You are on page 1of 4

Maharaja Surajmal Institute of Technology, New Delhi

(Affiliated to GGSIPU)

Smart City Demonstration
Under the guidance of
Mr. Sunil Gupta
(Assistant professor)
EEE Dept.
Jai Prakash
EEE Dept.
jai.prakashmsit@gmail.com
Devender Kumar
EEE Dept.
way2debu@gmail.com
Ankit Kumar
EEE Dept.
ankit.kr93@gmail.com
Abstract —The Smart City aims to make optimal
and sustainable use of all resources, while
maintaining an appropriate balance between social,
environmental and economic costs. In the Smart
City, maximum use is made of ICT to improve the
functioning, management, and supervision of the
variety of systems and services, with an emphasis
on saving energy, water, land and other natural
resources. The main categories that define smart
cities include the quality of the environment,
energy, water and wastewater, transportation and
traffic, information and communication systems,
quality of life.

that have been developing smart city technology
include government services, transport and traffic
management, energy, health care, water and waste.
Smart city applications are developed with the goal
of improving the management of urban flows and
allowing for real time responses to challenges. The
Smart Energy City, as a core to the concept of the
Smart City, provides its users with a liveable,
affordable,
climate-friendly
and
engaging
environment that supports the needs and interests
of its users and is based on a sustainable economy.
The Smart Energy City is highly energy and
resource efficient, and is increasingly powered by
renewable energy sources; it relies on integrated
and resilient resource systems, as well as insightdriven and innovative approaches to strategic
planning. The application of information,
communication and technology are common means
to meet these objectives.

The Smart Energy City is highly energy and
resource efficient, and is increasingly powered by
renewable energy sources; it relies on integrated
and resilient resource systems, as well as insightdriven and innovative approaches to strategic
planning. The application of information,
communication and technology are common means
to meet these objectives.

The Smart Energy City leverages the Smart City
Vision as a tool to help set the trajectory for an
overall
smarter
city
development.
This
development will encompass all social, economic
and environmental aspects of sustainability, using
these aspects as an overall goal of both the Smart.
Major technological, economic and environmental
changes have generated interest in smart cities,
including climate change, economic restructuring,
the move to online retail and entertainment, ageing
populations, and pressures on public finances

INTRODUCTION
A smart
city uses
digital
technologies
or information
and
communication
technologies (ICT) to enhance quality and
performance of urban services, to reduce costs and
resource consumption, and to engage more
effectively and actively with its citizens. Sectors

1

This is achieved by using a central tap transformer. It is a stimulated emission of radiation which operates in infrared visible or ultraviolet region. 2. The amplified output is provided to the LASER Torch. It can transmit information with little inference because it produces highly directional beam. The resistor R3 is used for current limiting so that no fault current may not damage the condenser microphone. more amount of spectrum and is easy to assemble. as always negative feedback decreases the distortions in the output signal. The pprinciple of LASER is amplification of electromagnetic waves. The terminals of 12 V drive the entire circuit.Maharaja Surajmal Institute of Technology. 3. Pins 7 and 8 of the IC are connected to the supply. This electrical energy that is equivalent current developed is filtered by an R-C circuit and is provided to pin number 2 of the IC- 2 . . Some systems have been designed that employ LASER as a communication medium but there circuits were quite complex . 2 identical tubes are so connected that their grids receive equal input signals having a phase difference of 180°. The output of this IC is provided to the PUSH PULL Amplifier. This type of arrangement is called PUSHPULL AMPLIFIER. changing the distance between the two plates and therefore changing the capacitance. Receiver circuit operation The charge is constant and the voltage across capacitor changes reflecting the change is capacitance. The main purpose of an amplifier is to give an exact and enlarged reproduction of input signal. a kind which preserves the shape of the input signal. less availability and can be easily tapped . The microphone converts the sound energy provided by us to electrical energy.DESIGN AND WORKING OF THE SYSTEM Transmitter Circuit Operation The microphone converts the air pressure variation produced by a voice produced by a voice into an electrical variation of same frequency and amplitude i. The diaphragm of the condenser microphone vibrates when struck by sound waves. signal here. However amplitude distortion produced is due to nonlinear characteristic curve. New Delhi (Affiliated to GGSIPU) 741. It can be decreased by increasing the load resistance. To amplify the AC signal from condenser microphone we use operational amplifier at the 1st stage. it converts sound energy to electrical energy which is A. However.C. A system is now designed which has very simple circuitry and solves all the above mentioned flaws as it offers high level of secrecy . STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The present mediums of communication are mostly dependent on RF communications which suffer from various disadvantages like less range of spectrum . Microphone. Also because of the voltage feedback. An increase in load resistance makes dynamic characteristic curve straighter. we require an amplifier to amplify the output signal of the cond. We are using an op-amp with a single supply. the amplifier has very low output impedance. The condenser microphone is of high quality but its voltage output is very low therefore. The main advantage of the inverting voltage is its ability to handle more than one input at a time. The output of the two tubes is combined in a central tap output transformer. For instance if the input signal is sinusoidal the output signal is also sinusoidal.e. To get higher power. an increased load resistance decreases the power output. The one we are using is a linear amplifier. This is so because the negative feedback stabilises the voltage gain and input impedance.

On the other hand our device is cheaper at a cost of INR 400 and need not to pay any tariff for voice communication. Shank. assemblies. M. Scope for the Future Work With improved designs it can be used for defence purposes in transmitting confidential voice data from one hill top to other hill top in remote area where cell phone communication is not possible due to the lack of mobile operator’s tower by using extra amplifying circuit at the receiver end for having higher efficiency of the system REFERENCES 4.htm A remarkable feature of laser is the concentration of its energy to extremely high intensities that’s remaining almost constant over long distances because of low divergence [6].. But the receiver and the transmitter can be set at the top of the high rise building in such cases. 60. [2]K. Popp.. U. “Eximer Laser Micro Texturing of Cold Forging Tool Surface-Influence on Tool Life. This project can be made and used successfully in conference hall.PULL Amplifier for amplification. Berlin. So it can be efficiently used for general conversation with neighbours where confidentiality is a prime issue.Maharaja Surajmal Institute of Technology. [Online] Available: http://1000projects. The amplified output is provided to the Loudspeaker . Limitation This system cannot be used for communication where there is any obstructions or clear line of sight is not available. Laser Torch Based Voice Transmitter and Receiver Block Diagram. Other methods such as Infra-Red and Blue-Tooth can also be used for voice transmission and Reception . Laser Torch Based Transmission and Reception are cheaper and simpler in construction than RF transmitter and receiver.It is an electroacoustic transducer . but their range is small and are also costlier than Laser based system. pp.Converts electrical audio signal into sound.. 3 . Elsevier Annals of the CIRP. 51. This design of Laser voice transmission system can be made at home with minimum cost and can be used for frequent conversation between neighbouring house at free of cost instead of using cell phone.com/doc/47807263/WirelessVoice-Communication-Using-Laser [3] laser torch transmitter reciever_1441287077975 5. Wireless Voice Communication Using Laser. Vol. The output is filtered by an R-C circuit and is provided to the pin 2 of IC 741. and class rooms and for general conversation between two neighbours. Thiyagarajan. The lowest cost of a cell phone is [5]C. 231–234. U. The output of IC is provided to the PUSH. The pins 4 and 7 of the IC are connected to the terminals supplying voltage. That is why this design can be used for transmitting confidential data as well as for general conversation.scribd. (2011). 1988. ADVANTAGE [1] 1000 Projects. CONCLUSION [4]Geiger. 2002. V. and Engel. (2012). 5-34.” .” Ultra short Laser Pulses and Applications”. Kaiser. Available: http://www. It works on same principle as microphone but in reverse nature. pp. The LASER Torch incidents a LASER Beam which is detected by the photodiode which converts light energy to electrical energy. The main advantage of this system is high reliability as it is impossible to track the data on the way of transmission [7]. New Delhi (Affiliated to GGSIPU) INR 3000-4000 in our country and the users have to pay tariff for each second of communication. Vol. Springer-Verlag.[Online].org/laser-torchbased-voice-transmitter-and-receiver-blockdiagram.

” Popular Science & Technology Series. electronics Australia. (1997). New Delhi (Affiliated to GGSIPU) [6] “Laser and its applications.[Online].haddock. [7] Peter Phillips.html 4 . 2009. DRDO Publications.Maharaja Surajmal Institute of Technology.com/laser/laser1.8m. Available: http://captain. Laser link communicator.