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Journal of Materials Processing Technology 187–188 (2007) 508–511

Roll casting of wire inserted aluminum alloy strip
T. Haga a,∗ , K. Takahashi a , H. Inui a , H. Sakaguchi a , H. Watari b , S. Kumai c
a
b

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Osaka Institute of Technology, 5-16-1 Omiya Asahiku Osaka City, Osaka 535-8585, Japan
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Oyana National College of Technology, 771 Nakakuki Oyama City, Tochigi 323-0806, Japan
c Department of Material Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama City, Kanagawa 226-8502, Japan

Abstract
Casting of wire inserted composite strip was tried using a downward melt drag twin roll caster. Casting and insert of the wire was operated
by one process. Therefore, many steps to make metal matrix composite alloy can be saved by the process of the present study. The effects of the
important casting conditions, which are roll speed and nozzle slit, on the insert of the wire were investigated in the present study. The puddle of the
melt formed on the lower roll was significantly concern to the inserting of the wire. The wire could be inserted in the strip when proper conditions
were selected. Reaction between the wire and matrix could be restricted in narrower area.
© 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Metal matrix composite; Fiver inserted composite; Twin roll caster; Downward melt drag twin roll caster

1. Introduction
It was difficult to make longer metal matrix fiber inserted
composite strip by the conventional process, for example, hot
isostatic pressing (HIP). Usually, many processes were needed
to make composite material. Therefore, the process, which can
make the longer metal matrix fiber inserted composite strip only
by one step (one process), has been desired. A process to make
longer fiber inserted composite was devised. Fabrication of wire
inserted composite strip was tried using a twin roll caster. This
twin roll caster was developed to cast the wire inserted composite
strip.
A twin roll caster can cast strip directly from melt [1–4].
Therefore, the twin roll caster has several advantages. First of
all, the twin roll caster is a very simple process. Also, the twin roll
caster has the advantages of process saving and energy saving,
and low equipment cost. However, there are few processes that
utilize the twin roll caster. In this study, the twin roll caster was
used to fabricate composite material. Using the twin roll caster,
a large-sized (i.e., long) composite sheet material could be made
continuously [5]. This verifies the substantial process saving and
energy saving that can be realized by the twin roll caster. It should
be noted, however, that in the conventional twin roll caster for
aluminum alloys, the insertion of wire between the two rolls is
difficult. A downward melt-drag twin roll caster was used in the

Corresponding author. Tel.: +81 6 6954 4888; fax: +81 6 6957 2134.
E-mail address: haga@med.oit.ac.jp (T. Haga).

0924-0136/$ – see front matter © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2006.11.088

present study, because the wire can be inserted between the rolls
[6,7]. As the first step of our current research on the casting of a
wire-inserted composite strip using the twin roll caster, the effect
of the main casting parameters on the insertion of the wire was
investigated. The parameters were roll speed and nozzle slit.
2. Experimental setup
Fig. 1 shows an experimental apparatus of the present study. A downward
melt drag twin roll caster was used for fabrication of the wire inserted metal
matrix composite. Experimental conditions are shown in Table 1. The wire was
not preheated or not coated to improve the wetting between the wire and the
melt. The wire was set at the roll bite before the pouring of the molten metal.
The position of the wire in the width direction was located by a wire support.
The position of the wire in the thickness direction of the strip was not located by
the wire support. The wire support did not have the function of feeding the wire.

3. Results and discussion
Condition of the insertion of the wire in the strip was classified
into three types as shown in Fig. 2. Fig. 2(a) shows that the wire
could be inserted in the strip. (b) shows that the wire was inserted
lower surface. (c) shows that the wire was not be inserted. The
influence of the roll speed and nozzle-slit on the insertion of
the wire in the strip is shown in Fig. 3. There was tendency
that the insertion of the wire became possible as the roll speed
became higher and the slit became wider. When the slit was
2.1 mm, the wire could be inserted at the condition of 30 m/minroll-speed. However, the wire could not be inserted at roll-speed
of 10 m/min. Thickness of the strip increased with the decrease

temperature: 680 ◦ C of the roll speed. The thickness of only the lower solidification layer increased as the slit clearance became wider. The relationship among the roll speed.T. It can be estimate that the lower solidification layer becomes thicker as the slit becomes wider. solidification layer solidified by the upper roll did not become thicker as the slit became wider. No good condition. There was tendency that the insert became able as the slit became wider. The strip became thicker as the slit became wider. 1. 4. thickness of the wire and the insert was shown in Fig. () and (×) correspond with Fig. The increase of the thickness of the strip was as same as the increase of the lower solidification layer. the puddle at speed of 30 m/min became larger than that at speed of 10 m/min. Experimental apparatus. The slit clearance influenced on the insert of the wire in the strip as shown in Fig. W: 100 mm 10. the thicker the lower solidification layer. W: 100 mm Copper: D.1. 4 shows the effect of the roll speed on the puddle size. 3. The larger the puddle. Schematic illustration showing the relationship between the roll speed and the size of the puddle is illustrated in Fig. as the lower solidification layer became thicker. 3. () The wire was inserted in the lower surface. slope length: 20 mm Mild steel. thickness of lower solidification layer and ability of the wire-insert is shown in Fig. The solidification layer becomes thinner as the roll speed becomes higher. Therefore the insert of the fire was influenced by the thickness of the lower solidification layer. 20. . Therefore. the strip becomes thicker. Lower sides of the trip and schematic illustration showing wire-position are shown. (×) the wire was not inserted in the strip. However. As the result. When the roll speed became slower. the solidification layer solidified by the lower roll becomes thinner as the roll speed becomes slower. / Journal of Materials Processing Technology 187–188 (2007) 508–511 509 Fig. the thickness of the upper solidification layer was constant. melt height: 20 mm. No good condition. Classification of the wire insertion.3 mm 1050. 300 mm. This shows that the ability of the wire-insert cannot be decided only by the strip thickness. (). However. diameter 0. 250 mm. The slit clearance did not influence the solidification time of the upper solidification layer. Therefore.8. The ability of the insert of the wire increased when the slit clearance became wide. The wire was inserted in the layer solidified by the lower roll. slit (nozzle-roll gap): 1. Fig. Haga et al. The lower solidification layer solidified in the puddle. The sufficient thickness of the lower solidification layer was needed to insert the wire in the strip. The relationship among slit-clearance. the gap between the nozzle and solidification layer becomes wider as the roll speed becomes higher. The thickness of solidification layer solidified by the upper roll becomes thicker as the roll speed becomes slower. The puddle became larger as the slit became wider. 2.4 mm. Sound condition. The puddle at speed of 30 m/min became larger than that at speed of 10 m/min. Fig. 6. The upper solidification layer was almost constant when the slit clearance changed. 5. too. () The wire was inserted inside the strip. 30 m/min 2–30 N/mm (unit width) Width: 30 mm. 2. there was tendency that the insertion became difficult as the roll speed became slower. thickness of the lower solidification layer. Influence of slit size of the nozzle and roll speed on the insertion of the wire. 2. 2. Table 1 Experimental conditions Upper roll Lower roll Roll speed Load of roll Nozzle Wire Molten metal Copper: D. Fig. The quantity of the melt dragged from the slit becomes larger as the roll becomes higher. As the result. This means that quantity of the melt dragged through the slit increased.

(). Fig. / Journal of Materials Processing Technology 187–188 (2007) 508–511 Fig. Schematic illustration showing the effect of the roll speed on the thickness of the lower solidification layer and insert of the wire in the strip. thickness of lower solidification layer and wire insert-condition. Haga et al. 6. Fig. Reaction between the wire and matrix. Photographs shows the effect of the roll speed on the puddle-size. Casting using the insulator mold is shown for comparison.510 T. D: fiber diameter. . D: fiber diameter. tl : thickness of lower solidification layer. 7. 5. tl : thickness of lower solidification layer. (). 2. Result of EPMA line analysis at the wire-strip boundary is shown in (a) and (b). Fig. () and (×) correspond with Fig. Schematic illustration showing the effect of the roll speed on the thickness of the upper and lower solidification layers. () and (×) correspond with Fig. Schematic illustration showing the relationship among the strip thickness. 2. 4.

S. [4] T. Mater. Technol. Takahashi. / Journal of Materials Processing Technology 187–188 (2007) 508–511 Fig.26 mm. Mater. A twin roll caster to cast clad strip. The most of the part of the wire. Suzuki. S. . Strip casting of A5182 alloy using a melt drag twin roll caster. Technol.T. In the roll casting. Technol. Roll casting of aluminum alloy strip by melt drag twin roll caster. 118 (2001) 165–168. [6] T. the contact time between the melt and the wire was shorter than 2 × 10−3 s. Process. J. 137 (2003) 92–95. J. Technol. 157 (2004) 701–705. Suzuki. Mater. Sound insertion of the wire could be realized by the control of the roll speed and slit clearance. Process. J. Mater. In Fig. Haga. S. Technol. [5] T. Mater. The difference of the reaction depended on the contact time between the wire and the melt. J. K. 7. 7(a) and (b) are result of roll casting. 4. Takahashi. Haga. Haga. Suzuki. 7 shows reaction between the wire and the melt. This is the advantage of the process of the present study. 7(c). Downward melt drag twin roll caster. The reaction between the wire and the melt could be restricted in the narrow area by the effect of the rapid solidification of the twin roll casting. 138 (2003) 366–371. Casting of composite strip using a twin roll caster. Haga. [3] T. The twin roll caster could restrict the reaction by the short contact time. Mater. The reaction layer became thinner as the roll speed became higher as shown in Fig. Contact time was defined as below. the wire 511 could be inserted in the strip simultaneously with strip casting only by the one process. Mater. from contact-start of the wire to the melt until solidification of the melt. Technol. J. Suzuki. Melt ejection twin roll caster for the strip casting of aluminum alloy. However. On the other hand. Process. Conclusions The process to make the wire inserted metal matrix composite using a twin roll caster was devised. [7] T. 143 (2003) 895–900. Haga. In this process. 157 (2004) 706–711. Haga et al. which inserted in the ingot cast using the insulator mold. 133 (2003) 103–107. Process. Therefore. Suzuki. [2] T. Study on high-speed twin-roll caster for aluminum alloys. the wire inserted in the strip could exist as the wire. The diameter of the wire inserted in the strip was thicker than 0. The characteristics of the process are as below. Haga. K. Technol. J. Process. the contact time was about for 5 s in the mold casting. S. Process. J. References [1] T. and (c) is result of the mold casting. the higher roll speed is better in order to make sound wire inserted metal matrix composite. Process. S. was reacted with the molten metal as shown in Fig. Haga. Long size composite can be made at speeds higher than 10 m/min. It was difficult to measure the diameter of the wire.