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# Warm-Up 1

1.

87

2. 3184

(C, F, M)

5. 8

(E, M, S, T)

8. 31

(C, M, T)

(C, T)

6. 1.25

(C, M)

9. 11

(G, M, P, T)

3. 11

(M, P, T)

7. 108

(C, P, S)

10. 20

(P, S, T)

4. 66

(C, F)

Solution - Problem #7

Knowing our multiples of 7 may quickly lead us to the fact that our first multiple of seven
within the desired range is 7 ´5 = 35. We could continue identifying and counting multiples of 7 until
we reach 790, but that would take a very long time! Dividing 790 by 7 gives us a quotient of 112 with
a remainder of 6, so we know that 7´112 < 790 and 7´113 > 790. Weve discovered that multiplying 7
by any integer from 5 through 112 will give us a multiple of 7 within the desired range. How many
integers are there from 5 through 112? Be careful! Dont make the mistake of just using the
difference between 112 and 5... youll be one integer short! Think of it this way: we want to include
all of the first 112 positive integers except for the first four positive integers. This means there are
112 - 4 = 108 integers from 5 through 112, and therefore, there are 108 multiples of 7 between 30 and
790.

Solution/Multiple Representations - Problem #3

Drawing a picture and watching the ball as it travels around
the circle is a great way to tackle this problem! We need to be sure
that there are 11 girls, including Ami, and we can map out the path
of the ball until it reaches Ami again. Notice that by the time it
reaches Ami again, it also has landed at each of the other 10
positions exactly once (since every position has an arrow pointing to
it). Similarly, since each position has exactly one arrow going away
from it, each of the 11 girls threw the ball exactly once before it
landed back with Ami.
Another way to approach this problem is to think of every integer in terms of the integer 11.
In other words, rather than there being a position 12 on the figure above, we would really be back at
position 1. Similarly, if we were to look for position 35, we would go around the circle three times
and eventually land on position 2. Notice that any integer we choose will correspond to one of the
11 positions in our figure, and we can determine the corresponding position by identifying the
remainder when the integer is divided by 11. This is called modular arithmetic. Notice that positions
14, 25, 36 and 48 would all be equivalent to position 3 since they all have a remainder of 3 when
divided by 11; they are all equivalent to 3 mod 11. Notice that every time a girl throws the ball, the
position of the receiver of the ball is four more than the position of the thrower. Therefore, the ball
starts at position 1 and will land at the positions 5, 9, 13 (or 2 mod 11), 17 (or 6 mod 11),
21 (or 10 mod 11), 25 (or 3 mod 11), 29 (or 7 mod 11), 33 (or 0 mod 11), 37 (or 4 mod 11),
41 (or 8 mod 11), 45 (or 1 mod 11), etc. Were looking for when the ball first returns to Ami, which is
position 1. We see that position 1 (which is also position 45) is the 11 th landing point of the sequence,
and therefore, there were 11 throws.

22

MATHCOUNTS 2004-2005

41 (C. S. S) 9. G. 31 (C. M) 2. F) 8. G. According to the first sentence in the problem. 84 (C. T) 6. F. The second sentence tells us (T + 4) =  (M + 4). M) 3. well assign the variables T = Tylers age now and M = Marys age now. T =  M. F. 22 (C. F. M) 4. 64. 4 (C. M. In four years. 12 (C. 66 (F. 23 (C. 62 (C.2 (C) 5. Lets substitute  M for T in the second equation since we know they are equal. M) Solution . G) 10. G. E. E.Problem #9 Lets see if we can set up an algebraic solution for this problem.Warm-Up 3 Answers 1. S) 7. P. First. G. M P. Multiplying both sides of the equation by 6 gets us to a nicer equation to work with:   0 + . Tylers age will be T + 4 and Marys age will be M + 4. We now have (  M + 4) =  (M + 4).

=   0 + .

.

  0 +  =  0 +  .

Lets transfer those 12 points. The score of 90 has five extra points. so we wont touch that one. then the total number of points for the six different scores can be re-distributed to make six scores of 85. The score of 97 is 12 points too many. Lets give four of these points to the score of 81 and the remaining point to the score of 78. it would be reasonable to estimate that the mean is close to 85. One score is already 85. 28 MATHCOUNTS 2004-2005 . Looking at the values (lets assume that they are test scores). we can see that there are a couple in the 70s. and Tyler is half Marys age. it is a good illustration of what the arithmetic mean represents. then Tyler is 4 years old. Therefore. 0 +  =  0 +  =0 If Mary is now 8 years old. Solution/Representation . we dont have enough points for a mean of 85. and the score of 73 is 12 points too few.Problem #7 Understanding the concept of the mean is just as important as remembering the formula for calculating it. (There are no more points to transfer to the 79. Now we have: Unfortunately. If the mean is 85. a couple in the 80s and a couple in the 90s.) What if we take one point from each of the five 85s and give them to the 79? Now we can see that the original scores have a mean of 84. Though this is not the most efficient solution.

P) (C. 7 (C. F. F. S) 2. 75  9.000. 6. We know that any factor of 48 could then have no factors of 2. The tree diagram below illustrates how this works.Problem #7 Since rolling a pair of dice is a common scenario for probability problems. F) 6.. 48 = 24 ´ 31 20 21 20´30 20´31 21´30 21´31 1 3 2 22 6 23 22´30 22´31 4 12 24 23´30 23´31 8 24´30 24´31 24 16 48 In general. T) 8. Connection to. If we list the 36 outcomes. Any factor of 48 could also have no factors of 3 or one factor of 3. P. 13 (C. This is a probability of  We also could consider the outcomes by going through the possible values for the roll of the first die. F) 10. then a roll of 1 or 4 on the second die results in a multiple of three. T) 5.Problem #4 Determining the number of factors of an integer is a fun area of number theory. a roll of 2 or 5 on the second results in a multiple of three. 6  7. which is 24 ´ 31. If we roll a 1 on the first die. we will find our 12 different successful scenarios out of the 36 possible outcomes. Going back to the Counting Principle discussed with Warm-Up 2. Pascals Triangle (Problem #9) As you look at this problem. and then find the product of these new values. F. you may notice that the first factor of each of the five terms (1. increase each exponent of the prime factorization by 1. to determine the number of positive factors of an integer. M. but notice  + 30 4 9 4 9 4 9 4 9    =  +   +   +   +   . If we roll a 2 on the first die. we see that there are five ways to incorporate the 2 and two ways to incorporate the 3 into any positive factor of 48. Thats five different options for the 2. M. three or four factors of 2.  (C.   9 =4 9      . E. 10 (C. P. but if the question asked us to find the number of positive factors of 48. P. so there are 5´2 = 10 positive factors. T) 3. is a multiple of 3. We could certainly list out the factors of 48 and count them. 4. Solution/Multiple Representations . That is two different options for the 3. F. 50 (C. we would certainly want a more efficient way to count the factors! Lets first start with the prime factorization of 48. F) Solution . If we continue in this manner. 2 (C. M) 4. 22 (C.. it wouldnt hurt to be familiar with the 36 possible outcomes. 1) are the numbers that can be found in Row 4 of Pascals Triangle (assuming Pascals Triangle starts with Row 0). two.Warm-Up 4 Answers 1. This is a huge hint that might lead you to see that the expression in Problem 9 is really the expansion of a binomial raised to the fourth power: 4 +  9 = 1616  4  9 + 1 61 6  4  9 + 1 61 6 4  9 + 1 616 4  9  + 1616  4  9  4 Simplifying this final expression looks daunting. G. 4. and then determining what values for the second die will get us to a sum that is a multiple of three. =  =    MATHCOUNTS 2004-2005 . S) (C. 12 of them result in a sum that  =  . or one.  (C.

The first ratio is our 6 mph. 1 (C. and after performing the same type of procedure with the units in  PLOHV  KRXU  PLQ  IW ×  IW the expression  KRXU ×  PLQ ×  VHF ×  PLOH . F) (M) (C. F. We want to change " IHHW  PLOHV  KRXU  PLQ  IW this to " VHF RQG . 120 (C.Problem #5 Lets agree first that (1) multiplying an expression by 1 does not change the value of the expression and (2) a ratio is equal to 1 if the value in the numerator is equal to the value in the  PLOHV denominator.) The shaded regions represent spinning LOSE. M) Solution . T) 9. E. Letting the largest rectangle represent our entire sample space. were going to spin the spinner again. (Remember that WIN is an eighth of the spinner. the top figure shows the possible outcomes after one spin. which is    of the largest rectangle. M. with black representing LOSE/LOSE. So the unshaded region is  of  . P. 2 7.Problem #4 Were told that the three larger sectors of the spinner are congruent. S. Canceling factors in the numerators with factors in the denominators is a common practice when we are multiplying fractions. F) 8. We can see that there is a very small region now that is not shaded (no LOSE spins). Dividing out factors of 6. Again. The possibilities for this second spin are shown in the middle figure. and since each one has a central angle of 90°. gray representing LOSE/WIN and WIN/LOSE and white still showing WIN/WIN. T) 10. consider 6 mph or the ratio  KRXU . Assuming weve already spun WIN. 10 and another 6 from the numerator and denominator.Warm-Up 5 Answers 1. Since we are spinning the spinner twice (two events) and determining the probability of spinning WIN/WIN. The smaller sectors (including WIN) that make up the remaining quarter of the spinner are congruent. we are left with  ×  VHF . T) 5.  (C. F. M P.8 6. 40 (C. Do you see how this visual =    representation corresponds to the solution in the paragraph above? (The bottom figure shows all of the possible outcomes of two spins. and therefore. the probability of spinning WIN/WIN is   =  4 94 9 We also can rely on a visual representation of the situation. Keeping these two facts in mind. we have  =  feet/second. T) 2. Take a look at the product  KRXU ×  PLQ ×  VHF ×  PLOH . we have shaded the areas corresponding with spinning LOSE. So already we are limited to an eighth of the largest rectangle. This ensures that the expression is still equivalent to 6 mph. they are each a quarter of the spinner. This region is an eighth of the small square. S. 2s (C. in which case we dont need to spin again because WIN/WIN is no longer a possibility.) 4 94 9 34 49 49 MATHCOUNTS 2004-2005 . 5 (C. May 1  4. which was an eighth of the largest rectangle. eighth of the spinner. 8. P. and each of the next three ratios is equivalent to 1 since the value in the numerator of each ratio is equal to the value in its denominator. G) 3. 88 (C. they are each an eighth of the spinner. Since the sector WIN is an  . T) (C. we will need to find the probability of the first event (spinning WIN) and multiply that by the probability of the second event (spinning WIN).  Solution/Multiple Representations . P.

but since this is a Warm-Up. and 2 6 3 3 3=3 therefore cant be equal to the number of Mikes coins when he adds one to his collection (column C). T) (C. What if we multiply two 2s with two 5s? We get the product of two 10s. 41 (C. F. T) (C. Then Mike has 2 coins. we can set up the equations T = 3M and M + 1 =  T. Lets take this down to its prime factorization: 810 ´ 522 = (23)10 ´ 522 = 230 ´ 522.. 3M + 2 = 4M. G. Together they have 2 + 6 = 8 coins. This scenario is represented in the third row of values in the table. P. P. the amount of coins will be equal to half of the coins Tim started with. Now 28 can be calculated without a calculator and is equal to 256. Therefore. F. What happens when we multiply a 2 by a 5? We get 10. F. we have M + 1 =  (3M) or M + 1 =  M. P) 8.5 other. From our two guesses we can see that the number of coins Tim starts with should be an even multiple of 3. which is 100. we can use the following figure to solve the problem. 40 (C. Finally. we can then easily multiply this number by three to determine Tims number of coins. This means that the total number of coins M + T is also the same as 4M.560. Notice that when Tim has an odd number of coins. Remembering that the entire large rectangle represents 4M. Using the same equations. It seems that a calculator would be nice at this point. 108p Solution . Notice that we are multiplying a lot of 2s by a lot of 5s. 25 (C. S) 9. The first two rows of this table show two initial guesses for the number of coins Tim and Mike have. This is a grand total of 25 digits. Solution/Multiple Representations .00 which is 2.5 6 < 7... M) 6.Problem #6 Were starting with the expression 810 ´ 522. T) 4.Problem #3 Algebraically. Together. Try starting Tim out with 6 coins. 25 (C.00. we should be able to do this without a calculator.   2. Figure 1 Figure 2 Additionally. 5 (C. Since T = 3M. they have 8 coins. Were told that if we add one coin to Mikes coins. such that there are 22 zeros in the second factor. lets pick a number of coins smaller than 15 for Tim to start with (remembering that it should be an even multiple of 3). F) 3. M) 5. We are looking for the value of M + T. Also. which has been incorporated into Figure 2. There is a pattern here that takes us to this next step: 230 ´ 522 = 28 ´ 222 ´ 522 = 28 ´ 1000..) The goal is to Mike Tim M+1 T ¸ 2 Compare get the values of the third and fourth columns equal to each 5 15 6 7. 8 (C. M) 7..00.000 with a total of 22 zeros. M. We know that Tim has three times as many coins as Mike (Figure 1)..Warm-Up 6 Answers 1. this problem can be solved with Guess. 68 (C. then. F. and M = 2. F) 10. the difference between columns C and D grew when Mike and Tims coin amounts grew. and we can see that the corresponding values in columns C and D are equivalent. 36 MATHCOUNTS 2004-2005 . F. Multiplying both sides of the equation by 2 gets us to 2M + 2 = 3M. we also know T = 3(2) = 6. M.. Check & Revise. M = 2. we can now see that (M + 1) + (M + 1) + M = 4M. which can be seen in the figure. then 10 30 11 15 11 < 15 half his number of coins (column D) will not be an integer. If we substitute 3M for T in the second equation. 40 (C. F. So now we have 256 ´ 1000. (If we choose Mikes number of coins first.

0 (C.. that the empty circle in this figure represents the point (N .1). . F. . its necessary to calculate up to only the tens digit of the successive powers of 7. we see N = 7.7)(N + 4) = 0. 49. Notice that if the exponent is a multiple of four and the base is 7.. 1. P) 3. . as shown in this second figure. . We now have the equation  N2 = 1 + 15 . so 72005 = __07. We are also told that there are 15 lattice points in the interior of the triangle (not on the triangle). From this we know that 72004 = __01. 3 (C. too. .98 2. 77 = __43.. Using Picks Theorem is another way to approach solving this problem. S.. 3. 3.Problem #9 From the given information. F. . 01. M. E. E. Continuing this pattern until we have 15 lattice points in the interior leads us to the third figure. Solution/Multiple Representations .Problem #3 Trying to calculate 72005 on a calculator isnt going to do us much good since the screen wont be able to hold all of the digits we need. If we were to identify the lattice points along the line y = N . N2 . M) 6. 07. 2. 76 = __49. 18 (C. We can see that there is also a pattern emerging for the last two digits of every power of 7: 7. we know that the triangle is an isosceles right triangle in the first quadrant as shown here. 43. .. 9. The tens digit is 0. too.28 = 0. P. From some of our initial deductions in the first solution above. there is one more lattice point in the interior of the triangle in that row than the number of lattice points in the interior of the triangle in the row above.2) and is our first identified lattice point in the interior. we would see two lattice points inside the triangle. we can include the coordinates of some of the points on the triangle.. N = 7 or -4. 7 (M.Warm-Up 7 Answers 1. Each time we move down a row of lattice points. 404 (C.3N . M) 9. P. 01.2. T) Solution . T) (G. then the simplified value ends in 01. The slope of the hypotenuse must be 1 since it goes up N units as it moves to the right N units. S. and since N > 0. Perhaps there is a pattern for the tens digit. 21 (F. Notice. 40 MATHCOUNTS 2004-2005 . 74 = 2401. M. 49. G. we can calculate 75 = __07. G. N . T) 10. 72 = 49. and the number of lattice points on the triangle is 3N (since there are N lattice points on each side of the triangle). Lets look at the first few powers of 7: 71 = 7. P. G. Our final step is to determine which one of these four two-digit combinations is the one found at the end of 72005. 92 (C. 9. 73 = 343. Notice that since we are concerned only about the tens digit. From here we can see that N = 7.3. 210 (C. 43. P. S) 5. Since 74 = 2401. Therefore. T) 7. Using some algebra leads us to N2 = 3N + 30 . we can see that the area of the triangle is  N2 using Area =  bh . 1. What you might notice is that the units digit of 7 5 will be 7 and a pattern for the units digit emerges: 7. M) 8.1. 10 (C. The theorem states that the area of the triangle is equal to one less than the sum of half the number of lattice points on the triangle (boundary points) plus the number of lattice points inside the triangle (Area = % + I . (N .1. T) 4... . So perhaps calculating the final value is not the way to go. 7.

E. two nickels and one quarter. since the combination of no pennies. This is shown in the six rows of entries in the first section of the list. and it would have 4 ´ 3 ´ 2 = 24 factors. it would follow that this multiple m could be represented by m = (23 ´ 32) ´ p. Therefore. P. which has 4 ´ 4 = 16 factors. Bringing a new prime factor into the picture creates too many factors for the multiple. M) 2. lets try the multiple (23 ´ 32) ´ 2 = 24 ´ 32. This last possibility may seem like the most difficult portion of the list to create. we can see that no two distinct combinations of these coins will result in the same value.Problem #6 One solution to this problem involves making a very organized list. we can instead count the number of combinations of coins we can create. T) 5. and 0 or 1 quarter.) We know that 72 = 23 ´ 32. -32 (C. (If there were five pennies. 1 or 2 nickels. 160 (C. three ways to pick the number of nickels and two ways to pick the number of quarters to include. P. 4.Problem #8 (Before getting into this solution. but notice that these six entries match the first six entries of the middle portion (pennies/nickels). G) Solution . We see that there are 6 + 11 + 6 = 23 different values that can be made from three pennies. 2 (C. E. Our multiple is 23 ´ 33 = 216. which means that there are 4 ´ 3 = 12 factors. but with the quarter added to each one. 23 π 7. he can use combinations of all three types of coins. only nickels or only the quarter. 20 (C. Problem 4. T) 3. 1. Our answer is 23.  1. 0. Finally. for a total of 4 ´ 3 ´ 2 = 24 ways to pick the coins. but it is not an option we would want to include. so were left with trying (23 ´ 32) ´ 3 = 23 ´ 33. Notice that we can use 0. M) 8. P. pennies/quarters or nickels/quarters). F) 6. 216  9. If the multiple of 72 included just one other prime factor different from 2 and 3. no nickels and no quarter (or 0¢) is one of the 24 combinations we counted. G. We know that Steve can use only pennies. 2 or 3 pennies. P 1 2 3 - N 1 2 - Q 1 Total Value (¢) 1 2 3 5 10 25 1 1 - 6 1 2 2 3 3 1 2 3 - 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 11 7 12 8 13 26 27 28 30 35 Because of the number of different types of coins. Solution/Multiple Representations . This doesnt satisfy our condition. This means that there are four ways to pick the number of pennies. this approach would not work since a combination with five 1 2 1 36 pennies and no nickels would have a value equal to a 2 1 1 32 different combination with one nickel and no pennies. F) (C. 132 (C. F. F. F.) 2 2 1 37 3 1 1 33 Because of the number of coins available for each type 3 2 1 38 of coin.  (F.Warm-Up 8 Answers   (C. we also can attempt to solve this problem by using 1 1 1 31 the Counting Principle. 42 MATHCOUNTS 2004-2005 . F. These 11 options are shown in the middle portion of the list. T) (C. We also know that he can use any combination of two types of coins (pennies/nickels. T) 10. be sure that you first follow the logic of the solution given for Warm-Up 4. though. so rather than counting the different value-amounts that can be formed. which has 5 ´ 3 = 15 factors. F) (C.

G) 6. and the values of the terms are decreasing. This means we also must move one unit to the right. P) 5. M) (C. that the difference of each pair of consecutive terms is half of 6. (10. F. which is 3. F.  (C. that y = 12 .3 = 9.(y + 6) = (y ) . Interior Angles of Regular Polygons (Problem #8) Though this problem asks for the measure of just a portion of the interior angle of the regular octagon. We see. 0). then. and y = 9.. Therefore. 100 (C.. We can also see on the graph that to get to the x-axis from the point (9. 1) we go down four units and right four units. we can solve 0 = -1(t ) + 10 to see that t = 10. 5) is on the line. Knowing that the equation of our line is now y = -1(x ) + 10 and that there is an x-intercept (t . To find the measure of an interior angle of a regular n -gon. 0). P) 8. Since (5.12. Therefore. F. we go down one unit for every one unit we move to the right. M) 4. and that y is less than 12.. 1) and (5. 0). T) 3. P. S) 10.(12) since the difference of the second term and first term must be equal to the difference of the third term and second term. G. we know 5 = -1(5) + b so b = 10..Warm-Up 9 Answers 1. the equation of the line is y = -1(x ) + b. 14 (C. 20 (C. 1) we just have to go down one more unit. 5) has a slope of −  = − = −  . The x-intercept is (10.. 18 = 2y . Using algebra to solve this equation. Calendars (Problem #6) This problem assumes that we are using the Gregorian calendars of modern times. then.Problem #4 −  The line containing points (9. we have 12 . Connection to. S) Solution/Multiple Representations . If we graph the two points we can see that to go from (5. G. 77 (C. M. 3 (E. which leads us to the point (10. Take some time to investigate how calendars have significantly changed throughout history! Connection to. Solution/Multiple Representations .y . 5) to (9. G. 0) (C. it is helpful to know the measure of the entire interior angle. F.6 = y . F. 45  9.Problem #1 In this arithmetic sequence we know that (12) . we can use the expression Q − . 9 (C. You also may see that the difference of the first term and third term is 6. We can deduce. T) 2. M) 7.F. 62 (C.

however. It may be easier. the measure of an exterior angle of a regular n -gon is always 360 ¸ n . . Additionally. So for this octagon.45 = 135 degrees. 46 MATHCOUNTS 2004-2005 . to Q remember that the sum of an interior angle and its corresponding exterior angle is always 180 degrees. an exterior angle measures 360 ¸ 8 = 45 degrees. and an interior angle measures 180 .

6 (C.Problem #5 We know that the five-digit number must be divisible by each of its non-zero digits. We also see that it is even. 19 (C. seven vertices and 12 edges.236. G. 6 (C. neither is the five-digit number. the two-digit number formed by its last two digits (34) is not divisible by four. S) 8.236 (E. T) 7.) Notice that joining the pyramid to the prism at a triangular face (Figure 2) results in only seven faces. T) 6. Order of Operations and Forms of Exponents (Problem #10)   The expression on the previous page is equivalent to  ×   . M. we should affix it to one of the rectangular faces of the prism as shown in Figure 1. 10. T) 4. and therefore. Including a digit of zero will not be a problem since the zero will not have to serve as a possible divisor. We also see that the sum of the five digits is 10. T) 2. T) 9. G. and therefore. seven vertices and 13 edges. P) 5. vertices and edges. 5 (C. Since we want our new pyramid to add on the maximum possible number of faces. S. G) 3.Warm-Up 10 Answers 1.236 being divisible by both two and three means that it is divisible by six. 3 (C) Solution . for a total value of 28. (We do not count the face that is shared by the prism and pyramid since this would not be a face of the resulting solid when the prism and pyramid are fused together. E (M. Weve now eliminated the digit of four and added the digit of six. for a total value of 26. P. and since 10 is not divisible by three. the least possible five-digit number that we could try is 10. Figure 1 Figure 2 Solution . E. which is fine because 10. 28 (C. We are to use one of the faces of the prism shown on the previous page as the base of our new pyramid. Connect to. Our five-digit number is 10. M. 8 (C. and then its lateral faces are triangular regions all joining at a single point. P.236 we create another even number and increase the digit-sum to 12 (which takes care of the number being divisible by three). F) 10. Notice that each face of the prism is either a triangle or a rectangle. G..Problem #3 A pyramid has a polygon as its base. However. Any number we choose will be divisible by one. 3 (E. But notice that by increasing the five-digit number by two to form the number 10.234. Knowing this.. neither is the five-digit number. divisible by two. This results in a solid with eight faces. F.

+ >  ÷ .

They are equal operations and are performed in the order that they   appear from left to right. × @ −   if we use grouping symbols to show the correct order of operations. knowing that   =  and   =   . multiplication does not come before division.) Additionally. we can rewrite the  expression as  × . (Notice that in the brackets.

+ >  ÷ .

× @ −  = .

+ .

− .

=  48 MATHCOUNTS 2004-2005 .

F. then it wont be long enough to reach the middle-lengthed side (far right figure).6 = 2).Problem #8 Assuming x is an integer.1. we can see that if c is too large. we can let the three consecutive integers be x.1) = 99. M. 995 (C. Remember that there must be at least one space between consecutive cars. M) (C. P) 4. An organized way of counting is necessary. x and x + 1. W3. x = 10 and our three integers are again 9. F. We can further simplify to (x . 8). Its important to keep this rule in mind when solving Problem #2 on the previous page. 9748 6. 4. 52 MATHCOUNTS 2004-2005 . M. G5. Solution/Multiple Representations . 5. so there is a total of 5 ´ 24 = 120 arrangements. 5. G7) shown on the previous page is a different arrangement from (R1. G. assuming there is no car in the first space. G. 100 (C. We also know x (x + 1)(x + 2) = 33(3x + 3). For example. 3. 8). By observation we can probably guess two positive integers with a difference of two and a product of 99. 20 7. (1. Here we would have the equation (x . M. 8) and (1. P) 8. then the other two sides wont be long enough to reach each other (far left figure). F. M) 2. T) 1. P. P. 6. and then we will multiply this number by 24 to account for the variations of each position-assignment. T) 9. However. and only one gap can have as many as two spaces. so x = 9. G. 4. W3. The sum of the three integers is then 9 + 10 + 11 = 30. T) Solution . 3. Each one has 24 different color-variations. 24 (E.. (1. We also could represent the three consecutive integers as x .1)(x )(x + 1) = 33(3x ). However.b. Since were limited to a positive integer. 3. 8). the sides collapse and no longer form a triangle. (x 2 . G. 30 (C. x (x + 1)(x + 2) = 99(x + 1). 120 (C. They are (1. Notice that at the two extremes (8 + 6 = 14 and 8 . it is impossible for us to know the length of the third side. P) 5. 7). They are 9 and 11. The relationship between the third side of a triangle (c ) and the other two sides (a and b ) is a + b > c > a . Connection to. and then x = 10 or -10. 3. and then x (x + 2) = 99. Now. The only possible position-assignment is (2. the arrangement (R1. G. M) 10. 6. Lets first find the number of total position-assignments. Side Lengths of Triangles (Problem #2) If we are told only that a triangle has sides measuring 8 units and 6 units. This equation lends itself to the same reasoning as the equation x (x + 2) = 99 in our last representation. If c is too small. B7). we also could take the following steps: (x . 600 (E.1)(x + 1) = 99. x 2 = 100. so our arrangements are actually more limited than we may have first thought.Problem #10 The position-assignment shown for the problem (1. 3. 6. F. B5. there must be a car in the second space. 5. P) (E. x + 1 and x + 2. However. S. In the progression shown below. this one position-assignment has 4 ´ 3 ´ 2 ´ 1 = 24 different variations when we start considering the colors of the cars that can be in those spaces. This is a total of five position-assignments.. 10 and 11 with a sum of 30. 120 (F. it is possible for us to know that the third side cant be a length like 1 unit or 15 units. 7) is one example of the spaces that can be occupied.1)(x + 1) = 99.Warm-Up 11 Answers   (C. Lets start with position-assignments with the first space occupied.

which is the probability of Ann spinning integers with a positive difference of 1 on her first two spins.048 . We simplify to 7x + 24. 6) and (6.84) = 1 and 7(7 + 12) + 12 (-4 . Check & Revise approach. 5). 4). Our values for a + b will be 3. Dividing both sides by five will not yield an integer solution for x. -3 4. 3. 5  9.x ) = 1. P. F. we have [2(  ) +  4(  )] ¸ 6 =  . P. we see that each of these four first-spin options has two good second spins (a value one less or one greater than the first spin). Lets try a Guess. (4.   We also could look at the problem in a different way.. 2). so 7(7) + 12(-4) = 1 and (7. T) (C. E. then perhaps others will follow. (2. and the second spin has six options. so each of their probabilities of success should be equally weighted. Looking at spinning a non-extreme value for the first spin (either a 2. M. -4) is a solution. 6. We know a and b are integers. 8. So the probability of meeting the condition for each of these two first-spin options is  . 2003 is the largest possible value of a + b that is less than 2005. For each of these four first-spin options. the probability of meeting the condition is  =  . 58 MATHCOUNTS 2004-2005 .12x = 1 or -5x = -24. 15 (C. then a and b will have opposite signs. the value of a + b is only 7 + -4 = 3. Lets try a + b = 2003. T) (C. We then just need to see if there exists an integer x such that 7x + 12(2004 . These are all two less than the positive multiples of five. so the greatest value of a + b that is less than 2005 is 2005 . F. Let a = x and b = 2004 . 27  3. F. However. and also keep 7a > E . . F. which is a probability of  =  . but were really just increasing the value of a by 12 and decreasing the value of b by seven. 2003 (E. F.. S) 8. b) that satisfies the condition.x.  10. P. 4).x ) = 1. (5. S. so a = x and b = 2003 . T) (E. (3. so a + b must be an integer. 2). with the multiple of seven being greater than the multiple of 12. 1). P.036 . The following spin combinations satisfy the condition: (1. This is 10 of the 36 possible combinations. 18. 3). P. and we understand the information in the last two sentences.047. G. This does work: (49 + 84) + (-48 . P)   5. 3). T) (E. 4 or 5). This amount must be a multiple of 7 and a multiple of 12. Solution/Multiple Representations . If we average the probabilities of success for each of the six first-spin options. We can continue to add 84 and subtract 84. for a total of 6 ´ 6 = 36 spin combinations. If we think of one ordered pair (a. Spinning any number from 1 through 6 is equally likely for the first spin. 13. (2. respectively). M) (C.035. This simplifies to 7x + 24. and we will need a multiple of 7 that is one greater than a multiple of 12. If we want a + b to be positive. G.  (C. We also know a + b < 2005. then we must increase 7a and decrease 12b by the same amount. We said before that each of the six firstspin possibilities is equally likely. 5). Our new a + b is 19 + -11 = 8.Problem #10 If 7a + 12b = 1 and a and b are both integers. We can see that each of the two extreme values for the first spin (1 and 6) have only one good second spin (2 and 5. We see that this yields an integer value of x. (4. Notice that 49 and 48 have a difference of one. T) Solution/Multiple Representations .2 = 2003. If we want to keep this difference of 1 between 7a and E . F) (C. The least multiple of both is 7 ´ 12 = 84.12x = 1 and finally -5x = -24. which ultimately increases a + b by five each time. 1 2. G. We also can guess that D > E since 7a is going to have to be almost equivalent to the opposite of 12b. S.Warm-Up 13 Answers 1.7) = 7(19) + 12(-11) = 1. (5.   7. Assume a + b = 2004.Problem #9 The first spin has six options.x. . (3. Consider 7x + 12(2003 . and regardless of what that value is. T) (C. then a must be positive.

=  .

.

60 MATHCOUNTS 2004-2005 . = 2 square units.

we can make the jump that for any set with n members. Dividing both sides by three yields 2n = 32 and we can see that n = 5. the highest power of x would be 3. in other words. G. Because −  shows up twice. S. we see that 2n + 2 .) From this example. T) 3.   (C. we have (2n ´ 2 ´ 2) . and we can deduce that if they were all multiplied out. P) (C. each member of the set has two options. In this problem. T) 8. we know that it is not only an x-intercept. 2. the set has 2n subsets. F. M. G. M. there are then 2 ´ 2 ´ 2 ´ 2 = 24 = 16 ways to determine the inclusion/exclusion pattern of the four members. and the x 3-term would be positive. then probably turn downward and then back upward (since its a cubic equation).Warm-Up 15 Answers 1. 4. but it is also the tip of one of the turning points of the graph. if x >  . G. Setting each of the factors equal to zero and solving for x will give us the x-intercepts. However. E. we can see that once we look to the right of x =  . none or any other combination of the members of the set. then each of those members can either be included or excluded. This is important.2n = 96. This tells us the Figure 1 general shape of the graph. 7 (C. Rewriting this slightly. P. T) 9. It will enter from the bottom left and go upward (since its a positive leading term). the graph is always above the x-axis. knowledge about equations in this form can get us our result fairly quickly. 2x  1 = 0 2x = 1 x =  2x + 1 = 0 2x =  1 x = −  2x + 1 = 0 2x =  1 x = −  Two of the three binomial factors are identical.Problem #6 Were not supposed to use a calculator for this problem (since its a Warm-Up). 2) (C. then the y -value is always negative. T ) 10. S. In other words. E. T) Solution . P. Similarly. and is therefore a double-root. M. and so there are 16 subsets. so we cant simply type the equation into a graphing calculator and see where on the graph the y -value is always positive. P. Figure 2 64 MATHCOUNTS 2004-2005 .1) = 96.2n = 96 or 2n (4 . F. T) 5. We have y = (2x  1)(4x 2 + 4x + 1). which is a subset of every set. 4 (C. then y is always positive. M. and exit the graph going out the top right in an upward direction (Figure 1).Problem #9 Being able to determine the number of subsets in a set is critical for this problem. that results in the empty set. F. M) 7. we have only two distinct x-intercepts. Solution . if x < −  . Now we know set B had 5 elements and set A had 7 elements. T) 6. P. Though we havent determined where the tip of the other curve occurs. G. which can be rewritten as y = (2x  1)(2x + 1)2 or y = (2x  1)(2x + 1)(2x + 1). 88 (C. We can now determine that the graph looks something like Figure 2. (C. By the Counting Principle. Rather than having the three x-intercepts we expected (as in Figure 1). We now have three binomial factors for our equation. Notice that if a set has four members. From the equation we can determine the three x-intercepts (or roots of the equation). Remember that a subset of a set can include all. G. M. M. F) (C. F. and so the value of a is  . 540       (C. (4. 42 (C. (If each member is excluded.

we can see the relationship of the two semi8-3r circles even though we dont know the radius of them. (We also are assuming that no wood is lost when cutting the wood.2r feet.16r . M) 4. We see they r r r are tangent to each other in order to use as much space as possible. E. 15 (C. M) (C. Using the Pythagorean Theorem we have (2r )2 = (8 . F. P. P.3r ) + r ] = 8 .2r )2 + (4)2. T) 3.Warm-Up 16 Answers 1. 2 (C. We also can connect the centers of the two semi-circles. and finally r =   =  = 2. T) Solution . The length of the hypotenuse is 2r feet. F. 11  6.3r ) feet. 36 (C. P. We now have a right triangle (shaded) with legs measuring 4 feet and [(8 . M. 5 (C. M) 8.) r We can see on the top edge that the little space left over after the three radius-lengths are identified is (8 . 7.32r . G. G. Solution/Multiple Representations .5 feet. The diameter of the table would then be 5 feet. M. S) 9.16r + 4r 2 + 16. S. P. 0 = 80 .Problem #6 If we let x =  +  .  (C. E. T) (C. P) 2. F) 5. F. T) 10. and this segment will go r through the point of tangency.Problem #3 From the figure. P. 16 (C. F.  4r 2 = 64 .     (F. M. 6 (C.

+  .

 +  .

then   x=   (  +  .  +  .

+  .

 +  .

This can be rewritten as [ =  +  .  +  ).

 +  .

 +  .

By substituting into the very first equation we arrive at [ =  + [ . It will not be represented in our figure. Lets take out the first term of 1 for right now. Multiplying both sides of this equation by three leads to 3x = 3 + x . and x =  .  +  . but well know to add it back in later. 2x = 3. A visual representation may help us to make sense of the answer we found in the solution above. So we are essentially rewriting the series in two parts: [1] + [  .

+  .

 +  .