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Heat is lethal to microorganisms, but each species has its own particular heat tolerance. During a thermal destruction process, such as pasteurization, the rate of destruction is logarithmic, as is their rate of growth. Thus bacteria subjected to heat are killed at a rate that is porportional to the number of organisms present. The process is dependent both on the temperature of exposure and the time required at this temperature to accomplish to desired rate of destruction. Thermal calculations thus involve the need for knowledge of the concentration of microorganisms to be destroyed, the acceptable concentration of microorganisms that can remain behind (spoilage organisms, for example, but not pathogens), the thermal resistance of the target microorganisms (the most heat tolerant ones), and the temperature time relationship required for destruction of the target organisms.

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3:20 AM

**CONCEPT #1: Logarithmic numbers
**

Observe this mathematical property (using your calculator)

Log (1)

=0

Log (10)

=1

Log (32)

= 1.51

Log (100)

=2

Log (1000)

=3

Log (1000000) = 6

Log (1048576) = 6.02

No. of bacteria = Log10 (no. of bacteria)

Hence, on the left is the graph when the death curve is plotted using the value of no. of bacteria

on the right is the graph when the death curve is plotted using the Log10 (no. of bacteria), which is

the characteristic straight line of thermal death curves

CONCEPT #2: Logarithmic Reductions (Log Reductions)

Example,

Before heat treatment,

106 = 1,000,000 = 1 million bacteria cells

After heat treatment,

FSC 60304 2015 Page 1

9999 9999 99% of 106 killed = 0. of bacteria reduced How much of original 106 bacteria is killed by the sequential log reductions using heat How much of original 106 bacteria survived the sequential log reductions using heat 1D 106 reduced to 105 = 90% of 106 killed = 10% of 106 survived 2D 105 further reduced = 99% of 106 killed = 990000 = 1% of 106 survived = by one decimal = 105 killed 10000 survived reduced to 104 3D 104 further reduced = 99. Actual no.9% of 106 killed = by one decimal = 104 999000 killed reduced to 103 … 12D = 99.000. Why? The "danger zone for different foods" or "optimal growth conditions for different species" are different Example.After heat treatment. 105 = 100. FSC 60304 2015 Page 2 . which says that the numbers are reduced by one decimal. it means 1 decimal reduction.1% of 106 survived = 1000 survived = 0. etc.000 ÷ 1. or reduced by the factor of 10) Observe the table below 1D followed by 2D followed by 3D.000 How much is the reduction? 100.000 = 90% reduction = ( bacteria survive = 1D reduction (in English.0000 0000 01% of 106 survived CONCEPT #3: The thermal death curves (and hence D-values) for different bacteria species are different Example.

Example. CONCEPT #4: Why do we need Z-values? The process of bacterial death is a function of both time and temperature Examples. in real world conditions: Heat transfer is not equal! Hence the temperature is not always constant FSC 60304 2015 Page 3 .

the thermal death curve graph below does not really inform you of the true log reduction by heat treatment.Hence. as it is based on a constant temperature of 121C FSC 60304 2015 Page 4 .

*this information is acquired through experience or experimentrs. then you can use this equation to calculate the 1D cooking time (t) at any other temperature (T) above the minimum lethal temperature (Tmin) *Temperature below minimum lethal temperature (Tmin) would not kill the bacteria FSC 60304 2015 Page 5 .Figure 1: Thermal death destruction of Clostridium botulinum endospores at 121C\ CONCEPT #5: Relationship between Z-values and D-values Z-value (given in C) is defined as the temperature change that will achieve a 10-fold reduction according to the D-value (time given in minutes) If you know the time (Dref) required to achieve a 1D reduction at a reference temperature (Tref ).

Examples. If you draw a graph comparing D value (time) versus Z-value temperature. you get this FSC 60304 2015 Page 6 .

meaning that if you change the temperature by 10C. Examples FSC 60304 2015 Page 7 .CONCEPT #5: A typical value for the parameter Z is 10C. the time required to kill the same fraction of bacteria increases or decreases by a factor of 10.

This Z-value of 10C is commonly used to inform the heat processing of canned food. The common solution is the 12D cook. and Z-value of 10C should only be used as a reference for this bacteria species. Any bacterial reduction. CONCEPT #6: Real life applications of all these concepts Different choices of times and temperatures can make huge differences in the appearance and taste of the dish. or higher levels of bacterial reduction. or other additives can also make a big difference. The shape of the thermal death curve varies with bacterial species and with environmental conditions such as the pH and kind of food In food. as can the presence of certain proteins or fats. is paramount. For fresh food. hence you need to learn how to apply the information from D-values and Z-values. FSC 60304 2015 Page 8 . various sources recommend 4D. Thus putting the food through a cooking process which achieves 12 decimal reductions should destroy all the spores of Clostridium botulinum in a gram in the worst possible case. Because if we consider the worst possible scenario – a can full of solid packed Clostridium botulinum spores. though. Food safety. can prove unsafe if the contamination is great enough. Fats can either help shield bacteria from heat or make them more sensitive to elevated temperatures. in such a situation we have about 1012 spores per gram. Clostridium botulinum spores is very important in canned food. SD. Authorities differ on the proper reduction standards for specific contexts. Refer to your hygiene and sanitation module. he presence of salt. You thus almost always have a choice: you can cook at high heat for a short time. 6D. or you can cook at low heat for a longer period. sodium nitrite. even a 12D drop.*This Z-value of 10C is in fact based on experience with canned foods where Clostridium botulinum is important.

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