns over genetically modified (GM) foods and these have all affected public support of the products. 1. ii. hence the reason why GM crops are more expensive for farmers than traditional crops.fish had also passed from the parr to smolt stage of development. modern biotechnology is used which requires highly skilled people and sophisticated and expensive equipment. 1. opening up new areas to be farmed and leading to increased productivity. allergies and contamination. 5 | F o o d Te c h n o l o g y ( B N N 4 0 3 0 4 ) . Herbicide-resistant crops GM crops can be produced to be herbicide resistant.1 Benefits: The Acceptance of GMF i. The issues have also triggered controversy and regulations around GM foods and any company that produces these crops or products. Biotechnology companies are even experimenting with crops that can be genetically modified to be drought and salt-tolerant. the GM crops are verycostly but money can be saved on other expenditure such as on pesticides. while this transformation took two years for the non-GM salmon.

2 Risks: The Rejection of GMF The major concerns of those who oppose GM foods focused on the: i. and 0. leaving all of the new crops exposed to disease. which has devastated many farmers and local economies. or if the 6 | F o o d Te c h n o l o g y ( B N N 4 0 3 0 4 ) . Better quality foods Animals that genetically modified can be leaner. ii. high nutritional content of vitamins. such as greater milk production.5. 1. If this crop becomes greatly popular. the Rainbow papaya. In Europe. the strain chosen to receive the transgene for ringspot-virus resistance turned out to be vulnerable to the blackspot fungus. Not all the effects of introducing a foreign gene into the intricate genetic structure of an organism are tested. for example. For example. GMFs are not the only crops lacking biodiversity. France and Netherlands. This was discovered when farmers attempted to destroy the crop in Britain. where it was being tested. Modified crops could perhaps prevent outbreaks such as foot and mouth disease. Lack of biodiversity When a GMF is first introduced. These modifications contribute to the improvement of productivity for farmers and ultimately lower costs for the consumer.iii. nor are lack of biodiversity a new concern. lower cholesterol level and suitable for people with certain allergies. The genetic structure of any living organism is complex and GM crop tests focus on shortterm effects. a strain of sugar beet that was genetically modified to be resistant to a particular herbicide has accidently assimilated the genes to resist another. and need less food. it will result with multiple farmers planting one and only one strain or variety of the crop. grow faster. This would likely be less of a problem if more GMF companies were able to enter into the market providing more variety of crops. The problem can be avoided by breeding the GM trait into several varieties using conventional methods. Environmental damage The problem with GM crops is that effect in the ecosystem is still unknown. They could also be modified to have special characteristics. the seeds are usually derived from a single strain. There is always the possibility that GM crops might not be able to be destroyed once they spread into the natural ecosystem.5% of the crop survived.

The types of potential hazards posed by GMO’s vary according to the type of organism being modified and its intended application.Allergic reactions in humans occur when a normally harmless protein enters the body and stimulates an immune response .If the novel protein in a GM food comes from a source that is known to cause allergies in humans or a source that has never been consumed as human food. i. To date. in vitro evidence suggesting that some 7 | F o o d Te c h n o l o g y ( B N N 4 0 3 0 4 ) .GMF crops could be allowed to hybridize with other strains. 2003). increased toxicity. it's a problem caused by the restrictions on GMF crops. In other words. and antibiotic resistance (Bernstein et al. this website focuses on genetically modified food. Most of the concern surrounding GMO’s relates to their potential for negative effects on the environment and human health. and is a significant public health threat . Food Allergy Food Allergy affects approximately 5% of children and 2% of adults in the U. However.S. Although no allergic reactions to GM food by consumers have been confirmed. 2. Because GMO’s that could directly affect human health are primarily products that can enter the human food supply.. decreased nutrition. and bacteria that are engineered for a wide variety of applications ranging from agricultural production to scientific research. the concern that the protein could elicit an immune response in humans increases.0 CONTENT 2.1 Consideration of Current Health Factors and Concerns When Developing New Food Genetically modified organisms (GMO’s) are a broad group of plants.S. All genetically modified foods that have been approved are considered by the government to be as safe as their traditional counterparts and are generally unregulated (FDA website). Health effects of primary concern to safety assessors are production of new allergens. are genetically modified plants (FDA website). there are several types of potential health effects that could result from the insertion of a novel gene into an organism. the only types of products that have been approved for human consumption in the U. animals.

phytate is a compound common in seeds and grains that binds with minerals and makes them unavailable to humans. Biotechnologists use antibiotic resistance genes as selectable markers when inserting new genes into plants. Alternatively. Decreased Nutritional Value A genetically modified plant could theoretically have lower nutritional quality than its traditional counterpart by making nutrients unavailable or indigestible to humans. Antibiotic resistance In recent years health professionals have become alarmed by the increasing number of bacterial strains that are showing resistance to antibiotics. For example. Although these effects have not been observed in GM plants. iii. potatoes conventionally bred for increased diseased resistance have produced higher levels of glycoalkaloids. iv. This could happen through the process of inserting the gene into the plant. believed to protect against heart disease and cancer. they have been observed through conventional breeding methods creating a safety concern for GM plants. By attaching the desired gene to an antibiotic resistance gene the new GM plant can be tested by growing it in a 8 | F o o d Te c h n o l o g y ( B N N 4 0 3 0 4 ) . Bacteria develop resistance to antibiotics by creating antibiotic resistance genes through natural mutation. For example. Increased Toxicity Most plants produce substances that are toxic to humans. If other genes in the plant become damaged during the insertion process it could cause the plant to alter its production of toxins. In the early stages of the process scientists do not know if the target plant will incorporate the new gene into its genome. There is concern that inserting an exotic gene into a plant could cause it to produce toxins at higher levels that could be dangerous to humans. An inserted gene could cause a plant to produce higher levels of phytate decreasing the mineral nutritional value of the plant. Most of the plants that humans consume produce toxins at levels low enough that they do not produce any adverse health effects.GM products could cause an allergic reaction has motivated biotechnology companies to discontinue their development. the new gene could interfere with a metabolic pathway causing a stressed plant to produce more toxins in response. than traditional soybeans. ii. Another example comes from a study showing that a strain of genetically modified soybean produced lower levels of phytoestrogen compounds.

solution containing the corresponding antibiotic. This condition related to antibiotic resistance genes that used as markers when creating GMOs. Outcrossing. vi. The two types of antibiotic resistance genes used by biotechnologists are ones that already exist in bacteria in nature so the process would not introduce new antibiotic resistance to bacteria. including a clear separation of the fields within which GM crops and conventional crops are grown. Gene transfer from GM foods to cells of the body or to bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract would cause concern if the transferred genetic material badly affects human health. Even though the possibility of transfer is low. 9 | F o o d Te c h n o l o g y ( B N N 4 0 3 0 4 ) . Never the less it is a concern and the FDA is encouraging biotechnologists to phase out the practice of using antibiotic resistance genes. There is concern that bacteria living in the guts of humans and animals could pick up an antibiotic resistance gene from a GM plant before the DNA becomes completely digested. No one has ever observed bacteria incorporating new DNA from the digestive system under controlled laboratory conditions. Outcrossing referred to the migration of genes from GM plants into conventional crops or related species in the wild as well as the mixing of crops derived from conventional seeds with GM crops. If the plant survives scientists know that it has taken up the antibiotic resistance gene along with the desired gene. It is not clear what sort of risk the possibility of conferring antibiotic resistance to bacteria presents. were to be transferred. Gene transfer. the use of gene transfer technology that does not involve antibiotic resistance genes is encouraged. Some countries have approved strategies to reduce mixing. v. Some cases that have been reported where GM crops permitted for animal feed or industrial use were traced at low levels in the products proposed for human consumption. This may cause an indirect effect on food safety and food security.

Figure 2: Growing Evidence of Harm from GMO Figure 3: Growing Evidence of Harm from GMO 10 | F o o d Te c h n o l o g y ( B N N 4 0 3 0 4 ) .

In respect to this factor. food industries have development various food products that fit into consumer market from different parts of the world. a Chicken Maharaja Mac and a Masala Grill Chicken in India (with Indian spices) as well as a Mega Teriyaki Burger (with teriyaki sauce) or Gurakoro (with macaroni gratin and croquettes) in Japan. Aging and Health Issues 11 | F o o d Te c h n o l o g y ( B N N 4 0 3 0 4 ) . “and they must actually be constitutive of different ways of life”. Common examples of factors that usually shape a culture include religion. ii. relation with other humans. Cultural Influences Culture has been defined by Hofstede and Hofstede (2005) as “the collective programming of the mind that distinguishes the members of one group or category of people from another”. For instance. cultural factors are coming from the different components related to culture or cultural environment from which the consumer belongs and influence the consumer’s behavior on food choices. Factors that have become relevant in respect to changing in consumer lifestyles in the world and their impacts upon worldwide food product development are presented discussed like:     Cultural influences Aging and health issues Busy lifestyles Food safety and ethical issues Environmental issues i. behavior. The fast food chain is not offering. While all the ingredients used by McDonald’s in arabic and muslim countries are certified halal. the fast-food giant has for example: a McBaguette in France (with french baguette and Dijon mustard). of course. any product with bacon or pork.2. In short. Well aware of the importance to have an offer with specific products to meet the needs and tastes of consumers from different cultures. and traditions. McDonald’s is a brilliant example of adaptation to the specificities of each culture and each market.2 Changing of Consumer Lifestyle on Food Product Development Food product development needs to be based on consumers’ needs and wishes to be successful. Harrison and Huntington also added to the culture definition that the ideas that distinguish one group of people from another must be socially inherited and customary. relation with nature.

ensuring that older persons continue to contribute productively to society as workers. the number of older persons worldwide is expected to reach more than 1. 2002). As populations in high-income countries age. and worldwide trends are likely to continue. by 2025.defined as aged 60 and over is growing in virtually all countries. consumer demands in the field of food production have changed considerably. Consumers more and more believe that foods contribute directly to their health (Mollet & Rowland.The number of older persons . Young. functional eggs and etc. 12 | F o o d Te c h n o l o g y ( B N N 4 0 3 0 4 ) . 2004). and calcium (Sloan. 2007). According to WHO (2012). technologically developed ingredients with a specific health benefit (Niva. More recently. food companies have taken further steps to develop food products that offer multiple health benefits in a single food (Sloan. Most early developments of functional foods were those of fortified with vitamins and/or minerals such as vitamin C. and are a huge medical expense. 2002. Subsequently. For example. functional foods play an outstanding role. including nutrition are essential. and soluble fiber to promote good health or to prevent diseases such as cancers (Sloan. nearly 400 million of whom were living in low-income countries. folic acid. A food marketed as functional contains added. 2000). In this regard. Besides. many of the diseases suffered by older persons are the result of dietary factors. vitamin E. phytosterol. the focus shifted to foods fortified with various micronutrients such as omega-3 fatty acid. 2000). disability and death. volunteers and providers instead of being only recipients of care. some of which have been operating since infancy. 2000b).2 billion. prebiotics. Today foods are not intended to only satisfy hunger and to provide necessary nutrients for humans but also to prevent nutritionrelated diseases and improve physical and mental well-being of the consumers (Menrad. zinc. osteoporosis and associated fractures are a major cause of illness. 2003 and Roberfroid. with about 840 million of these in low-income countries. functional meats. In the last decades. Functional foods have been developed in virtually all food categories such as probiotics. In 2002 there were an estimated 605 million older persons in the world. it becomes more apparent that investments in ageing and health. iron.

dioxins) to agro-chemicals (e. icecream and confectionery products. Increased female participation in the workforce. increased incomes and general economic growth has resulted in many ‘cash rich.iii. pies. This leads to less time available for household chorus and meal preparation. 1996). packaging components. preparation.g. mazine and oilseed rape have been derived 13 | F o o d Te c h n o l o g y ( B N N 4 0 3 0 4 ) . pizzas. growth promoters. between 1986 and 1996 the number of couples where both partners worked increased from 108. mycotoxins) and environmental contaminants (e. Dual-income households are busy families or couples with somewhat larger disposable income. Potential undesirable residues in foods span a broad range. Food Safety and Ethical Issues Henson and Traill (1993) define food safety as the inverse of food risk—the probability of not suffering some hazard from consuming a specific food. an implication of this has again increased the use of convenience foods. time poor’ consumers. 1986 and CSO. McKenzie (1986) reported that although working women enhance the financial circumstances of a household.g.000 to 226. dairy desserts.900 (CSO. 1999). soya.g. soups and other prepared consumer ready products. Busy Lifestyles These changing consumer needs were a result of major macro-economic changes that occurred worldwide in the last few decades. Genetic food engineering makes foods tolerant to herbicides and resistant to insect damage via the incorporation of bacterial genes. In a study of Consumer Watch (2002). such as new-leaf potatoes. nitrates and pesticides). Busy lifestyle encouraged the convenient food products. veterinary drugs. cooking or cleaning after the meal. A large number of novel foods or food ingredients. from natural (e. convenience was associated with reducing the input required from consumers in either food shopping. Forbairt (1998) defines convenient foods as ‘all products which have undergone secondary processing including ready meals. processed meats. A case study has been done in Ireland. Microbiological considerations are an even greater challenge to safety of food because potentially harmful microorganisms have the ability either to grow rapidly from very low numbers in food or to proliferate in the human body once ingested (Tent. and many more. a situation of ‘time poverty’ may develop. savoury products. Gofton (1995) suggests that in these households the family is often served convenience foods when parents are too tired and/or do not have enough time to prepare a home cooked meal. iv.

Sustainable consumption and production in food and 14 | F o o d Te c h n o l o g y ( B N N 4 0 3 0 4 ) . Moreover. CO 2 is produced. The unsustainability of current arrangements arises from the industrialization and globalization of agriculture and food processing. 1997). 1999 and Robiston. 1997). there have been no reports of illness from the consumption of genetically modified foods (Moseley.through genetic modifications (Moseley. However. At the consumer level. the world have diverted to the practice of sustainable food consumption and production. such as the creation of super-weeds and the development of serious illness. Thus far. the emergence of modern food styles that entail heavily processed products. so less carbon dioxide gas. even though novel foods undergo extensive assessment for safety before approval is granted (Robiston. This means there is less of an impact on the environment. Hence. Moreover. sustainability problems arising from food systems will likely become more serious in the future. food manufacturers are required to make a clear label on the GM (genetic modified) food products for consumers’ recognition. locally produced food doesn't have to be transported as far. the shift of consumption patterns toward more dietary animal protein. increasingly challenging land-use conflicts. In regard to the above issues. Contemporary food production and consumption cannot be regarded as sustainable and raises problems with its wide scope involving diverse actors. For example. At the ethical level. in the face of demographic change and a growing global population. consumers around the world differ in their concerns about genetic food engineering. there are concerns about scientists “playing God. v. the primary concern about genetically engineered foods is their safety. Environmental Issues Environmental factors are things that help reduce the impact of food production on the environment and might cause someone to choose to buy a product. For example. 1999). the growing gap on a global scale between rich and poor. 1999). and rising health and social costs on both individual and societal levels. and the paradoxical lack of food security amid an abundance of food. there are considerations that genetic manipulation of the technology is expensive and will not be available to “poor” farming communities and that this may even distort the economies of third world countries (Moseley.” such that genetic manipulation breaches the natural boundaries between species that nature has established through the process of evolution. There are also worries about the future safety of the technology. agricultural production must deal with the impacts of climate change.

respecting the carrying capacities of natural ecosystems. 15 | F o o d Te c h n o l o g y ( B N N 4 0 3 0 4 ) . Table 2: Framework of policy instruments to promote sustainable food systems. holistic concept that refers to the integrated implementation of sustainable patterns of food consumption and production.agriculture is a consumer-driven. There are food-policy instruments available and currently in use in EU member states to promote sustainable food systems as summarized in Table 1.

food packaging must be removed in an environmentally responsible manner. while others believe the food contains risks to human health. The process of combining inter-species genes. which is called recombinant DNA technology. Besides.threatening alternative to meat. This differs from traditional breeding in that genetic transference between unrelated species does not occur biologically in nature. Supporters claim it will feed the world and promote better health and ecological welfare. It has a 22 % share of the meat free market. whereby only 4 % stated environmental reasons.As many consumers shifted to vegetarianism.marketingweek. and strict regulations on pollutants and disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW). an article in Marketing Week (http://www. 2.3 Advantages and Disadvantages of GMF The number of countries growing genetically modified crops has increased in recent years causing much debate over the safety of these products. including energy and material costs. This means that no one can 16 | F o o d Te c h n o l o g y ( B N N 4 0 3 0 4 ) . Packaging technology must therefore balance food protection with other issues.uk 2011) mentions that UK consumers can relate to flexible vegetarianism or “Flexitarianism” and that it is a solution for many who want to reduce their meat consumption without giving up meat totally. this opens the market for vegan foods which believe to help to reduce meat consumption and reduce environmental impacts. Quorn (microbe-protein) shows a significant development of sustainable food production by application of biotechnology and microbiology. However. advances in food processing and packaging play a primary role in keeping the food safe to be consumed.co. Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) include crops. does not have the checks and balances that are imposed by nature in traditional breeding. heightened social and environmental consciousness. productive and ecological value. vegetables and fruit that have been created using genetic engineering methods. Scientists combine desirable genes from various species to create new genetically-altered crosses with enhanced nutritional. For example. Following usage. Because of this there is a risk of genetic instability. as it can easily be used as a substitute for meat in everyday meals without too much trouble. Packaging protects food between processing and usage by the consumer. around half of the consumers surveyed stated health and reducing their grocery bills as the main reasons for buying meat free products. Quorn has positioned itself as a non .

The subject is also of vested interest for the corporations that manufacture genetically modified seeds and agricultural technologies. thus potentially reducing exposure to pesticides. We are what we eat after all.3. 17 | F o o d Te c h n o l o g y ( B N N 4 0 3 0 4 ) . greenhouse gas emissions and soil erosion. The University of California in San Diego reports that a toxic bacterium can be added to crops to make them insect repellent.  Inbuilt resistance to pests. This is the crux of the matter in the ongoing debate of GMOs. Oklahoma State University reports that the increase of GMO crops and animals often requires less chemicals. yet safe for human use. This can improve the general beauty and health of the environment surrounding farms and contribute to the sustaining of better air and water quality. which can indirectly benefit your personal well-being. Food is an emotional topic.make any accurate predictions about the long-term effects of GMOs on human beings and the environment. 2. Other advantages are:  Crops are more productive and have a larger yield. time and tools.  More environment friendly as they require less herbicides and pesticides. It matters a great deal to all of us.  More capable of thriving in regions with poor soil or adverse climates. Some GMO foods have been modified to make them more resistant to insect pests. The arguments are intense and passionate.  A possibility that they could eliminate allergy-causing properties in some foods. and there is still a great deal about the process that scientists do not understand.  Could potentially offer more nutrition and flavor (although this is debated). weeds and disease. The Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations reports that some GMO foods have been engineered to be more nutritious in terms of mineral or vitamin content. Not only does this help you get the nutrients you need. and may help to reduce environmental pollution. Extensive testing in this regard is either very expensive or impractical. The United Nations advises that vitamin A-enhanced rice is helping to reduce global vitamin A deficiencies.1 Advantages of GMF There are many advantages in application of GMF towards human and environment. it can also play a significant role in battling malnutrition in the developing world. This can reduce the amount of pesticide chemicals used on the plants.

proteins from an organism that you're allergic to may be added to an organism that you weren't originally allergic to. thus creating "superweeds" that are impossible to kill with herbicides. A constant risk of GMO foods is that the modified genes of the organisms may escape into the wild. they are an answer to feeding growing world populations. When you eat them.  The use of genetically modified food should not be encouraged without research into the risks. A related risk is that the escape of genetically enhanced animals and vegetation can create new super-organisms that can outcompete natural animal and plant populations to drive certain species into extinction. Foods are more resistant and stay ripe for longer so they can be shipped long distances or kept on shop shelves for longer periods. these antibiotic markers persist in your body and can make actual antibiotic medications less effective. causing new allergic reactions in the human body. but they don't yet know where in the DNA to precisely insert these genes and they have no way of controlling gene expression. GMO foods can present significant allergy risks to people. Other disadvantages are:  Scientists can choose which genes to manipulate. Brown University warns that herbicideresistant genes from commercial crops may cross into the wild weed population. it also has its negative impact to us and environment. according to Iowa State University. prompting the same allergic reaction experienced from the first organism.  As more GMO crops can be grown on relatively small parcels of land. 2. with unpredictable results.3. changing a few could change the whole picture. Some GMO foods have had antibiotic features built into them to make them immune or resistant to diseases or viruses. The university warns that such ingestion of GMO foods and regular exposure to antibiotics may be contributing to the decreased effectiveness of antibiotic drugs that is being noticed in hospitals around the world. Genes don't work in isolation. 18 | F o o d Te c h n o l o g y ( B N N 4 0 3 0 4 ) . In some cases. Genetic modification often mixes or adds proteins that weren't indigenous to the original plant or animal. according to Brown University.2 Disadvantages of GMF Although GMF give many benefits to us.

The new technology also interferes with traditional agricultural methods which may be more suited to local environments. Even if health safety factors are not an issue. some people might have moral or religious objections. and lack of access to food brought about by various social. who cannot save seeds for replanting and have to buy expensive seeds from the companies every year. Not labeling is wrong and unfair to the consumers who should have the right to know what they are buying so they can decide for themselves whether they want to buy the food or not. but by sheer mismanagement. They should not have to eat GMOs if they don't want to.  The claim of ending world hunger with GMOs is false. If this were to happen with GMO foods containing vaccines.  Herbicide-resistant and pesticide-resistant crops could give rise to super-weeds and super-pests that would need newer.  GMO technology companies patent their crops and also engineer crops so that harvested grain germs are incapable of developing.  GMO crops cross-pollinate with nearby non-GMO plants and could create ecological problems. it would very well turn into a human health nightmare. 19 | F o o d Te c h n o l o g y ( B N N 4 0 3 0 4 ) .  GMOs are not the answer to world hunger and health. financial and political causes. antibiotics. World hunger is not caused by a shortage of food production. stronger chemicals to destroy them. Instead we should focus on improving organic agricultural practices which are kinder to the earth and healthier for humans. contraceptives and so on.  Genetically modified crops pose a risk to food diversity as the plants are much more dominant. This is not empowering to impoverished Third World farmers.

However. both with regard to consumer health and environmental risks. This also had an impact on discussions and debate about the acceptability of GM foods. The potential for GM in agricultural result in bigger yields per cultivated area should lead to lower prices of agricultural food products.0 CONCLUSION Since the first introduction of GM Foods which is herbicide-resistant soybeans on the market in the mid-1990s. especially in Europe country. allowing for an informed choice of consumers. politicians. public concern arises and focuses on the risk side of the risk-benefit like the potential environmental impacts and public health effects of GMOs. Medicinal practitioners are concerned that many consumers are ready to accept this biotechnology advancement as beneficial for their health such as vaccines. activists and consumers. medicines with improved treatment potential or increased safety.3. Other topics debated by consumer organizations have included allergenicity and antimicrobial resistance. In the term of food. It is imperative that we consider the health of the human population as well as the good of the environment before we put such potentially harmful species into our fragile environment. consumers curious about the safety of the food because they aware that GMF applied modern biotechnology to create new species. 20 | F o o d Te c h n o l o g y ( B N N 4 0 3 0 4 ) . there has been a great concern and debate about GMF among scientist. Consumer concerns have triggered a discussion on the desirability of labeling GM foods. precautionary measures must be taken before transgenic crops conquest the food industry. Although the benefits of genetically modified foods cannot be overlooked. More research and sterner regulations and guidelines must be implemented in the process of genetic modification in order to assure the safety of our earth and its populations. Consumers have questioned the validity of risk assessments. focusing in particular on long-term effects.

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