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A COURSE OF PURE GEOMETRY .

CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS
C. F.

CLAY, Manager

LONDON

EDINBURGH

Fetter Lane, E.C. 4

100 Princes Street

NEW YORK: G. P. PUTNAM'S SONS
BOMBAY, CALCUTTA, MADRAS: MACMILLAN AND

CO., Ltd.

TORONTO J. M. DENT AND SONS, Ltd.
TOKYO: THE MARUZEN-KABUSHIKI-KAISHA
:

All rights reserved

A COURSE
OF

PURE GEOMETRY
CONTAINING A COMPLETE GEOMETRICAL
TREATMENT OF THE PROPERTIES OF

THE CONIC SECTIONS

BY

H.

E.

ASKWITH,

D.D.

Rector of Dickleburgh, Norfolk
formerly Chaplain of Trinity College, Cambridge

Cambridge
at

the University Press

1917

h

First Edition 1903

Reprinted

1911

Netc Edition

1917

n X.

PREFACE
npHIS

work

is

a revision and enlargement of ray Course of

Pure Geometry published
former edition in that

in

It differs from the

1903.

does not assume any previous know-

it

ledge of the Conic Sections, which are here treated ah

initio,

on

the basis of the definition of them as the curves of projection of
a circle.
in

This

is

not the starting point of the subject generally

The curves

works on Geometrical Conic Sections.

usually defined by

means

of their focus

and

and their other properties are evolved therefrom.
focus and directrix propert}^

are

directrix property,

Here the

established as one belonging to

is

the projections of a circle and

is

it

freely used,

but the

fact

the conies are derived by projection from a circle and

that

therefore possess all its projective properties
in the

mind

Many

is

kept constantl}^

of the student.

of the properties of the Conic Sections which can

only be established with great labour from their focus and
directrix property are proved quite simply

derived directly from the

Nor

is

indicated

first.

(p. xii)

But

it is

this

is

true that certain ground has to

not very extensive and I have

the few articles which a Student should master

before he proceeds to Chapter ix.

ledge

are

the method employed here any more difficult than

the prevalent one, though

be covered

when the curves

circle.

of cross

ratios,

harmonic
/>

Without a certain know-

section,

A /\ C\ *\ *%

involution

and the
"

elementary principles of conical projection no one can follow

But these things

the argument here adopted.

are <piite easy,

and the advantage gained by the student who from the beginning sees the Conic Sections whole, as he does when they

more

are presented to his

mind

than compensates

any delay there may be through the short

for

as the projections of a circle,

study of the necessary preliminaries.
I

hope

that,

thanks to the efficiency of the Readers of the

Cambridge University

Press, there are not

many

be found in this book.

But

I shall

if I

may be informed

if

any are found

misprints to

be grateful

of the)u at the address given below.
E.

DiCKLEBURGH ReCTORY,
SCOLE,

Norfolk.
September 1917.

H. A.

CONTENTS
CHAPTER

I

SOME PROPERTIES OF THE TRIANGLE

CONTENTS

Vlll

CHAPTER V
CEOSS-EATIOS
PAGE

.....

Definition

Twenty-four cross-ratios reducible to
Projective property of cross-ratios

six

Equi-cross ranges and pencils mutually projective

CHAPTER

....

47

48

50
54

VI

PEESPECTIVE

............

Definition

62

Triangles in perspective

64

CHAPTER

VII

HARMONIC SECTION
Definition and properties of harmonic ranges

Harmonic property
Harmonic property

58

'.60

Ranges and pencils in perspective
nomographic ranges and pencils

....
....
...

and polar of circle
of quadrilateral and quadrangle

of pole

CHAPTER

71

74
75

VIII

INVOLUTION
Definition

and

80

criterion of involution range

83

Involution projective
Involution' properties of the circk'

.

.

.

Orthogonal involution
Pair of orthogonal X'ays in every involution pencil

.

.

.

.84

....

85
86

CHAPTER IX
THE CONIC SECTIONS
Definitions

.

Focus and directrix property

........

90
91

Projective projjerties

92

Circle projected into another circle

93

Focus and directrix as pole and polar

94

CONTENTS

IX

PAGE
Parallel chords

95

Focus and directrix property established

96
97

(1)

Parabola

(2)

Ellipse

101

(3)

Hyperbola

102

Diameters and ordinates

106

CHAPTER X
PEOPEBTIES COMMON TO ALL CONICS
and tangent with

Intersection of chord

directrix

....

108

Curves having focus and directrix property are the projections of
a circle

110

Pair of tangents.

111

The Normal

113

Latus rectum
Carnot's theorem

114

Newton's theorem

117

Some

116

US

applications

Circle of curvature

Conic through

foiu-

120
points of a quadrangl

121

CHAPTER

XI
THE PARABOLA

Elementary properties
Tangent and normal

126

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

127

Pair of tangents

130

Parabola escribed to a triangle

132

Diameters

134

Circle of curvature

138

CHAPTER

XII

THE ELLIPSE
Sum

of focal distance;

constant

144

Tangent and normal

145

Pair of tangents

150

Director circle

.

150

Conjugate diameters

151

Auxiliary circle

153

.

Equi conjugate diameters

156

Circle of curvature

158

.. ... . .. . . 224 227 .187 . . CHAPTER XIV THE EECTANGULAR HYPEEBOLA Conjugate diameters 192 Perpendicular diameters . Chord and tangent properties 193 194 196 CHAPTER XV OllTHOGONAL PEOJECTION 201 Principles Fundamental propositions The ellipse aa orthogonal projection of a circle .216 CHAPTER XVII EECIPEOCATION 220 Principles Involution properties of quadrangle and quadrilateral Desargues' theorem and its reciprocal . Director circle 169 The conjugate hyperbola 170 Asymptotic properties 171 Conjugate diameters 174 Circle of curvature . ..166 .. . . Rectangular hyperbola circumscribing a triangle . 202 205 CHAPTER XVI CROSS-EATIO PEOPEETIES OF CONICS P constant 210 theorem Brianchon's theorem 214 {ABCD) Pascal's Locus of centres of conies through four points Involution range on a conic . . .. . . 215 215 .. ..CONTENTS X CHAPTER XIII THE HYPERBOLA I'ACiE Form of curve 163 Difference of focal distances constant 164 Tangent and normal 164 On the length of the conjugate axis Pair of tangents . . 168 . .

.... .' Horaothetic figures but not homothetic Figiu-es directly similar Circle of similitude for two circles 267 270 271 Figures inversely similar 272 Miscellaneous E..xamples 276 Index 285 .... .........CONTENTS • XI .se points 259 Feuerbach's theorem 262 CHAPTER XX SIMILARITY OF FIGURES ............. 256 258 Inversion of inverse points into inver...... Inversion of line and circle Inversion of sphere .. ....... .. triangles circumscribing a conic Generalising by projection 242 243 244 246 248 249 CHAPTER XIX INVERSION . FOCI OF CONICS ............. ................ Reciprocation applied to conies Special case where the base conic is a circle PAGE 228 231 Coaxal circles reciprocated into confocal conies 234 A 236 pair of self-conjugate triangles Reciprocal triangles 237 CfTAPTER XVIII CmCULAE POINTS... ...... ........ ....... Definition of circular points Analytical point of view Properties of conies obtained by using circular points The Two four foci of a conic .. ...... ... .. ....

40 to 45. xl to j^ro^^^r" to after reading the following paragraphs of tW'i'Tst eight chapters 13 to 16a. 69 ^- "'^ . 58. to 53. 29 to 35. 48 77 to 87. 68.J The student who may be using book on Geometrical Conic Sections Chapter IX this will work as a be able firsi?' t' . 67.

e a triangle is a circle touching one side of the other fewo sides produced. will be meant straight 4.CHAPTER I SOME PROPERTIES OF THE TRIANGLE Definition of terms. 1 iy ^1/(66% unless otherwise stated. ' (c) lines joining the vertices of a triangle to the the opposite sides are called its xhe centre of middle medians.xle of *"' . this circle will be called the circiimcentre of the triangle. incircle of a triangle is sides of th? triangle the circle touching the and lying within the triangle. the circumcircle of a triangle 'y through •^ps<5ing its is meant the circle vertices. The reader already knows that the circumcentre is the point of intersection of the perpendiculars to the sides of the drawn through tiiangle The (a) their middle points.. 1 . ecentre of an ecircle is is called an There are three ecentre. The incentre is the point of intersection of the lines bisecting the angles of the triangle. The centre of this circle is the incentre of the triangle. G. The .tie An (•i. the point of intersection of the bisector of of tb^ angles and of the bisectors of the other two external angles. An (e) ecv. A.

G being the middle points of the sides of A'B'C. But these perpendiculars are A. similar to the triangle The triangle ABC. the perpendiculars from these points to the sides on which they lie will meet in the circumcentre of A'B'C. and A'B'C thus formed will be of double its linear dimensions. Through the vertices of the triangle ^Z?6' draw lines parallel to the opposite sides. . 2. a triangle on to orthocentre) and . If ABC be congruent with A'B'C. Moreover.VK. PPOI'ERTIES 1^ (/) Two OF THE TRIANGLE triangles which are such that the sides of the one are equal respectively to the sides and angles and angles of the other will be called congruent. B. fact A ABO = A A'B'C. B. : 'The peiyendiculars the opposite sides the distance from the vertices meet in a point (called of tJie of each vertex from the ortho- centre is trvice the perpendicular distance of the circumcentre from the side opposite to that vertex. A. we shall express the by the notation Proposition. C also the perpendiculars from to the opposite sides of the triangle Hence the first part of our proposition is ABC proved.Sd.

4. P M. two similar triangles also the circumcentre of the triangle lines in the twice OD. It will be convenient to speak of the perpendiculars from the vertices on to the opposite sides of a triangle as the peiyendiculars of the triangle. Prop. N to the vertices of the triangle. ABC. Join FD. L. PA and OD are corresponding A'B'C. E. Hence 3. Definition. the middle points of the sides of the triangle the feet of its perpendiculars. 1—2 . and of the perpendiculars from the circumcentre on to the sides as the perpendiculars from the circumcentre. The circle through the middle points of the sides of a triangle passes also through the feet of the perpendiculars of the triangle and through the middle points of the three lines joining the ortliocentre Let D. centre. FL. since E is the circumcentre of ALC. Then F be DE. Draw OD perpendicular Then since P is to EC. LE. /.ELA= ZEAL. the circum- the orthocentre. ^P is A'B'C.SOME PROPERTIES OF THE TRIANGLE Now P let 3 the circumcentre of be the orthocentre and ABC. ABC.

M. the middle points and CP. a like reason for ZFLA= ZFAL. circle lies on each of the three right angles. Hence And Similarly the circle goes through of BP Thus our proposition 5.-. zFLE= zFAE = Z FDE since AFDE is a parallelogram. OUD. E. is proved.SOME PROPERTIES OF THE TRIANGLE And . F. which is similar to ABC is is the circum- and of half its linear . OP. EM. since XP ^ (jD = \AP. X. Similarly L is M and N lie on this Further the centre of this lines bisecting DL. so that UD = produce it meet to AP in PUX are easily UX and XP = OD. X is the middle point of AP. . Therefore the centre of the circle of DEF. thus defined Its radius is is known as the nine-points circle half that of the circumcircle. Y and Z. as obvious from the fact that the nine-points circle circle of DEF. L. FN at circle. seen to be con- X lies on the circle through D.•. N. The circle of the triangle. Now join DU and The two triangles gr uent. on the circumcircle of at is U the middle point.

6. 7. Thus the triangles PBL. produced to ABC he P being the orthocentre.PL = LH. feet of the perpendiculars as in the . S. If the perpendicular AL of a tiiangle meet the circumcircle in H. Join BH. HBL have also their right angles at L their angles at equal. T be the Join QA. ODXA for is 5 figure wherein a parallelogram. The feet of the perpendiculars fi^om on the circumcircle of a triangle ABC any point Q on to the sides of the triangle are collinear. then PL = LH. common. DX = OA. Prop. Prop. \-. It will be proved in the chapter points circle touches the incircle on Inversion that the nineand the three ecircles of the triangle. Let R. Then Z HBL = z HAC in the same segment = Z LBP since each is the complement of /LACB. QB. and the side BL B equal. figure.SOME PROPERTIES OF THE TRIANGLE Or the same may be seen from our diuiensions.

Q from a lies point viz. on to the on the circumcircle of the triangle. the feet of the sides of (since RTS . a straight line. so that QBCA is cyclic. RTS This line known also as the The converse If is is QBRT is cyclic). ^AT>S = zAQS = complement = complement QAS zQBG of Z of (since QAiJ. of this proposition also holds good.SOME PROPERTIES OF THE TRIANGLE H Q'fAS a cyclic quadi'ilateral since is T and S are right angles. For since It is line.'. called the pedal line of the point Q. BQR = z BTR = zATS = z AQS. z . z QBR = z QAS. QBC aie supplementary) = z BQR = z BTR .-.-. . Simson a triangle are perpendiculars collinear. Q QBRT and QTAS are cyclic.

-. same segment since the middle point of PA^ K.SOME PROPERTIES OF THE TRIANGLE Prop.-.KP = QM. The pedal line of 8. QK = KP.-. N. cyclic. . But Z PiVZ . QM = iMR. A 7\VZ = A HNL is parallel to /?7'. P. Q to . J/ i> line in in circunicircle in M and BC in in QR is parallel to since QN. Tlien since QBRT is zQRT^zQBT = Z QUA = Z HQR .-. QK'. = z RNM = z i¥iei\^. J H.'.MN.= z ZiV^ . 7 H. . . the orthocentve of the triangle. Join QP Join bisects the line joining Q cutting the pedal line of Let the perpendicular Join Q AL meet the QH cutting the pedal PN and QB.

.BL. B. median jmint of the triangle. also. These equalities include the cases where both the angles and C are acute.2BC BL AD' = AB' + BD'-2BD. is obtuse. 10. that AG = 2GB and PG = 2G0. of each niedian. The this point is three luedians of a triangle meet in a point of trisection the line joining the circumcentre a point. Similarly the other medians cut which will OP in the be a point of trisection of them This point The reader G is called the same point G. is Prop. probably already familiar with this point as the centroid of the triangle. and where one of them. we AP = 20D.SOME PROPERTIES OF THE TRIANOLK 8 9. and also of and the orthocentre P. GDO. the median AD cuts OP in G which is a point deduce. GAP. Let the median AB o{ Then from the similarity of the triangles the triangle ABC cut OP in G. If AD he a median of the triangle ABC. provided . AG-' = A B' + BC . and Prop. since Thus of trisection of both lines. then AB' + AC^^= 2 AD' + 2BD\ Draw Then and B AL perpendicular to BC.

BC . and ecircle opposite to the distances of A are s. B. since proposition proved in the last article special case of the following general one //' lU) = D ^ BC = 2BD.AD' + (l-^\BC 12. Multiply the second equation by 2 and subtract from the first. he a point in the side BC then (n .C Prop. s — b.= n. if (l - BC.AD'={\-n)AB' + BC - n (71 -\)AB' + AC'=n. AD' + BC - n .1) BC is only a : ABC of a triawjle such that n AB"- vAC. • .-. = The 11. ^) we now multiply the second first we get of the equations by n and subtract from the . AD' + For proceeding as before. s — c.2 AD' = . A C -n. .s — c the points of contact of the respectively.-IJWi + BC .SOME PROPERTIES OF THE* TRIANGLE that BG BL and 9 be considered to have the same or opposite signs according as they are in the same or opposite directions. BD\ (^ BC = n. then AC' . incircle A.AB' . The distances of the points of contact of the ABC ivith the sides from the vertices of a triangle are s — a.2 BD' AB'+ AC' = 2 /)- 2AD'' + 2BD-.

and Cor. let L'. CL = CM and BL = BN. and thus LIJ and BG have the same . s N' be and GL = CM=s-c. . Then and AN' = AB-\-BN' = AB + BL' AM' = AG + GM' = AG + GL. since . Then AM=AN'. the sides = s. B. Similarly Next BL^BN^s-b. . = GL.SOME PROPERTIES OF THE TRIANGLE 10 . b. N. M.-. BL' middle point. a. M'. since AM' =^AN'. c being the lengths of the sides apposite half the sum of them. Let the points of contact of the incircle be L.U the sura of AM = -a. BL' = BN' = s-c. • . G and s .V to -b A respective/ 1/ .•. 2AN' = AB + AG+BG=2s.'. the points of contact of the ecircle opposite to A.-. AN' = s. AM+ BC = h&. and GL' = GM' =s-b.

on AB. C. of Shew that which Ab^Ci with the nine-points is circle. diculars triangles. C^Co on BC. feet of the perpendiculars of a triangle. AB of a ABC. and of radius one-half that of the original circle. from Ai perpendiculars A^b^.. The 4. The 6. Co similar perpen- AB are drawn. and that angles are the supplements of twice the angles of the triangle. BC'A'.^. Shew 3. has for its its incentre the orthocentre of the original triangle. i^. ('A. 9. A 2. CM. circle of Given the circumcircle 5. B^Bo..SOME PROPERTIES OF THE TRIANGLE EXERCISES Defining the pedal triangle as that formed by joining the shew that the pedal triangle 1. straight line PQ P the pedal lines of is drawn ABC i)arallel AB P and to to meet the shew that and Q intersect on the perpendicular from C circumcircle of the triangle in the points Q. A plane quadrilateral points (i) is divided into four triangles shew that the quadrilaterals having the orthocentres and (ii) the circumcentres internal diagonals . respectively.. the circumcentres of the si. CA'B' are the angular points of a triangle which to is similar ABC.. orthocentre. centroid and nine-points centre are circles.its for angular of the foui- . prove that the loci of its of a triangle Find the locus of and two of its vertices. A^c^ are drawn to respectively.. b\. Prove that the circumcentres of the triangles ABC. the middle point of the chord. 7. and it with the circumcircle oi the intercepts chords A^A. and from A. j^edal lines of the extremities of a chord of the circum- a triangle intersect at a constant angle. triangle AB CA.. B.\ lie on a circle concentric a typical one. squares of locus of a point which its is such that the sum of is constant distances from two given points tlie is a sphere. circle is described concentric ^^C. A 8. tlie pedal lines of three points on the circumcircle form a triangle similar to that formed by the three that of a triangle points. triangle A\ B\ C are three points on the sides BC.

CDA. D lie BCD. line joining the vertex of point of the inscribed circle which 11. be the lengths of the sides of a triangle locus of a point P such that a . perpendicular to AK will bisect KP. AP-' + If a.= {l + m) OP. be any point. to BC is a triangle. Prove that the 10. ABC. equal C. is find the constant. I. 12. Prove that when four points A. triangle AB If 16. if a triangle to that farthest from the base passes is through the point of contact of the escribed vei'tex and A^ = 4Ao. BAB. PC" BO'. OB . . prove / . construct the triangle. B. be divided at and if P manner that in such a AO = m. PA^ + b . lines of the extremities of a diameter on the of the cii'cumcircle of a triangle intersect at right angles nine-points circle. Having given the circumcircle and one angular point of a and also the lengths of the lines joining this point to the orthocentre and centre of gravity. construct the triangle. 15. their areas be Aj 2A + be that of the quadrilateral. AO' + m . magnitude and position the lines joining the of a triangle to the points in which the inscribed circle and Given in the circle escribed to the base touch the base. A and Ao. Prove that the pedal 13. ABC 14. its circumcentre meets the circumcircle in K.+ I . OB. orthocentres of the triangles on a ABC circle. Prove that the P perpendicular line through B being the orthocentre. BP.SOME 12 I'H(>pp:hties of the triangle and triangles are similar parallelograms. lie the on an circle. then circle with the base. c m . PB'^ + c . b.

they are called inverse points with respect to the circle. and cuts in a point which is is the inverse of P. The reader can already prove fur himself that P tangents be drawn from an external point if a pair of to a circle. Draw Let in M. point. centre 0. 13.13 CHAPTER II SOME PROPERTIEH OF CIRCLES . The following proposition will give the definition of the polar of a point with respect to a circle : Prop. the point is called the pole be a fixed point in the called the polar of that of the line. which pass through a fixed point. plane of a circle. centre 0. The locus of the points of intersection of pairs of tangents drawn at the extremities of chords of a circle. the chord joining the points of contact of these tangents at right angles to OP OP. Draw any chord QR of the circle to pass through A. saine side of P and F' lie on the and are on the is and their distances from OP' = square are such that of the radius. and Let A is a straight line. . 14. two points radius of a circle whose centre same <JP When Definition. Let the tangents at Q and R meet PL perpendicular to OA. OP cut QR at right angles in P.

We may is remark here that the polar of a point on the circle the tangent at that point. OL. And if we introduce the notion of imaginary lines. the inverse of A. 16. then the goes through A. /y is Thus the and cutting is cyclic.. viz. be the polar of A AM at right angles cutting 0x4 at right angles in L. . B BL Let Draw // others again will be given unfortunate that this difference of treatment prevails. with Avhich Analytical Geometry has furnished us. . Some writers define the polar of a point as the chord of contact of the tangents drawn from that point define by means of it in a later chapter. F })()int.OA = OM .-.' harmonic property.•.SOME PROPERTIES OF CIRCLES 14 PMLA Then . It is clear 15. Prop.OP = sqnAYO a fixed locus of it is of radius. in the inverse point of A. we may say that the polar of a point coincides with the chord of contact of tangents real or imaginarj^ from that point. to OB. which It is The present writer method he has here adopted is the best. its the polar of A is of opinion that the goes through B. a straight line perpendicular to OA. from the above that the polar of an external point coincides with the chord of contact of the tangents from that point. polar of .

be points on a line the polar of A. lies points such that the polar of each goes throuoji thi' other are called conjugate points.SOME PROPERTIES OF CIRCLES OM. Two AM \s 15 of radiiu the polar of B. is P . From the above property for conjugate points we see that number of coUinear points all pass through a common point.OB=OL. viz. pole . observe that the intersection of the polars of two points the pole of the line joining them. B. . the pole of the line on which they lie. then the pole /. such lines are called conjuc/ate lines. kc. We is C. B. The reader will see for himself that inverse points with respect to a circle are a special case of conjugate points.-. Then . We /. For the polars of a if A.OA = sq. go through P. since the polars of kc. &c. C. D. P p whose goes through A. C. on the polar o{ B. that A is.. B.'. VI of leave it as an exercise for the student to prove that if be two lines such that the pole of m will lie Two on / lies on ni.

OQ' -or ^~ PM 'OP'~OQ~OR~OP' . 16a. draw . Let P' and Q' be the inverse points of which the polars of P and Q pass. OQ'. P and Q. C is are perpen- Q and therefore the orthocentre of the triangle. circle Prop.OR QN ' . Thus OQ is For the pole of on OP. the square of the radius. . OQ must lie on the polar of 0.SOME PROPERTIES OF CIRCLES IG Prop. _OP_OZ. P. from P : on polar of Q : perp. since lies the polar of P. Q C Also the lines joining the centre to 0.OQ . OQ' since PRQT is cyclic. If whose centre P and Q is 0. Similarly OP is the polar of Q. through PM and QN Let the perpendiculars on the polars be perp. he any two poiiits in the plane of a then OP OQ=perp. to OQ and OP respectively. from Q on polar of P. and be a circle whic/t meet the polar of in is the circle is the orthocentre tJie of the triamgle. 17. and it also OP and OQ are conjugate lines. //" OP OQ and OPQ is such that each vertex the centre of a pair of conjugate lines of P and Q. dicular respectively to the polars of those points. PT and QR Then we have since each is OP OP' = OQ . then the triangle pole of the opposite side. and OR OP = 0T.

17 .SOME PROPERTIES OF CIRCLES Thus the proposition is p proved.

P to the circles. from any point P in their plane.AB = 2AB. Join PA. we may say that the radical axis of two circles goes through their common points. PM to AB.PB' .NP. circles we goes through their common points to the two two intersecting them see that the radical axis of And introducing the notion of imaginary points. be the tangents from be perp.AQ' + BR' = AM'-MB'-AQ' + BR' ^203I. PB.SOME PROPERTIES OF CIRCLES 18 Since points on the common chord produced of two inter- secting circles are such that tangents from circles are equal.BR') = PA' . (see § 18) . real or imaginary. and Let be the middle point of AB.LA[=2AB. PN on their radical axis.(PB' . coplanar The difference of the squares of the tangents to two circles.PR' = PA' -AQ'. varies as the perpendicular Let centres from P PQ and PR A and B. 19. to radical axis NL. let Then PQ'.AB-20L.

three coplanar circles taken The radical axes of in pairs meet in a point.SOME PROPERTIES OF CIRCLES 19 This proves the proposition. Prop. 2—2 . 20. Let the radical axis of the circles A and C circles A and B meet that of the in P. " We may mention here that some writers use the term power of a point " with respect to a circle to mean the square of the tangent from the point to the circle.

.SOME PROPERTIES OF CIRCLES 20 Then the tangent from P = tangent to circle from = tangent from . system of coplanar that the radical axis for any pair of them is circles the same is such called coaxal. are such that the distance of any point radical axis from either of tangent from P to the them system of is P on the equal to the length of the circles. AL' are equal in length to the tangents from A to the circles L and L' are called the limiting . Let L.• 21. They . such that AL. Then the tangents from A to all the circles will be equal. A A to circle B and C. points of the system. L be two points on the line of centres on opposite sides of A. Let the common radical axis of a system of coaxal circles cut their line of centres in A. P is Coaxal P P G to circle B. . on the radical axis of circles. Clearly such circles will same straight all have their centres along the line.

SOME PROPERTIES OF CIRCLES For radius if C 21 be the centre of one of the circles which is of r. . and L' be the limiting points of which L' is without the Let Let The circle C. The student will have no difficulty in satisfying himself that two limiting points one is within and the other without of the each circle of the system. A will lie within them and thus the tangents from A will be imaginary.r^ = square The two points circles of infinitely They system. from P to circle C L and L' may be regarded as the centres of small radius. 22. then all the circles of the system pass through P and Q. which belong to the coaxal are sometimes called the i^omt circles of the system. C be the centre of one of the circles of the system.= PC . real points. It must be observed that the limiting points are real only in the case where the system of coaxal circles do not intersect in For if the circles intersect. of tangent. PD = PA' + AD = PA^' +AG''-r''. are inverse points L liniitiny points ivith of a system of coaxal respect to every circle of the circles si/stein. all Prop. Let it be noticed that if two circles of a coaxal system intersect in points P and Q.

of contact of tangents from L' cuts the line of centres at right angles in L. these are called direct will cut circles. will find it quite easy to establish the following propositions Eve7y two : passing through the limiting points cuts all the of the system orthogonally. these two will cut the line joining their centres ex- ternally. L Therefore and L' are inverse The student 23. Thus the chord L. L'A = AN. line joining the .'. Then . tangents to two In general four coplanar Of common circles. circles A circle points. common tangent to two circles of a coaxal system subtends a right angle at either limiting jmint. N coincides with . And two these are called tangents. the line joining the centres internally transverse common . this will be bisected by the radical axis in P.SOME PROPERTIES OF CIRCLES 22 Draw tangent L'T to circle C. Let a direct common tangent PQ cut the Join AF. BQ. P We shall now prove that the common tangents of two circles cut the line joining their centres in ttuo points which divide that line internally and externally in the ratio of the radii. Common 24. centres A and B in 0. TN perpendicular Draw to line of centres.-. L'A:AN=L'F:PT. tangents can be drawn to two common tangents.

to AB divide circle . we can prove that OS: 0/Sf' = ratio of radii.AO-. Through the point 0. the triangles APO. . in which each of the angles S and *S" is greater than a right angle. and each of the remaining than a right angle. the ratio of the radii. the tangents from 0' be imaginary.SOME PROPERTIES OF CIRCLES Then BQO P since 28 and Q are right angles. triangles are similar. Consider the triangles We also the angle at angles at R OAR. Similarly.BQ. have is and R' Thus the common is less to b(jth. as defined at the end of the last let a line be drawn cutting the circles in RS and paragraph. viz. OA:OB = AR: BR'.BO^AP. OBR'. If the circles intersect in real points. R'S' as in the figure. and 0' wholly within the other. tangent to either of the radii. for and 0' to and draw a this will be also a tangent to the other circle. are similar. drawing the common internally and externally at 0' and then from in the ratio of the radii. . We P'Q' be a transverse common tangent cutting : = ratio have thus a simple construction tangents. if AB we can prove AO' O'B in 0'. In like manner. by considering the triangles OAS. and OR:OR'=AR:BR'.-. OBS'. the tangents from lie will be imaginary. will If one circle both 25.

27. which with the circle on which Q lies has P must for a centre of similitude. since.SOME PROPERTIES OF CIRCLES 24 We circle B thus see that the circle could be constructed from the A by means of the point of all the points on the from by taking the radii vectores A and dividing these in circle the ratio of the radii. if P the orthocentre (which nine-points centre. the orthocentre is a circle. Let Let and P be any other point on the Divide ratio. in be a circle. and the point R' is said to correspond to the point B. so locus. having to the centre of the circle OP its on which lies. that its distances constant ratio A is The locus of a point which moves in a plane so fixed points in that plane are in a a circle. The student can prove for himself in like manner that 0' is a centre of similitude. AB internally that C and D . and we require the locus of the triangle It is quite easy to prove that the locus of nine-points centre. line joining a fixed point which describes then we know that the locus of ratio. For example. and from this locus of the nine-points centre circumcentre (which is describes a circle) and and OU = \0P . it is often convenient to make use of the ideas of the last paragraph. therefore the locus of centre in the line joining P is U is U lies on a circle. and externally at C and D in the given are two points on the locus. On account of this property called a centre of similitude is of the two circles. some given law is to prove that the locus of a point obeying a circle. we can prove If a a given circle. In order 26. P that our point is such as to divide the to a varying point Q. suppose we have given the circumcircle of a and two of its vertices. from two B be the two given points. a given) and U the it follows that the be the circle. Prop.

PD are the internal and external bisectors of the . If the line 2. PC and . and external bisectors of CB as diameter. the locus of /-APB. Cor. the sphere on Cor. as defined in follows from § 27 that if it its at which internal CD and Z APB.SOME PROPERTIES OF CIRCLES Then 25 since AP:P£ = AC:GB=AD:BD. If on the line 28. is a circle on is CD D in P AB be subtends a right angle. called the circle of sindli- Its use will be explained in the last chapter. locus divided internally and externally PC P be any point PD are the and 00' joining the two centres A and B. circle of A circle on 00' as diameter is : radius of B circle. of similitude a circle be be any point on this circle. then described. C and P If the point 1.•. be not confined to a plane. at a right angle. treat of the similarity of figures. the same ratio. of circles. CA CB = radius : The tude. CPD . is C § 25. centres as diameter. when we .•.'.

X be any X &c. 2. T' be the lengths of the tangents drawn from F to the two concentric circles of respectively which the common centre QK. pairs of between one pair is The three 8. B.FK'. other circle. Find a pair of points on a given two given pairs of points. B.SOME PROPERTIES OF CIRCLES 26 EXERCISES P be any point on a given circle A. and A and A and a circle coaxal with is B. X . B of the radical axis of be three coaxal If A. P from distance of any point C to A and B If ^. the radical axis joining the centres of the other pair. and circles cut of either pair is the line passes through their limiting points. 5. Q and F'. jB. any line cut two given circle concyclic with each of in P. C P a point are in a given ratio. is Q^ and whose radii are . two others orthogonally. two the angle equal to the angle between the other pair. 11. be a system of coaxal circles X then the radical axes oi A. prove that the four points in and Q cut the tangents given at F' and Q' lie circles. meet in a point. C. K'. drawn from are in a constant ratio. P to two given circles &c. and Q is a point on the line on the opposite side of the radical axis to P. QK\ then T:T' =PK. Q' which the tangents at F on a circle coaxal with the circles respectively. circle of similitude (§ 28) of tangents be drawn to both circles. from any point on the If 7. given circles. cii'cles of similitude of three given circles taken in pairs are coaxal. If 10. . drawn from If tangents 3. Shew that if T. The square of the line joining one of the limiting points of a coaxal system of circles to a point P on any one of the circles P varies as the distance of two If 6. A and B. the square of the tangent from P to another given circle B varies as the perpendicular If 1. the locus of 4. 9. the tangents circles. from the radical axis. A line FQ is drawn touching at P a circle of a coaxal system of which the limiting points are K.

B. AB 15. Co. Three circles A. circles system . Three 13. system of spheres touch a plane at the same point 0. A 17. point and its polar with respect to a variable circle being given. A 16. C is taken in a. prove that the polar of any other point A passes through a fixed point B.j passes through the centre of CV C'g of intersection of C\ chord of . 14. is respect to C. is a given point in the plane of a system of coaxal prove that the polars of all A with respect to the circles of the pass through a fixed point. prove that any plane. a fixed circle whose centre is at 0. a circle whose centre C respect to pairs. is . circles Cj. . not through 0. AB or AB A' and B' are the inverse at 0. diameter of a produced. 18. C are touched externally by a circle whose centre is P and internally by a circle whose centre is Q.4 . Shew that PQ passes through the point of concurrence of the radical axes oi A. Prove that the pole with of the polar with respect to S of the point is the middle point of A'B'. B. will cut them in a system of coaxal circles. P any other point on C the inverse point ^ of f is taken with respect to 12. . C^ are and section of Ca such that the chord of inter- passes through the centre of C^ and the chord and Cj through the centre of Co shew that the intersection of Cj and C. prove that the locus of Q is a straight line. C points of A and B with any point on circle S.SOME PROPERTIES OF CIRCLES 27 a fixed point on the circumference of a circle C.

Thus. it if AB^OB-OA. AB+BC = AG. AC If C lie in this case between in passing from A BC is and B. then. With this convention we see that. will we be convenient to insert the origin 0. COLLINEARITY The reader 29. C he three points in a line. but gives the reached from A. the above equation we get BC = AC-AB. in whatever order the points occur in the line. By means of it we can our lengths to depend on lengths measured from a fixed point in the line.28 CHAPTER THE USE OF III CONCURRENCE AND SIGNS. in the According to this convention from a point are counted positive line or negative according as they proceed in the one or the other direction. This reduce is all an important identity. AB + BC does final distance From A B to B. . is already familiar with the convention of and Analytical Geometry signs adopted in Trigonometry measurement of straight lengths measured along a lines. and not give the actual distance travelled and then from B to G. B. of opposite sign to AB. if A. This process speak of as inserting an origin.

If an important identity. of collinear points are said to form a range. O Now BG if we and the ratio AB. D he a range of four points. C be a range of points. 20M=0A+0B. O M A B AM=MB. be CONCURRENCE AND COLLINEARITY SIGNS.THE USE OF M he the middle point of the Prop.BD = 0. we cannot substitute for this A 0^6* unless we have some convention respecting are taking account of the signs of our lengths ratio A OAB : AB BG occurs. which we A. For since we have by inserting the origin OM-OA = OB-OM. side their line. B.AB).AC) + {AG . == and then this is zero. OBC any point out- of the triangle OAB is to in the ratio of the lengths of the AB. This is 32. G.AB) AD .CD + BC. and line in the line.AC {AD . 29 AB. BG. . inserting the origin A. : . If A. If any other point 30. Prop. we see that the above AB{AD . and we know that the area the area of the triangle bases shall use later on. A number 31.AD+CA. then 20M=0A + 0B. AB. B.-. BCD A For.

the area we is for in on our right hand. since sin(— ^r) = — sin x. whereby the proper sign of be retained when the AB BC will : ratio of the areas is substituted for it. or It is further clear that with our convention we may say AOAB+ AOBC= AOAC. while shall APRQ describing the contour With is C is described. . to our left will PRQ this convention points A. OBC by means of a ratio we cannot substitute venient to the areas ^OA . we OAB is know that the magnitude of the area of a ^OA . we nitude. B. B.OB sin AOB.THE USE OF SIGNS 30 the signs of our areas. and it is sometimes con- make use of this value. = AAOB-. is that the area of a triangle PQR be accounted positive or negative according as the triangle The obvious convention shall is to the one or the other side as the contour Thus contour PQR. The obvious convention here again positive if described in one sense will be to consider angles and negative in the opposite sense.OB sin AOB I for and ^ OB. OC sin BOG BPA them unless we have a further convention of signs whereby the sign and not merely the magnitude of our ratio will be retained. see that in whatever order the occur in the line on which they lie. and remembering always that A. this being effective for our purpose. 33. But if we are comparing OAB.ABOG.AOAC= AOCB. triangle Again. AB:BC=AOAB:AOBG. AOAB. G are coUinear. PQR hand as we describe the consider A PQR to be a positive mag- the triangle if be a negative magnitude.

CD. is D. from the position APB is to be P from the revolution of PA The angle regarded as obtained by the revolution of position 31 PB as the round these are in opposite senses' so of opposite signs.BD.OBsinZAOB BC ~ "KbOG ~ ^OB. and P round and BPA the angle PB.Z BPA. OB. AB _ AAOB _ I OA.BF.CONCURRENCE AND COLLINEARITY APB = . is them to We be positive or negative to our left or right respectively as .I). regard being had to the signs of these lines. The necessary and sufficient condition that the points on the sides of a triangle ABC opposite to the vertices respectively should be collinear is AF.OCsm^ BOG OC being all regarded as positive) _0A sin z^ OS ~" 00 sin Z BOO (the lines (JA. since sin ZAOB and sin Z 50C same or opposite sign according of the same or opposite sign. are of the as AB and BC arr The student useless will see that our convention would have been had the area depended directly on the cosine of the angle instead of on the sine. The following proposition. since cos {— A) =+ cos(. C of great importance.CE = AE. ' • AB is retained in the process In this way the sign of the ratio j^p of transformation. Test for coUinearity of three points on the sides of a triangle. shall consider any one of according as the triangle we travel along it. 34. E. known as Menelaus' theorem. All these lines are along the sides of the triangle. B. In this case Z PA. F A. With this convention as to the signs of our angles argue from the figures of we may § 32.

THE USE OF SIGNS 32 We will first prove F are collinear. Let p. if D. that the above condition is necessary. q. With this convention we have . B. and line be the perpendiculars from A. r DEF. E. C on to the let these be accounted positive or negative according as they are on the one or the other side of the line DEF.

F coincides Thus our proposition 35. BE.(AF+ FF') BF= AF (BF + FF')...CONCURRENCE AND COLLINEARITY 33 .. The following proposition.cient condition t/uit the lines AD. concurrency of lines through the of a triangle.'. known as Ceva's theorem. . .FF' = 0.FF'(BF-AF) = 0. . . The necessary and suffi. is fundamental. completely proved. vertices Test for is with F'.

the same convention of signs being as in the last adojyted proposition. CD then will AD. and let GQ meet AB in F'.BD. E.A CEP _ AGPB AAEB ~ AAEP ~ AAEB-AAEP ~ AAPB AF.CE = -AE.ABFP ~ ABPG ABDA.CE AAPC ABPA AGPB ' AE.CE = -AE. Then. drawn through the vertices of a triangle to meet the opposite sides in D. AF_ is AFC _ AAFP _ BF~ ABFC ~ A BFP ~ BD ^ ABDA _ ABDP ^ GD~ A CDA ~ A CDP " CF _ AE ' AAFC. CD. regard being had to the signs of the areas.34 CF TEIE USE OF SIGNS ABC F should be concurrent is AF. C D BE meet in Q. be concurrent.BD. OF meet in P. Next D. BE. BE.ABDP _ ABPA ACDA -A GDP ~ XCPA AGEB _ A CEP _ ACEB . let F be points on the sides of a triangle such that AF.1)^-1. ABC .AAFP _ AAPC ABFC . .CD. BF~ AGFA' AAPB ABPG ' ' ' = (-l)(-l)(. BF. E.BD. First let the lines AD. BF. CF B Let AD.

.FF'(BF-AF) = 0. Ar_AF •'• BF'~ BF' FF')BF = {BF + FF')AF. 36.BD .CONCURRENCE AND COLLINEARITY . .BF'. and AB.(AF + .GE A E CD BF .. C s'mA CF sin sin the sides of a respectively.AD s'm BAD _AB sm BAD CD ~ 'KOAD " fAC\~ADliin^UAlJ ~~ AG 'sin GAD' our convention as to sign.. completely proved.GE _ sin AGF sin BA D sin CBE AE. . Similarly and ' ' AF AG ^xnACF BF GE sin BlJ'smBZ'F BG CBE AE AB sin ABE' AF. F he three points on A. AC being counted positive.•. triangle // D. F' and Hence our proposition Prop. BA L) sin CBE A BE sin CA D sin BCF " For with BD ABAD _^AB. B. .CE=-AE. is F coincide.BD.GD . 35 AF' . E. .FF' = 0. ABC opposite to AF.'.BD.BF~ sin ABE sin GAD sni BGF .GD.

GF' will also he concurrent.]() The necessary and Cor. AD' through A of a triangle which are such that the vertex zBAD = zD'AC (not z GAD') are called isogo7ial conjugates. BE. BE. the vertices // AD. Two lines AD. For sin sin BAD _ sin D' AG _ sin GAD' GAD ~ sin DAB ~ siu^BAD' sin G BE _ si n ABE ' Similarly ABE ~ sin GBE' sin AGF _ s in BGF' sin and sin BGF ~ sin AGF' tli rough conjugates . OF should be concuiTent sufficient condition that AD. is BAD sin CBE ~_ _ s in ^Ci^ sin sin A BE sin GA D sin BCF A If be the point of conciirrence this relation can be written in the form sin ^^0 sin ^(70 sin CM sin Z(X)sin GBO sin BA6~~ ' being easy to remember. BE'. this 37. Isogonal conjugates. of a GF triangle he three concun-ent lines ABG. their isogonal AD'.THE USE OF SIGNS '. Prop.

The 38. will conclude this chapter by introducing the student to certain lines in the plane of a triangle which are called by some writers antiparallel to the Let ABC be a triangle. D and F sides. We 39. i?A"'. Since the medians are concurrent. symmedians are concurrent also.CONCURRENCE AND COLLINEARITY sin sin sin ABE' sin BCF BAD' sin CBE' sin ACF' CAD' ' sin 5^i) sin (75£. It was thought better to prove them by independent methods in the first chapter in order to bring out other properties of the orthocentre and the median point. points in the sides . sin sin G'^Z> sin ^i?A' sin •. are called its 37 . The student will see that the concurrence of the medians and perpendiculars of a triangle follows at once by the tests of this chapter (§§ 35 and 36). ACF = -1. The point where the symmedians intersect is called the symmedian point of the the triangle.4/)'. isogonal conjugates of the medians of a triangle symmedians. BGF CF' are concurrent.

AH in GF BG and GA the trisecting points nearest respectively are sects AD. FD. and CM point of BE. AG. The line BE is said to be antiparallel to BC. ABC is opposite sides. BH and CK be drawn perpendicular to EF. M. Z It will It may be BG are line lines antiparallel to parallel to an exercise left as sym median the DBGE be seen at once that lines antiparallel to through A and that is cyclic. all one another. are a triangle. The midpoints D and E : trisecting the perpendiculars on the 6' /i of the sides U and K.THE USE OF SIGNS 38 AB and AC such that zADE = zBCA and therefore also AED = Z CBA. If 4. CK intersects intersects BE B ABC BC and BA and BL inter- of the triangle of the sides AD in N. Prove that iV is a . DE respectively. EXERCISES The 1 lines joining the vertices of a triangle to its circumcentre are isogonal conjugates with the perpendiculars of the triangle. The lines joining the vertices of a triangle to the points of contact with the opposite sides of the incircle and ecircles are respectively concurrent. 3. 2. in L. then AG. BH and will be concurrent. to the student to prove that of the triangle ABC bisects all BG. BE.

CF iorm CB AF BD. .. BC of contact of the ecircles with the sides of a triangle are respectively denoted Sit by the BC.] 10. Through the symmedian point of a triangle lines are drawn Prove that the six points so obtaiued are equidistant from the middle point of parallel to each of the sides. Prove that B'C CA AE BF CD A' B . 2. E. is called the Lemoine circle. putting the other two sides. drawn cutting the opposite sides in D. of a triangle .CE ^ A'C^ B'A . . Y. BE. CF are three concurrent lines through the vertices ABC. F\ Prove that AD'. CF' are concurrent.E. BE. . ABC triangle The points 6.CONCURRENCE AND COLLINEARITY 39 drawn from the orthocentre of a on the bisectors of the angle A. Through the symmedian point ^ a triangle A'B'C. and AB at Z.. Z are respectively intersect at X. . The circle circumscribing DEF intersects the sides of ABC again in D'. the angular points of any triangle ABC lines AD. the groups of points A. F^D. circle through these six points has been called the cosine from the property.AB AD. and CA Y at . E'. lines AD. BE'. F 3 according as they belong to the ecircle opposite CF^ P BE^. P. A. and making From 8. If perpendiculars are 0. letters D. cutting the other sides. F. BC and the line joining the middle points oi AE and BE are concurrent. which the student can verify. BE. CA. § 131. Prove that Q and X. the points C and D respectively by a tangent to the circle at E. or C. E. that the six points so obtained are equidistant from the drawn Prove symmedian point. : : collinear. D^. BC. the line joining the symmedian point to the circumcentre. shew that their feet are collinear with the middle point of BC. meeting the opposite sides in D. [The circle through these six points See Lachlan's Modern Pure Geometry. 1 1.CA. A and ^are cut in Parallel tangents to a circle at 7. CF are equal angles with the opposite sides measured round the triangle in The the same direction. Prove that AD.] AD. F. 9. BE. that the intercepts it makes on the sides are pi'oportional to the cosines of [The circle. B. CF of a triangle lines are antiparallel to each of the sides. BE. the opposite angles. CF^ at Q E^F^ and D. AB with suffixes 1. E. .

SF be drawn to tlie sides of the triangle. from the symmedian point aS' of a triangle ABC. CONCURRENCE AND COLLIN EARITY SIGNS. 14. Prove that the triangles formed by joining the symmedian point to the vertices of a triangle are in the duplicate ratio of the sides of the triangle.THE USE OF 40 12. SE. The sides BC. B. FF' and AB have respectively the same middle point. Prove that the tangents to the circumcircle at the vertices meet the opposite sides in three points which are of a triangle colHnear. F are concurrent. F' be taken in the sides opposite to A. CF' are concurrent. and points D'. CF through the vertices of a triangle ABC meeting the opposite sides in D. 13. 16. Prove that . If AD. internally by points A'. AB BA' :A'C=CB' Also B'C produced cuts BA" BC : of a triangle ABC are divided C so that : B'A = AC' : externally in A". E. perpendiculars SD. If 15. then AD' BE'. CA. . then S will be the median point of the triangle DEF. B'. BE. CA" = CA" : A'B\ C'B. E'. C so that DD' and BC. EE' and CA.

then plane into an angle of angle EDF will project on to the 42.be parallel to the on the tt plane is o. and VA.41 CHAPTER IV PROJECTKDX 40. of the vertex V. through V and line thus obtained a certain lim. which is called tlie axis of projection.i the tt called the line at infinity in that plane. A <»n point. It is clear at once that the projection of a straight line on TT namely the intersection of the plane with the plane containing V and the line. AB will project to infinity on the plane and AB is called the vanishing line on the plane p. tt . Now let EDF be an angle in the plane p and let its DE and BF cut the vanishing line AB in E and F. then that line will be projected to infinity a plane tt is a straight If the plane plane. The line. This line this reason p by The vanishing tt. lines the magnitude EVF. for line is clearly parallel to the line of inter- section of the planes p and tt. means of a vertex V on to another plane tt. Let a plane through p in the line F parallel in a plane to the plane vr cut the plane AB. in ^'. TT plane. Suppose now we are projecting points 41. produced then if necessary. V If if A' called the projection of is A any other meet a given plane tt the plane tt by means be any point in space.

F' he on AB. line. parallel to VF. Therefore Hence we is tt. Aedf^/. VEF is parallel to the plane the these planes with the plane VDE are parallel the plane since the plane de is parallel to Similarly df VE. see that mu/ angle in the plane p projects on to the plane into an angle of magnitude equal to that subtended at V hy the portion of the vanishing line intercepted by the lines TT containing the angle.EVF.PROJECTION 42 For let Then intersections of that is. while two given angles in the plane magnitude on to a plane Let ^J5 be the given Let the plane Let EDF. AB be taken parallel to the plane E'. a. 43. any given line on a proper choice of the vertex V of projeca plane p can be projected to infinity. By Prop. Through draw any plane E'D'F' be the angles in the plane be projected into angles of magnitude Let E. ir ir p are projected into angles of given properly chosen. tion. p which are to respectively. and /3 p'. VDE intersect the plane ir in the line de. p'. . F.

yS Cor.PROJECTION On EF. E'F' in the plane p containing angles equal to a and 43 describe segments of circles /3 Let these respectively. Cor. project EF to infinity and at the same time . project to infinity. segments intersect in V. be its third the line joining the intersections of opposite pairs of sides. since the three angles of the triangle in projection is sum 60'^ the of the equal to tw^o right angles. Let A quadrilateral can be projected into A BCD be the quadrilateral. Let EF 2. Then if V a and AB be taken as the vertex of projection. For if we project two of its angles into angles of third angle will project into 60° also. will and EDF. diagonal. Any 1. E'D'F' into angles of magnitude respectively (§42). triangle can he projected into an equilateral triangle. that is a square. Let AC and BD Now if we intersect in Q.

line DE. In the plane p' so that the The vertex FV with of projection the segment of the circle on E'F'. the projection of Z a right angle makes this parallek)gram rectangular projection of Z AQB into a right angle the pro- BAD into and the makes the rectangle a . If D'E' is AB. It 44. EFV is angle V will Suppose that we must draw this case that one of the lines parallel to the line is a line DE is FV in the supplement of be the intersection' of the a. secures that . that is to say it is a point algebraically significant. . but not capable of being presented to The notion of imaginary points and lines which we take over from Analytical Geometry into our present subject will be of considerable use. square.44 PROJECTION project will Z s BA D and BQA into right angles. E'F' in In § 43 may not intersect in any real point. D'E' AB which parallel to is in the to be AB. then the vertex F will be the now obtained and another line angle E'F'V is the supplement of yS. the eye in the figure. may happen preceding paragraph projected to infinity. the quadrilateral be projected into a square. For the projection of EF to jection shall be a parallelogram infinity. the proposition of this case F is an imaginary point. also parallel to intersection of the line i^Fjust i^'F so drawn that the 45. Again the segments of circles described on EF.

EC. first three. and VAC in D in the plane V. C" three others not necessarily in the same plane with the Join Take any point Join VB. V in A A'. the plane con- A'C Then by means into A'. Join V'A'. A A'. B. EC meet in E line ihroucrh o and E. and A'E. we do not mean necessarily that the one can be projected into the other by a single projection. let them meet a . D. 45 range of three points is projective with any other range of three points in space. viz. The student must understand that when we speak of one range being projective with another. pass from one range to the . B'. and A'. V can be C. of the vertex V. B.PROJECTION 46. A' VC Join DB'. /B be three collinear points. AV— C Let A. C can be projected and these by means of the vertex projected into A'. Thus our proposition 47. A Prop. but that we can other by successive projections. A'DE diawn These are in one plane. A. is proved. B' . taining the lines Let DB'.

triangle can be so projected that any line in its projected to infinity while three given concurrent lines is through three angles can be projected into its vertices become the perpendiculars of the triangle in the projection. Shew that 3. E can be pro- which are the projections Q.B. lying on a line PQ. and jected into a point r lying between of P and 6. plane a. B^. and sides . angles such that the lines containing them meet the vanishing line in the same points are projected into angles which are equal to one another. . 5. illustrating by a figure. B^. Prove that a triangle can be so projected that three given its vertices become the medians of the concurrent lines through triangle in the projection. C\Ay meet CA in B. and AB in H. BBy.^. meet BC in A^.. how outside the portion jj and q. C\ are taken respectively in the BG.] 9. shall in the next chapter set forth the condition that must be satisfied to render the one projective with the other. CC-^ be three concurrent lines drawn through ABC to meet the opposite sides in A-^B^C^ the vertices of a triangle and if AB m B-^C-y Co. 7. Ci^i and CA in G and A. Explain. C\ will be collinear. intersect in A/. . [Project the concurrent lines into medians. Also FH and BB^ Prove that MG. 8. CA. If a triangle be projected from one plane on to another the three points of intersection of corresponding sides are collinear. in general angles of the same magnitude Shew that a 4. EXERCISES Prove that a system of parallel 1.PROJECTION 46 A range o^ four points is not in general projective with any We other range of four points in space. NH BC are concurrent. on lines in a plane jy will project another plane into a system of lines through the same point. Any three points ^i. and FG and CCj in N. it PQ is of that a point it. AB of the triangle ABC B^C^ and BC intersect in F. and A^B^ meet then A^. If A Ay. to Two 2.

. ratio is ^^„ . ^^ stands.CD -T-p. tor it = BA. . —TTp —jYn. he a range of points. • IS . and For the term anharmonic ' it. . . C. anharmonic cross-ratio ratio should be may what ratio of called The 49. first and last letters of the numerator and the third and second.' be best to avoid will means not harmonic.. the called a cross-ratio of the four points. AB. and is conveniently represented by (A BCD). 48.y^^ BD CA .— CD jyj. that is it (2) that the . . tor though not appearing be a cross-ratio as to becomes one on rearrangement. essentials of a cross-ratio of a range of four points (1) that each letter occurs once in both denominator is not harmonic. numerator and elements of the denominator are obtained by associating the together. and in this particular order. it that . is (BAGD). ' one that be harmonic. better appreciate this point are is This ratios. Some writers call cross-ratios ' anharmonic hoAvever not a fortunate term to use. whereas a a harmonic range. . . in which the order of the letters the same as their order in the numerator of the is cross-ratio. B.47 CHAPTER V CROSS-RATIOS Definition. : is an so that may be the crossThe student will to say when he comes to Chapter VII. not a cross-ratio but the negative oi one. D 1( A.

= (ABGD). .. .. . Hence we get (A BGD) = {BADG) = (GDAB) = {DGBA ) = X. we see that there are twenty-four cross-ratios which can be formed with a range of four points. 50. For = (ABCD).-. A. Secondly we observe that a cross-ratio interchange either the first and third is letters.. = (ABCD).CROSS-RATIOS 48 Since there are twenty-four permutations of four letters taken all together. the letters of a cross-ratio be inter- in pairs simultaneously. {ADGB)==iBGDA)^{GBAD) = {DABG) = l . all of tvhich can he expressed in points are equivalent terms of any one of them. Prop..(1). The twenty -four cross-ratios of a range of four to six. These we have obtained from (1) by interchange of second and fourth letters the same result is obtained by interchanging the first and third.(2). {ABGD) = Let First changed we observe that if \. the cross-ratio is unchanged. or inverted if we the second and fourth.

and D. AD {CD DE{AD-CD) = 0. Two such ranges 51. then each of the cross.CD AB.(GDBA = (IJCAB) ) ^ 1 And now interchanging the second and fourth we get (ACDB) = (IWCA) = (CABD) = (DBAC) = ^-" ^ . .AG = 0. .. We have thus expressed And we all the cross-ratios in terms of X. E oilier points be called equi-cross. (1) (ACBD) = (BDAC) = {(JADB) = (DBCA) = and from this again -\ 1 . 49 CROSS-EATIOS Thus the interchange of the second and third letters changes -\. .-.. letters.-. that is. A.ratios of the first range is equal to the corre- sponding cross-ratio of the second. We may remark that the same result is obtained into 1 by interchanging the Thus from and first fourth. see that if one cross-ratio of four coUinear points be equal to one cross-ratio of four other collinear points. (4). in their line such that (ABCD) = {ABCE). C B. letters. .-. Prop. D and E coincide.CD = AD. DE. then D must coincide ^ Forsmce . (3)..GE AD7CB = AE~CB' AE.CE. may If A. and get (A BBC) = (BACD) . by interchange of second and fourth {ADBC) = {BCAD) = {CBDA) = (BACB) = ^ In these we interchange the second and third ^ .. DE = {AD + DE) CD = . -f- DE). be three separate collinear points. luith AB.. . . A. .-. E. for AC^O. (6).-.

A BCD be projected by means of the vertex .50 CROSS-RATIOS 52. Prop. is eqni-cross with its projection on Let the range V'mto A' B'G'D'. A range of four points any plane.

A'VD' = sin Z>'F^ = - sin C'Fi?' Thus C"FZ)' = sin CVD. Further sin and sin In fig. Fig.sin ^ VB. 3.51 CROSS-RATIOS This In sin is fig. 1. obvious in fig. CVD' = sin CVD.I Fi^. C'VB' = sin CVB. 3 sin sin sin ^'F^' = sin. sin D'VA = Fig.4 sin VD. in each case {A'B'C'D') = {ABCD). 2 A'VB' = sin B'VA. 4—2 . = sin ' BVC =- sin . CVB. 2. sin A' VD' = and these angles being supplementary. = .

D.^''^ P?^''' Pi" We easily see that a cross-ratio of the projection of a pencil on to another plane is equal to the cross-ratio of the original pencil. B. then (ABCB) is constant for that particular pencil.0 . and each constituent line of the pencil V is is called a ray. Any straight called the vertex of the pencil.. Pj. line in the plane cutting the rays of the pencil From the last article we see that if VP^. is called a transversal of the pencil.^v' . For let projection. V(P^.) be the pencil.P^P. P. be convenient to express this constant cross-ratio by the notation V {P. . the vertex of .).-""Pi .. that is to say it is It will independent of the particular transversal.P.. VP.„ VP. C. P. A number of lines in a plane which meet in a point V are said to form a pencil.52 CROSS-RATIOS 53. VP^ form a pencil and any transversal cut the rays of the pencil in A..

V B/ V upon VD and let these lines meet VAD in P. and A'B'G'D' another range = (ABCD). and so on.'P:).P. a line through Join V'A'. 54.P. and let ABCD Then V VP^. V(P. . the latter cutting A'D' in X.. V'R.. a position to set forth the condition that two ranges of four points should be mutually projective. C. such that // ABCD {A'B'C'I)') be a range. VC. V. Q. QC and let these meet in V. V'P. then the tivo ranges are projective. A' in the plane Join PB'.p:. R respectively. Join ^^4' and take any point it.) We are now in = (ABCD)= V'{P/P. of is a transversal also of v'{p.p:).P. Join VB.53 CROSS-RATIOS Let the line of intersection of the p and tt planes cut the be the projection of rays of the pencil in A. D.-.:P. B.p:. Prop. and .

.. A'PQR. by a vertex 0' (P.).. 56.. and Def.. I The student will have no difficulty in proving by means of 54 that two homographic ranges are mutually projective. V Let PQ"R"S".. X coincides with Thus. these again by the vertex Thus our proposition 55. ranges said to be homographic the one is (§ 51).R.. P'Q'R'S'. be projected into 0' (P'.. S" .S. &'. T' . .. S"...54 CROSS-RATIOS Then (ABCD) = (A'PQR) = (A'B'C'X).Q.. Q'..'.T. be the common range into which these can be projected by vertices and 0'... that is. Prop. Q'.) and are said to be homographic V (P' when a . be any two transversals of the V and the vertices of the pencils.) cross-ratio of the pencil formed by any four lines of rays of the one is equal to the corresponding cross-ratio of the pencil formed by the four corre- sponding lines or rays of the other.{A'B'G'X)={A'B'G'D'). R". But (A BCD) = {A'B'C'D') by hypothesis..) can be projected into and this last pencil can. L on 00'.. Two homographic pencils are mutually pro- jective...) = {A'B'C'D'E'..) and this . by means of the vertex V.. . R'. and A' B'C'D'E' ... Two pencils V(F.). when a cross-ratio of are any four points of equal to the corresponding cross-ratio of the four corresponding points of the This other... Then by means of a vertex K on OV the pencil (P.R. S'... V into A'B'C'D'.).Q. R". pencils. Q". Two is proved. R'. ViP. For two let PQRS.S. D' ABCD can be projected into ABCDE. Q". is conveniently expressed by the notation (ABCDE..

&> and to' being the point at infinity upon them. the construction heinrj effected bi/ means of the ruler only. AiOi' be the two given lines.Q'. PB cutting A^w' in Bi and Join PC. 57. at which they meet. A^A and BoC meet in Q.R\S'. Aco in B... Let A(o. Let P be the given point Draw any any point Join Join B line upon in the plane of these lines.CROSS-RATIOS again by means of a vertex M on O'V 55 can be projected into V'{P'.). AC to cut the given lines PA cutting Aico' in A^.. Let in it. A and C. and take . We will conclude this chapter with a construction for drawing through a given point in the plane of two given parallel lines a line parallel to them..

CROSS-RATIOS 56 meet GP in 0.'. then trisection of of AD AD.Coi') .PB. P (A. PD is PD and Pco' are in the same line. C. B.Cco') = P (ABCD).) = {ABGD). {A^B.Cco') = (A^BUoo) = ^i (Ao^BUo)) = {BB. 2.) = (AQPA.B. EXERCISES 1. Given a range of three points A. parallel to the given lines. that is. If {ABCD) = -^ and B be the point of C is the other point of trisection towards A.) = C(BB.) = {AQPA. D . . be the line required.PB. For = B {A. Let A^O and AC meet Let PD QB shall in D.B. find a fourth point on their line such that (ABCD) shall have a given value.-.

C. B. and orthocentre of a triangle. iJ. nine-points centre are equal to then {ABCC') = {ABDD'). a {A. then each of these 6. to be the distances from to the points a line with 0. range of four separate points and {A£GD) = {AI)CB). B. C.CROSS-RATIOS If the transversal 3. 4. d lines is constant. C. — formed by the circumcentre. If 5 If A. one of the rays of then 0(ABCD) = ^. Taking A. D). ratios = — 1. C. = (c - d) (a - b). median Of the D he a. of the pencil formed 8. eight cross-ratios of the range point. and the cross-ratio 7.d) (c - v a). {ABCD) = {ABG'D'). pencil 57 . and all in X=(a-d){h-c). D by these a. A made . B. and eight to -J-. cross-ratios of the i-angcs that can be D are /u. I' V A A /A J' /x A I' /i. c. B.= shew that the six possible up of the points A. b. eight to 1. (b. 2. Any plane will cut four given planes all of which meet in a common line in four lines which are concurrent. ABC be parallel to OD.

. 58. Q. whereas in perspective the thought of the planes or surfaces on which the two figures necessary is lie is absent. two ranges of points be in perspective. with a view to making this point clear. It of perspective Let plane it then be noticed that two figures luhich are in the same may be in perspective.. So it may be well to compare the two things. &c. S. the vertex of projection being the centre of perspective. So then while two figures each of the other are in perspective. whereas we should not in this case speak of one figure as the projection of the other. The point if the PP'.58 CHAPTER VI PERSPECTIVE Def. are is called the centre of perspective. S'. seems perhaps at first sight that in introducing the notion we have arrived at nothing further than what we already had in projection. R. QQ'. &c. R'. A figure consisting of is said to be in perspective with another figure an assemblage of points consisting of an assemblage of points P'. Q'. concurrent in a point 0. then the two lines of the ranges must be coplanar. and all that is that the lines joining corresponding points should be concurrent. lines joining corresponding points. it is of two figures in perspective each which is the projection of not necessarily the case that is the projection of the other. P. &c. In projection we have a figure on one plane or surfice and project it by means of a vertex of projection on to another plane or surface. It is clear from our definition of perspective that if 59. It is clear from this definition that a figure on to a plane or surface is in perspective with when projected its projection. viz. RR'.

// to itself perspective.) = {AB'C'B'E'. . For let Let BB'. A'B' and plane..PERSPECTIVE For if A. CC meet The is following the case. the plane containing the lines It is But AB proposition will shew under what condition this Prop. &c. then the ranges are in tivo he such that the point corresponding and same &c. OB. 60. .). viz. are in perspective 59 with A'. also clear that ranges in perspective are it C are in the in 0. homographic. be the centre of perspective. C. .. homographic ranges in the same plane of intersection of their lines is a point in the two ranges. OA. not necessarily the case that two homographic is ranges in the same plane are in perspective. . . B'. B. {ABODE.

. B'.) smd V {A'. Q. in perspective. C. We If B... VA and V'A'. which are that of VB. Two pencils V(A.) and coplanar (§ 59). B'. be P .•.. 61.D'. will according to V are in in perspective. Let the pencils be V{A.. V'B' be Q and so on.. D' and = {ABCB) = {AB'C'D").B.D'.). ..D. points in V'A' points . {AB'G'D') . B" coincide. let V (A'.) our definition be in perspective when in VB VA V and in perspective with points in perspective with points in V'B' and can at once prove the following proposition tiuo pencils in different planes he in pej'spective they have a common transversal and are homographic. C'.) any two corresponding points in the therefore they are two homographic ranges passes through Thus the line joining . Let the point of intersection of .PERSPECTIVE 60 OD Join to cut AB' Then in D".. (§ 51. D .0'.

each the pencils. Thus the points are coUinear. We now prove cannot P. if Szc. for indeed they are not so necessarily. S. as in the last paragraph. two pencils in the given at the same plane are always in perspective. &c. 63.' ' perspective. they lie in lie 61 in both of the planes of the line of intersection of these planes. two non-coplanar pencils in perspective are but not so two coplanar pencils. pencils as coaxally in perspective and we if keep rigidly shall to the speak of two the intersections of their corresponding rays are collinear. Q. S. is of intersection of called the (uis of perspective.. with any point on the line joining their vertices as centre.).. when they speak of two pencils as in mean what we here call coaxally in perspective. We shall find it conducive to clearness to definition we have already given. R. P. S. . &c. As we have always coaxal . But the points P. and since V(ABCD. Let the points of intersection of corresponding rays be.. If the pencils are coaxal they are at once seen to be honio- graphic. Q. R.. Q.PERSPECTIVE The points F. containing the points corresponding rays According 62. to be collinear.. It usual with writers on this subject to define two is pencils as in perspective if their corresponding rays intersect in collinear points. The line PQRS.. then we say that the pencils are coaxal.. Writers. seen. are collinear.:)^ V'iA'B'C'D'. The objection to this method is that you have a different definition of perspective for different purposes. that is.) = (PQRS. R. the two pencils are homographic... to the definition of perspective beginning of this chapter. Q.

they are coaxally in perspective. D'.) common with the VB VD' in S. If two homographic pencils in the same plane 64. Let and B.) V'VA. on the line V'(AB'C'D'). V (A. let it cut the rays VD and VD and VD' Then since the pencils are homographic. &c. B'. of the corresponding rays /Sj. VD and B 0' Let 7^ meet V'VA in a. D. FC and V'C in y. and in §1 and h^ respectively.. Similarly the intersection of any two other corresponding rays lies on this same line. C. S.PERSPECTIVE 62 Prop. &c. ray and V'B' intersect and so on. G. V(ABGD)= and coincide with Therefore Sj Thus the intersection VD' lies S. Let the pencils be V (A. Therefore the pencils are coaxally in perspective. have a corresponding ray the same in both. B' in 0. .

If ABC...-. range corresponding to Y be the point of the ABC... or range. C and C and so .) = A (A'B'CX'Y'.so obtained are collinear.. A'B'C'. tlien if pairs of corresponding points he cross-joined {e. to belong to the X ABC. Let X' be the point of the A'B'G'. . .) = [A'B'C X'Y'. ... ).. A'C.63 PERSPECTIVE Prop. on. AX'. A'B) Let the lines of the ranges intersect in P. viz. A'X. and so From this it will of the cross-joins of on is AC. A'Y. A'B.... and let corresponding to Then ]"' in the other. {ABCX Y.. to the according as A'B'C .... Axi'. we consider it P by two different letters. therefore by the last proposition the intersections of their corresponding rays are collinear. 65.g. range A" in the other. viz.). . be convenient to denote It will and Y'. AB'.AY'.. graphic ranges not having a tiuo he two coplanar common corresponding homo- point. Now according to our hypothesis P is not a corresponding point in the two ranges. be seen that the locus of the intersections A and A' with B and B'.A' {ABCXY. the line X'Y.. These two })encils have a common ray... AB' and all the points of intersection .

. The student may obtain this chapter by proving that V {A. G'..64 PERSPECTIVE Similarly the cross-joins of any two pairs of corresponding points will lie on A'T.) practice in the methods of if V {A'. Let A' be their point of intersection. This propositi(jn is also true if the The proof corresponding point. (1) Let Let the triangles be in different planes. V'F'.) be two homographic coplanar pencils not having a common corresponding ray. all the lines thus obtained are concurrent. A'B'C. V. It will be seen when we come to Reciprocation that this proposition follows at once from that of § Qb. of these . and VQ. and of VQ and V any two pairs of corresponding lines) and join these. Since BC. the intersections of their corresponding sides are collinear. be the centre of perspective of the triangles ABC. 66. Thus the first part of our proposition is proved. two ranges have a may of this be common left to the student. B' and . B. V'Q' being Vq. X'Y This line called the liomogntpJiic axis of the is two ranges. C. A'B'G'. TRIANGLES IN PERSPECTIVE 67. viz. B'C are in a plane. Now A''. Therefore they lie on the line of intersection planes. then if we take the intersections of VF and F' {VF. the plane containing OB and OC. and conversely. Similarly GA and G'A' will meet (in Y) and AB and A'B' (in Z). triangles are in perspective. Prop // the vertices of two . they will meet. Z are in the planes of both the triangles ABG.

Z) are collinear. centre 0. Z be in perspective. G. that is. (2) Let the triangles be in the same plane. Thus we have three planes BCOB'. But three planes meet Therefore AA'. BB'. BB'. CC are concurrent. 6 . A. Y. CAA'C. the intersections of the corresponding sides as before. Y.65 PERSPECTIVE Next let the triangles ABC. Project the figure so that A'^Fis projected to infinity. and similarly for the other pairs of sides. the triangles are in perspective. First let Let them be A". ABB' A'. CO' are the lines of intersection. of in a point. which AA'. BC and Since EC meet they are coplanar. A'B'C be such that the inter- sections of corresponding sides {X.

*. A' B'G' are in perspective.e.. X.-. = AG. we prove that the will triangles are in perspective. GA^ BC. Z F. . A' B'G' should he in perspective is coplanar triangles AB. GB. and B'G" B'G' meet the line B'G" and i. is A'. be collinear. at infinity also. The necessary and sufficient condition that ABG.. We have now oh that oh' : let parallel to oc oa' since ca is parallel to c'a'. meet BG and . y.PERSPECTIVE QG Denote the projections of the different points by corresponding small letters. C".GA. GB. . .. BG in G".'. ah .. Let A A' and BB' meet OC Join Then and let it A'C ABC and A'B'C" are the intersection of . G" lies YZ in i?'C" are in the coincides with on the line YZ. AB. Prop. Thus ABG and 68. . z is. . Next since be : : are collinear. in perspective. BG. . same line... Z are collinear.AG.•. the .". = oc = oa F. A^. . BA. X by hypothesis. .. z is parallel to is h'c' n'b'. But in 0.BA.

B„ Bo being the points in ivhich B'C and B'A' meet the non- con-esponding side CA.PERSPECTIVE A^. First let the triangles be in perspective. Ci. A2 being the points in 67 which A'B' and A'C meet the non-corresponding side BC. let XYZ be axis of perspective. 5—2 the . Co being the points in which corresponding side CA' and C'B' meet the non- AB.

Bo are collinear. BC.". Next we can For it sheAv that this condition ... • AY.BZ _ 'az.BZ AZ.CA.. Ai.. GA.. renders necessary that AY...Y. is sufficient.BA.CY * = 1.CY~ AB. AY. B^C. ABC and the points A.CA.B„ A.CB. AY. B. CB. (1) the triangle formed by the lines A^Bo.BX.PERSPECTIVE 68 Then X.AB.BA. . . .. .AC. C. AG. A B. Co be as defined in the above Cj.. collinear.cb~ Taking the product of these we have AB.B„ B. C% . must viz.. Ao.GA.. X. ... BC.-. • .CA. CX BO.BX. . .CX .Z are Cor. BAo^ .GX BZ AZ BX CY~ . .GY' .. Z are .C\.BC. clear that the three following triangles be in perspective with ABC. proposition. GB. CoA^. G.GX. C\ Ao are collinear.. Since Z.BZ AZ.BC\ AC. ... collinear If the triangle and the triangles are in perspective.Co_. . (2) „ „ „ „ (3) „ „ „ „ A.A„ B.. .. Y. CB. BA. GA. =^AG.. AC.. also it is be in perspective with A'B'C'.BC\. Since Y.ba. . •'• ..A. . AC. B^ since Co are collinear. BA. Bo. AB^. But X. AB...BX. .

Ton and VR point Z. ABC. A' B' . and A'B'C are two coplanar triangles in perspective. pro\e that YU. and AB' C and A'B in Cj . CA' and CA in B^. B^. 2 that two coplanar triangles in per- . and intersect in A^.S" are any two points on this line. prove that A^. Prove that the centre 0. and Ab' denotes the perpendicular from A on b'. is Cb'. AD Ji lie the straight \ine_AD . b'. Z are collinear. . i?C" and 5'C intersect in ^i. through triangle means ^S* . Ba . Y. JC are The points Q and 6. A'B'C If 4. ABC. ABC 2. then the triangle A^B^C^ will be in perspective with each of the given triangles.3. their three centres of perspective are collinear. coaxal. prove spective are coaxal also. A! B'C should be in perspective AV. and XR meets AD in II'. . ZW. and B'C be two triangles in perspective.PERSPECTIVE 69 EXERCISES 1. AB . and the triangle A'B'C by of the centre S'. on the straight line AC. any line is drawn not in the plane of the and . to sutHcient condition that the coplanar The necessary and 7. triangles . and the three triangles will have a common axis of perspective. ABC. Cj are collinear. have the same axis of perspective. are in perspective with a common triangle. When three triangles are in perspective two by two and 5. AB' and A'B if BC in Cj. c . concurrent.Bc' where a. CA' and A in B^. X . denote the sides of the triangle A'B'C opposite to C respectively. X CA' and CA in Y A'B' and B'C and BC meet in The condition given ensures that X. A'B'C' are two ranges of three points in the same plane.] [Let in Z. . and the VQ meets the straight line AB in is anotlier point on AB XQ meets meets AB in Y in U. Assuming tliat two non-coplanar triangles in perspective are by means of Ex. Ca = Ac' . ABC triangle by means of tlie centre S.

is for himself. . AB in /j. E. 7. D'E'F'. DEF. mind —the principle. E'F' intersect in X. \i AD.. easily obtained. ecentres opposite to A. F'. (1) of travelling AB. the student grasps the principle. prove that A^. BE. IJ^ meets respectively. by which ' proved in Lachlan's Modern Pure Geometry. are collinear. CF' the medians. CA. sufficient condition that the triangles in plane perspective can is. that round the triangle in the two opposite directions. BA. and if EF and E' in Z.PERSPECTIVE 70 Prove that the necessary and 8. ABC 10. and DE and 11. sin ' 36 Cor. U then the triangle XYZ is in perspective with each of the triangles ABC.j/j C'j meets CA in B^ and C /j/. (2) AC. Nor in perspective is sin student has enough resources at his B'. GB. CF and AD'. CF' be two sets of condrawn through the vertices of a triangle AP>C and meeting the opposite sides in D. B^. be projected into equilateral triangles. [Project the triangle so that pendiculars in the projection and then use Ex. /o. L^ its BC in A^.1 AD. F and D' E'. FD and F'D' in 7. meets is a triangle. CF become the perAD' BE'. current lines . and . and take in turn § C and at the centre of perspective. Ci. . BE.'\ Two The to establish the test these formulae relating to jjoints on the sides of a all triangle are best kept in 9. coplanar triangles ABC. A'B'C should be ABC sin ABA' sin BCA' sin BC B' sin CAB' sin CAC _ sin A CB' [This A CA' sin CBA' sin sin CBC BA C sin Let him turn to command is it difficult BAB' ~ ' to remember if The result is aX A'. BE'. B. BC. /.

(ADGB). We have in this case AB. but BD DB CA We B is AC a harmonic mean between AB and also shall is a harmonic „ mean between „ „ „ „ then speak of A and D. B. CB AB-AC^ AB-A G AD~ AD-AC AG. (GDAB). reverting to the table of the twenty-four cross-ratios of we (§ 50). (DABC).CD = AJJ . then ' 1 : "^^ \aBCD\ (BADC). D are said to form if {ABCB)=-l. (CBAD). -1.BD) = -1. Hence not only AD. and CD.71 CHAPTER VII HARMONIC SECTION Def. and DA. thus . (BCDA).AD' AB '' thus AC is Now a harmonic a range of four points all mean between AB and AD. 69. (DCBA). Four collinear points A. and express the BA DC CB „ and C and BC. harmonic range C. the follow ing cross-ratios =— see that if (A BCD) = — 1. as harmonic conjugates to fact symbolically (AC.

•. is the middle point of BD) = - 1. A be observed.-.OG"= . .HARMONIC SECTION 72 By and and we mean this in which. (OB+OC)(OD-OG)=-(OD+OG)iOB-OG). BD) = . 0'G. D) of four rays the points of intersection of is called harmonic when rays with a transversal form a its harmonic range.OD-OB.-.OG.OD + OG. 0A=. B harmonically at and D.OB=OG' = OA\ B {ABGD) = - For since . Prop. . 1.-.-. BD) = -1. i? and C or again we say that .GB.B. When (AC. D as the fourth AG is divided BD is so divided at A and C. AB.O'A = 0'B'=0'D\ that if OG' = 1.-. then OB.GD = -AD.OD OB + OG OD . .= A0'' = 0A\ . . it will B and that all the eight cross-ratios given above. Insert the origin 0. 0B. D alternate. OB. (OB.OB OG + 0G\ 20B. But .. This follows by working the algebra backwards. Similarly if 0' Cor.OA)(OB -OG).0D = 0G". The student can easily prove for himself that the internal and external bisectors of any angle form with the it a harmonic pencil.OA)(OJJ. and lines containing be the middle jmnt of AG. ABGD OB OD. and that Or again we may say with respect to A pencil P B G that is harmonically conjugate with A and D.1 we sometimes speak of harmonic of J. G. C are alternate members.OG.OG) = -(OD . viz. 70. . ^Cand . and are equal to — 1. // {AG. The converse be the middle point of BD.On = 20G'. {A. true. of the above proposition be a range and then (AG. . .

C that (AB. D is — 1. Let be the middle point of Let this we 1 describe a the inverse point of C.-. 1.OD = OP'=:OC\ . any diameter of one .BD) = -1.then AC B as and (AC. point D in the line such circle on AB as diameter. For using the same figure as before. divided harmo)iically by the other. we have OB. ciixles cut orthogonally.BD) = -1. If fioo {AC. and therefore the centre A C.OD=OC'=OP\ Therefore OP is a tangent to the circle BrD\ thus the circles cut orthogonal 1}-. If and if the circle on diameter cut orthogonally some one circle passing through D. BD) = Prop. Similarly. then OB. Given three points A. is 2. of course. B. ABCD he a range. to find a =- AC B and D. circle cut any circle through B and D in P . then // {A C. CD) 2. BD will cut orthogonally every circle through Cor. 71.73 HARMONIC SECTION Cor. A C as dia meter the circle on will cut orthogonally evenj ciixle through of the circle on in a line. the circle on A and C. Cor.

. §27 .". If on a chord PQ of a circle two conjugate points A. PB. Then by the property of the polar. 73. as diameter passes through A and L. PD of the Tht AD. then {PQ.e. CD as diameter every circle through A A' (i. Therefore the given circle cuts orthogonally the circle on A A' as diameter. on in L. A the given circle) and L (§ 71). Therefore the circle on will cut orthogonally But the circle on 0C-\ {CD. B. 72. • • . then PC PA If P(AB. D.BC AC:AD=CB:BD. PC. angle. be the centre. OL. harmonic pencil in A. Draw which A' Let the diameter lies. Let any transversal cut the rays PA.-. A' with respect to the circle be taken. CD) and PB are the = -1 and bisectors APB be a right of the angles betiueen and PP.LA) = -1.OA=^ . as .-. P lies on the circle on AB as diameter we have by PC:PD = CB:BD=AG:AR PA and PB are the bisectors of the angle GPD. C. Prop. CD through A to cut the polar o^ A.•.AA') = ~l.HARMONIC SECTION 74 Prop.

formed by its diagonals. A.AA') = -1. B. C. bci = -1. that is. dq _ bp dp dp 1. EF ave be the EF to its ti-iangle infinity. (PQ. Then AC. Prop. . E. BD. lines taken in F its of a plane quadn- PQR Project DA be the four lines of the quadrilateral six vertices. q being at x . Let the three diagonals divided harmonically by the other two.HARMONIC SECTION But the given circle passes . Denote the points in the projection letters. by corresponding small diagonals. 74. BC. bp Then bq . P through usefulness. D. the intersections of its pairs. This harmonic property of the circle and 75 of great importance is otherwise stated thus through A a point : are harmonically at the point of intersection of the chord with polar of A. lateral is Each of Let AB. It Chords of a divided at the A may be ciixle and and Q. CD.'.

' the quadrilateral containing an area plane. The harmonic property the last article. FQR circumcircle of {EF. opposite vertices we mean two By that are not joined by a line of the quadrilateral. for in 'descriptive geometry. (FQER = n {FQER) = (. line. (/i^. and the three lines joining such of the vertices as are not already joined by the lines of the quadrilateral are called diagonals. on at infinity = -l. Similarly Also ) Thus we have proved {AC. is not thought of as a closed figure but as an assemblage of four a lines in in pairs in six points called the vertices . is It is important too that at this stage of the subject the student should learn "to take the 'descriptive' view of the quadrilateral. which meet .4 FOR) = -1. that the if It has been incidentally shewn in the above proof M be the middle point of AB.FR) = -l. (BD. proved in of very great importance. Note. 76. a the point 75.HARMONIC SECTION 76 {AFCR) = -l. will cut orthogonally the three circles described on the three diagonals as diameters. The Cor. il/a)) of the quadrilateral. A A (|uadrilateral is to be distinguished from a quadrangli quadrangle is to I be thought of as an assemblage of fou points in a plane which can be joined in pairs by six straight .QR) = -l.FQ) = -1.

CD. of the quadrangle is that the two sides of the diagonal triangle at each diagonal point are conjugates IV ith respect to the harmonic two sides of the quadrangle meeting in that point. AC and BD. DA. Q. . This name is is called a diagonal not altogether a good one. but it is suggested by the analogy of the quadrilateral. Its sides are AB. The student will have n(^ difficulty in . 77 the intersection of two opposite sides point. The triangle PQR may be The harmonic property called the diagonal triangle.HARMONIC SECTION lines. called its sides or lines two of these which do not sides in a point of the quadrangle are called opposite sides. BC. AG and BD. R where these intersect are the diagonal points. AB and CD. Let us illustrate the leading features of a quadrangle by the accompanying figure. On account of the harmonic property. AD and BC are pairs of opposite sides and the points P. ABCD is the quadrangle. meet And . the diagonal triangle been called the harmonic associated with a quadrangle has triangle.seeing that this can be deduced from the harmonic property of the quadrilateral proved in § 74.

B^B. and GB' Prove that M'C'^MB MC..2T is the orthocentre perpendicular to BC.. B' on CA. BB^. C" VA'. namely EE a. F.HARMONIC SECTION 78 EXERCISES If 1 that it is M and JS^ be points in two coplanar lines AB. AC in P. The -lines 7. {BC. {AB).A. D.Ij meets CA in 2. by the lines joining ABC and A' . CA. B". Prove that the corresponding sides of the triangles DEE and D'E'E' intersect on the sides of the triangle ABC. B"..^ = - . C collinear.C. = -l. A. 6" with respect to Prove that A". B^B. CC^ are the perpendiculars of a triangle ABC in Cg. {EE'). and Pairs 6. of so on. A and B'. B and G. lines A^A. AB of a triangle ABC with respect to the pairs of points {BC). ... and on CE. fixed line through C. lies are harmonic conjugates of A'. to intersects C". The B'C in lines BC M'. A^Bj^ AA-^^. Use Ex. C\ Co 3.) 1. 8. VB'. VC bisect the internal angles formed any point V to the angular points of the triangle on BC. CJ). B. collinear points A. BB^. A^B^ meets AB in Cgj prove that in A. P is a fixed point BC of a triangle ABC lines AC and AB respectively. The lines A E and in R. AA^. Z>. [Take P a point of intersection of circles on shew that CjCo subtends a right angle at The 4.^. {EF') are respectively taken on the sides BC.. MB' and C A-^Ac^. C. MC and meeting intersect M'B' : in point intersect in Q. {CA). C. shew and N' project into the middle possible to project so that points of the projections of AB and M CJJ. 6\. M in AB P.B. {AB. Also A". meets X AB . {CA. and A. : harmonic conjugates {DD'). B^. 2) as diameters are coaxal. Prove that the circles described on the (as defined in Ex.nd E'F' on BC._. is the middle point of line joining A to C'jX and BB^ meet in 7\ Prove that C. CC-i are concurrent lines through the vertices of a B^C^ meets BG triangle meeting the opposite sides in yli. C" are B. E is From any 5. and the lines BR and as B moves along G E.^^-l. G' on AB.] is Prove that the side drawn parallel and AC in B' and and CB is any other any moving point the lines CQ and DE B BD are 2 are given: a fixed point. . and AP and § 27. .

1 and B be conjugate points of a circle and J/ the 13. same straight line.. A^. circles. B^. 3. Bo with .^. and P a variable ^i^ at right angles to AP the rectangle FAPQ be completed a fixed point without a given circle is point on the circumference. the tangents from to the circle are of M MA. C. B and C B^.HARMONIC SECTION ^ 9. A. system of circles have a common pair of inverse points the system must be a coaxal one. C^ C. CCi 3-re concurrent lines through the vertices of a triangle ABC B^C^ meets BC in A. 12. i^ the tangent at P. length 14. middle point of AB. C^C^ as diameters all cut the circumcircle of ABC orthogonally.. pass through the other extremity of the diameter through circle AGO'. are collinear. with ABC opposite are points on the sides such that Jj. then the radical axes of the circles. circles. B. . B. harmonic conjugates with A and B. B.. A^B^ meets AB in Cj. and 0' are the limiting points of a s3'stem of coaxal and A is any point in their plane shew that the chord of contact of tangents drawn from A to any one of the circles will 16. ^ the locus of A 10.^. B^B. A^. Prove that the circles on A^A^. are concurrent. and have their centres in the [Compare Ex. If CCi be concurrent. 0-2..^. C\ are points on the sides of a triangle to A.] If . taken in If a pairs. If a system of circles have the same pair of points con- jugate for each circle of the system. BBy. A. 15. C and A . find a construction determining two points on this line such that each is the point of intersection of the polars of the other point with respect two to the 11. then must AA^. drawn cutting two non-intersecting circles. A of the . C.. meets in 79 is a straight line is The If line line. AA^.Ji meets CA in B.. BB^.^ are C\.

OA. CCi. iLj. These points two real points .= k. &c. then two on the same side of 0.OB. K points of the involution. the constant of the involution. and so for all the pairs of points. two conjugate points will lie on opposite and the double points are now imaginary. sides of 0. KK') = is not the mate of K' .OC. K' on the line on opposite sides of that is such that each is its own mate in the involution and K' are called the double OK^ = OK'.80 CHAPTER Yin INVOLUTION Definition. 77. If ^ be negative. points. If k. A-^ .OA. and there will be K. — 1. = OB. C'l . lie pairs of points A. such that = k.= the pairs of points are said to be in Involution. = OC. C. such as A and A^. called the Centre of the involution. as diameters they will form a coaxal system. Bi . It is that is K important to observe that why we write K' and not It is clear that {AA^. are each of two conjugates The point is is called conjugates. BB^. whose axis cuts the line on which the points lie in 0. be a point on a line on which If B. . &c. associated and sometimes called the 'mate' of the other. conjugate points Two lie be positive. If circles be described on AA-^.

A _ ^ {OA. or. \ [ob.B. is condition that a siifficient to the involution determined {ABCA.OC.B. . G. \ to the involution. It is clear that We must now proceed to establish the criterion that three the same line may belong to the same pairs of points on involution.A.. Suppose C and C\ do belong centre and k its constant. each point is inverse to the other with respect to the circle on KK' as diameter. / OB k k . 81 K and K' are the limiting points of this coaxal system. what is equivalent.. .) {OA -0C\) ^ A.A) the mate of C A. 78.) = (A. an involution is completely determined when two pairs of points are known. or the two double points.C. B. Thus the condition is necessary. k k Let be k.. pair of points C.\-i. [A more purely geometrical proof of theorem will be in the involution determined by this given in the next paragraph.B.OA. {ABCA.)={A. Note also that for every pair of points.B. = . A. The necessary and Prop. / = OC 0C\ = . ( y^^^^^'^^^)- .A C\B. C'l should belong by A.C\A). First its we will shew that this cijnditinn is necessary.) 'A.OA.~oaJ \oa~ocJ [oA OaJ \0n\ ~ 00 OB. B.i B. one pair of points and one double point.C.INVOLUTION . OA OA. 6 . OH.) {OB.] Next the above condition For and let let C be is sufficient. •.

A. D.. 80. But the proposition holds on the principle of continuity adopted from Analysis.*.) = F(A. CCi as diameters will be coaxal Let P be a point Then of intersection of these circles.. . established. (ABCA. K. and 6" is coincide.A).B. 1. prove the first part of the above theorem as follows...B.C. the circles on AA^^.. K' be the double points of the involution {AA. .C\A) = {A. We may 79. If A.-.INVOLUTION «2 .. If the three pairs of points belong to the same involution.{A. belong to the same involution {ABGI)) Cor.KA).G'A). The proposition greatest importance. 2.B. are right angles and therefore P(ABCA.C. The still circles may not cut in real points. D. If = {AACM. BPB.AKK') and (ABKA. B.B. BB^. CPC\ the angles (§ 77).C\A). AFA. Cj Hence the proposition Cor.KK') = {A.) = (A. C. we have just proved is of the very .) = {A.B.B.

. .CB) = {A. C. if we have VF. VU. r. the We could have had {AA. A^. three A Prop. 61 . C. is that of the four letters used in the should form one letter of each pair. 6—2 . matter in what order we It does not of course letters wi'ite provided that they correspond in the cross-ratios. range of points in involution projects info a range in involution. 82.) = {abca. The tti : 6.'. VR' &c. and the mate of any one of the three to the corresponding cross-ratio formed by the mates of these four points. For let A.B. We Involution Pencil. .C^A) = {aAciCi). Such a pencil will be called a Pencil in Involution or simply an Involution Pencil. B^. &c. B. {abca^) = {a^biCia). forming an involution.INVOLUTIOX The criterion that thr^ee pairs 83 of points belong the to same involution is that a cross-ratio formed with three of the points. centre of an involution does not project into the centre of the involution obtained by projection. or All that essential is cross-ratio. one taken from should be equal each pair. C\ be an involution and projections be denoted by corresponding small {ABCA . Then But and let the letters. B.B.) (zi. C. now see that VP. ). A. d form an involution. A {ABC A.•. but the double points do project into double points.) {AA. a. VQ'. B. 81. Note.AC. then every transversal will cut the pencil so. such that any transversal cuts these in pairs of points A.) = {A.C\B) = {A.B.ACBy).\ C. a pencil consisting of pairs of VQ.

KQ=OK. /. Then along circle. I. VA^ belong. line I. the involution properties of the quadrangle and quadrilateral. 84. Note that the double any pair of conjugate From lines are harmonic conjugates with rays. We shall make considerable them when we come use of Involution properties of the circle. this tact it results that if VD and VU he the double of an involution to ivhich VA. lines are We 83. a line Pairs of points conjugate for a form a range the points Let Let circle lie line with the OPQ is CK be a self-conjugate triangle.84 V INVOLUTION The double lines of the involution pencil are the lines through on which the double points of the involutions formed by different transversals lie. KP. . when we come deal with Reciprocation.-.KC. to shall postpone until a later chapter. at G. and the perpendicular from C on PK. and Q be a pair of conjugate points on the be the pole of Let which in involution of ivhich the double points are of intersection of the P Thus is to treat of the Conic Sections. the centre of the circle (§ 16 a). its orthocentre .KQ= KO.KC. Prop. then VD and VD' are a pair of conjugate lines for the involution wJtose double lines VA. and pass now to those of the circle which are of great importance. VA^.

B^ &c. for a circle. easily is Prop. A^. that is the tangents from 0. VP^. for pairs in involution is clear from the second of lines at right angles at a point are conjugate diameters for any circle having its centre at that point. special case of an involution puneil is that in which each of the pairs of lines contains a right angle. and whose constant is OK KG. B.INVOLUTION 85 Thus P and Q belong to an involution whose centre is K. which form an involution range. deduced from Pairs of conjugate lines form an involution tangents from the point.= KB\ see that A and B are the double points of the involu- If thus . cut these in VO also see that pairs of orthogonal lines V^Qi &c. following proposition. luhich For pairs of conjugate lines through a point the polar of in pairs of pass pencil of which the double will meet conjugate points. then 0A. on to t . through a point lines are the is the reciprocal of the it. PQ cut the circle in A and B. Orthogonal pencil in Involution. then OK KG = KA. A It is obvious too that since each The is its own and B must be the double points conjugate. which foregoing. by taking any transversal t to A. be within the If 85. = -0V'=0B. are in involution. pairs of conjugate lines through form an involution pencil. VP. . A circle the double lines are not real.0A. the double points of which are the points in which the polar of Hence the cuts the circle. the double lines of which are the lines joining to the points in which its polar cuts the circle. we tion.0B. Its double points are thus . and drawing the perpendicular But we can ^^Q. or imaginary according as real PQ does or does not cut the circle. That such a pencil theorem of is § 84..

Describe a circle with centre I OP be on the same or opposite sides of C and radius OP or CP' to cut and A^. If they can be projected so that the angles contained by each pair become must be right angles. may give us a test whether three pairs of lines through a point form an involution.• PP' line I will in A such that OP .OP' = k. Such an involution Note that is called this property an orthogonal involution.OA. the vertex of the pencil in involution. nor can there he more than one such pair unless the involution pencil he Let P be an orthogonal one. and involution range which the pencil let be the centre of the makes on it. they in involution. Hence pairs of orthogonal lines at a point form a pencil in involution with imaginary double lines.= OP. on I for . Take any transversal I. In every involution pencil there is one pair of 86. Prop. and take a point P' in Thus P and P' according as Bisect meet the is /. positive or negative.INVOLUTION 86 Thus the of points pairs belong to an invohition with imaginary double points. The points ^1 and A^ are mates in the involution OA . Join OP. OP' = k. rays mutually at right angles.. and let k be the constant of this involution. in M and draw J/C at right angles to PP' to in C.

C. A^ C. Bi] Then .) p and p plane into angles between two pairs of . involution. more than one pair of rays at right angles. then all the pairs must be at right angles. For p let A. as we can project two angles in the right angles. we may choose two planes in 0. the middle point of PP'. A^. and let 0' B. C. an involution range. A^. pair of rays PA and PA^ mutually at right angles. PP' I and the point at rays. to the line through /. involution. ir be the projection of is 0' (A. is the middle point of PP'. coincide. since two pairs of If the pencil have rays completely determine an involution pencil. . B^.INVOLUTION Also the angle APA^ 87 being in a semicircle Hence the involution pencil has the is a right angle. B^. B. is an involution. Thus every involution pencil has one pair of orthogonal rays. perpendicular to parallel to is it is PO and the which are the pair of orthogonal infinity along I are mates of the /. in the the pairs of rays of an involution pencil at plane meet the line of intersection of the . In the special case where C and In the case where 2T.-.4. for involution range on In this case infinity. Cj &c. Prop.. Again. C^ &c. C\ &c. PO is perpendicular to and the point C is at line through P parallel L. B. An invohdion pencil projects into a pencil in imd ani/ involution can be projected into an orthogonal 87.

A^. . R respectively. .s lines. B^. K' be the double points of an involution to which then A. xA. If the double lines of a pencil angles. too that at tlie same time that we project the involution pencil into an orthogonal one project any line to infinity Note. and tlie double points of the involution are concyclic with the limiting points of the system of circles. they must be the bisectors in involution be at right of the angles between each pair of conjugate rays.INVOLUTION 88 rays of an involution to be so projected. . CC respectively intersect the line two triangles Prove that the range {PP' QQ\ BR') forms an involution. 2. 4. B. BB'.' B'C The corresponding sides BC. A" are in involution. if the projection is to be a real one. as they are if the involution pencil have real double lines. AA'. if the double points of the involution range which the involution pencil in the p plane intercepts on the vanishing line be real. it is clear an orthogonal involution has no that if we can (§ 43). an involution pencil is double real to be projected into an orthogonal one. A. B' C ifcc. and PQR in P\ Q'. of in plane perspective intersect in P. The reader will understand by comparing what stated with § 43 that the two circles determining article do not V is here in that intersect. A^. By belong 3. projection It must be an orthogonal may be remarked Then the pencil in the one. Q. . If A". B K. Any of points transversal is cut by a system of coaxal circles in pairs which are in involution. pencil with real double lines can only be projected into an orthogonal one by means of an imaginary vertex of projection. K'. EXERCISES 1. ABC.in real points. then the pencil thus projected should not have real double An involution lines. A.

form an involution. 8. lies on the three diagonals. . the third pair is conjugate with regard to a and that the circle is one of a coaxal system of which the line of collinearity of the middle points of the diagonals is the radical axis. Prove that there are two points in the plane of a given triangle such that the distances of each from the vertices of the triangle are in a given ratio. 7. The two pairs of tangents drawn from a point to two circles. Prove also that the line joining these points passes through the circumcentre of the triangle. that is formed by the on the radical axis of the of the circumcircle of the triangle three diagonals of a quadrilateral if each of two pairs of opposite vertices of a circle. The centre system of 6. and the two lines joining the point to their centres of similitude.89 EXERCISES 5. circles Shew quadrilateral also .

are It is not necessary that the cone should be a right circular one.90 CHAPTER IX THE CONIC SECTIONS Definitions. having a parallel to a generating line of the generating line ' is meant a line joining the vertex of the cone to a point on the circumference of the circle forms a the which its base. pro- They jection of a circle on to a plane other than its own. has a circular base (and consequently too to the base are circles). line So long as the cone all its if called circle. as they are frequently called) are the curves of conical. the vanishing line cuts the called a hyperbola. is parallel plane it. An ellipse is a section of the cone by a plane such that the plane parallel to it through the vertex cuts the plane of the base in a line external to A hyperbola. . cone. or vertical. If the vanishing the curve of projection called an ellipse. then the plane sections of a cone having a circular base. that is. a section of the cone by a plane such that the through the vertex cuts the base of the cone. 88. curve is if circle. The Conic Sections (or Conies. that its vertex should on the lie it. circle the sections parallel are called conic sections. through the centre of line the circular base and at right angles to it conic sections are classified according to the relation touches the parabola. the sections of The 89. and curve of projection is In other words a parabola By a ' is the vanishing line does not meet the by a plane circular base. is the section of a cone. of the vanishing line to the projected circle.

and that to obtain both these branches the cone must be prolonged on both sides of 90. this property. or greater than unity. less and the constant be proved later that the eccen- than unity. Focus and Every conic we its vertex. . an ellipse. as shall presently shew. or projection of a circle. distance from a fixed line. or a hyperbola. namely that it is the locus of a point in a plane such that its distance from a fixed point in the plane bears to its plane.THE CONIC SECTIONS The curves are illustrated 91 by the following figure and it should be observed that the hyperbola consists of two branches. directrix property. possesses. the fixed line is called the directrix. ratio the eccentricity. a constant ratio. It Avill tricity is unity. section. also in the The fixed point is called the focus of the conic. according as the conic is a parabola.

the chord of contact. the point and line being called in relation to The polar of a point from which one another pole and polar. goes through B. being the projections of a circle possess all the projective properties of the must circle. polar (3) is unlimited in length. and develop their properties therefrom. If the polar of a point then the polar of B A for a conic must go through A. which will be the projection of the tangents to the The (2) property ' conic sections will clearly have the That of the circle. easy it is its focus when the We conies are regarded as the shall in the next chapter shew how that plane curves having the focus and to prove directrix property are the projections of a circle. the focus and directrix property of the curves as the definition of them. tangents can be drawn to the curve will be the same as the line This line is through the points of contact of the tangents. For many of the properties which can only be regretted. 92. two such I lie lines on another line I'. ignoring for the purpose of this development the when by fact every conic that and directrix property. two and only two tangents can be drawn. Also I' if the pole of a line will lie on /. Two such points are called conjugate points. Projective properties. and from points which are the projections of such points in the plane of the circle as lie without the circle. evolved with great labour from the focus and directrix property section. This is to be is all the while the projection of some circle. is. They will be such that no straight line in their plane (1) can meet them in more than two points.' but strictly speaking the often called ' chord The is only that portion of the line intercepted by the curve. ' circle. The conic sections. even defined are proved with great ease projections of a circle.THE CONIC SECTIONS 92 Text books on Geometrical Conic Sections usually take 91. (4) pole of lines. pole and polar the locus of the intersections of tangents at the extremities of chords through a given point will be a line. the being called conjugate .

(if Similarly pairs of conjugate lines through a point will form an involution pencil whose double lines are the tangents (if any) from the point. Prop. For we have only to project the polar of the point to infinity and the involution pencil formed by the conjugate lines through it into an orthogonal involution. involution range projects into a range also in involution. 93. point of circle it is a circle with P can be projected as centre. to if be projected into the centre needs to is to be a real one (see the projection . If in the curve of projection of a circle the pairs of conjugate lines through the point pole of the vanishing line the curve is a circle having P luhicJi is the form an orthogonal its projection of the involution. the tangents any chord through P meet at infinity. a point within at every perpendicular to the radius joining the point to P. then centre at P. But since the involution pencil formed by the pairs of conjugate at the extremities of lines P through is on a line through an orthogonal one. The curve of projection of a circle is under certain con- ditions another circle. Note. Thus the curve has the property that the tangent it is That the curve is. Cor. Hence the tangents at the extremities of the chord are at right angles to it. pairs of conjugate points for a conic which lie along a line will form an involution range whose double points will be the points (7) any) in which the line cuts the curve. The point be within the circle Note to § 87).THE CONIC SECTIONS 93 The harmonic property of the pole and polar which must hold also for the conic sections since (5) obtains for the circle cross-ratios are unaltered (6) As an by projection. Circle projected into another circle. these tangents must meet P perpendicular to the chord. For since the polar of P is the line at infinity. into another circle luith any projected into the centre.

the harmonic property of the pole and polar {FR.PQ) = -l.'. Let P and Q be any two points on the curve. Join S ST cutting PQ in R. and T goes through F. //'" plane of in the there exist a point S polar.-.-. TSF . SP PM = SQ QA\ ST and : . is : : T 72). . goes through F. Prop. let PQ meet the polar of QN perpendicular to the polar of S. of projection of a such that the involution pencil the conjugate lines through its the curve IS an orthogonal is one. Then ST S is the polar of F. form an orthogonal involution. SF and ST are conjugate But by hypothesis the conjugate lines at F goes through also goes it *S^ through lines. .-. circle formed hi/ then 8 and polar are focus and directrix for the curve. a right angle. for the polar of since that of S since the polar of . in F. And by . and let the tangents at them meet in T. SF are the bisectors of the angle PSQ. and Join SF.{^ SP:SQ = FP:FQ = PM QN (by similar triangles). and draAv PAI.THE CONIC SECTIONS 94 Focus and directrix as pole and 94.-.

•• that is m Thus points M is so too. that of the . Moreover the tangents at the extremities of each of the jicirallel ivill intersect on the line which is the locus of the middle points of the chords. In cwy conic the locus section (or curve of projection of a circle) of the middle points of a system of parallel chords is a straight line. we will establish a very important general propositi(jn about parallel chords. The chords may be considered as concurrent in a point which is the projection of a point and we have {QQ'. and every line parallel to the chords and in the plane of the curve is conjugate with this line containing the chords middle jwints. Prop. which shewing that for all of them there we shall do by exists at least one point S. we go on Before to establish the focus and directrix property of the curves of projection of a circle. eccentricity the ratio of the radius of the circle to the infinite distance of the points on the circle from the line at infinity. infinity from the polar of and directrix If the polar of <S' for S is constant.THE CONIC SECTIONS Thus the S polar are focus Note. Parallel chords.iMR) = -l. as the locus of the points is r m is a line. may be considered to have the focus and directrix property.mr)^-l on the polar of r. 95. infinity line . should happen to be the line at then the curve of projection We may on the curve from is S and ratio of the distance of points to their distance its 95 is a circle here remark that the circle (§ 93). the pairs of conjugate lines through which form an orthogonal involution. Let QQ' be one <>f the chords of the system and ^1/ its middle point. R at on the vanishing (qq'. is The line at infinity. that the curve. the focus being at the and the directrix the centre. and the tangents meets the curve are parallel at the points cohere this line to the chords.

that is. We separately. shall and take the parabola. P is parallel to QQ'. In other words. defined as the projections of a circle. and be the projection of p. ellipse and hyperbola in each case prove a preliminary proposition respecting their axes of symmetry. then as the tangent at p goes through r that at P must go through R that is the tangent at Let let P . We Focus and directrix property established. Prop.THE CONIC SECTIONS 96 P be a point in which this loous meets the curve. the locus of the middle points of the chords. Also every line through r will have its pole on the polar of r. Further as the tangents at q and q' meet on the polar of Q and Q' will meet on the projection of the polar of those at that is on the line which is 7\ r. the polar of every point on the line which is the locus of the middle points of a system of parallel chords is a line parallel to the chords. A parabola (or the projection of a circle touched by has an axis of symmetry which the vanishing line in its plane) meets the curve in tivo points one of luhich is at infinity. . every line parallel to the chords is conjugate with the locus of their middle points. are now in a position to establish the focus and directrix property of the conic sections. and therefore every line through R in the plane of the conic will have its pole on the line PM. 96.

-. 7ir) = -l. which it. and the eccentricity A. In the plane through V.and which cuts aco in n then (pp'. 7 . and remembering that ru) rno} will project into a right angle since subtends a right angle at V. Now / is the pole of aw. raay projects into a right angle (for angle at V) the tangent at A is rw subtends a right at right angles to the axis. Finally the curve touches the line at infinity at O. FN=^^F\ the chords perpendicular to and the curve is Ail are bisected by therefore symmetrical about this line. all . and the vanishing line draw vanishing line in r.THE CONIC SECTIONS Let the vanishing line touch the 97 circle in co. Thus. called the vertex. G. Prop. using c<^rresponding capital letters in the projection. by the vanisliing line) has the focus and directrix property. of the curve is unity. meeting the Draw the other tangent ra to the circle. But R is Thus at infinity. The and axis meets the curve in the point A. and therefore if pp' be any chord which produced passes through 7. the vertex of projection. ^4 parabola (or projection of a circle touched 97. is called the axis of the parabola. we shall have a chord FF' at right angles to Ail and cutting it at N so that {FF\ NR) = -1. in the point As H which is at infinity. Vr at right angles to Vco.

. XM cutting the axis in X. TA = AN we have TS = XN = MP. and the line through P parallel to the axis in M. But TY. SZ. as Now YS n is let the pole of I^P' at infinity. . Then . The tangents at P and P' will intersect in a point T on the line of the axis (§ 95).YP=^TA. XA= AS. perpendicular to the axis. the tangent at P in Z. be at right angles to the axis (§ 95).'. and TS=PS. so that A TYS ^APYS. be the chord through P. Let PNP' and cutting it in iY. Now as *S' is the pole of XM An) = -i. it polar of be TA = AN.THE CONIC SECTIONS Let P be any point on the curve of projection.-. the tangent at at right angles to The Let T is as S PF to will P meet that at meet the axis in A in ]' and draw S. that is P is equidistant from (xs. Join SP. and as >S^ polar of S.AN=^\. and the Thus PS = PM.

SP Hence SZ and are conjugate lines for the curve. goes through Z) and through P since -Z'P is a tangent at P. for (since that of 99 . and they are at right angles. Therefore the involution pencil formed by the pairs of con- jugate lines through polar XM eccentricity 98. vanishing line in ^\ circle or .THE CONIC SECTIONS ST Further. the angle SPM. are focus is SP Prop. Thus and directrix for the curve which is unity. *S' (§ 94). on which are intercepted by the curve chords of unequal length. : *S' is an orthogonal one. Now Z is S S PM and SP = PM. since SPMT is Thus a equal and parallel to is rhombus and PT bisects ASPZ = AMPZ. >S' at right angles to So also are ST and the line through it (§ '95). and its and the PM The projection of a its plane is either a circle not met by the a closed curve having two axes of symmetry. ZSP = Z ZMP = a right Z the polar of Z must go through and Z the pole of SP. mutually perpendicular.

But and GK GK bisects Hence AA' and BB' and B meet GK an'd (§ 95). then there must be one and only one pair of conjugate lines G through mutually at right angles Let the curve intercept on these Draw the chords FQ and respectively cutting -them in FR Then as fl' is lines chords perpendicular to N and points at infinity on the lines (§ 86). which its infinity. which are called the We shall now shew that Let the tangents at rectangle. For this is C chords through are called diameters. it The tangents and the called the centre of the curve. which the vanishing is circle line. and FQ O A A' and BB'. G is cannot be equal. G parallel to AB. the line through G parallel to AB are con- . the tangents at the extremities of chords of the through c shall FC =CF'. for bisected at G. FN=NQ. reason the point for we divided harmonically at is meet in the polar of c. First suppose that the involution pencil formed by the pairs G of conjugate lines through curve a is is an orthogonal one . Next suppose that the involution pencil is not an orthogonal one. the pole oi AA'.-.THE CONIC SECTIONS 100 Using corresponding capital letters in the projection. is at the extremities of any diameter are parallel. . is symmetrical about each of the two lines BGB'. and let of A A' and BB'. A A' and BB' and H' be the passes through O'. then GAKB is a AB.-. {FQ. . then the circle (§ 93). FM = MR. in K. bisects the chord through every chord through jugate lines A axes.Nn') = -l. Jli. Thus every chord through C is the line at bisected at C. C have that the chord FF' through G and intersection with the polar of C. Similarly Thus the curve AGA'.

to GA describe a circle cutting the major axis in The polars of Let these be the tangent at Now . But these thus GA if lines GB and . that of F goes through B.-. SB We is will the polar of F. is less than unity. BB' of which AA' is the greater. since the polar of S through B S and XF and X' F' S but the polar of F goes through F. and SF. perpendicular to S' are in F and . SB shew that they are mutually are conjugate lines. . Hence AA' and BB' cannot be We ^^' shall A A' to be the greater of the two. Assuming that the projection is not a circle we have as shewn in § 98 two axes of symmetry AA'. Then suppose called the is equal. circle. major axis and BB' the minor axis. An ellipse (or curve of projection. at right angles. Prop. With centre B and radius equal S and S'. cutting A A' in AA' X (§ 95). since goes FB tangent. and X' and F'. other than a of a circle not met hij the vanishing line in its plane) has the focus and directrix property and the eccentricity of the curve 99. is a .THE CONIC SECTIONS lOl would be at right angles if CA = CB. And were equal the involution pencil formed by the pairs of conjugate lines through G would be an orthogonal one which is contrary to hypothesis.

THE CONIC SECTIONS 102 ^ince S the pole of A''^ is /S'X) = -1.. .-. CS. (^^'. Now Then draw SK parallel BK . .GX = CA"-. to CB to meet BF in K. .OS) = GA".'. = KF OS SX = CS (CX . .CS-' =^SB'-GS'=SK' FSB is a right angle.

and let c line. divided harmonically at c and its intersection j^P' is Then with WW. which is and the chords through Let it in the curve of projection is therefore called the centre of the curve. since namely the projection of c&> and cw. Thus every chord through C bisected at G.-. G are called diameters. pair of conjugate lines through c only one will circle. we have that the chord FP' through C is divided harmonically G and its intersection with the polar of C which is the line shall at at infinity. . Thus there through G will it has real double be one and only one pair of conjugate lines mutually at right angles' (§ 86). FC = CP'. for cut and cw' are the double formed by these conjugate meet lines of the involution lines. since in the plane of the circle there are lines through c which do not meet Of each the it. Using corresponding capital letters in the projection. Let pp be any chord the line of which passes through c. be observed that not every line through G meets the curve.THE CONIC SECTIONS Let the vanishing be the pole of the line cut the circle in 103 w and co' . Further the involution pencil formed by the conjugate lines G cannot be an orthogonal one. through lines. .

and Gfl' in K' and L. (PQ. To prove that the curve is symmetrical about GA and GB we draw chords PQ. from CH Since and GDf are the double lines of the involution pencil formed by the conjugate lines through G {mr. A hyperbola (or curve of projection of a circle and directiHx property. as . cut by the vanishing line) has the focus and the eccentricity is g7-eater than unity. K The lines KL and K'L' will be perpendicular to the transwe have seen. of symmetry mutually at right which meets the curve. one of which meets the curve is called the transverse axis and GB is called the conjugate axis. Let Z and Z' be the points at infinity along the lines GA and GB. they are the GVL' (§ 72). NZ') . and is on to make it definite . Prop. shall find it convenient later point to be emphasised the curve. These tangents are called asymptotes. namely in Note that the curve of projection will have two tangents. Then since Z' is the pole of AA' and N PQ passes through Z'. AA' Thus the curve has two axes angles. Similarly = -1. 101. GA bisects the angle OCH'.•. is the one that meets the curve. of which the former A and A'. since. AB)=--l . We At present B is not a definite point on the line GB. and radius GA cutting GH in and L'. Using the notation of the preceding article. PR perpendicular to them and cutting them in and M. PN = NQ.-. the that the transverse axis does not cut we cannot determine points B and B' on it as these points are determined in the case of the ellipse. PM = MR. Note. GA Since GB and bisectors of the angles are G (§82). as in the figure. we describe a circle with centre G.THE CONIC SECTIONS 104 Let this pair CA be and GB. at right between Of! and angles. and the other not. verse axis. G whose points of contact fl and iV the projections of co and co' are at infinity.

CX = CA'=CK\ CKS is a right angle.•.THE COXIC SECTIONS the poles of these . S and S\ polar KL are focus and of the pole and polar SX) = - 1. pencil formed *S' KX . since the polar of through K. CS. namely Sfl and SK. Then by the harmonic property K must go through S. by the pairs of conjugate lines and its polar through S is an orthogonal one. Now denote by X and A".-. that and K'L' cut AA' in its {AA'.'.. Thus we have two pairs of conjugate lines mutually at right angles. will line of the transverse axis (§ 95). that is perpendicular to SK. since that of S goes Moreover the polar of goes through H. are conjugate lines. and therefore are focus and directrix for the curve. Sn is the polar of A". directrix. and through S at right angles to line Hence the SC through >S'6' S. 105 K a tangent at O.•. as are also S' Let lines. . KCl is . But Sfl is n being at infinity SCI is parallel to KQ. that is >S7i and SD. . on the will lie We will KL which we now shew S and and K'L'. and the (§ 95).

We have seen that the We have proved in Diameters. The eccentricity Sn : the ratio is perpendicular from II on KL = KVl the same = GK OX = CA CX which is greater than Note too that as C^. : SA AX = CS. bisected at that point.CA CX CX {CA . which projects into the locus of the middle points of the system of chords.THE CONIC SECTIONS 106 Similarly S' and K'L' are focus and directrix. . For such a system is the projection of chords of the circle concurrent at a point r on the vanishing line.CX) CX (CA .CX) = CA (CA .CX = CH CX . : : : 102.CX) = CA CX. the line which is the locus of the middle points of a system of parallel chords is parallel to the axis. and hyperbola have each a centre. In the case of the parabola. : : . These lines They are not diameters in the same sense in which the diameters of a . Central and non-central conies. CX = CA'^. are conveniently called diameters of the parabola. and the polar of r. that is a point such that ever}^ chord passing through the same is bisected by it. the eccentricity also = : : : unity. § ellipse 95 that the locus of the middle points of a system of parallel chords is a straight case of the central conies this line for the Clearly in the line. system of parallel chords of the parabola passes through fl. must go through the diameter parallel to the chords is centre. passes through ro the point of contact of the circle with Thus the locus of the middle points of the the vanishing line. C'>S^: We might have obtained the eccentricity thus It is the ratio C'J.CA CA . The parabola has no centre and is called non-central. All lines then in the plane of a parabola and parallel to its axis will bisect each a system of parallel chords. Ellipses and hyperbolas then are classified together as central conies. the line is parallel to the axis. that is..

the major axis. The ordinates of the axis of a parabola. The student should now have a good general idea of the form of the curves. for they are not limited in length and bisected at a definite" point. . realising that they have been obtained by projecting a circle from one plane on to another. which have two axes of symmetry. Def The . parallel chords of a conic bisected by a particular diameter are called double ordinates of that diameter. and. Thus the ordinate of a point P on a parabola. as it were. or the transverse an ellipse. When we speak of the axis of a conic there can be no ambiguity in the case of a parabola.THE CONIC SECTIONS 107 central conic are. The ordinates of an axis of a conic are perpendicular to that axis. meant that one on which the The contents importance for a right foci lie. of the major axis of and of the transverse axis of a hyperbola are often called simply ordinates without specifying that whereto they are ordinates. Ordinates of diameters. Note. 103. ' ' PN axis. shewing conies have in treat of the parabola. and in subsequent chapters ellipse and hyperbola separately. see them whole. there would be ambiguity unless we determined beforehand which axis was meant. but in the case of the ellipse and hyperbola. ordinates of a diameter are as we have seen parallel to the tangents at the point or points in which the diameter meets the curve. the special properties which each curve has. which all We shall in the next chapter set forth properties common. Let it then be understood that by the axis of a conic will be 104. ellipse or hyperbola must be understood to mean the perpendicular on the axis. of the present chapter are of great understanding of the conic sections. and the half chord The is called an ordinate of the diameter. as the case may be.

drawing have. 105. and be the corresponding focus. SF and SQ.108 CHAPTER X PROPERTIES COMMON TO ALL CONICS Proposition. conic meet a directrix in F. For. FPM). P joining two points S If the line {produced if necessary) and Q of a.-. PM and QR perpendicular to the directrix be the eccentricity. SP:SQ = PM:QR . if e will bisect one of the angles 1. we . SP:PM=e = SQ:QR. = FP:FQ (by similar As FQR. between SP Fig.

and itself. since the pole of SP . lines. therefore the tangents at the extremities of a focal chord will meet at Z in Thus SZ and lies on SZ. ZSP is a ricfht 106. and SP conjugate Z will PSQ be the pole of PQ.-. *S'^ bisects the exterior angle of bisects the angle it 109 PSQ PSQ. //" the tangent to a conic at a point P meet a Z and S he the corresiDonding focus. if and Q be on the same branch of the curve. easily seen from the following considerations This is The focus and directrix are ' pole and polar ' for the conic.PROPERTIES COMMON TO ALL CONICS . the directrix. in fig. directrix in angle. and the angle P»SQ itself if P and Q be on opposite branches. P Prop. in figs 1 2 and 3. We see then that SF bisects the exterior angle of PSQ.

For we have shown in the second jjart of § having the focus and directrix property is 106 that a curve such that tangents at the extremities of any chord through S. . ZQ are the tanoents. as the curves of projection of a circle and showed that they We shall now establish 2)lane curve having the focus and directrix have the focus and directrix property. the converse proposition. Regard the tangent the chord PP' when P' at P is very close to P.PROPERTIES COMMON TO ALL CONICS 110 But the But plane pairs of conjugate lines through a focus are at right ZSP Therefore angles. And the nearer P' approaches P. Prop. In the preceding chapter we defined the conic sections 107. SF bisects the exterior PSP' (§ 105) for P and P' are on the same branch. the focus. intersect on the directrix on a line through 8 perpendicular to the chord. as the limiting case of the line of angle of PP' meet the directrix in F. property Every is the projection of some circle. since the tangent at either is end of the chord determined by drawing right angles to the chord lo PSQ SZ at meet the directrix in Z. we as curve projection of is a right angle. we the is another proof of the will give proposition dependent only on this property. then ZP. should be observed It that this second proof yields also the result that tangents at the ex- tremities of a focal chord intersect in the directrix. the more does this exterior Now if angle approximate to two right angles. Thus Z ZSP = the limit of =a FSP' when P' approaches P right angle. are going to prove in the next article that every having the focus and directrix property some circle.

and therefore the circle Avith s as centre. meet and . and if PQ meet the corresponding directrix in F Prop. if the eccen- cut by the vanishing ' line. Let Tti meet FQ in R. then SP and i^Q make equal angles with ST. is Pair of tangents. of projection has the property that the tangents at the extremities of every chord through jection of S. 109. J/ a pair of ttDiyents TF. from a point Z TSF is a right angle. TQ be drawn to a conic P and S be a focus.PROPERTIES COMMON TO ALL CONICS Now project so that the directrix is so that the orthogonal involution at orthogonal involution Then the curve 111 the vanishing line S (§ 87). from what we have established the curve having the focus and directrix property had its eccentricity unity then the circle into which it has been projected must touch the vanishing line in the preceding chapter that if in the plane then the tricity <jf circle the circle . projects into another s. s. the pro- at infinity on a line through s perpendicular to the chord. Hence the tangent at each point of the curve is at right angles to the radius joining the point to curve is a It follows of course 108. . if the eccentricity be less than unity does not meet the vanishing line be greater than unity the circle .

but if the points of contact of the on the same branch of the curve if ST bisects they are on different branches then bisects the exterior angle of The between (§ 72). . 110. figures given do not ST PSQ.FR) = -1. and SF are the bisectors of the angles It will be seen that T lie PSQ. they must be at right angles. shew the case v/here both touch the branch remote from S. and F must go through T. tangents from the angle FR) = -l S(PQ. 8F and 8T are conjugate lines.-. the the polar of F must go 8.TROPERTIES COMMON TO ALL CONICS 112 PQ is the polar of T. since F is on the directrix Since polar of But through this goes through F. Hence Further Thus SP and SR SQ Note. The above proposition gives a simple construction for drawing two tangents to a conic from an external point T. TP and The student can TQ easily represent this in a figure of his own. and as they are through a focus. (PQ. . Thus 8T is the polar of F.

PROPERTIES COMMON TO ALL CONICS

ST

Join

and

meet the conic

let it

in

K and K'.
Take

of the preceding article can be utilised.

KK') = -

that {TR,

TP

TQ

and

.-.

the pole of

But the pole
.

.

.

.

are at right angles

such

the directrix in F.

P and

Q.

and through a

focus,

on SF.

/SfT lies

of SI'

on the

is

T goes

the polar of

But the polar
Thus the line FR

figure

KK'

lines.

the pole of ST, that

i^ is

The
in

are the tangents.

ST and SF

For as

they are conjugate

R

1 (§ 70, Cor. 2).

Draw SF at right angles to ST to meet
Draw the line FR and let it cut the conic in
Then

113

of

T

directrix.

the polar of

is,

goes through

R

since (TR,

the polar of T, that

is

F goes

through T.

through F.

is,

PQ

is

KK') = -

1.

the chord of

contact of the tangents from T.

The Normal.

111.

Def.

The

line

and at right angles

Prop.
and

S

be

If

the

through the point of contact of a tangent
to it is called the

normal

a focus of the

P

normal at that

point.

any conic meet the aocis in G,
conic then SG = e SP, where e is the
at

to

.

eccentricity.

Let the tangent at

P

meet the

directrix corresponding to

SinZ.

Draw

PM perpendicular to the directrix.

Then

since

A. G.

PM is'Jparallel to the axis, Z MPS = Z PSG.
8

PROPERTIES COMMON TO ALL CONICS

114

PMZ and i^S'Z are right angles, PSZM is
SMP = Z SZP = complement of z SPZ = z SPO.
Thus the A s ISPG, PMS are similar and
SG:SP = PS:PM = e- .-.80 = 6. SP.
Also since

and

cyclic

^^

The student can make

P

where

this case

is

it will

So that the
112.

The
The

In

latus rectum.
focal

chord perpendicular to the axis on which

lies is called

Thus the

latus

focus to the axis

the latus rectum of the conic.

rectum

the double ordinate through the

is

103),

The semi-latus rectum of a conic

Prop.

S.

be found

ZSMP = 180°- ZSZP
= 90°+ ZSPZ= ZSPG.
and
PMS are still similar.
As SPG

Def.
the focus

himself a figure shewing the case

for

on the branch of a hyperbola remote from

is

aharmonic mean

between the segments of any focal chord.

Let

aS7>

Draw
and

be the semi-latus rectum, and

PM and QR perpendicular

QK perpendicular to
Then

.

PSQ

any

focal chord.

to the directrix,

and

PN

the axis.

SP:P3f = e = SL:SX
= 8Q QR.
:

And by

similar triangles

SP .SQ = SN: KS
= XN - XS XS - XK (Fig.
= MP - XS A^S' - RQ
= e{MP-XS):e(XS-RQ)
= SP- SL SL - SQ.
:

1

:

:

..

SP,

SL and SQ

are in harmonic progression

and

A

_L J_ SP'^SQ'~SL'
This proposition requires some modification
on opposite branches. We ijow have

if

P

and Q are

PROPERTIES COMMON TO ALL CONICS

115

XR :KX + XS (Fig.
= e{XS-3IP):e(QR + XS)
= SL-SP:SQ + SL

SP SQ = SN KS = XS :

:

Fig.
.-.

2)

Fig. 2.

1.

SP {SQ + SL) = SQ (SL - SP)
SQ SL - SP SL = 2.ST SQ
.

.

.

.

.

1 __L_ ^

''

Thus

in this case

Cor.

it is

IVie rectangle

SP,

SP

SQ'SL'

SL and — SQ

contained by

tJie

that are

m

h.p.

segments of any focal

chord varies as the length of the chord.
^

- SQ

SP

SL

'

P

and Q be on the same or opposite branches
{P being on the branch adjacent to S), and in both cases we
PQ ^ _2_
have

according as

SP SQ
.

.-.

that

SL

SP.SQ = '^^'xPQ
SP.SQozPQ.

is

and SQ are in opposite directions P and Q
If
same branch of the curve, and if they are in the same
P and Q lie on opposite branches.

SP

Prop. Any conic can be projected
113.
any point in the plane of the conic projected

lie

on the

direction,

into a circle loith
into the centre

the circle.

8—2

of

PROPERTIES COMMON TO ALL CONICS

116
For

let

P

Take the

be any point in the plane of the conic.
jiolar of

P

vanishing line and project so>

for the

that the involution pencil formed by the pairs of conjugate

P

through

lines

projects into an orthogonal involution

then exactly as in
is

a

§

87);

98 we can prove that the curve of projection

circle.

Note.
that

is

P

may be

In order that the projection

P

tangents from

must

to the conic

lie

must not be

a real one, the

(Note to

real

§ 87),

within the conic.

Carnot's theorem.

Prop.

114.

If a

conic cut the sides of a triangle

ABC in

A^, A^; B,, B^; C\, C^; then

AB, AB^ CA, CA, BC, BC,
= AC\.Aa. BA, BA, CB,
.

.

.

.

.

.

.

Project the conic into a circle

by corresponding small

projection

Then

since

abi

.

C«i

.

bcy
.'
.

.•.

ahi

.

ah,

.

ca-i

.

ca.,

bci

ah =

.

.

letters.

ac^

= c6i

bc2

=

.

.

buy.

= aCj

.

ac2,
cb.2
ba.2,,

ac.^

the triangle formed by the lines

spective with the triangle abc

CB,.

and denote the points in the

;

COa

bc.2

.

(§ 68).

.

bui

.

ba^

.

ttj^a, b^Co,

cb^

.

063.

c^a^ is in

per-

PROPERTIES COMMON TO ALL CONICS
.•.

117

the triangle formed by the lines A^Bo, B^Co, G^Ao

is

in

ABC.

perspective with the triangle

.-.by §68

AB, AB, CA,
.

.

.

CA.^

.

BC, BC,
.

= AC\.ACo_. BA, BA,
.

.

CB,

.

CB.,.

Newton's theorem.
115.

and PQ,

Prop.

RS be

If

a variable

be

jjoint in the

plane of a

conic,

chords in fixed directions through 0, then

OP.OQ
OB. OS

IS constant.

Let 0' be [any other point and through 0' draw the chords
PQ and RS.

P'Q', R'S' parallel respectively to

Let QP, Q'P' meet in
Let P'Q' and

Now

RS

at infinity

and SR, S'R'

in

CI.

in T.

apply Carnot's theorem to the triangle coOT and get
ayP oyQ
.

coP'

but

&>

meet

.

(oP

OR OS TP' TQ'
TR TS OP OQ
.

.

o)Q'

.

~p;=

loP

.

,

1

.

.

.

,

&>(

.

and ~^. -1.
o)Q

1,

PROPERTIES COMMON TO ALL CONICS

118

TR. TS ~ OK.OIS'
Next apply Carnot's theorem

to the triangle D.TO'

and get

n R.nS. TF. TQ O'R O'S' ~
nw ns' o'P' O'Q' tr Ts
'

.

.

.

.

.

.

TP'.TQ' ^ O'F'

TR. TS ~ O'R' O'S'
OP OQ _0'P' .O'Q

.O'Q'

.

.

Hence
,L

.

that

IS,

OR.OS~

OP.OQ
77^5—7T-<
UK
(Jo

O'R'.O'S"

.

IS

constant.

.

This proposition

is

known

as

Newton's theorem.

Note. In applying Newton's theorem it must be remembered
that the lines OP, OQ, &c. have sign as well as magnitude.
If
OP and OQ are opposite in direction, they have opposite sign,
and

OR

so for

and OS.

Newton's theorem

116.

see in later chapters,

We

is

of great importance, as

where considerable use

give some propositions illustrating

will

If two chords of a conic PP' and QQ',
OP' OQ OQ' is equal to that of the
focal chords parallel to PP' and QQ'.

OP

Let the

.

:

shall
it.

its use.

Prop.

the ratio

we

be made of

.

intersect in

lengths of the

PP' and QQ' be pSp' and

focal chords parallel to

qSq'.

Then by Newton's theorem

OP OF OQ
.

:

.

OQ'

In the special case where

have OP'

= - OP

and OQ'
.-.

We

Note.

=-

= Sp Sp Sq Sq'
= pp':qq (§ 112 Cor.).
.

is

:

.

the centre of the conic

we

OQ.

OP"-:OQ^-=pp':qq'.

have already explained that in using Newton's

theorem, the signs of the segments of the line are to be considered.
If
*S^

.

OP

.

Sj^ and

OP' and OQ OQ' have opposite signs so also will
Sq Sq' have opposite signs. This only happens in
.

.

Then regarding OQ meeting the curve in two coincident points P. //" a circle cut a conic in four points the chords joining their points of intersection in pairs are equally inclined to the axis. one of the focal chords pp'. branches and the other will join two points on the same branch. that if CQ be the semidiameters parallel to the focal chords. . Sq'. Sp Sq . Let PP' and QQ' intersect in 0.has now a negative value. Q. pp'. with the same convention as to sign. qSq parallel to PP' and QQ'. and when one 119 of the four points p. pp' qq' : two focal chords.-.OP:OQ. and we have by Newton's theorem OP. then : Let the focal chords be pSp'. p' Then q lies on the opposite branch to the other three. OP\:OQ^=pp:qq'.OQ'^pp:qq' is algebraically as well as numerically correct.OQ = Sp.is equal to the ratio of the focal chords parallel respectiveli/ to OP and OQ. . qq' And from this we see that of the two diameters parallel to CP. // OP and OQ be two tangents to a conic OP' OQ. = CP' CQ\ : one of which joins two points on the same branch and the other two points on opposite branches. qSq'. Whence we : OP as similarly. P'. qq will join two points on opposite and q. only one can meet the curve in real points for the ratio CP- : CQ.PROPERTIES COMMON TO ALL CONICS the case of the hyperbola. Q'.OP= OQ . is Prop. Draw focal chords pSp'. Prop. So also it is true. see that the focal chords have the same sign. Let the conic and circle intersect in the four points P. from a point to equal to that of the diameters parallel to them. It is clear too that the ratio of the tangents a central conic 118. If we make the convention that a negative value be attached it joins two points on opposite to the length of a focal chord if branches otherwise it is to count positive the relation OP. 117.

the tangent at the point of contact joining the two points of intersection make and cut it at and the chord equal angles with the axis. the circle of curvature at a point PQ P of a conic cut the conic and the tangent at P are equally inclined For the tangent at P and the chord PQ are the to the axis.OF = OQ. These circles will in general cut the conic in two other points. common chords of the circle and the conic. but principal properties of it the properly belongs to the seems desirable to give here the of circles curvature of conies* Accordingly we shall at the end of the chapters on the parabola.oq. two If a circle touch a conic at one point others. They have then the same rate of curvature at that point.PROPERTIES COMMON TO ALL CONICS 120 Then. The subject of curvature Differential Calculus. but in the special case where one of these other two points coincides with the point of contact circle is called the circle of curvature at P. circles of if and hyperbola add a proposition relating to the It is clear from § 118 that curvature for these curves.OP'-. again in Q then . equal angles with the axis. Sp' : Sq . OQ' = Sp . ellipse.OQ. Circle of curvature. parallel to them. such circles having their centres along the normal at the point. CoR. This circle P the may be regarded as the limiting case of the circle passing through P and through two points on the conic consecutive to P. ^^d ^P ^P' = ^9 ^'j'chords have the same sign. 119. Sq' = pp':qq'. make equal angles with the axis. An infinite number of circles can be drawn to touch a conic at a given point P. their lengths are ecjual and the rectangles contained by their segments PP = • ' Thus the • parallel 'Vl' • • focal are equal. But from the circle op. by Newton's theorem OP. These choi'ds must then be symmetrically placed and make Thus PP' and QQ'. so that the conic and the circle have two consecutive tangents in common.

119a. Let PQ cut AD and BC in X and F. the diagonal or harmonic triangle regard to the conic — that is.PROPERTIES COMMON TO ALL COXICS The 121 following figure illustrates the circle of curvature at a poipt of a conic. Self-Polar Triangle. Prop. each vertex is four is i^oints of a self-polar with the pole of the opposite Mde. PQR the diagonal or harmonic triangle. Let ABCD be the quadrangle. If a conic pass through the quadrangle. .

R the polar of goes thi'ough A'" (§ 92 (5)). shew how to draw the tangent at any point.'. PR the polar of P. Similarly QR is PQ is goes through Y. and GL SP. proved.XR)=-1. any point of a conic /* meet a directrix D in then the eccentricity. : of a latus rectum LSL' meet the T then TA =AS.PROPERTIES COMMON TO ALL CONICS 122 (AD. PQ shew that the are two chords of a conic intersecting and P'Q' meet on the polar of 0. and Thus the proposition is of Q. FSF' F and be a focal chord and Q any point on the conic and meet the directrix corresponding to the focus S in is a right angle. tlien PL = the semi-latus to a conic be perpendicular to the focal i-adius rectum. end tangent at the nearer vertex A in If the tangent at 5. . Given two points on a conic and a 2. this proposition when taken would be to say that in pairs are conjugate for the conic. If PSP' PQ and PQ F'. Another way of stating the diagonal points J? the polar of R. Then . If the normal at 6.'.'. The triangle PQR also called self-conjugate with regard is to the conic. EXERCISES Given n conic and a focus and corresponding directrix 1. and the polar of . and the latus rectum through the corresponding focus in SD SP = it. prove that of P meet the axis in G. circle. into the centre. if 7. locus of the corresponding focus is a directrix. {BC\YR) = -1. . in 0.] F. [Project the conic into a circle and If the tangent at the 4. POP' and QOQ' 3.

P and Q are two points on perpendicular to the chords. then P on independent of the position of be the PN'^ : AJ^ the curve. Pro\'e that the line joining a focus of a conic to that point correspcmding directrix at which a diameter bisecting a 12. Conies are drawn through two fixed points I> and E. a conic.PROPERTIES COMMON TO ALL CONICS If a conic touch the sides opposite to A. BE.] 13. Given a focus and two points of a variable conic. £. Q. two conies focus. prove that must pass through one or other of two 15. in the system of parallel chords meets it is [Use §§ 95 and 106. and 10. and if : 18.) S2I TJV . are such that shew that the DE subtends a constant angle at a focus of them passes through line joining this focus to the pole of DE a fixed point. P be any point on the tangent at a point P of a conic of I'M be the perpendicular to SP. U. then (Adams' theorem. and Ty the perpendicular on the directi'ix corresponding to 6'. Given a focus of a conic and a chord through that focus. Given a focus and the corresponding directrix of a variable shew that the polar of a given point passes through a fixed point. . conic. The polar 11. shew that MX subtends at the corresponding focus an angle equal to that between the tangents at P and 14. ABO in I). prove that the locus of the extremities of the coi'responding latus rectum is a circle. If 17. F respectively then AD. CF 123 C oi a.] By means 9. and the diameters P and Q bisecting the chords parallel respectively to the tangents at meet a directrix iu M and N . directrix on of any point with respect which bisects the the diameter to a conic meets a focal chord drawn through the point and the corresponding focus. is Newton's theorem prove that of ordinate of a point if PX P on a parabola whose vertex is A.e. 8. [Use §114. triangle are concurrent. If 16. the corresponding directrix fixed points. a chord common to the through the point of intersection of the corre- two conies have a common will pass sponding directrices. which is >S a focus.

] P any point on the polar of A. then the points of intersection of the straight lines BC. C. the pole of and S is 22. and the conic into a A. be chords of a conic concurrent at 0. [Project the conic into a circle having the j^rojection of A for centime. PQ. Prove Pascal's theorem.] 27. . D. PR intersect on a 26. B. BC CD AB and . C. A system fixed point. G PC PC" lie on a straight 0. B. of conies touch and BD.] are four points on a conic and the tangents at A and AB. AD [Project and BG into parallel lines and the conic into a circle. AC and U. and BD. is a the corresponding focus AA\ BB\ If T is meets a directrix in Z chord of a conic cutting the axis in K. and of AB. and the diameter bisecting any point on the CC . line is in F D . D Shew is a that in a fixed point.] 24. the points of B and of the tangents at are collinear. If a conic pass intersection of meet one AG through the points A. Shew that AR. that if a hexagon be inscribed in a conic the pairs of opposite sides meet in three collinear points. Q. and [Project to infinity the line joining of parallel to conic. PB'. PA'. and of the tangents at of xlZ/and A and D CD. C.^C at ^ and of the conies in P. The tangents from P to the conic meet a given line in Q and R. . 23. 20. P . [Project the conic into a circle so that the line joining the points of intersection of two pairs of opposite sides is projected to infinity. the line joining of the points of contact will pass through one of the angular points of the triangle formed by the diagonals of the quadrilateral. A diameter of a conic meets the curve in P and bisects the normal at Q. shew that the diameter through Q bisects the chord through P which is a normal at P. to the point of intersection circle. ^ is a fixed point in the plane of a conic. D in CD meet in E. G prove that . F. and AQ.PROPERTIES COMMON TO ALL CONICS 124 TP If 19. TQ and be two tangents to a conic prove that the portion of a tangent parallel to is PQ TP intercepted between TQ and bisected at the point of contact. of CA. PQ prove that TS through AB. two If a conic be inscribed in a quadrilateral. QR chord which PQ is a PQ 21. 25. and fixed line. BD ZK. PQ meets 28. C. are col linear.

B.] Given four points A. 30. then will GC^ be concurrent. 36. conies can be . A-^A. AI.PROPERTIES COMMON TO ALL CONICS 125 A on a conic two and *S" are two fixed points and P a variable PS. fixed straight lines »S' . 33. 31. Prove that a circle can be projected into a pai\abola with 34. If a conic cut the sides AA. BB. point on the conic shew that QQ' passes through a fixed point. C not on the same branch. 32. while the remaining conic may be an ellipse. C1C2. two BC. Q' respectively. one and only one can cut the curve in real points. Prove that a circle can be projected into an ellipse with 35. two given points within the circle projected into the centre and a focus of the ellipse.2. Prove that of two conjugate diameters of a hyperbola. CA. a parabola. C having ^S" as focus and that three of the conies are hyperbolas with A. PS' meet AI. C on the same branch. AT a fixed point are drawn. B. B. shew that in general four drawn through A. B.S'. or a hyperbola having A. AT in Q. a given point it P . and AA^.2. [Two conjugate diameters and the line at infinity form a self- conjugate triangle. CC^ are concurrent. Til rough 29. .2. BB^. When a triangle is self-conjugate for a conic. C. any given point within the circle projected into the focus. Prove that a circle can be projected into a hyperbola with within the circle and another given point Q without projected respectively into a focus and the centre of the hyperbola. AB of a triangle ABC in B^B^. two and onl}^ of its sides cut the curve in real points.

the directrix. Throughout A will stand for the X for the intersection of the directrix with the point at infinity along the axis. . and in §§ 96 properties of the vertex. The latus rectum = 4<AS. S Q for we have Prop. NA Na SA Sn ^NA:SA NP' SL SL = : . the parabola touches the line at infinity. curve. then PN' = ^AS. since : H is . ' . Then by Newton's theorem NP . the focus. and let LSL' be the latus rectum. as of the parabola has ah-eady been indicated In this chapter we shall develop the special 97. Let PN meet the parabola again in P'. If PN be the ordinate of the point P. (§ 115).AN. Let LSL' be the latus rectum. 121. for the axis.126 CHAPTER XI THE PARABOLA The form 120. at infinity. Draw LJ\l perpendicular to Then LL' = 2LS = 2LM = 'ISX = 4>AS. at which seen. and point. Prop.

. NG = 2AS. each of which is got from the other by rotating the figure about the tangent at the vertex through two right angles.AA'.-. that is.THE PARABOLA 127 PN'-AAS' = AN':AS. the constant of variation To determine of the line // is its is the parabola the point lies. we ought If it may know on which to lie side on either side then is tivo parabolas. I' the tangent at the vertex. Prop. they . and (2) The We first P meet the axis in T P. PN". the axis. the locus Tangent and Normal.AS. 123. line I I is varies as its distance from a perpendicular the axis. and the length of the latus rectum. proposition shews that a parabola the locus of a point in a plane such that the square of distance from a line line The I'.= 4. This prop(jsiti(ni will later case of a The preceding 122. on be seen to be only a special more general theorem. and G If the tangent respectively. have seen that tangents at and normal at PN be the ordinate of TA=AN (1) P and if PJ^ meet the curve again P' meet on the line of the in P'. of these properties has been already proved in § 97.

polar . But of the pole Aa) = -l.THE PARABOLA 128 Then by the harmonic property intersect in T. is Thus in constant. 124. NG = 2AS. {TN. called the suhnormal of the point P. {ll^l). Prop. PN'-=4. a parabola the subnormal equal angles and TA=AN. NG. AN .-.AS. Def. NG is a right angle = TN NG = ^AN .-. The tangent at any point of a 'parabola makes axis and the focal distance of the luith the M Z . Also since TPG is PN'- .

-. that is J. TA = AN. G. .129 THE PARABOLA Now since MPZ which SP = PM. . . part of this proposition will bisect P SP. TP.'. the axis G then SG = SP = ST. Further the complements of these angles must be equal . ^P^is parallel to XP. That . and have the angles at PZ is common to the As SPZ. (§ 111). zSPG = ^8GP. and Z P meet If the normal at Cor. : meet the axis in T. M and 8 right angles. But if PX be the ordinate of P. The foot of the perpendicular F from the 125.-. focus on to the tangent at any point P of a parabola lies on the tangent at the vertex The We first and SY- can also prove it thus Let the tangent at /SF = SA . 9 . -Since ST=SP. SG note that the equality of follows from the fact that for and SP in a parabola SG = e SP any conic . We SG = SP. F is the tangent at the vertex.-. A SPZ = A MPZ SPT = Z TPM =zSTP. A.ST = and SP follows from the equality of the angles SPT STP. Prop. is implicitly proved in § 97.

SZF = aMZF. Cor. 126. . Cor. then the focus at the fixed its point. Z Z SZQ = Z FZQ. Prop. 124 ASFZ^AMFZ. . Pair of Tangents. since the focus and directrix are pole and polar. Then as let the tangents meet in the Draw Pif and QF perpendicular we have seen in § to the directrix. If the locus of the foot of the perpendicular from a fixed point on a variable line be a straight variable line touches a parabola having line. 2. When a line moves in a plane so as always to touch a certain curve. That they intersect in the directrix we know already. QZF = i =a of two right Z right angle. . zSPY=zSYA. Si milarly Thus z. 1. Def. Tangents to a parabola at tJte extremities of a focal chord intersect at right angles in the directrix. the curve is called the envelope of the line. and directrix in Z. Let PSQ be a focal chord.-. s .THE PARABOLA 130 Further as SY2^ ST. SY' is a right angle and YA perpendicular to = SA ST = SA SF.

Prop.-. TP' TQ' = SP SQ 1. . TSQ are equal P and Q meet the tangent at the S7T and SZT are right angles (§ 125). and the remaining angle STQ Cor. then ZSPT = ZSTQ. : : : for TP' : : 7Y. Z. 127. PST. 2. Let the tangents at in Y and Then Z. Thus . the triangles know already that the angles 131 tangents to a parabola. 128.)'^ i = ASPT A. vertex (§ 109). fur Cor.STQ = SP. Z>^PV=Z8YA (§125) = Z STZ since SZYT is cyclic.TSQ = SP:SQ.SQ SP ST = ST SQ. STP = are similar. parabola Prop. >S'Qrand the triangles tiPT ST' = SP.ST:ST.THE PARABOLA We If TP and TQ be two SPT.SQ : since ZPST = Z. STQ are similar. is equal TAe exterior angle between to ttvo tangents to a half the angle luhich their chord of contact subtends at the focus.

Then FTK = Z SKQ .THE PARABOLA 132 the axis in P and Q meet F and K respectively. however to extend the meaning of the word and to understand by a triangle circumscribing It is convenient ' circumscribe ' a conic a triangle whose sides touch the conic whether the triangle encloses the conic or not. the is said to circumscribe the parabola. Parabola escribed to a triangle. Prop. which is infinite in a triangle circumscribes a parabola. and in the strict sense of the word be said to circumscribe it. that is. is really When can enclose a parabola.SP = 1 zPSQ. 129. But it must be clearly understood that the triangle does not enclose the parabola.Z 8FP Let the tangents at Z in T. for no finite triangle extent.Z SQT . it touches one side of the triangle sides produced. Only triangles which have the line at infinity for one of their sides can enclose the parabola. three tangents to The circumcircle of the triangle formed by a j^arabola passes througli the focus. When triangle the sides of a triangle are tangents to a parabola. .Z ^PT = ZT.Z SPT = 2 right angles . and let them meet = zSQK-zSPT = 2 right angles .Z STP . the parabola escribed to and the other two it. 130.

lie on the directrix. proposition in another Let the tangents at P. S lies on the circumcircle of the triangle Or we may prove the (§ 7). ASPT is similar to ASTQ. lying as they do on the tangent at A. Q. Then And as as ASPL is similar to A SLR. . . zSLM= zSTM. j'jora- bola lies on the directrix. is. L and M. the pedal line of . For centre if is 'TLM be the triangle. This can be seen from the fact that the feet of the perpendiculars from the focus on the three sides of the triangle which touch the parabola are collinear. SLTM is cyclic. The orthocentre of a triangle circumscribing a Cor. R way form the triangle TLM as in the figure. the line joining have seen. which the orthocentre must *S (§ 8). Z STQ = z SPT. that is. as we .-. or S lies on the circle through T. S to the ortho- bisected by the tangent at the vertex.'.THE PARABOLA Understanding the word § may 129 we If a ' 133 ' as explained in its circumcircle goes circumscribe state this proposition thus triangle circumscribe a parabola through the focus. z SLR = zSPL.•.

: . SLR.STL ZSLM = ^ SPT from the similar As SPL. Every line parallel to the axis is a diameter. STQ. : : : Diameters. PL LT = TM MQ = LR RM. (by similar As SRM. A SLM is similar to A SPT and therefore also to A STQ.THE PARABOLA 134 Prop.z SLT = z SMT. Further A SLR is similar to ASTM for ZSLM=ZSTM. and . . Z and .-. and the : 8 lies on the circumcircle of zSML= Z.LT= TM MQ = LR RM. the preceding proposition to a parabola L and M. It must be remembered too that the tangents at the extremities .RL = TL: LP. : : MR . and a third tangent at R cut and Q them in SPT and PL. 131. triangle SLM is P tangents at //' the meet in T.-. We have already explained in § 102 what is meant by diameters of a parabola. SRL = Z SLP = 180° . similar to the triangles : By TLM.-. LR:TM=SR:SM = MR MQ LR RM = TM MQ.-. and every diameter bisects a system of parallel chords. Similarly Hence 132. SMQ).

is four times the distance Let RSR' be any bisects it focal chord. The length of any focal chord of a parabola of the focus from the point where the diameter bisecting the chord meets the curve. PV the diameter which in V. SP = PV = ZP. through O. Let the tangents at R and R' meet in Z. . PV being parallel For . But ZSV is a right angle .-. Also ZP=PF(§ 132). Then Z is both on the directrix and on the line of the diameter PV. R'M' perpendicular to the directrix. AX (§ 123) is only a special case of this. Now draw RM and (§ 106). TA = Prop. TQ and TQ' // be the diameter bisecting then be tangents to QQ' in V and a parabola. and TV P cutting the curve in TP = PV.Pn) = -l. Note that 133. (§ 95). TP = PV.THE PARABOLA 135 of each of the parallel chords bisected by a diameter intersect on that diameter Prop.-. to the axis goes Thus by the harmonic property of the pole and polar {TV.

-. parallel to the chord QQ'.Vn=UR.UP. and we proved Prop. . QV':RU^-=PV:PU: UP. Vn. it QV he // equal to 4>S^^.SP. .THE PARABOLA 136 Then 2 VZ=RM + R'M' since V is the middle point of RR' = RS + 8R' = RR'. . VQ' .-. Draw will the focal chord The diameter RSR' PV in be bisected by tl (say). . Thus RR' is the parameter of the diameter PV. RR' = 4. meet the curve again in Q'. QF Produce the ordinate .UR':UP.-. A focal chord bisected by a particular diameter is called the pcwameter of the diameter which bisects the chord. an ordinate of a diameter PV then QV = 4aSP P V.PV=4.VP. Un UR UR'= VP. 134.Un=VP: VQ' : . PV meets the curve again in D. In particular the latus rectum is the parameter of the axis. RR' to QV=VQ'. . thus by Newton's theorem VQ . and we have proved it equal to ^SP.-. . VQ. at an infinity.

The line I is a diameter of the parabola and the point where / and If a be the angle I' is a tangent at makes with the axis in § 134 which QV QF=perp. I' intersect. from rerp.PV. PF= perp. . PF x cosec a. The preceding proposition shews that a parabola may be regarded as the locus of a point in a plane such that the square of its distance from a fixed line I varies as its distance from another fixed line I' not necessarily at right angles to /.a = 4<SP X perp. AS of § 121 only a special case of the general proposition just proved. from Q on tangent at P x cosec Q on PV). from*Q on and . (Perp. a. from Q on PF)on tangent at (Perp.*. It will be seen that the property is FN.-. from where »SF is y .= 4 AS.x cosec. cd • i cosec ot- P the perpendicular firom *S^ on the tangent at P. 135. fi'om Q on tangent at P x a. QV"- = ^SP.THE PARABOLA FV PU 137 (§ SP 133) = 4SP. .

the locus of the point axis parallel to distant -r tion of I with from and it. circle of shall circle of now shew how the curvature at any point of a parabola can be determined. axis it diameter of the can be found by drawing a line through the other extremity Q and let Draw in R. We / I its I. The I. through at to it to be the diameter of the circle of curvature. and it also lies in a line is I' of intersection with the tangent to the parabola at is makes point ^122 in if the axis itself and I' the lines I and V are at the tangent at the vertex.RK = RP"'. any point for they angles with the tangent at P. I' The it. at of curvature parallel to the P of a parabola = 4>SP. The chords of and through the focus the circle It is clear that these two chords must be equal make equal Now P in D. Circle of curvature. RP"' 07^ PV.THE PARABOLA 138 Thus if move a point distance from a line I is in a plane so that the square of its k times distance from another line its k being constant. if then this circle in circle of this chord then any direction. Then from the it Draw meet the QV the circle P and cutting the diameter of the parabola circle again in K and the tangent ordinate to the diameter we have RQ. the length of the PD will and perpendicular meet the normal Prop. . 136. consider a circle touching the parabola at again at a near point Q. As already explained right angles and I' through the intersec- the same angle that I' i'. a parabola having its focus lies in a line parallel to and making with line is have explained in § 119 what we mean by the We curvature at any point of a conic. The centre of the circle of curvature at P lies on the nonnal we can find the length of the chord through P of at P.

P through when Q moves up 139 to RK becomes the chord of and ultimately coin- the circle of curvature parallel to the axis. -r^. = Diameter cos ( Z between normal and = sin Z = sin Z P= AiSP-o-r>-.THE PARABOLA Now in the limit cides with P. The diameter of the circle of curvature at where <SFis the perpendicular on the tangent. curvature through P are curvature is commonly and the chords of the circle of called simply chords of curvature. CoR. The diameter of the circle of called the diameter of curvature. Hence this chord is of length 4<SP. . ox For axis) ( between tangent and axis) { between tangent and SP) _SY ~ spNote.

are R diameter through through Q in E two chords in prove that . prove that their vertices lie common circle. and TL : If two tangents tangent in L and ratios QM TP and TQ to a parabola be cutl)y a third M respectively then TL TP "^ TM_~ TO . li 6. 8. prove PN. [Project the parabola into a circle with E projected into the centre. and P'N' ordinates a focal chord of a paralwla. = iAN. PR PQ. normal at P PV the diameter QD^ = perpendicular to the diameter 4:AS . the line the directions of motion of each point in moment are tangents to a parabola. the again in points on a line parallel to the tangent at P. If Cor. variable PL : TM 11. on a parabola are divided in a given of points prove that the locus of the points dividing them ratio. If a circle touch a parabola at diameters through Q and A' will P and cut meet the circle it at Q and R. [Use§ 116 10. The 5. is another parabola. QV be an ordinate of If tlie 7. a parabola. AS'' touch a given line and have a on a focus. in G then PG"^iAS. is also locus of the middle points of focal chords of a parabola a parabola. and meet the axis to a parabola QD be PV. AN'. Pi^' is to the axis. The ordinates 4.THE PARABOLA 140 EXERCISES PSP' 1. a straight line rotate about a point in a plane containing it at a given If 3. whose latus rectum half that of the original is parabola.] TP and TQ be two fixed tangents to a parabola.] 9. P'N' = A 2. of the point EF is F and PE PQ meets the meets the diameter parallel to the tangent at P. series of parabolas 4. and a M respectively the tangent cut them in L and are equal and^constant.SP.

PQ the chord If IG. [Project the parabola into a circle to PP' and the line through 7' parallel to infinity. SPQ' meet the and QR' are parallel. PK and prove that STK and STL are equal.THE PARABOLA If the 12. If the tangent at P meet the directrix in rectum produced in D. 15. C S as perpendicular to 8A. V respectively.S'P. SB. . . circles circumscribing the triangles in is circumscribes a parabola having Q . PP and PP' are tangents to a paral)ola.= 4:SP. P'V intersect on I'Q. then XP + X'P' = XX'.= TP TQ. respectively are concurrent. and the diameter through T cuts the curve in Q. then normal at is P to a parabola SQ = 2. and TQ be a pair of tangents to a parabola and the be normal at P. the axis again . and then the chord circle touches the directrix. and the diameters Pand Q meet any line drawn through Tin J/ and N prove TM. prove that PV. through A. PN and XX' the circle on which aS'. diameter can meet the directrix unless the chord be a focal chord. P normal at PN be the Q and to a parabola 141 meet the curve again in of PQ^ T the pole Pq:PT = PN:AN. TP respectively in R and A". through Z and the latus TP and TQ are tangents to a parabola. B. then The triangle ABC focus. P'X' be two ordiuates of a parabola such that as diameter touches the parabola. PQ 22. The any If the diameter through point on the tangent at T meet P and to a parabola the curve in Q. 23.] Pi"Ove that no circle described on a chord of a parabola as 20.RQ. The tangents to a parabola at R and R' . If PQ. prove tliat the lines SC TP bisected by the directrix.= TX. QL are TQ are two tangents to a parabola. and 13. and the diameters through li and R' cut the curve in V. ordinate of P. If 7'P 21. the triangles 19. then nP. and drawn perpendicular respectively to TQ and Tl'. 14. then SD ~ SZ. Prove that PR P and P' intersect in SPQ. P'Q cut TP'. 7'P and IS. subtends a right angle at If 17.

that the side AG will envelop a parabola. equal to the sum of the ordinates of The distance 27. with one side passing through a fixed point. R Q EF is a double ordinate of the axis of a parabola. *S' being the focus. LL' be the latus rectum of a parabola and the tangent If 28. A circle a parabola at both ends of a double touches The normal at P meets the circle in and the parabola in Q. A 2G. ordinate PP' to the axis. the fixed parabola. a line which moves so as to that the envelope of two given two given circles intercept equal chords on circles is a radical axis of the as the tangent at its vertex. the vertices its focus will trace out the directrix of . Prove that PR is a mean proportional between 33. that at L QQ' is SL LP = VL . VL'. line xiQ meets a parabola drawn is parallel to Prove that the ordinate P and J)- of Q is P in AB on a given ^4 Pp to parabola having the and p on the same side of the meet the curve again in Q. in F. that the parabola meets the circle again or not accoi'ding as the latus rectum 30. tangent at P intersects in and FN. Two paralwlas with equal latus rectum are on the same and are such that the part of any tangent to one which is cut off by the other is equal to the perpendicular upon this tangent from the focus of the first parabola. P meet at any point A 29. to a parabola meeting the parabola again in Q'. If a parabola roll being originally in contact. Prove that the circle Q RU iowches PP' at U. QP is equally inclined to the axis with the normal and T is the middle point of QQ' and meets the curve again in P . . point on it. Shew 25. M N EM 34. . axis. The diameter of the parabola through meets PP' in U. axis. and with the vertex Shew straight line. of the point of intersection of a parabola from the axis is half the sum two tangents to of the ordinates of their points of contact.THE PARABOLA 142 A given 24. R any and the diameter through R meets the curve in P the and the diameters through E and F. shew that QSPP lie on a circle. and passes through is the normal at (^ or is not less than SP. sixty-four times the distance between the vertices. PV meets the axis in R . triangle ABC moves in a plane. then touches a parabola at a point P. . on another equal parabola. of each is 32. cii'cle Shew the focus S. Shew that the latus rectum 31.

is Prove that the distance of G from the vertex. in PQ If the tangent at and the = iPT. YZ. circle. 38. 42. and that. 45. Through any point on a parabola two chords are drawn equally inclined to the tangent there. if S be the focus. . meet the tangent at P in 37. 39. tangents to a parabola. circle parabola will be tangents to the 36. through the vertex Y being the focus on the tangent at /-•. curvature at an extremity of the latus of rectum of a parabola 41. and PR perpendicular to AP meet the axis R. Shew that their lengths are proportional to the portions of their diameters bisected between them and the Y in of curve." YZ. TQ. at either extremity of the latus rectum of a parabola passes through the centre of curvature at its other extremity. and Z.TV. The tangent from any point curvature at Pof circle its vertex The chord is of curvature iPYa i^arabola is of a parabola to the circle of equal to the abscissa of the point. TR. a circle whose centre is R and radius RP will pass through the ends of the ordinate to the Also if common tangents be drawn to the and parabola the ordinates at the points where they touch the parabola through R. then he the middle point of the radius of curvature at PR P subtends a right angle at the focus. the ordinates and Q. of any point /* of a parabola meet the axis curvature meet the curve in (?. of is equal to twice the normal. If R on a parabola.THE PARABOLA 143 35. and the latus rectum are four proportionals. If P be any point on a parabola whose vertex is A. A at any point the foot of the perpendicular from . and TU is drawn parallel to the axis. 43. T. PQ a normal chord of a parabola meeting the axis in G. P Lines are drawn through the focus of a parabola to cut the tangents to •40. meeting the parabola Prove that the tangent at U passes through the middle point U.= ^HP. a straight is The radius The diameter Prove that the locus of their line. it intersection at a constant angle. 44.

now proceed all ellipses Sum 138. CB diminishes as GS increases. . A'. keeping CA constant. We have always CS'=CA'-CB' so that.144 CHAPTER XII THE ELLIPSE We 137. It will be understood that the smaller is the ratio CS CA : the more does the ellipse approximate to circular form. and the greater C>S' : CA is without reaching unity the more does the ellipse flatten out. A A' and to these and cutting GS CA = CA CX = It is convenient to call : : A and the e. And we have already explained that a circle may be regarded as the limiting case of an ellipse whose two foci coincide We which with the centre. The sum of the focal distances of any point on an constant and equal to AA'. ellipse is to establish the chief geometrical properties have in common. and vice versa. On the major axis AA' are two foci S and ^*'. of focal distances constant. at a distance equal form of the to CA foci it ellipse. have already in ^§ 98 and 99 indicated the general shewing that it has two axes of symmetry at right angles to one another and intersecting in C the centre. B from and B' the ends of the minor correspond directrices at right angles to X externally in eccentricity. major and X' so that axis. Prop. the ends of the axis. the vertices of the ellipse.

. .THE ELLIPSE Let through 145 P be any point on an ellipse.CX = '2CA = AA'. G. distances from two fixed points in the plane we learn that an ellipse can be is sum may of whose constant. . Prop. MPM' P to the directrices as in the figure. Two Cor. Tangent and Normal. and allowing the point of the pencil in all possible positions thus determined. 10 . . A. • . the perpendicular confocal ellipses (that is. And be regarded as the locus in a plane of a point the drawn by tying the ends of a piece of string to two pins stuck in the paper so that the string is not tight. The tangent and normal respectively the exterior and at any point of an ellipse interior angles between the focal distances of the point. having the It will be seen that the nearer the pins are together the more does the ellipse approximate 140. and then holding the string tight by means of the pencil pressed against to make its mark By keeping it. the string the same length and changing the distance between the pins same major we can draw ellipses all axis but having different eccentricities. . Then >S'P = e PM and S'P = e PM' SP + S'P = e (MP + PM) = e XX = 2e. bisect to circular form. which have both foci in conunon) cannot intersect. just proved shews that an ellipse The proposition 139.

PG bisects PT which the angle SPS' at right angles to is PG must bisect the exterior angle of SPS'. KS'= KP + PS' = SP + PS' = AA' Now CY is since Y and C parallel to (§ 138).-.S'Y' = BC\ Produce SY to meet S'P in K. .THE ELLIPSE 146 T Let the tangent and normal at and G respectively. PK^SPsiUclKY^^SY. are the middle points of S'K and CY = ^S'K= CA. SK and SS'. SG:GS' = SP:PS'. S'Y' be the perpendiculars from the foci on any point P of an ellipse.1. Y and Y' lie on the described on the major axis A A' as diameter. and 141. • .-. P meet the major axis Then hy^lll SG = e. . Prop. If SY. in 8' P. the tangent at circle SY.SP. .-. e . SS') = . ASPY= AKPY ^SPY=ZKPY (§140) Z SYP = 4 KYP being right angles and PY is Then for . for since SP PG and PT are the bisectors of the angles between and S'P.CT=CS-' Cor.-. and S'G = . common. (GT. CG. .

142. And ACSZ = ACS'Y' . If TQ and TQ' be a pair of tangents to an and CT meet QQ' in V and the curve ellipse wJiose centre is C. Prop. PE = AC. SY.-. a focus. Def. similarly Cor. is side of an The envelope the perpendiculars on same it.CT=CP\ 10—2 . 3. The SP and S'P in points £'aild E' such that PE = PE'= AC. is of a line such that the toot of the from a fixed point S it constant ellipse lies having *S' on a fixed for circle. that so that SZ=S'Y'. it within it. is The circk on the major axis of an ellipse as diameter called the auxiliary circle.SZ = AS SA' = CA' . meet the will circle is. YS such that Y'Z will be a diameter. diameter parallel to the tangent at Cor.CV. meet .-. Moreover as Y' YS again in a point Z Y'Z goes through is a right angle. inP. lying on the ellipse having the fixed points for its foci. PE'==CY = AC and For PYGE' is a parallelogram. CS'^ = BC\ P will 1.THE ELLIPSE Y Thus (and similarly Y') lies 147 on the circle AA' on as diameter.S'Y'^SY. The envelope perpendicular on S which has Cor. of a line such that the product of ft-om is an two fixed points. C. 2.

as 143. PM he the ordinates to these axes then GN .1. .Gt=GB\ p T and t.THE ELLIPSE 148 For let PC meet the ellipse again in QQ' are pole and polar. Then as T and GV CT=GP\ is . an important one and includes the following as a special case If the tangent at P meet the major and minor axes in and PN. The preceding proposition F'. PF) = .CT^GA' GM. {TV. C is the middle point ofPP'. .-.

FG=BC. then FF.and If the meet the major and minor axes in jmrallel to the FF. t F F in K and L as . 149 normal at any point P on an ellipse G and g. Prop.THE ELLIPSE 144.Fg = AC\ Draw the ordinates meet the diameter FX and FM to the axes and let these parallel to the tangent at in the figure. and the diameter tangent at F in F.

. Prop. S'Z' . = supplement of Z YTZ (since SYTZ is cyclic) = z Y'S'Z' (since Y'TZ'S' is cyclic). The locus of points. (| 141) SY:8Z = S'Z':S'Y'. from which the tangents to an a ciixle {called the director circle ellipse are at 7'ight angles is of the ellipse). But Z . an ellipse Let The two tangents chawn from an external point to angles with the focal distances of the point make equal TP and TQ be the tangents . it is required to prove /. TP and TQ be two tangents at right angles. S'Y' = BC'^SZ. and 8Z and S'Z' per- pendicular to TQ. Prop. Then SY. Draw 8Y. the •. 145. Then by § 141. SY perpendicular to TP to meet S'P in K.SfZF= Z *STF in the same segment and Z S'T'Z' = Z >S^TZ' in the same segment. A s SYZand S'Z' F'are similar. Also Z F5f^ .-.PTS = ^S'TQ. 144b. S' Y' perpendicular to TP.THE ELLIPSE 150 Pair of tangents.and Z SZY= Z S'Y'Z'. ZSTY=S'TZ'. Let Draw . SY= YK and S'K = AA'. Director Circle.-.

each being a diameter it is convenient to call them conjugate diameters.CS' = 2CA ' . The student lines of a conic. PTQ = a (§ 144 b). The axes of the ellipse are that particular pair of conjugate diameters which are mutually at right angles. >ST = for 151 SY= KY and YT is common and right angles. CT' = 2CA' . T Now 2CT= + 26'»S'-^ = . a circle round C. Thus the locus of T is CA. Y are the angles at . •.{CA' . .ST- + ^T- (§ 10) = 4C^^ . Conjugate Diameters.CB') = CA' + GB\ •. the stjuare of whose is radius 146.-. is already familiar with the idea of conjugate two lines being called conjugate when each contains the pole of the other. Moreover all the chords which are parallel to one of two conjugate diameters are bisected by the other (§ 95). right angle. meet When a pair of conjugate lines in the centre of an ellipse.+ CB'-. It is clear that they are such that the tangents at the points where either meets the curve are parallel to the other. and these chords are double ordinates of the diameter which thus bisects them.THE ELLIPSE Also AaSFT= A A^FT. KT and z KTP = z STP = z QT8' Z ATra' = Z .

VP'=CIP:CP\ Fur.VP' = CD':CP\ .VQ.MB' = AC-':BC\ : B P. CP' = . QV':PV. NA' = BC A C' PM-':BM. If QV he an ordinate of the diameter and BCD' be the diameter conjugate to CP.CP. by Newton's theorem we have VQ VQ' VP.-. producing QV to meet the ellipse again in Q'. PGP' ellipse. QV'-:PV.AN. CD'=.CD.--""^ : and minor axes of an . But : . 148. : . of an Prop. .THE ELLIPSE 152 147. VP' = CD CD' CP CP' VQ' = . If Special cases of the preceding proposition are these PN and PM he ordinates of the major ellipse then PN' -.

= AN. If P he any point on an 150. bears a distances from two other parallel to each other (but not I). and on opposite sides of the a diameter of the ellipse and the lines tangents at the points where For the student can I l' meets the curve.NA' = BC-':AC-' and as Z ApA' being in a semicircle is a right angle pN^. and the lines I' and the tangents at the ends of the other axis. Prop. easily prove for himself that in the notation of § 147 QV^ :PV. For by § 148 PN':AN. : SA' . The property established in 147 shews that an § ellipse ma}- also be regarded as the locus of a point in a plane such that the square of its distance from a fixed line constant ratio to the product of fixed lines I' and I" which are necessarily perpendicular to point. VP' = : square of perpendicular from product of perpendiculars from Q on tangents at Auxiliary Circle. SA' = BC\ 148 shew that an ellipse may be regarded as the locus of a point in a plane such that the square of its distance from a fixed line in the plane bears a constant I ratio to the product of its distances I' and from two other fixed lines perpendicular to the former and on opposite sides of I". The I" are line I is one of the axes of the ellipse. The tangents at two corresponding .BG^ :AC' and These properties 149. P and p are said to be corresponding points on the ellipse and the auxiliary circle.NA'] PN:pN=BG:AC. 153 in § AS .THE ELLIPSE For SL if be the semi-latus rectum SD AS . the point. then NP:Np = BC:AC.-. and The line I" are the I is its I in the plane. and if NP meet ellipse Q on PP' Q and Q' and PN the the auxiliary circle in p. ordinate of the major axis.

meet it in then T. . From all this it follows that if the ordinates of a diameter of a circle be all divided in the same ratio.THE ELLIPSE 164 points will For (§ let meet the line of the the tangent at P major axis in the same point. P Let the tangents at Draw the ordinates Now since CD is parallel . d the points on the auxiliary circle corresponding to and D. If GP and CD he a pair of conjugate semi151.CT=CA- 143). DM. PN. diameters of an ellipse. the tangent at himself by the same method that FM to the minor axis meet the circle on BB' as diameter in p' then PM:p'M=AC:BG. to TP. . then pGd is a right angle. . But as P and p meet the major axis in T.-. PN:DM = NT:MC. if an ordinate The student can prove for circle.-. the points of division trace out an ellipse having the diameter of the circle as one of its axes. PN:DM = pN:dM. 7' is the pole of i^N for the p goes through T. that is.'. /\PNT is similar to ADMC. Prop. CN'. and p. PN :pN = BG:AG = DM: dM.

. . . angle.-. = CM-' = GX-' last proposition + PX' = + DM' = i^^' + CP' + CD' = (l+ = CA-'+CB\ av-^ + ~. Cd is parallel to Tp. Whence also we have PN:CM = BC:AC. an If CP and CD ellipse CP-'+CD"- For using the figure of the cp^ and CD' . Prop. Cor. px-' RC- 7?r" 1^ ^^' " ^^' I^ ^'^'• "^ 1^) (pX' + CX^) = (i+^)ac-' = ac' + bc"^. that pN NT = dM is .'. and i\^ be conjurjate semidiameters of have the angles at ilf equal. they are similar.THE ELLIPSE pN:dM==NT:MC. . . 152.'. zMCd^zXTp. . Z dCp = Z CpT = a right • .-.AC. DM:CN = BC. : as the As pNT 155 unci dMC : MC. pX = CM and dM = CN for A CNp = A dMC.-.

circle is one pair of conj ugate diameters of an ellipse which are equal to one another namely those which lie along the formed by the tangents at the extremities of the major and minor axes.THE ELLIPSE 15G Thus the sum an of the squares of two conjugate diameters of ellipse is constant Or we may prove the In § = AA"^ + BB'". CN-' CN-' : = Cp' = A C\ In exactly the same way by drawing ordinates to the minor axis and working with the FN' + Whence by DM'' on BB' as diameter we have = BC\ GP' + CD- = AC + BG\ Equiconjugate Diameters. CM' + = pN'. 152a. diagonals of the rectangle X .+ . There addition. and proposition thus 151 we proved pN = CM. • .

and S'P. 153. . at P meet // P be amj point on an BCD'.-. twrmal SP S'P = 2CA' . S'PY' are similar. to CP. and the in F.CS' = CA".157 THE ELLIPSE Since is the middle point of SS' = (ST + spy . and let S'P cut DD' Then the As SPY. . in E.CP' = CD' (by §152). then PF. Prop.CP' .S'P.S'Fand it. .BC. the diameter conjugate ellipse. Draw the tangent at S'Y' from the Join SP foci (jn Pand (h-opthe perpendiculars .2SP S'P = 4^CA'-2SP.CD = AC. .+ CB' .

'point P Prop. since the PFE are . meet the tangent at P in R.BC. Consider the in Q. S'Y' SP S'P = SY' SP' = PF' PE' : : . SY:8P==S'Y':S'F SV. .-.Ba = 4 area of parallelogram PD^ = ^PF. : As SYP. of the parallelogram formed by the tangents at the extremities of a pair of conjugate diameters is constant = 4. QK Let circle QK be touching the ellipse at P and cutting it Let the chord of this circle parallel to GP. BC'-:CD-' = PF':Aa' PF.GD = 4:AG. that is.BG. The chord of the circle of curvature at any of an ellipse and through the centre of the ellipse is 2G]> GP Let Q be • a point on the ellipse near to P and QV the ordinate of the diameter PGP'. similar.THE ELLIPSE 158 . For the area Circle of Curvature.AC. .-.CD = AG.-. 154. The area Cor.

RK = RP\ Thus the chord being the limit of of the circle of curvature through the centre RK when Q approaches X Limit F VF' 2CD' ^x2Crp=^^. : Diameter 2CJy 2CD' FF ACTBC' FF . F The diameter of the circle of curvature 2CD"- being the point in which the normal meets CD.THE ELLIPSE Then from 159 the circle RQ. for Diameter 2011 = CF sec ( Z between normal and OF) CF FF. Cor.

If PN be the ordinate of any point Y. If Y. If the : 9.NG=BC\ 7. of which PN YNZ passes that the circle circumscribing through the centre of the ellipse. If the tangent at NG be P to an ellipse meet the major axis in 'l\ the subnormal. met by the tangent and normal at two /^ touch internally the locus of the centres of circles touching them both is an ellipse. prove from this that Obtain also the length of the latus rectum by using the fact 116. an ellipse Z be the feet of the perpendiculars fi'om the foci of is the ordinate . 3. CT . be tlie : of this chapter ex = CS'^ : CA^ semi-latus rectum of an ellipse then SL = e . 10. circle If P be any point on an ellipse whose foci are S and S' the circumscribing SPS' will cut the minor axis in the points where it is \. normal at P to an ellipse meet the minor axis in </.t Sij SG = PV VA. 117) that the lengths of (§§ two focal chords are in the ratio of the squares of the diameters parallel to then). . and the tangent at P meet the tangent at the vertex A in F. and circles 5. If an ellipse inscribed in a triangle have one focus at the orthocentre. prove on the tangent at P. If the normal at P meet the major axis in G. shew t\i-A. PG is a harmonic mean between the perpendiculars from tlie foci on the tangent at P. Y' the feet of the perpendiculars P.THE ELLIPSE 160 EXERCISES Prove that in the notation 1. SX . as SL If 2. whose foci are the centres of the given circles. If 6. 8. then PN bisects the angle from the P foci an ellipse and on the tangent at of YNY'. the other focus will be at the circumcentre.

ellipse whose vertices are an ellipse. and AP.QL. parabola have of an ellipse. is a circle. its to determine the magnitude and position of the having given two conjugate diameters in magni- tude and position. and touch ellipse and parabola 21. angle at the corresponding focus. then is QT=^e. 15. If P to the curve at P. GL is drawn perpendicular to C P.S' is conjugate to the and . Shew how axes of an ellipse. then CP be any point on an ellipse. and QL perpendicular to the common chord. 22. In an ellipse whose centre is C and fuci S and S'. a common tangent to the subtend a right angle at the focus.S". G. and CJ/is drawn parallel to S' P meeting PG in M. prove that the locus of the points in which they meet the tangents The 13. 24. A' P meet a directrix in ellipse whose vertices are A and A E and F. Prove that the foci of an ellipse and the points where any it meets the tangents at its vertices are concyclic. If a 20. 11 is . and . Deduce from Ex. Construct an ellipse when the position of self -conjugate triangle its centre and a are given.THE ELLIPSE 11. is opposite sides of a quadrilateral described about an subtend supplemeutaiy angles at either focus. an If the locus of ellipse slide its centre is 161 between two straight lines at right angles.4 be a PSA. then the bisectors of the angles . Prove that the triangles CLM. CQ be a semidiameter of an ellipse conjugate to a chord which is normal normal at Q. a circle. foci vertex. will its focus coincident with one of the foci minor axis. A circle is drawn touching an ellipse at two points. 23 the property that PX'^ : AN . PS' A meet on the tangent at P. CMP are similar. 17. tangent to If 16. NA' constant. locus of the incentre of the ti'iangle the foci of an ellipse and any point on the curve The 14. then ^i*^ subtends a right '. 18. 19. Lines are di'awn through a focus of an ellipse to meet the 12. A. tangents to the ellipse at a constant angle. If P be any point on an 23. and Q any point on the ellipse. Prove that if ^7' be a tangent to the circle from Q.

If 31. of PN be the ordinate of a point P on an ellipse. ao'ain in Q . diameter QQ'. The 32. shew that it divides the diameter in the ratio 3:1. 26'2)2 x PN. at ia . curvature at an extremity of one of the equal circle of conjugate diameters of an ellipse meets the ellipse again at the extremity of that diameter. in of curvatui-e at the tangent at P .30. Prove K the point in 5 F produced tangent. circle of curvature at a point P of an ellipse passes through the focus S.THE ELLIPSE 162 Prove that chords joining any point on an ellipse to the 25. and SE is drawn parallel to the tangent at P to meet in E the diameter through P . then of a Ellipses 27. SY is 28. PQ have a common fixed focus and touch two fixed straight lines. P on an ellipse cuts the curve meets the other common tangent. ends of a diameter are parallel to a pair of conjugate diameters. and that the square of the tangent from A' to the director circle is double the square on SY. 26. circle which touches the {TO. prove and circle at E and F. The 33. If S and the chord and B an extremity of minor axis in the centre S' be the foci of an ellipse the minor axis.] and intersect it at the and PQ' are fixed in direction. Q and ellipse The tangent shew that Q' . [Two such chords are ends called supplemental chords. 34. The 29. the circle SS'B will cut the of curvature at B. curvature in the direction of PN = . If a circle touch a fixed ellipse at P. P to an ellipse meets the equiconjugates CP is a symmedian of the triangle QCQ'. EF) = -\. the perpendicular from the focus S of an ellipse on a such that SY = YK. prove that their director circles are coaxal.

is We have eeen in |§ 100. Some of these and can be established in properties that all hyperbolas have in same as those of the ellipse But the fact that the hyperbola has a pair of asymptotes. axes of symmetry at right angles. and there are two tangents from C to the curve having These tangents are called their points of contact at infinity. while the other called the conjugate axis does not meet the curve. tangents whose points of contact are at infinity. (e) If A' = CS CA = CA CX. gives the curve a character and properties of its are the much the same way. of these perpendiculars. that is. These two axes meet in C the centre of the curve. and such that the feet of the perpendiculars from them on the asymptotes diameter. the directrices the eccentricity 156. meets the curve in A The curve has two foci S and S' lying on the line of the transverse axis. The directrices lie on the circle on which are the polars of the A A' as foci are and pass through the feet and X' be the points in which cut the transverse axis and C be the centre. the asymptotes and they make equal angles with the axes. 11-2 . own. transverse axis. which the projection of a circle cut by the vanishing line. 101 that a hyperbola. then at right angles to the transverse axis. one of which.163 CHAPTER XIII THE HYPERBOLA 155. has two named the what are called the vertices and A'. : : In this chapter we shall set forth the principal common.

157. . Prop.XX'^AA'. SG = .PM' . is of the fucal distances of any point on and equal to the length A A' of the transverse axis.PM.THE HYPERBOLA 164 Difference of focal distances constant. Let P be any point on the hyperbola. as the in figure perpendicular to the then and SP = e. Then by § 111. Let the tangent and normal at in T and P meet the transverse axis G. SG:SP = S'G:S'P. Prop.-. S'G = e S'P.-. e SP. — SP =AA' and for points Cor. . The tangent and normal at any point of a hyperbola bisect respectively the interior and exterior angles of the focal radii of the point. Two confocal hyperbolas cannot intersect. S'P=e. For points on the one branch we have S'P on the other SP — S'P = A A'. Tangent and Normal. S'Pr^SP = e. 158. PMM' Draw directrices. Tlie difference a hyperbola constant. .

or. Thus . and PT. S'P since K. must to therefore bisect the interior angle. . the curves cut at right angles. Cor. 1. If an ellipse for {SS'.KP) = ^{S'P-SP) = ^AA' = CA. 159. Y (and similarly F') lies on the circle on AA'.•. Prop. SY. and since parallel to F and C S'K and are the middle points of *S^ and SS'.THE HYPEEBOLA . S'Y' he the perpendiculars from the a hyperbola at any point P. //' foci on the tangent lie on the circle and 8Y. CG. PK = SP. in other words. TG) = - 1. S'Y' Let luill SY meet Then to he constant. perpendicular PG. CY is GY= ^S'K = i {S'P .-. 2. PG is 165 the bisector of the exterior angle of SPS'. Y and Y' will on A A' as diameter {called the auxiliary circle). SPY = A KPY (§ 158) ^SYP=ZKYP ^ and and in PF is common. and hyperbola are confocal their tangents at the points of intersection of the curves are at right angles. And A5rPF= A/fPF SY^YK.CT= CS\ Cor.

meet the circle again in Z. 2 and 3. of a line such that the foot of the from a fixed point it it. of a line such that the product of the perpendiculars on it from two fixed points. lying on opposite constant is a hyperbola having the fixed points for sides of it. perpendicular on which has S outside Cor.THE HYPERBOLA 166 If S'Y' right angle. Compare 160. Corr.-. SP a SY. The envelope 2. On § 141.S'A^CS"--CA' . is S lies a hyperbola having The envelope >S' on a fixed circle for a focus. is Cor.S'Y' = S'A'. is its foci. Cor. so that we cannot say it has a length in the same way that the minor axis of an ellipse has for its length that portion of it intercepted by the curve. and this will be understood better as wo .S'Y'=S'Z. It is convenient. We have seen that the conjugate axis of a hyperbola does not meet the curve. then since YY'Z YZ must be a diameter and pass through C. The diameter parallel to the tangent at P will meet ST in points E and E' such that PE= PE' = GA. the length of the conjugate axis. which is 1. 3. constant. ^SCY= AS'CZ Also and and S'Z=SY.

A'S. meet the asymptote CO in 0. since GK8 is a right angle and GK=GA (§ 101). to measure off a length that B This will BG\ BB' on and B' are equidistant from BC' - GS-^ make SY.GIO = GS' .THE HYPERBOLA proceed. Hence A0' = SIC-= GS' . For if the tangent at A AGKS= A GAG.) The length BB' thus defined BB' the conjugate axis such and = ^. and the directrix corresponding to S meet CO in K. B and B' do not 161. in the preceding proposition equal to § 141. .GA\ . we have. It will easily be seen that if a rectangle be drawn having a pair of opposite sides along the tangents at and having its under- not a diameter length of the hyperbola.S' will for the length of the conjugate axis. for A and A'. then the portion of the conjugate axis intercepted in this rectangle will be this length BB' which we have marked off as explained above. diagonals along the asymptotes. but stood that 16^ is it convenience be called must be clearl}^ lie on the curve.S'Y' (Compare - GA"- G.

TJte two tangents drawn from a point to a hyperbola make equal or supplementary angles with the focal distances of the point. S'Z'. to TQ. .Z'S'Y' these being the supplements of the .THE HYPERBOLA 168 Pair of tangents. Z YSZ = /. Also it is required to prove that the are equal or supplementary. Draw SY. 162. S'Z' = BO' = SZ . S'TQ perp. S' Y' TP. STP. Prop. S'Y' Then 1. SY:SZ=S'Z':S'Y'.-. Let TP. to SY. angles TQ be the tangents. Fig. and SZ.

= Z S'TQ. Then by 159. 163. A8YT= £^KYT. to TP to meet S'P in K. 1. . and z KTY = Z ST Y= Z KTS' = Z PTQ = a Z. be two tangents at right angles. since Hence the As SYZ and z >S'rP while in 2 fig. 2 each being are cyclic. it in fig. (§ 162). QTS' right angle. The locus of points tangents from tvliich to a hyperbola are at right angles is a circle (called the director circle of the hyperbola). § Also Thus ST= KT . SY= YK and S'K=AA'. Let TP Draw and TQ 8Y perp. S'Z'Y' are similar and = z >SZF= z aS"F'Z' = z = supplement of Z >S"TQ >S'TZ' in fig. and SZTY and 8'Y'TZ' equal angles equal to YTZ. Prop. Director Circle. 1. •. Thus the two tangents from an external point make equal supplementary angles with the focal or distances of the point according as the tangents belong to opposite branches or the same branch of the curve.THE HYPERBOLA 169 ZTY and Z'TY' in fig.

170 .

The conjugate hyperbola is. but the eccentricity is (7S the same as that of the original hyperbola : if line of the eccentricity GB. Prop. 166.THE HYPERBOLA The hyperbola and each having its foci conjugate are two distinct curves. a very useful adjunct to the hyperbola and considerable use will be it in what made of follows. which GA = GB.= GA^ + GB\ Thus 02 = G8. the line S and S' of the original hyperbola are such that CS- = GA^ + GB-. Asymptotic properties. its and 171 directrices. When the asymptotes are at said to be rectangular. The foci A A' and CS:GA. and lie on the The foci 2 and S' of the conjugate hyperbola of BB' and are such that CI. . nor they in general will have the same eccentricity. // R be any point on an asymptote of a hyperand RN^ perpendicular to the transverse axis meet the hyperbola in P and 'p then RP Rp = BG^. i-ight angles the hyperbola is In the next chapter we shall investigate the special properties of the rectangular hyperbola. as we shall see. bola. lie is is on only In this special case the asymptotes are the diagonals of a square (§ IGl) and are therefore at right angles. .

-. . : . : .GA' GA\ PN"-:BG' = AN.BG' BG' = GN-' . RP. only a he the ordinate to the transverse axis of a Ityperhola Using the figure of But is more general theorem.A'N^BC':AG\ 166 we have § .'. of any point P // PN PN"~:AN. PN':AN.A'N = BG'':AG\ RN-' .Rp = EA' = BG\ This can also be written RN' .-. Prop.. : Rn^' = EA- : En--.PN' = BC\ It will presently be seen that this proposition special case of a 167.RN' EA' = GN' GA\ RN"' .PN' = BC\ PN^ = RN'-BG\ RN^ BG".THE HYPERBOLA 172 A Let the tangent at meet the asymptote on Avhich R lies in E.-.-.A'N:CA'. . Then fl being the point of contact of the asymptote with the curve at infinity we have by Newton's theorem RP Rp . : : : .

then PD is parallel asymptote.THE HYPERBOLA or we may 173 write this BC':AC\ This too will be found to be but a special case of a more general theorem. and CP. Let its n its to conjugate the other the hypei^hola and DJ be the points of contact of the hyperbola and asymptotes at We the transverse first infinity. because the conjugate axis does not meet the hyperbola. 168. hyperbola RPN. If from any poixt Prop. R in an asymptote of a RDM he drawn perpendicular to and conjugate axes to cut the hyperbola and respectively in P and D. through A and B perpendicular to . Comparing ellipse (§ 148) this property we see that with the corresponding one in the it was not possible property for the hyperbola in the same way to establish the as for the ellipse. CD are conjugate lines for both and the conjugate hyperbola. observe that For drawing the AB is lines parallel to CVl'.

belong to the involution of which double CVl' are the bola and will by the pairs of conjugate and CD lines through C. PGP' not. Now DP will meet Gil' at Df. are conjugate lines for both the hyperbola conjugate. as indicated in the figure. the term conjugate diameters. for GA CB = GA:AE^ CN RN = CN CM. that DCD' is . DC is but in the figure of § 168 meet the hyper- conjugate again in the points P' and D' respectively.-.'. Tn') . RN':RM' = PN':DM'. RN"^-PN' = BC' ^^^' ' RM'^ . GA CN = CB CM. : : ^RN'-.RM'. E\ we have e.Ae.'. ' On GP.THE HYPERBOLA 174 the axes to meet the asymptotes. For this it follows that the tangent at P to the hyperbola is parallel to CD.BE' 3IN Also A B. in E.-.DM' = AC RN".'. and we have Thus Thus (DP. PD is parallel to MN and therefore to CD. PGP' and DCD' then of the hyperbolas.. and GP CD and But Cfl and GP and its CO lines.PA''' RM' . parallel to is -. Cfl' = -i. whereas it is a diameter of the conjugate hyperbola. .DM' = CM' CN' : : : . PD will be bisected by CO in the point T (say). are called conjugate diameters for each But it must be clearly understood a diameter of the original hyperbola. =EA EB-. being tangents from C to both the hyper- conjugate are the double lines of the involution its pencil formed .-. Now and : : ' . and the tangent at D to the conjugate hyperbola is parallel to 169. If the lines bola and its PC.

are respectively parallel to CD 168) that is and GP. GP and GD a parallelogram .THE HYPERBOLA Of two 175 so-called conjugate diameters one is a diameter of the hyperbola and the other of the conjugate hyperbola. DGD' does not meet the hyperbola in real points. The tangents at the extremities of a pair of form a parallelogram whose diagonals lie conjugate diameters along the asymptotes. though of course as the student that for it D acquainted with Analytical Geometry will know curve in imaginary points. but it is it Avill bisect a not a diameter in the sense represents a length intercepted by the curve on the line. that involve the imaginary quantity Prop. as in the figure. it meets the points whose coordinates V— 1. These tangents then form with having one diagonal along CO. 170. and D' are not on the hyperbola. is. Let PGP' and BCD' be the conjugate diameters. The line in so far as BCD' it is is a diameter even for the original hyperbola a line through the centre and system of parallel chords. We have already proved The tangents at P and (§ D PD bisected by CO.

then RQ Rq is equal to the square of the semi. .-.-. since that at K goes through P. and the polar of . and we use the same letters in the projection without confusion. in the Corollary ot § independently established by projecting into a may 170 can be circle.-. i) and P.Ll) = -\. G goes through K. in F. (/iP. {KP. . of the tangent at any point intercepted between the asymptotes is bisected at the point of contact. and those at P'. The portion Coil.-. . D' on CiY. meet HH' . LP = L)C=GD' = Pl. diameter of the conjugate hyperbola parallel to RQq. GP Let is GP the polar of K. hyperbola a line he drawn cutting the same branch of the hyperbola in Q and q. For The property given 171. aa') in the hyperbola and the point at L and / are harmonically conjugate infinity along LI. LP = Pl.-.THE HYPERBOLA 176 Similarly the tangents at P' and D' meet on Cfl. . // through any point 172. Let the tangent at nn' P to the circle meet the vanishing line K. = -i. R on an asymptote of a Prop. Thus with P an') = - 1. in C L a The polar of K goes through G. C(ifp.

CV cut the hj^erbola in P.. A. and I.Rq = LP^ = CD\ RQq RQ Rq . And if RQq meet .QV\ RV= Vr RQ = q>: of a hyperbola and the length of its line intercepted between the asjanptotes have the same middle point.Rq: .'.THE HYPERBOLA V be the middle point of Qg. G. n By Newton's theorem we have RQ.qV = RV' . be the semi-diameter of the conjugate hyperbola parallel to Qq.-.\ RQ. Hence any chord we have rV2-qV^=CI)\ rV ..-. Then the tangent at P is parallel 177 Let Let Let it Let meet the asymptotes CD L in to Qq. be always drawn is in a fixed direction independent of the position of the the asymptote. 12 . the other asymptote in r . Thus the line if the rectangle R on We may point Rn^- = LP' : LQ. and . ^vl•ite the above relation RV'-QV'^CD'.

R draw the chord qq' of the hyperbola parallel to .where GP is the semi. If QV he an ordinate of the diameter PGP' 174.THE HYPERBOLA 178 Wc thus have the following remarkable property of the hyperbola : If Rr joining any tivo points on the asymptotes of a Q and q then EQ = qr.diameter to Qq. and DGD' the diameter conjugate to PP' then QV-':PV.P'V = GD':GP\ Let Q V meet the asymptote Gfl in R and the curve again in Q'. . we can shew that Qq and the intercepted between the asymptotes have the same middle point.Rq = -GP\ RQ. Prop. Prop. hyperbola cut the curve in 173. Through PGP'.-. As RVt"- it : qR. // a line he asymptote of a hyperbola in Q and q then qR.RQ = GP\ in the preceding article portion of .-. For by Newton's theorem = GP GP' CHl RQ. to RQ = of the liyperbola parallel drawn through a point R on an meet opposite branches of the curve CP'.Rq: .

RQ' Rq .-. Rq' : . 12—2 . I is a diameter are the tangents at the points where meets the hyperbola. This the general theorem of which that of is § 107 is a special case. that : : . VP' = RQ.P'V=CD':CP"-. We may write the relation as QV:CV'-CP'=CD':CP\ 175.THE HYPERBOLA 179 Then by Newton's theorem VQ VQ' VP.CP\ . : . it and then its vertices. the transverse is I the tangents at are not perpendicular to of the hyperbola. From §§ 1G7. I" /. If I' and l" be perpendicular to axis of the hyperbola If r and /" l'.QV VP VP' = CD' . is QV':PV. I" I then and l'. 174 we can see that a hyperbola may be regarded as the locus of a point in a plane such that the ratio of the scjuare of product of its its distance froni a fixed line I varies as the distances from two other fixed lines parallel to one another and such that the point is l' and I" on the same side of both of them.

= sq. either or both of the chords hyperbola. 176.THE HYPERBOLA 180 Prop. R' on and LQ' are in opposite directions the application of Newton's theorem say For suppose that the same branch. of diameter parallel to QQ' sq. : diameters -parallel . of diameter parallel to sq. . Q' lie on opposite branches and R. of tJie If QQ'. of : Lr' diameter parallel to This proposition holds equally well 177. . . Q. is equal to the respective inter- to that chords. for LQ LQ' = — QL LQ' = — sq.OQ' we have . parallel to QQ'. then as we must LQ so that. Let OQQ' meet an asymptote in L. of diameter asOQ. if QQ' RR\ the ends of on opposite branches of the OQ' and OR . QO OQ' OR OR' = sq. Through r and L draw irr' parallel to ORR' to meet the curve in r'.OQ' = -QO. OR' be regarded simply as positive magnitudes. Then by Newton's theorem OQ OQ' lOR.LQ':Lr. : . RR' squares of tlie he chords of a hyperbola OQ OQ' OR OR' then the ratio secting in . of diameter parallel to RR'. : . provided that OQ lie .OR' =LQ.

THE HYPERBOLA 178. y) Prop. the imaginary points 8. Whenever the in the notation of §§ 176. we wanted to shew may be used the conjugate diameter OQ OQ' and OR OR' signs of are different.. a- = l (1)..CD\ this to the student acquainted with Analytical also clear Geometry is from the following The equation of the hyperbola is . a line through the centre meet the conjugate hyper(x. ^ b- and of the conjugate hyperbola 1 Thus Ci^Tcsponding {ix. It may perhaps seem 181 imnecessarj^ to make a separate proof for the hyperbola of the proposition proved generally for the central conies in § But 117 § diameters of the curve true.. And if bola (2) in 180. can see now that DCD' if be a diameter of the conjugate hyperbola. RR' them meets the hyperbola. y) (2). But our purpose has been to bringthe diameters must be length 117. are given by (78^ and = Ch'-' = . for these the proposition is as diameters of the hyperbola do not curve in real points. We 179. 177 . out the fact that in and itself.CD' = CA' . this all meet the the diameters of instead. CD be conjugate semi-diameters of a ItyperboUt CP' . The are such that only one of other meets the conjugate hyperbola.CB\ Draw the ordinates conjugate axes. iy). PN and DM to the transverse and . . . on (2) there is a point on (1) and vice versa. it will If meet the CP and original hyperbola in {ix. ii/) to every point {x. S' in which it meets the original hyperbola. how means that the diameters parallel to QQ'.

= C'iV- + PN.THE HYPER150LA 182 These intersect in a point R on an asymptote (| we have CT.= CR' .{RN^ . and .PN^) ^CR'-BC^ (§166) 168).

Prop. Then that is the As SPY. perpendiculars SY and S'Y' in F. S'PY being SY S'Y' SP S'P S'Y'-SY S'P- similar -IPF we have PF foci on the .CB = AC. If GP and CD of a hyperbola.THE HYPERBOLA 182. and the normal at Draw the 183 he conjugate semi-diameters P meet CD PF.BC. then from the tangent at P.

hyperbola having the fixed and the point of contact of the line with envelope will be the middle point of the portion intercepted between the fixed Prop. . TQ and TQ' he tangents to the same branch GT meet the cu7've in P and QQ' in V.GT = GP\ // of a hyperbola. of a hyperbola. . GV. 184.GT = GP\ Prop. for we have {PP\ TV) = . constant The envelope of a line which forms with two fixed lines a triangle of constant area is a lines for its asymptotes. and This follows at once from the harmonic property of the pole and polar.D' (§170).THE HYPERBOLA 184 angular points of the parallelogram formed by the tangents at P. then GV. lines. and bola in P then VG. 182).-.CT=GP\ .D. If TQ and TQ' be tangents to o-p-^ositebranches GT meet QQ' in V and the conjugate hyper- 185. that A GLl = CA which is Cor.1.P'. its is (§ GB. Moreover /\CLl gram formed by one quarter of the area of the parallelo- is these tangents.

'.GD\ QW is .tW ^Gt.CW:GW.-. Let BCD' be the diameter conjugate to the hyperbola in D. TG. if we 179) Cp'=-CP\ . Then by similar As tWQ..THE HYPERBOLA 185 This can be surmised from the preceding proposition. We give however the foHowing i)urely geometrical which does not introduce imaginary points.(71^=Ci)^ . : CW'^ .GT^Cj)' (§184) = .CP\ VG.GW-. Draw the ordinate el to TQ QW to in PP' and meeting t. Butby §184. in the imaginary point p. D' and . tCT TC:WQ=Gt:tM\ .GW. the diameter DI)'.GW'-Gt. for CT meet the have (§ original hyperbohi. that is. C'<. CV.'. ]VQ:WQ'=Ct.CT = CP\ . TC. WQ WQ' = GD'^ : proof. PP'.-.

If the tangent at conjugate axes in to these P T and to t a hyperbola meet respectively the transverse and PN.Gt=GB\ For the tangents from Twill be TP and TP' where P' is the PN again meets the hyperbola and the tangents from t will be tP. The 186.GD'^ (§ 174). TG. and the diameter transverse parallel to the tangent at P in F. point in which .GN^GA"- MG. PM he and ordiiiates axes GT. . PM 187.WQ = GP\ VG.PG = BG% PF. Prop. tQ where Q is the point in which again meets the hyperbola.-. : WQ'=CD' : GW .GT=GP\ following arc special cases of the two preceding propositions.Pg = AG'. If the normal at P to a hyperbola meet the and conjugate axes in G and g. then FP.THE HYPERBOLA 186 GP' But . .-.

18^ exactly like the .THE HYPERBOLA This proposition can be established corresponding one in the ellipse 9 M (§ 144).

7.CD" where CD is conjugate to CP. Prove that LM is trisected at P and Q. Given a focus of an ellipse and two points on the curve 12.] Prove that in any central conic if the normal at P meet the axes in G and g then PG Py .PK^\CH\ a hyperbola to meet CO' and [Use of one bisected at the point of contact. then L. Shew that a of hyperbola cut an cut the same asymptote iu when a (^) then SQ = Q'f. any point the tangent at If T and SP asymptote in /* \^TP and TO. . CO' of then § 183. From any point R on an asymptote of a hyperbola IIPN is drawn perpendicular to the transverse axis to cut the curve in P RK is drawn at right angles to CR to meet the transverse axis in K. If P bfi any point on a central conic whose foci are S and the circles on SP. If two hyperbolas have the same asymptotes a chord touching the other 6. subtend equal angles at 4. and the normal at P meet the axes in G and g. S. . shew that the other focus describes a hyperbola. parallel to the asymptotes CO in // and Pll.] The tangent to a hyperbola at P meets an asymptote in T and TQ is drawn parallel to the other asymptote to meet the curve in Q. 8. S'. g lie on a circle which passes through the centre of the hyperbola. 11.'\ pair of conjugate diameters of a hyper- bola are given in magnitude and position the asymptotes are Hence shew that there are only two completely determined. If the tangent at a point P of a hyperbola meet the asymptotes in L and I. A'. e'- . The intercept of any tangent to a hyperbola between the asymptotes subtends at the further focus an angle equal to half the angle between them. 9. CO. G. S'P as diameters touch the auxiliary circle and have for their radical axis the ordinate of P. Prove that PK is the CN= [Prove that normal at P. OK. hyperbolas liaving a given pair of conjugate diameters. I. The pole of the tangent at any point /* of a central conic 14.THE HYPERBOLA 188 3. % 188. PQ meets the asymptote in L and M. If is PK be drawn PH. 10. 5. 13. with respect to the auxiliary circle lies on the ordinate of P.

PQ' are to one another in 26. normals at their points of contact will all pass through a fi.xecl point. a constant ratio. and meeting the hyperbola in Q. T R\ T' on the other. . If tangents be drawn to a series of confocal hyperbolas the 21. a hyperbola the lines joining to their intersections with the asymptotes will be parallel. Tangents PPR'. and the points of contact will lie on a circle. XG CT= BC-. Q' prove that PQ. parallel to the transverse axis. 16. and S be the corresponding focus. A hyperbola is described touching the principal axes of a hyperbola at one of their extremities . Prove that the central distance of the point where a 24. If its focus two tangents be drawn is and the direction of its a hyperbola.by a constant quantity. parallel to the axis of the parabola 23. TQT' are drawn to a hyperbola. in and normal at a point P of a central conic and PN be the ordinate. 17. If an ellipse and a hyperbola confocal with is it is parallel to intersect in the asymptotes of the h3'perbola pass through the points of intersection of the ordinate of P with the auxiliary circle of the elli]>so. P. straight lines are . If from a point /* in a hyperbola PK be drawn parallel to an asymptote to meet a directrix in K. From any point P on a given diameter of a hyperbola. 22. then PK = SP. Given two points of a parabola prove that the locus of axis. two drawn parallel to the asymptotes. T and G The base . tangent to a liyperbola meets one asymptote varies as the distance.+ QP'. If PP' and DD' be conjugate diameters of a hyperbola and Q any point on the curve then QP. P. If the tangent meet the axis 20. 18. and also the point of the locus of the vertex a hyperbola. of a triangle being given contact with the base of the inscribed is circle.THE HYPERBOLA 189 15.exceeds QD'~ + QD'. 19. of the point of contact from the other asymptote. shew that the on RT' and R'T as diameters are coaxal with the director being on one asymptote and circles circle. 25. prove tha<^ one asymptote and that the other the chords of the parabola bisected by the first.

C. 38. 27. PN be^the ordinate and PG the If 28. prove that if PD meet the transverse axis in F.] CD are conjugate semi-diameters of a hyperbola. 30. CJJ^--2BC-. From a point A' on an asymptote of a hyperbola PB is 37. tangent intercepted by the asymptotes is divided in a given ratio shew that the locus of the point of section is a hyperbola. 35. the circle. LFC is a right angle. passes through a given point. . With two conjugate diameters of an ellipse as asymptotes a pair of conjugate hyperbolas are constructed prove that if one hyperbola touch the ellipse the other will do likewise and that the diameters drawn through the points of contact are conjugate to . locus of the centre 31. 32. If P and <S" be any point on a hyperbola whose foci are lies on the tangent at one of the ^S' the incentre of the triangle >SP>S' vertices of the hyperbola. drawn touching the hyperbola in P. 34. cutting a diameter in T and V RV is shew that TP and Tj) touch joined. Prove that a circle can be described to touch the four straight lines joining the foci of a hyperbola to any two points on the same branch of the curve. CP and . the hyperbola. and P2\ PVuve drawn through P parallel to the asymptotes. . each other. 33. to a conic from any point on the director between every pair of conjugate circle are the bisectors of the angles lines through the point. be a point on a central conic such that the lines joining to the foci are at right angles. CN a point P of P intersect the of and CL' is the and CO. P If P is a a tangent and the eccentricity of a conic. is The tangents normal and the tangent at CL then half the sum of proportional between 29. and touches a given straight line at a given point. Find the position and magnitude of the axes of a hyperbola which has a given line for an asymptote. }) . a hyperbola wliose centre asymptotes Jin mean L and L'. and the tangent at P meets an asymptote in L. determine the points in which a given Hne meets the curve. Tangents are drawn to a hyperbola and the portion of each 36.THE HYPERBOLA 190 The asymptotes and one point on a hyperbola being given. cutting the hyperbola in P. Given a focus. [Project the hyperbola into a circle and V into the centre.

does the problem become impossible? If P and Q be two points on two circles S^ and *S'o belonging which L is one of the limiting points. 41.THE HYPERBOLA 191 From a given point on a hyperbola draw a straight line 39. such that the segment between the other intersection with the hyperbola and a given asymptote shall be equal to a given line. . the centre of the conic must be at the symmedian point of the triangle. prove that the foot of the PQ lies on one of the circles of the system. When 40. and thus shew that the envelope of PQ is a conic having a focus perpendicular from L on at L. If a conic touch the sides of a triangle at the feet of the perpendiculars from the vertices on the opposite sides. such to a coaxal system of that the angle PLQ is a right angle.

The eccentricity of a rectangular hyperbola = ^2. 192. and if a rectangular hyperbola conjugate diameter's QV he an ordinate of a diameter POP'.GB' For we have (§ 1 80) = and QV-':PV. Prop. for e = CS GA.CD' = GA ' . is A rectangular hyperbola as one which has its we have already explained asymptotes at right angles and its trans- and conjugate axes equal. QV"-=PV. (§174) Gonjugate diameters of a rectangular hyper- bola are equally inclined to each of the asymptotes. 191. Any its (§ 72).192 CHAPTER XIV THE RECTANGULAR HYPERBOLA 190. and therefore the asymptotes are harmonically conjugate with any Hence as the asymptotes are at pair of conjugate diameters. diameter of a rectangular hyperbola and the extremities are equally inclined to each of the . tangents at asymptotes. 1. For the asymptotes are the double lines of the involution by the pairs of conjugate lines through G.P'V. Prop. .PV=GD':GP' = 1. and CS' = CA' + CB' = WA\ verse : We will now set forth a series of propositions giving the chief properties of the curve. right angles they must be the bisectors of the angles between pencil formed each pair of conjugate diameters Cor. 1)1 are equal.' CP' .

If a hyperbola have two perpendicular diameters equal to the hyperbola itself and the 194. and Q on the .THE RECTANGULAR HYPERBOLA Cor. Prop. be the semi-diameters at right angles to one another and equal. Any diameter of a rectangular hyperbola diameter perpendicular This bola is 193 is obvious when we to it is equal of the conjugate hyperbola. consider that the conjugate hyper- in our special case equal to the original hyperbola and can be obtained by rotating the whole figure of the hyperbola through a right angle about an axis through dicular to its centre perpen- plane. the hyperbola CP and CQ must be a rectangular one. to the it are equally inclined to each asymptote. conjugate. Q P being on the hyperbola. the one belonging other to Let its conjugate. chord of a rectangular hyperbola and the diameter bisecting 193. to its one another. Any 2.

CM": whence we get & and vtv> ^C- —BC = GAP QM'- BG^' AG- tvtt: PN'' ^^'U^-fil?^. .DA.DG=Dp. 195. BD. perpendicular from parallel to J // a i-ectangular hyperbola pass through of a triangle ABG 1.THE RECTANGULAR HYPERBOLA 194 PN^':CN'-CA' = BG-':AG' Now and (§167) -BC^ = AC^: BC\ ON"FN' QM^. . Thus and the DB. be the triangle. Let it J. be unity since the diameters parallel to them being at right angles are equal.DG and Dp. P its orthocentre and AD the on BG. Ap and BG are at right angles the diameters Since the chords them 1 BG-' + PN' + 0. DA will have opposite signs ratio of their numerical values will (§ 177).-.C' AG- = J5a A the passes also through the ortliocentre. since GN-' Prop. 1 will meet one the hyperbola and the other the conjugate hyperbola. Subtract and use vertices = . Let the rectangular hyperbola meet AD again in p. CN-'=GM" and PN''=QM-.

(§ 177). . if the three vertices //' through the orthocentre a conic circumscribing a triangle pass it must be a rectangular hyperbola. Cor. tri- on the same branch of the curve. the middle points of the sides. . Let be the centre of the rectangular hyperbola and DLL' an asymptote cutting Since OF angles with AB and AC in bisects the chord OIL' L and L'. . 13—2 . = . And' these diameters must belong the one to the hyperbola and the other to its conjugate since DB DC and DP DA have . 2). F a of the triangle. the diameter parallel to diameter parallel to AP.-. lie Prop. DA = DA . is clear that the conic must be a hyperbola. and D. zFOL = zFLO. Let ABC be the triangle and AD. BD DC = AD . AB.THE RECTANGULAR HYPERBOLA . is a rectangular one If a rectangular hyperbola circumscribe triangle. and the so intersect.DP Dp.DP. 197. the triangle. but if two of the angle. a rectangular hyperbola circumscribes a the orthocentre will lie vertices lie on one branch centre will lie and the third on the other. BE. that where Q is the point in which AD produced meets the circumcircle BD DC = AD DQ But -AD. its centre lies on the nine points circle Let ABC be (§ 194). on the other branch. OF and AB make equal (§ 192. coincides with P.: Dp==DP 195 (§6). the ortho- on that branch on which are the two vertices. opposite sign Therefore the hyperbola Prop. is ]) When Cor. . . 196. E. PD. C'i^the perpendiculai-s meeting It in the orthocentre P. since it is impossible for two chords of an ellipse or parabola to intersect at a point external to one of chords AP Now BC= the BG do and since them and not to the other.-.

Let V be the middle point of PQ. Let the chord PQ and the tangent at P meet the asymptote in R and L. lies on the circle round DEF. Prop. Similarly . which circle is the nine points circle of the triangle.'. zFOE = zALL' + zAL'L = zBAO = ^FI)E. The angle between any chord angular hyperbola and the tangent at subtended by on PQ P is PQ equal to of a rectthe angle at P'.THE RECTANGULAR HYPERBOLA 19() z EOL' = z EL'O. 198. . .'. the other end of the diameter through P.

In cuts fig. 197 . Q and P lie on the same branch and PP' externally. QR where Q and R lie on the same branch and PP' internally. (since CV is parallel to QP'). = zP6'Z-zFCi^ = zF6'P ==ZQP'P Prop. QR of sum of and RPl Fig.-. (§192. 1. Cor. and Let the tangents at and L'.-. zQPL = zQP'P (§198) Z RPl = Z RP'P. zLPR = ^CLP-zCRV . 1. fig. In cuts P PCP' and a diameter. where QPL supplement of Z QP'R. I I'. Art/ chord of a rectangular hyperbola subany diameter angles ivJiich are equal or tends at the ends of supplementary. 1 ). 2. Z QPR = supplement = Fiff. 2. and . . 192. 199. Let QR be a chord. ^RPQ = zQFP-zRFP = zQFR.THE RECTANGULAR HYPERBOLA Then VRC = Z VCR PLC = Z PCL Z Z and (§ 2). ^LPQ = ZQP'P. ZLPR = ZRFP and . F meet the asymptotes in L.-. Cor.

If CK be any point are similar. and from of its PG of any point the normal at P. 3. PJV be the ordinate hyperbola. The portion tercepted between of contact 2. prove P on a rectangular GJ^= NG. 4. =Z QP'X' + z P7^'P = z QP'P' + z RPP'. where Q and P lie on opposite branches and PP' QPP = z QPP + z PPP = z QP'P + z LPR Z QP'P . If 3. and the tangent N to the auxiliary circle = PN. QR cuts on opposite branches and PP' QPR = z QPL + z LPP' + z P'PR = z QP'P + z PP7' + z PP7' = zQP'R. zQPR + zQP'R' = z. z and R internally.-. lie externally. CAK . QR cuts where Q and z In fig.IDS rectangular hyperbola thp: In fig. at any tangent asymptotes is to a rectangular hyperbola in- double the distance of its point from the centre.L'P'P + zLPP' = 2 right Z s. EXERCISES 1. P the perpendicular from the centre on the tangent of a rectangular hyperbola the triangles PC A.

PC touches CEF. 15. 117. of the inscribed circle of a triangle lies on any rectangular hyperbola circumscribing the triangle whose vertices are the centres. hyperbola are equal. any chord is perpendicular to PQP' P is per- QR. shew that the 16. meets the hyperbola in it of a rectangular i-ight angles. tangents are drawn to the same branch of a rectangular tliat the angles which these tangents subtend at Prove the centre are respectively equal to the angles which they make with the chord of contact. e Focal chords parallel to conjugate diameters of a rectangular 12. hyperbola lines be drawn to any point on the curve. meet a pair of conjugate diameters in the circle 14. Two hyperbola. and a diameter prove that the circle touches the hyperbola at Q. tangent at any point P of a rectangular hyperbola. from the extremities of any diameter of a rectangular If 7. the centre of any point on a rectangular hyperbola from mean between its distances from tlie the geometric is foci. QP' will be at PP' 6. is P the angle at If a triangle inscribed in a rectangular hyperbola. 199 of a rectangular hyperbola. . Focal chords of a rectangular hyperbola which are at right 8. j^endicular to 5. centre C. [See§§ 116. then C P' is perpendicular to the tangent at P. as also Q . they wull be equally inclined to each asymptote. angles to one another are equal.] The distance 9. The centre 11. points and one of their bola . If the 13. PP' be a double ordinate rectangular hyperbola whose centre is to the transverse axis of a C. prove that the tangent at is PP' and QQ' be perpendicular chords hyperbola then PQ'. and a right angle. E and F.THE RECTANGULAR HYPERBOLA PQR 4. shew that . A circle and a rectangular hyperbola intersect in four common chords is a diameter of the hyperother common chord is a diameter of the circle. their foci Ellipses are described in a given parallelogram lie on a rectangular hyperbola. If 10. PQ and P'Q'.

in the conjugate axis of a rectangular be drawn to the vertex. the pedal triangle 22. equal to -p^ - it. At any point P of a rectangular hyperbola the radius of curvature varies as C/*". 23. If a rectangular hyperbola circumscribe a triangle. and the diameter of the curve is equal to the central chord of curvature. The its and the vertex circles described is difference of its base angles a rectangular hyperbola. verse to meet the curve. FN is drawn perpendicular to an asymptote of a rectangular P on the chord of curvature along PN hyperbola from any point IS hyperbola the normal chord equal to the diameter of curvature. 21. is a self-conjugate one. 19. If hyperbola from any point Q QA The QR parallel to the trans- QR = AQ. . on parallel chords of a rectangular hyperbola are coaxal. The base of a triangle being given the locus of 20. is At an}' point of a rectangular 24. and lines joining the extremities of conjugate diameters of a rectangular hyperbola are perpendicular to the asymptotes.THE RECTANGULAR HYPERBOLA 200 17. 18.

its projection come near call cylindrical projection is the case in which points on the p plane are projected on to the plane by lines which are all drawn parallel to each other. the lines joining corre- sponding points in the original figure and What we may to being parallel. shall see. a as we circle. the resulting figure on the is tt plane said to be the orthogonal projection of the original figure. . in space lie In the present chapter it will be shewn how certain pro- perties of the ellipse can be obtained from those of the circle. 201. tt We regard this as the limiting case of conical projection V is vertex when the at infinity. In the particular case where the lines joining corresponding points are perpendicular to the on the is plane p tt plane on to which the figure projected. The foot of each perpendicular is the projection of the point from which which it is drawn. Points in space which are not necessarily in a plane can be orthogonally projected on to a plane by drawing perpendiculars from them to the plane.201 CHAPTER XV ORTHOGONAL PROJECTION When 200. Thus all points on the same line perpendicular to the plane on to which the projection is made will have the same projection. every ellipse is the orthogonal projection of It is first necessary to establish certain properties of orthogonal projection. projection It may be observed at the outset that in orthogonal we have no vanishing line as in conical projection. figure is the vertex of projection by p on to projected from one plane means of which a another plane vr is at a very great distance from these planes. for.

(ORTHOGONAL PROJECTION 202 The line at infinity in the infinity in the plane ir. Tlie projection of a straight line is another straight line. Parallel straight lines p7'oject into 2Ja'>'allel and in the same ratio as regards their length. straigJit lines. It follows that the orthogonal projection of a parabola will be another parabola. perpendiculars to the ir infinity ji This plane projects into the line at is clear from the fact that the plane from points in meet the p plane it on the line at at infinity. TT plane. Prop. . is only a It is clear that the line in TT plane which will be the projection of a line I will be that which the plane through I and perjjendicular to the plane tt the in cuts this 203. while the orthogonal projection of an ellipse Avill be another ellipse or in particular cases a circle. The 202. This is obvious from the fact that orthogonal limiting case of conical projection. following propositions relating to orthogonal pro- jection are important Prop. Let J^i) and CI) be tAvo lines in space parallel to one another. and of a hyperbola another hyperbola.

angle GCD CG (for these . of line lying along the // I be with the a limited ir same line in the line are projected p plane parallel plane.ORTHOGONAL PROJECTION Then ab and cd must be a point p.'. in the FAB = the to we have proved : A CG^D. F and G are the angle . the and ab same its length as I I. 204. AF CG = AB . to p's intersection OH IT will Let be a is similar to : Lengths same ratio. ab:cd Prop. CD.-. the orthogonal projectdon of line parallel to and of AB be the limited line I. = AB:CD. and similarly CG = cd. Now draw AF and CG parallel respectively to ab and cd to meet Bb and Dd in F and G.-. to and the angles at right angles. for if 203 they were to meet in be the projection of a point common to AB and CD. orthogonal projection. Now since AB is parallel to CD. and ^i^ are respectively parallel to ab and cd which be parallel). p Would parallel. Cor. . Then AabF is a parallelogram so that AF= ab. A ^i^5 .

Let ab be the orthogonal projection of AB.Cand of p and Then perpendicular to the line of intersection TT. limited line in the the line of intersection of to Ca = Db. p and ir p ' plane perpendicular to will project into a line also of intersection and whose length will a ratio equal to the cosine of the angle to this line to the original line between the planes.AGa= ^ BDb for AO and Ca are parallel Further for and . (7i)&a is a parallelogram. .". and in C. ACDB is Also since Aa perpendicular to a parallelogram. Let AB be let its line perpendicular to the intersection of p and meet it tt. and Bb are perpendicular to CD and therefore they are Ga and Dh tt. A Prop. .-. parallel.204 ORTHO(. are parallel to each other.OJN'AL PROJECTION BD Draw J. 205. and ab : AB = ac AC : = cos aCA = cos ( Z between p and tt). zAaC = Z BbD /. Then ab and AB meet in C. AACa = ABDb AC^BD. as C'a and Db are . ab = CD = AB.-. perpendicular bear BD and Db.

We ellipse and Now viz. tt. 150) that corresponding ordinates of an auxiliary circle bear a constant ratio to one BC:AC. of a circle. AA' let until it the auxiliary circle be turned about . ellipse as the orthogonal projection have seen another. its (§ of the between the planes. A Prop. For we number of" may suppose the figure to be made up of an infinite narrow rectangular strips the length of p and which runs The lengths parallel to the intersection of slips are unaltered by projections. its major axis comes into a plane making with that of the ellipse an angle whose cosine is BG:AC.. closed figure on the a closed figure luhose area will bear a p to that plane 205 ivill project into of the original figure ratio equal to the cosine of the angle betiveen the planes.ORTHOGONAL PROJECTION 206. and the breadths are diminished in the ratio of the cosine of the angle The 207.

CD CP = D'N : : Cp and be perpendicular to CM. • . 208. and the drawn to CP. some We proceed to illustrations. and . and we have parallel to Cd'. with the plane of the ellipse. on the auxiliary ellipse. PM : CN .ORTHOGONAL PROJECTION 206 It is clear that the lines joining each point on the ellipse to new the position of the point corresponding to circle will its it be perpendicular to the plane of the Thus the ellipse new position. p'm Cd = Cn Cp by § : : d'n : Cd = Cm : Cp. the orthogonal projection of the circle in is Certain properties of the ellipse then can be deduced from those of the circle by orthogonal projection. are perpendicular radii as are also and p'm. : For let adjusted to : the corresponding points make an angle be denoted by small Then Cp and Cd in the auxiliary circle BC cos~^ -r--. Cd will A Cmp =Ad 'nC. Prop. CD' another such pair. diameters of an ordinates P'M. . D'N he P'M CN = D'N: CAl = CD CP. tlien ellipse. 203 P'M:GD=CX:CP D'N:CD=CM:CP. d'n being Cp. CP If and CD he a pair of conjugate semiand CP'. letters.

and equal to the diameter circle. Ct' are t' J' = Cp. then rP PT' = CD\ ellipse meet he conjugate . The area of an CA. and Cp is perpendicular to tt'. Let xiA' be that diameter of the the circle ellipse ellipse. TP. The orthogonal projection of a circle from a tt is an ellipse whose major axis is intersection of p and tt. project into aa equal to it (§ 20-1). If the tangent at a point P of an 209. p and Let tt A A' circle which planes. : ).AC. is parallel to . TP:CD = CD:PT'. '".cn. tp pt' . plane ellipse ichose ellipse is the orthogonal projection of its auxiliary circle tilted to .-.-. Prop. . with that of the Area of auxiliary . make an angle Area of ellipse •.= Cd tp:Cd = Cd:pt.'.PT' = CD\ . . 211. For in the corresponding figure of the circle Ct and at right angles.ORTHOGONAL PROJECTION 207 Prop. any pair of conjugate diameters in T and T' and CD to CP. 210. CA and CB For the is IT. another plane jKirallel to the of the BC Prop. p semi-axes are cos'^jy. : on to Area of = BC A C (§ 206 = tt BC .

is = PN cos a where a perpendicuhxr to cm' Now p7i- : CD) na .ORTHOGONAL PROJECTION 208 Let PN be an ordinate to the diameter A A' and let pn be its projection.similar ellipse having its axes along those of the original ellipse. and The its locus of p is an ellipse having aa minor axis = aa x cos a. Two 2.a : . 1. 5. Hence the axis. The greatest has one of its sides triangle which can be inscribed in an ellipse bisected by a diameter of the ellipse and the others cut in points of trisection by the conjugate diameter. p/i . parallel to the line of intersection of the planes. parallelogram 3. into similar is easily seen to major a. an ellipse its sides are and the greatest area of such a If a parallelogram be inscribed in parallel to conjugate diameters. (§ 205).A<'. it will touch anoth(. is the Z between p and = PN" cos^ a ^iV NA' : = cos. If a variable chord of an ellipse bear a constant ratio to the 4. EXERCISES 1. PQ be any CP in 7\ chord of an ellipse meeting the diameter conthen PQ PT --=2CR. will be equal and the major axis of major axis of the other. each being parallel to the is be sin for its Two circles in the same plane project orthogonally and similarly situated ellipses. 1. similar and similarly situated ellipses are the simultaneous orthogonal projections of two circles. The locus of the middle points of chords of pass through a fixed point 2.•. diameter parallel to it. eccentricity CoR. an a similar and similarly situated If jugate to is BC. is ellipse which ellipse. . Cor.M. where CR is the semi- diameter parallel to PQ. For their eccentricities the one and pn ir.

be conjugate serai-diameters of an be joined. the figure and BDOP will be a parallelogram. intersect in 0. similar and similarly the portions intercepted between the curves are If a straight line situated ellipses. If BD CP. similar. 9. The locus of the points of intersection of the tangents at the extremities of pairs of conjugate diameter and similarly situated 8.ORTHOGONAL PROJECTION 6. equal. CD is a concentric. A'P ellipse. and AD. 7. ellipse. ellipses intersect in four points. will 10. 14 of . Two whose axes are at right angles to one another Shew that any pair of common chords make equal angles with an axis. 209 meet two concentric. Shew that a ellipse itself its circles of circle of curvature for an ellipse and the can be projected orthogonally into an ellipse and one curvature. BP.

and P Prop. D he the conic. constant and corresponding cross-ratio of the four points in which the tangents at A. cpd are constant or change to their supplements as therefore P {ABCD) is Let the tangents at let p moves on the circle. P{ABGD)=p{ahcd). bpc. a variable point on G. four fixed points on a P (ABCD) is conic. constant. equal to the D Project the conic into a circle and use corresponding small letters in the projection. d^ and . be the centre of the d cut that in p in circle. a. b^. meet that at P. Ci. B. c. 0.210 CHAPTER XVI CROSS-RATIO PROPERTIES OF CONICS 212. B. If A. b. a^. Then But p (abed) is constant since the angles apb.

pd. Prop.' be a point on the conic near to A. If J. D is harmonic. C. Note. Q' (ABCD) = Q (ABCD). B. D be four fixed non-collinear and P a point such that P (ABCD) is constant. C.-. Oc^.-. G.RATIO PROPERTIES OF CONICS Then Ob^. Q (A. we speak of the points on the conic as harmonic. pc. 211 (ciibiCidi) = (ajbiCidi). T be if J. Thus if P {ABCD) = -\.C. . points in a plane the locus Let of Q If A. P{ABCD) = {A^B. Cor.-. Oa-^. by Thus the pencils Q (A. A (TBCD) = P{ABCD).•. we say that A and C are harmonic conjugates to B and D. P is a conic.CROSS. D) 14—2 are . ph. 213. B. B. . let it cut QA P does not in Q'.-. Od^ are perpendicular to pa.D. we have A'{ABGD) = P{ABGD). be a point such that Q {ABCD) = P (ABCD). . B. D. D) and homographic and have a common ray QQ'.). In the special case where the pencil formed by joining any point P on the conic to the four fixed points A. pass through Q. C. B. % Then if the conic through the points A. p {abed) = . the tangent at A. § 212. P {ABGD) = Q' (ABCD) . C.

P Therefore the conic through A. to follow by Reciprocation directly from the proposition of the last paragraph. But (§ D are 64) they are coaxally in perspective that is. when we come to the next chapter. 214. B. d in the given constant. B. b. D such that {ABGD) = a. B. proved. Prop. Thus our proposition We . collinear. c.D.B. . G. C. E as we may regard a conic through P such that line wJiich cuts four non- the locus of a point P {ABCD) = E {ABGD). goes through Q.CROSS. G. this is contrary to hypothesis. TJie envelope of a concurrent coplanar fixed straight lines in four points forming a range of constant cross-ratio is a conic touching the four lines. D. The following Let the line p is an independent proof cut the four non-concurrent lines the points A.RATIO PROPERTIES OF CONICS 212 Therefore A. C. This proposition will be seen. is see from the above that the five points A.

a.B. (§ 60). D". h. c. C. a conic S. FC. B. B„ C„ D) be a pencil in the plane of FA. c.. FB. The ranges A'B'C'D" and A'B'C'D' common b. lines in A'. from A' in q draw Let same four line q cut the that {A'B'C'D') as that which touches d.CM. p. then P{ABCD) = (A. § 212 are therefore homo- corresponding point. which is contrary d are non-concurrent. our proposition Prop. D' such = (A BCD). into seen. c. B'. which . a tangent to the conic. Thus q touches the same conic c. Therefore they are in perspective to our hypothesis that a. C. And 215. a conic can be projected. the poles of respect to S.213 CROSS. {A'B"C"D") = {ABCD) by = {A' BCD').RATIO PROPERTIES OF CONICS Let the Then if b. in B". q' graphic and they have a a. q be not a tangent to the conic touching d cut . FD with D. q' d. and A. (A.-. We as need only prove we have this in the case of a circle. C". //' F is established. b.p.

B. This proposition is of the greatest importance for the pur- poses of Reciprocation. circle. . 25. X). 216.0. the range. B.. PC. PB. proceed thus Consider the hexagon or six-sided figure formed with the sides AB. We had already seen that the polars of a range of points we now see that the pencil is homographic with form a pencil . 00^.). CD. the opposite pairs of sides of each of the sixty different hexagons (st^-sided figures) that can be formed with these points intersect in collinear points.CM = (A. OD^ are perpendicular respectively to PR PA. P (ABCD) = (A. DE. . EF. BG. E.BAD. PascaPs theorem. This theorem Chap. Or we may may be proved by projection (see Ex.214 CROSS-RATIO PROPERTIES OF CONICS Let be the centre of the Then OA^. If a conic pass through six points A. OB^. F. D. FA.

218. . § 216. Prop. CD CD Then meet EF in Z respectively. B. lies (§ 60). fixed points Let is I'he locus of the centres of conies through four a conic.CROSS-RATIO PROPERTIES OF CONICS The pairs of sides which are called opposite are BG and EF. and FA. satisfy himself that there are sixty hexagons that can be formed with the six given vertices. that in G. XY. and DE meet FA A (BDEF) = C since . the intersection of Thus the proposition The student should different XDEG YHEF have a corresponding point ^. H. C. Brianchon's theorem. . We shall content ourselves with deriving this theorem from Pascal's by Reciprocation. proved. Y. on XF. This can be proved after a similar method to that of and may be left as an exercise to the student. 217.DH and and FG= are concurrent Z. is. Let these meet in X.-. To the principles of this important development of modem Geometry we shall come in the chapter immediately following this. Let 215 AB and DE is DH and FG. (XDEG) = (YHEF). (BDEF). hexagon the If a conic be inscribed in a lines joining opposite vertices are concurrent. be the centre of one of the conies passing through the four points A. These homographic ranges common .-. D.

M.-.. &c. 2. M.m:).*. But the right-hand side is {M. 0. we see that aoa. The 1. be the middle points of AB. these five M„ M.'. which the locus of 0.. OM.516 CROSS-RATIO PROPERTIES OF CONICS Let M.' are pairs of conjugate diameters. 0M„ OM. BG. conic on which lies M„ M^. OM. M^.M. OM. (MJl^MsM. Therefore they form an involution pencil. M.. Cor. M. O4. Prop.. O5 be five positions of 0.^. Draw Oil//.'. Then Oifi. For points if Oi. is is constant. all lie five points. OM. M„ M„ M^. CC'\ 219. OM.:. are in fixed directions. in P. OM.. Using small letters in the projection. B. lines So is the pair of . BB' GC are . a conic through M. R the diagonal points of the quadrangle.. constant since OM. are right angles.' parallel to DA AB. the locus of . BB'. M^ the middle points of the other two sides of the quadrangle. and if a conic he draivn through to cut C. being in a semicircle. A'. If [AA'. and also on a conic on a conic through M^.^M. M^. M. passes through ifg.. Project the conic into a circle with the projection of its centre. P for concurj-ent.M. BC.M. for Q and R. CD and the centre of this conic is P. OM. lie ilfi. Cor. B'.' ..) . C.'M. But only one conic can be drawn through Therefore is M„ J/j. CD. through O3.-. Q. hoh' .. M. DA respectively.. The locus of also passes through P. OM. Let A A' and BB' intersect he an involution pencil the rays in A. {M. on one conic. then the chords A A'.) = . For one of the conies through the four points AB. OM. M. respectively. CD..

(Q. . The The straight line PP' straight lines cuts a conic at PQ PP 3. 2. goes through p. CC that . Q') be pairs of harmonic points on a conic § 212). PQ and PQ' make equal angles with PP. cc 217 involution. goes through P. if PP' be Pand P' and is normal and PQ' are equally inclined to PP' and cut the conic again in Q and Q'. It will be understood that the points AA' . Shew that if the pencil formed by joining any point on a conic to four fixed points on the same be harmonic. is. CC BB'. Note on (see F). coc is a right angle /. at P. The point called tlie j)ole P is called an where the corresponding chords intersect is of the involution.•. prove that the tangent at P and PP' are harmonic conjugates to PQ and PQ'. EXERCISES If {P. A system ^f points such as these on a conic involution range on the conic. 1. Hence shew that normal at P.CROSS-RATIO PROPERTIES OF CONICS Hence they determine an orthogonal . Prove that PQ and P'Q' are harmonic conjugates to and the tangent at P. two sides of the quadrangle formed by the four fixed points are conjugate to each other with respect to the conic. when joined to any other point on the conic give an involution pencil for this follows at once by the application of § 212.

fixed point on a conic a line is drawn cutting the conic again in P. Deduce from of a hyperbola intersects the and the tangents at the vertices in PAf. in perspective.. P at any point The tangent asymptotes in il/j and Lr. and CD^ GD'^CII. Prove that CK GH : . Shew A. . AI' are drawn. The on a lines line parallel to CA and CB are tangents to a conic at D and E are two other points ABinG. If . two triangles be in Q. Pascal's theorem that if a conic pass through the vertices of a triangle the tangents at these points meet the opposite sides in collinear points. prove that L^ and = PL^. CD cuts GK. is are any four points on a hyperbola CK parallel . The sixty Pascal intersect three by three. B' . vl/.5. C. 12. lying 1 1. 10.rL. DL KL is and Prove that //. . and the sides of a given inscribed triangle in A\ B\ 8. and the axis of perspective is one of the Pascal lines of the six points. that D [PA'B'C) AD to one asymptote meets asymptote meets CB in Any two points \n A". : DE. constant. Through a fixed point A on a conic two fixed straight lines AI. and BE in K. iS'and S' are two fixed points and P a variable PS. and the tangent at PJ meets CA in T. lines corresponding to six points D and E are taken on on a conic a hyperbola of which CA and CB through and U respectively meet in Q the tangent at D meets CB in P. PS' meet AI. AA'BB'CC [Take a hexagon near to ^. R are the asymptotes are GA and CB D the parallels to . The line A and B. C are Given three points of a hyperbola and the directions of both asymptotes. Q' respectively.CROSS-RATIO PROPERTIES OF CONICS 218 4. C". the six points of inter- section of their non-corresponding sides lie on a conic. C] 6. A I' shew that QQ' passes through a fixed point. B. 9. in the conic so that A'. AE in H. on the conic. point on the conic 13. drawn Through a parallel to one of the asymptotes. parallel to the other parallel to AB. collinear. B.. Prove that T. find the point of intersection of the curve with a given straight line 7. Q.

the chord QQ' passes through a fixed point. If the lines of a conic AB. BC. Prove that the points A. position of P. respectively. APQCRS The tangent at P to an ellipse meets the auxiliary circle in ASS' A' is the major axis and SY. shew and PB B he given points on a circle. PQ' 14. S'Y' the perpendiculars from the foci. to find a point PA . S shew that conies can be inscribed in the hexagons and BQRDSP. DA touch a conic at P. R. Q. diameter. If 15.219 CROSS-RATIO PROPERTIES OF CONICS through a fixed point P are equally inclined to the tangent at P. and how shall cut CD in P CD be a given on the circle such that points equidistant from the centre. 17. A' subtend at any point on the circle a pencil whose ci-oss-ratio is independent of the 16. two chords PQ. li A. CD. Y and Y'. Y. Y'.

e_c orrespondinff J ines p q. o^_these points with respect to (pq). R. Thus if we have points and lines. r.Ji aye jtlgeady_§een. &c. It will be convenient to represent the intersection of the p and q by the symbol and Q by (PQ). and the line joining the points The p oint P corre sponds with the line p^ in t he sense Ihat PJsjb he pole ofj j^cLthfi^line^ C^^ correspond s with th e point ( pq) in the sense that (PQ) is_th e polar o £Xj2i^). F a__conie ^goin ts in the plane F and Q rg_spect to and r a. lines P of points P.t^ —Two consistmg^f_lin£Sjand-^>oints called relation in medium to one another o ftheir_ Recipro city Using § is snch we an aggregate of h av e a GignreJ^' fignrea^Xand^^re Recipr ocal Ji^reS.220 CHAPTEE XVII RECIPROCATION 220. the_polai^ with nterse ction of th._JThe the_conic^J\_ 215 we see that a range of points in jP corresponds homographic with the range? in F'. . Q. a fi P gure cojisisti ng of t hea^jcorrespondinp' toJ. If we have a number _an d take t he_p olars p. in a plan e thenjbhe^m^^jommg^a^y. q.!^^^ y e. fcc. . to a pencil of lines.g is . of th e i .

{ca) {ca). We will give examples. {ah). Z. Corresponding to the concurrency of {AA'). we have the in collinearity of (aa). F. {CA) {C'A'). {ah) {a'b') in the figure F'. the pairs of corresponding sides {BG) (BV). c And forming similarly for A'B'C'. (AB) (A'B') intersect in collinear points X. of correspondence enun- ^ve. We know 222. Fig.property to another infer nnd points. Now if we draw the vertices of the triangle reciprocal figure.p ciated in the last paragraph of a figure consisting property of a prinniple. a. {ca). the process of passin g from the one to the other is and known as Reciprocation.V. (GA) (C'A'). be in perspective. {AB) {A'B') in figure F. h.221 RECIPROCATION "Rj^mPflTis nf 221. Corresponding to the collinearity of the intersections of {B'C'). A'B'C now that if the vertices of two triangles ABC. t. . we have a triangle whose vertices will be three lines (6c). Y. corresponding to the ABG. {BB'). called the Reciprocal of the other. (bb'). (cc) in the figure F'. are able frOTnji p oints and of lines fig ure consi st ing of linas The o ne property is kn ov^^^. (CC) the figure F. we have the (BC) concurrency of the lines formed by joining the pairs of points (6c) (6'c').

(ca) viz. B. Let a. (ab) Fig. harmonic Let us now connect together by reciprocation the property of the quadrilateral and that of the quadrangle. 223. collinear. . theorems placed side by side may be : Triangles in perspective are I coaxal. {he) and (6'c'). a'h'c such that the three intersections of the corresponding sides are then the lines joining corresponding vertices. but into one regarded as three points vice versa. I The student will of course have realised that a triangle regarded as three lines does not reciprocate into another triangle regarded as three and lines. Coaxal triangles are in perspective. D the . are concurrent. The two stated thus reciprocal. {ah) and {ah'). h. A. c. C. d be the lines of the quadrilateral corresponding points of the quadrangle. and {ca).222 RECIPROCATION Thus the theorem of the figure F reciprocates into the following If two triangles whose sides are respectively be abc.F'.

p. r. .RECIPROCATION 223 (ac) (bd) Let the line joining (ub) „ „ „ „ „ „ and (cd) be and {hd) be (ad) and (he) be {ac) Fig. F'. q.

A) by {ahca^) = (a^biCia)..224 RECIPROCATION The harmonic property of the quadrilateral is expressed symbolically thus {{ab){cd).. through a point P. to a. Prop. pencil is Involution in involution. (FR){PQ)} {(AC){BD). we have the harmonic that the two of the sides diagonal triangle at each vertex are harmonic conjugates with the two sides of the quadrangle which pass through that vertex. Thus the 225. • . property of the quadrangle and quadrilateral. viz.) = {A.' Prop. {(ad) (be). a^ . {{AB)iCD).B. the term diagonal points. (pq){qr)}=-l. B. The student sees now that the ' diagonal points ' of a quadrangle are the reciprocals of the diagonal lines of the quadrilateral ' from which it is Hence derived. h^.C. C. (pr){qr)}=-l. Ally transversal cuts the pairs of opposite sides of a quadrangle in pairs of points which are in involution.) and {aAc. reciprocation gives = -1.C. [{AD){BC\ (PR){QR)} = -1. Ci p. = {ABGA.G. h. &c. conic into For let A71 involution range reciprocates with respect- an involution pencil. {{ac){hd). iPQ)(QR)] = -l.kc. A.B. If these be interpreted on the figure property of the quadrangle. pencil obtained by reciprocation will be a. {pr)(pq)] The = -l. on a line The c. . Also {ahca.B.a) But § 215.) = (A. the involution range be A.A) by (ABCA. § 78.". 224.

CD in E. in P. 15 . Let a transversal ^ cut the opposite pairs of sides AB.225 RECIPROCATION Let ABCD be the quadrangle (§ 76). F^ .E.) = A{GEFG. A.F„ AD. {GEFG. Gi belong to the same I involution.) = {GF. BD in F. ad (aB) Hence E.) = (FBCG. £".) = Gt] £". A.. .G. G. Fi Or) by ( interchanging the letters in pairs. BG Let AD and BG meet in G.) Then = D{PBGG. G. F. AG. G. E^.

be a point of intersection of the circles on AG and as diameters. Thus in our figure T. (§ 225). DA The diagonals AC. BD.•. CD. P are be the four sides of the quadrilateral. (cd) gives an involution Prop. Let BD . (ad).-. (ac). pencil. BC. by . But PA. the circle § 86 Z right angles. which corresponds to the transversal joined to the opposite pairs of vertices (ab). PF are in involution EPF is a ri^ht angle. Let AB. (bd) . PE. .-. i I ' . PC. APC and BPD are PD. on EF as diameter goes through P. circles described IVie vertices on the three diagonals of a complete quadrilateral are coaxal. (be) . of t. PB.RECIPROCATION 226 We havL' only to reciprocate the above theorem to obtain other: tliis The lines joining any point to the 2mirs of opposite a complete quadrilateral form a j^encil in involution. EF. 226.

We : now have {PEF1\) = A{PEFI\) = A {PBCP. cut a conic through the four })oints and P.. 227. Pi belong to the involution determined by E. Conies through four gicen points are cut by any transversal in iniirs of points belonging Let a transversal A.D in P t to the same involution. G.RECIPROCATIOX Similarly the circle on EF goes through BD and AC. E^ F. CD.)hy^2l2 = (PF. The line containing these middle points sometimes called is the diameter of the quadrilateral. P. F. Let the same transversal cut the two pairs of opposite sides BD of the quadianglo in E. . F. 15—2 .EJ\) = (PiEiF^P) by interchanging the letters in pairs. is. the three circles are coaxal. AB..-.. This important and well-known property follows at once. since these middle points are the centres of three coaxal circles. B. The middle points of the three diagonals of a quadri- lateral are collinear. 22/ the other point of intersection of the circles on That Cor. E.) = D(PBCP. AC. . F. Desargues' theorem.

which is the polar of F with regard to r> will envelope some curve which we will denote by S'. Let A. of § 225 lines is only a special case of AD. and let >S". B. called the polar reciprocal of the other with respect to the conic T. C(Hiic r. As we 228. but we must correspond to points on S.RECIPROCATION 228 'I'hus all t ABCD the conies through in pairs of points will cut the transversal belonging to the same involution. another conic. We 229. (PP') becomes the tangent to and at the same time {p}^') becomes the point of contact of p with Then the Now as >S' its Hence envelope. Suppose the point P describes a curve S in the plane of the the line p. S. BC be regarded as one of the conies through the four points. Note that the proposition if the two Desargues' theorem. p and p' lines. Tangents to S' then correspond S observe further that tangents to For P and let to points P' be two near points on be the corresponding on S . 230. Reciprocation applied to conies. C. at P point (pp) corresponds to the line (PP') P' moves up to P. D be a conic then S' is he four fixed points on S. namely that determined by the lines joining the point to the pairs of opposite vertices of the quadrilateral formed by the four lines. Reciprocation are is now going (jn to explain how the principle of applied to conies. to tangents of Each of the curves *S' correspond points on S and S' is S'. point on Then If S Prop. and P any other . P {ABCD) is constant. theorem shall presently see. the reciprocal of Desargues' the following is If conies touch four given lines the jKiirs of tangents to them from any point in their plane belong to the same involution pencil.

This important proposition might have been proved as follows. d (§ 214). the envelope of is 215. then pole spond class.'. (tii) are so related (qt) be taken on p. straight lines in its is a curve of the second order. 'being a conic. the chord of contact to S' passes through (tu). a. Therefore S' must be a curve of the second curve such that from each point in tangents can be drawn to . at p and T P : then the say. pole and polar of S. c. that plane cut it two and only two points. <S.] that is be two conies reciprocal to each other tvith respect to a conic F. Hence S' is a conic. that If S and S' Prop. it its is.-. {(pa) (pb) (pc) (pel)] . and polar of S corre- vice versa. in is. plane two and only two The polar of Let QR be any chord of tangents at Q and R meet S which passes through in the line Therefore in the reciprocal figure that if any point tangents from . P with respect to F is the line we denote by p. (tu) are polar and pole with respect to S\ t of . S' is to polar and pole of S' and F Let [It is and TUhe that a a conic. a conic touching the lines is j3 § constant. most important that the student should understand TU is the polar of P with respect to S.•. real or imaginary. p and it TU. b.RECIPROCATION P (ABOD) = But 229 by {(pa) (pb) (pc) (pd)} . not to F. 231.

S self-conjugate triangle of a self-conjugate triangle of The three points The three of inter- lines joining the section of the opposite sides of opposite vertices of each of the each of the six-side figures formed by joining six points on a conic six-point figures are collinear. is self-conjugate . the triangle with the of tangents at the opposite vertices are collinear. on a conic. columns. will reciprocate into S'. (ab) six points of inter- The section with the sides of a triangle vertices of the lines joining the opposite points The two vertices to fixed points lie joining the tx'iangle to the intersection of the six lines a of of opposite sides and two fixed lines envelope a conic. the joining lines of the vertices of the triangle and the points of to a triangle sides three-point (a tho intersections of the figure). reciprocal theorems in the conic contact of with the opposite sides are concurrent. We 232. A 2. will now some set forth If a conic (i. (acj a conic be circnmscribed If be inscribed in a three-side figure).e. a triangle 2. 3. 4. PascaPs theorem. jxiints of S reciprocate into conjugate lines of S' an(i vice versa.RECIPROCATION 230 Cor. Conjugate 1. lei 1. If a conic circumscribe a quadrangle. the triangle formed by its diagonals for the conic. the triangle formed by its diagonal points conjugate for the conic. intersections a conic of formed by the lines are touching concurrent. — Brianchon's theorern. Cor. is self- If a conic be inscribed in a quadrilateral.

and lines through the centre of F into points on the line at infinity. the a parabola. according as the centre an is F of 231 ellipse. <S' is F be viz. be on S. a rectangular hyperbola Further let it is always obtained. are the tangents to S. If then a parabola be reciprocated with respect to a circle whose centre is on the directrix. we see that all the lines of the figure F or F' are to the corresponding points perpendicular to the lines joining of the figure F' or F. or a central conic be reciprocated with respect to a circle with its centre on the director circle. to The polar of a point P with respect to G being perpendicular OP. F is a circle. then S' For if OP and OQ is if the tangents from a rectangular hyperbola. the centre of asymptotes and therefore If the centre of line at infinity. and these are a right angle. is F be a circle (in which case we by C and its centre by 0) a further relation exists between the two figures F and F' which does not otherwise If the auxiliary ov base conic denote will it obtain. S' has one asymptote. And is thus the angle between any two lines in the one figure equal to the angle subtended at by the line joining the corresponding points in the other. is. S tangents to Hence if will and the points of contact of these reciprocate into the asymptotes of S'. the asymptotes of S' are the polars of P and Q at right angles since POQ is with respect to C. In particular to S it may be noticed that are at right angles. 233. be noticed that a triangle whose orthocentre . that If the centre of is therefore an F be outside S. Hence tangents to S from the centre of F will reciprocate into points at infinity on S'. parabola or hyperor tvithout S. S' has two real a hyperbola. The conic S' bola. within *S'.RECIPROCATION Prop. S' has no real asymptote and el Case where F 234. is within. For the centre of F reciprocates into the line at infinity. on.

hyperbola lies on the curve.RECIPROCATION 232 is at reciprocate into another triangle also having its will orthocentre at This 0. These two propositions have been proved independently (i 95. 236. be the pole of p. Further is also the orthocentre of the reciprocal of the triangle circumscribing the parabola. It can 235. 0. Draw P3I perpendicular to a. by reciprocation. the orthocentre lies on the curve. the student can easily verify for himself. therefore the pole of the line at infinity with respect to C. The orthocentre of a triangle inscribed in a rectangular 2. are connected that the two following propositions The orthocentre of a triangle circumscribing a parabola 1. Q its point of contact. It is also clear that no conies but rectangnlar hyperbolas through the vertices of a triangle and Prop. And is the reciprocal curve is a rectangular hyperbola because on the directrix of the parabola. P circle luhose centre is 0. lies on the reciprocal curve. S' ivill be for a focus. Now the parabola touches the line at infinity. 130). viz. A with respect . respect to a circle If 8 G Let p) and we reciprocate luith a conic having S. and a the polar of to G. Let us now see how the second can be derived from the first Let the truth of (1) be assumed. 'lies now be seen by reciprocation on the directrix. be any tangent to S. Let A be the centre of Let a be can its orthocentre. Reciprocate with respect to a circle G having its centre at the orthocentre of the triangle. Thus we see that if a rectangular hyperbola be circum- scribed to a triangle.

polar of the centre of S. Q any point on the circumference. 237. Cor. Let us now reciprocate with respect to a circle the in a semicircle is a right angle. In the reciprocal figure we have corresponding to directrix a. parabola. Since the eccentricity of S' ellipse. AQ which is • a point on the reciprocal curve and corresponding directrix the is 0. whose centre is the reciprocal of the corresponding directrix. A the . on. KL any diameter. is OA that AQ hyperbola according as in agreement with § is >S' is an within. The polar reciprocal of a coilic with respect to a circle having its centre at a focus of the conic is a circle.RECIPROCATIOX Then since AQ 233 perpendicular to jh "e have by Salmon's is theorem (§17) qp_PM 0A~ AQ• Thus the is • TTiT= the FM locus of P a conic whose focus constant ^rr. or without This >S'. theorem that the angle Let A be the centre of S. and a point {kl) on it corresponds to {KL). or 233.

238. Reciprocate with respect to a circle Then one all C whose centre is the circles will reciprocate into conies having at L. and L. A system. Prop. directrix subtends a right angle at the focus. to K *S'' Now {QK) and \QL) are at right angles. is the reciprocal of the polar of L with respect to that ..RECIPROCATION 234 and I are tangents from {kl) to >S" which correspondcorresponding to Q. Moreover the centre of the reciprocal conic of any one of the circles circle. of non-intersecting coaxal circles can be reciprocated into confocal conies. Let L and L' be the limiting points of the system of circles. Therefore the line joining {qk) and angle at the focus of Hence the tangent reciprocal subtends a right theorem is that the intercept on anij conic between tiuo tangents which intersect in the a to {ql) /S". L for focus. and q is tlie tangent to /.

that is. it is known (see Ex. conies. XIII) that if be two circles. Now reciprocate this with regard to a circle with its centre The two L.240. the envelope of PQ is a conic having a focus at L. respect to a circle reciprocate into confocals with .. are here merely illustrating the principles of reciprocation. and P and Q points on S^ and ^2 respectively such that PLQ is a right angle. confocal conies cut at right angles. common tangent a them of the coaxal system touching at P and Q. 40 of Chap. the (§ 22).2 Now having reciprocate its this centre at L. >S\ property with and S. common centre as focus. We know that 239. the circles of the confocals. L one of the limiting points. Si and S. if ^ be. for all the circles is the through L' perpendicular to the line of centres Therefore all the reciprocal conies have a common well as a Therefore they viz.RECIPROCATION But the polar line of L 235 same. to PQ two circles subtends a right angle at L. This fact We reciprocates into a t and the points the confocals at the Hence of the system reciprocate into confocal common tangent is of course known and easily proved otherwise. have a second all common focus. common P and Q common point into the tangents to point. they are confocal. Again .

236 L RECIPROCATION as one focus /S/ and SJ. T is a circle.•. circle is circle. line {PQ) . We will conclude this chapter by proving two theorems. the locus of This also is T. one to each of two confocals. it a circle. the two triangles self-conjugate with respect to a conic S. and the reciprocates into the point (pq).' into tangents to be at right angles will . a'h'c' is a triangle self-conjugate for the a the centre of the triangle. Project 8 into a circle with then (using small letters for A projected into the centre the projections) ah. the one having reference to two triangles which are self-conjugate for a conic. //' tivo triangles be self-conjugate to the same and a their six vertices lie on a conic Let ABC. q. the orthocentre of this . F and Q which reciprocate. and h and c lie on the line at infinity. A'B'C be their six sides touch conic conic. Further . is Hence we have the theorem If tivo tangents from a point he at right angles. As the envelope of {PQ) is follows that the locus of {jiq) a conic with a focus at L. Prop. ac are conjugate diameters and are therefore at right angles. the other to two triangles reciprocal for a conic. 241. a well-known property of confocals. the points p and viz.

. its on the conic through the five points named above. A'B'C be two triangles which are reciprocal for A B the conic S. since as we have seen no conies but rectangular hyperbolas can pass through the vertices of a triangle . and C" of AB. B.•. . A for its centre. . on a conic. that is to say. A' B'.•. Hence the . C. a. Let ABC.•. Prop. B' of CA. the six points A. the pole of G'A'. c. Project >S' into a circle with the projection of B' and 6" are projected to infinity. follows at once by just proved. they are in perspective. is the pole of B'C. c. C the pole of A'B and consequently also A' is the pole . since the line joining the two points at infinity on a rectangular hyperbola must subtend a right angle at any point. six points a. The second part the of 242. of BC. If two all lie on a also lie proposition we have reciprocating this which c C conic. c also lies and orthocentre. a h. h. triangles are reciprocal for a conic.RECIPROCATION Let a conic be placed through the and '237 five points a. This must be a rectangular hyperbola. h'. U.

are concurrent. that a quadrangle can be reciprocated into a . Similarly cc is perpendicular to ah. cc meet . ah' h' is is perpendicular to is we see that. Parallel lines reciprocate into points collinear with the centi-e of the base conic V. 3.'. aa' the pole of ac. the centre of of r with 2.288 RECIPROCATION Using small is the pole of he. . in the orthocentre of the triangle ahc. If tlTe conies *S' and the conic V. EXERCISES 1. aa'.'. A A'. is perpendicular to ac : parallel to ah' is perpendicular to ac. since a' he. respect to aS" *S" be reciprocal polars with respect to corresponds to the polar of the centre aS'. Shew parallelogram. Also since hh' which letters for the projection. hh'. CC BB'.

segment of the circle. Angles in the same segment of a 7. The angle between the tangent 9. The polar 10. common . a concentric circle circle. fourth. 5 — 12 inclusive. to a circle is perpendicular to the radius thi-ough the point of contact. Prove that with a given point as focus four conies can be drawn circumscribing a given triangle. having double contact conies will reciprocate into conies having double contact. is Reciprocate with respect to a circle the theorems contained in Exx. circle . Prove. The 11. by reciprocating with respect to a circle with *S'. opposite sides are concurrent. a chord through that point is at any point of a circle and equal to the angle in the alternate . the theorem : If a triangle ABC its circumscribe a parabola . locus of the intersection of tangents to a circle which cut at a given angle is Chords of a 12. A 14. The tangent 6. prove that the corresponding directrices will pass through a fixed point. vertices of a triangle on the The perpendiculars from the 5. : The locus of the poles of a given line with respect to conies passing- through four fixed points a conic. which subtend a constant angle at the centre envelope a concentric circle.S' is reciprocated by Prove that the radius of the radius of IS C is means of a circle the geometric and the semi-latus rectum C into a mean between of 6". and that the sum of the latera recta of three of them will equal the latus rectum of the 15. circle are equal. Conies have a focus and a pair of tangents 1 6. conic *S". Two 13. The opposite angles 8. of a point with respect to a circle is perpen- dicular to the line joining the point to the centre of the circle. and all the centres 17. centre at lie on the same straight line.239 RECIPROCATION Reciprocate with respect to any conic the theorem 4. of a quadrilateral inscribed in a circle are together equal to two right angles.

B.] If a triangle be i-eciprocated with respect to a circle 22. of a conic Shew . Conies are described with one of their foci at a fixed point two fixed points subtends 18. and if the polars oi A. All conies through four fixed points can be projected into rectangular hyperbolas. SB. Shew OB that the tangents at meet the P and Q fixed line parallel to the polar of 0. then A fixed 25. having will also Prove tlie following and obtain from it by reciprocation 23. . be drawn to two confocals S-^ and S. also how D is to find which subtend a constant angle at a given point on the conic will envelope a conic. of any diameter. q. the extremities circle with be a triangle. C perpendicular respectively concurrent. the point its centre lie on the circumcircle of the reciprocal triangle. B. the lines through A. SC are so that each of the four tangents from Prove that the directrices the same angle of given magnitude at S. C with conic meet the opposite sides in P. Q.. the angle between p and q is equal to the angle between p and q. following : respect to P. dicular to shew that the corresponding directi-ix is perpen10 and meets it in a point -V such that 10 0X= AO OD. is S. the foot of the perpendicular from the centre of the conic.. with a common focus. and 0. corresponding to the focus «S' pass through a fixed point. the orthocentre .. R. p q. Prove that chords 21. where / the centre of the inscribed circle of the triangle. is A on BC. be any point on the common tangent to two parabolas If 19. R If anj'^ again in intersect 26. ^S". : . a theorem applicable to coaxal circles If from any point pairs of tangents p. [Reciprocate into a parabola by means of a circle having its centre at the fixed point. respect to any conic the are collinear. A conic circumscribes the triangle ABC. . on the circumcircle of the triangle. and OA. and has one focus at 20.KECIPROCATION 240 whose focus to SA. Q. prove that the angle between the other to the parabolas is equal to the angle between the tangents from axes of the parabolas. reciprocate ABC on a in the plane of a given circle is joined to point A and B P and Q. Prove and 24.

C^A^. 27. BBy. [Use Ex. AB. A^. ABC is a triangle. /its incentre . Prove that the envelope of chords of an subtend a right angle at the centre is a concentric ellipse which circle. CA A^By. . C\ the points of Prove that the line joining AA^.] 16 . If two of perspective 241 triangles be reciprocal for a conic is (§ 242) their centre the pole of the axis of perspective with regard to the conic. L\. [Recipi'ocate with respect to a circle having its centre at the centre of the ellipse. / to the point of concurrency of the line of collinearity of the intersections of BiC\. CCi is perpendicular to contact of the incircle with the sides.] 29. BC .RECIPROCATION 27. 28.

be the asymptotes of one circle G. h we may hy a motion of transinto the position of the other. We 243. of which the tangents from the point of concurrency are the double Thus conjugate diameters the double lines of the involution are Now lines. . C" on the line at infinity. C „ „ „ go through the same two imaginary points line at infinity. each to each. then a. simply. in a plane go through lirte at infinity. without rotation. But a and a meet C and h and h' C and „ and Therefore on the Q and C another infinity. But clearly the double lines of the orthogonal involution at one point must be parallel to the double lines of the orthogonal involution at another. move one Hence the asymptotes to the Let h' of one circle are. seeing that lation. These the circular points at infinity or. parallel asymptotes of any other C. Thus the asymptotes of a circle are the imaginary double lines of the orthogonal involution at its centre. its the conjugate diameters of a circle are orthogonal. XVIII FOCI OF CONICS have seen that pairs of concurrent lines which are conjugate for a conic form an involution.242 CHAPTER CIRCULAR POINTS. of a conic are in involution. and asymptotes. h' of a being parallel meet on the line at being parallel meet on the line at infinity. a. circle in its plane. a. Our conclusion then is that all circles the same two imaginary points on the two points are called the circular points. and h.

This at first sight is But the paradox paradoxical.CIRCULAR POINTS. The points where they meet the line at infinity are the circular points. 16-2 . of this circle are X- that -f + ?/2 = 0. so that the asymptotes will make angles tan~'(i) and tan~'(— new with the i) axis of x as well as with the old. The FOCI OF CONICS 243 circular lines at any point are the lines joining that point to the circular points at infinity and they are the imaginary double lines of the orthogonal involution at that point. the cross-ratios of the jJencil (fl. n'. If we rotate the axes of coordinates at the centre of a circle through any angle. the equation of the circle does not alter in form. . 245. // AOB be an angle of constant magnitude and n. For let y = mx Then the angle be any other that y positive sense from y tan~' —- . 244. = ix makes with this. The equation of a circle refeired to its centre X- The asymptotes is = y- of the form is a-.- mx. we help the student to think of the circular lines at any moment digress for a upon the Analytical to touch aspect of them. y These two lines are the circular lines at the centre of the circle. n' he the circular points. W + imj :. B) are constant. is ex- plained by the fact that the line y = ix makes the same angle tan~^ {%) with every line in the plane. 1 -. ) Prop. measured in the is tan ^ { \ -. = line through the origin.\ = tan ^ i. It point may if . — +tm . the pair of imaginary lines = ix and y = — ix. keeping them still rectangular. Analytical point of view. A.

We will 247. This is effected by projecting the two points into the points on the plane of projection.. The circular points may he utilised for establishing properties of conies passing through two or more fixed points. sni 0(nn'. flOB. to say there can be only one involuti<)n with the double same lines. sin but the angles nOfl'. The student an imaginary one.r^r^> i.-. . 246. lines of the involution the double lines completely determine an involution. Prop. CD. Thus the conjugate diameters Hence ^ is of S are all orthogonal.4i?) is constant.' are the >S' O denote by passing through the circular Q'. and asymptotes of But the asymptotes are the double formed by pairs of conjugate diameters. C Let points. .'AB) . AOi^' are circular lines and Z Of i constant since the all make the same angle with every AOB is line in the plane. It can be seen at once that any transversal is cut by a system of coaxal circles in pairs of points in involution (the centre of this involution being the point of intersection of the line with the axis of the system).CIRCULAR POINTS. And that is >S'. now proceed to an illustration of the use of the circular points. 244 n ^ (nQ. For a system of conies all passing through the same twO' points can be projected into circles simultaneously. nOB —^AOB sin sin -. . a circle.s = ^ 4 For FOCI OF CONICS —HOCl' „^. tvy7v^> . constant by hypothesis. All cunics passing throuc/h the circular points (fre circles. will now go through they are The circular projections of the conies new plane and so of course understands that such a projection is the circular points in the all circles.. be the centre of a conic which we Then will CO.

•. From this follows at once Desargues' theorem 245 (§ 227). A. will now make use of the circular points to prove the theorem: If a triangle he self-conjugate to a rectangular hyperbola its circumcircle passes through the centre of the hyperbola. OHO' is a self-conjugate triangle for For OD. for the pedal rectangular hyperbola. B.. C. OD. Cor. 0. and two the points in the circles are cut by the axis of the system. namely that conies through four points cut any transversal in pairs of points in involution. is circle. D. The involution property of coaxal circles again is a particular case of Desargues' theorem. coaxal system.' all lie circle as it passes on a conic through ft (§ 241) and - ft'. centre C.FOCI OF CONICS CIRCULAR POINTS. two being the which all We 248. Now observe first that fl' ABC the the circular points. ft. which . Ofl' are the double lines of the orthogonal involution at to which the asymptotes. . Let be the centre of the rectangular hyperbola.. the six points A. for they have two other points in Hence Desargues' theorem is form a circles common.-. For if we the conies project two of the points into the circular points become all Moreover the circles. 21. being the rectangular hyperbola. and is is the pole of ClQ' a self-conjugate triangle. Chapter XIV. a particular case of the above triangle is self-conjugate (Ex. OH' belong Therefore angles. are concyclic. belong.•. If a rectangular hyperbola circumscribe a triangle. and are conjugate lines. at right OH.) for the . self-conjugate triangle. circular points. ABC is a self-conjugate triangle. must be a this conic . seen to follow from the involu- tion property of coaxal circles. is OnO' Also . to the that is the involution formed by pairs of conjugate lines through 0. B.•. for coaxal circles have four points in common. O. involution whose double lines are the asymptotes (§ 82). lies on the nine-points This well-known theorem proposition. its on' the line at infinity.

it follows that the circular lines through a focus are the tangents to the conic from that point.•. . Draw S. But the circular lines at any point go through il and H' the circular points. . Thus the foci tangents from H by drawing and taking their four of the conic will be obtained and iV to the conic. 246 Prop. is the centre of the conic. because the quadrilateral. the circles touch one another at the points all Foci of Conies. To help the imagination. Hence there are four foci. Every conic has four foci. SS' and self-conjugate for the conic. Prop. points of intersection. all circles. § 119 it HO' touches the sides of a. the triangle formed by the diagonals FF'. Since conjugate lines at a focus form an orthogonal involution. tiuo of which lie on one and are real.) of the line at infinity. and since the tangents from any point are the double lines of the involution formed by the conjugate lines there. and two on the other axis and are axis of the conic imaginary.CIRCULAR POINTS. 249. Concentric FOCI OF CONICS circles have double contact at infinity. F.. 0. D. 8'.e. S' . 250. For be the centre of the if points at infinity. n and f) That is.•. being opposite vertices as also F and Let FF' and SS' intersect in Now is F'. (Reciprocal of . i. tangents from these points to the conic and let F' be their points of intersection as in the figure >S. is the pole of HO'. construct a were figure as if H and H' real points. Vl' the circular the circles touch Ofl and Ofl' at the points O'. and n'.

CIRCULAR POINTS. are imaginary. OF and OS (§76) conjugate lines in the inA^olution of which lines. as we have seen. if F were real. which F and Cor. one on one axis and the other on the other axis. . F'.'. F' must be imaginary. or harmonic.•. Now we know that two of the It follows that the other two. On' is self-conjugate and is. SS'.-. would meet the For line at infinity in a not the case. Further OflCl' is FOCI OF CONICS 247 the diagonal. are at right angles.FS)==-h . And OF and OS are conjugate lines for the conic since the by the diagonals FF'. real point.•. are real. triangle formed for the conic . F and lines joining non-corresponding foci are tangents and the points of contact of these tangents are . . the line foci. OF and OS are Ofl and on' are the double . triangle of the quadra^^Ze SS'FF'. . 0(nn'. is FS say S and >S". the centre. Thus we have two pairs of foci.'. being orthogonal conjugate diameters. OF and OS. The to the conic coney clic. are the axes.

248

CIRCULAR POINTS.

A

Prop.

251.

FOCI OF CONICS

system of conies touching the sides of a

quadrilateral can he projected into confocal conies.

Let

ABCD be the quadrilateral, the pairs of opposite vertices

being A, C;

B,D; E,F.

E and F into

Project

the circular points at infinity on the

plane of projection.
.'.

A,

and B, D
by § 250.

C

projection,

Cor.

project into the foci of the conies in the

Confocal conies form a system of conies touching four

lines.

252.

We

will

now make

use of the notions of this chapter

to prove the following theorem,

If

which

is

not unimportant.

the sides of two triangles all touch the

vertices

Let

of the triangles

ABC, A'B'C

touch the same conic

all lie on

a

same

conic, the six

conic.

be the two triangles the sides of which

all

*S^.

Denote the circular points on the
by w, w.

tt

plane or plane of pro-

jection

Project

B

and

C

into twand w';

since the projection of

Further

A

»S^

.-.

S projects

into a parabola,

touches the line at infinity.

will project into the focus of the parabola, since

the tangents from the focus go through the circular points.

Using corresponding small

letters in the projection,

parabola goes through the focus,
a,

a,

A, B,

.-.

h',

c',

C, A', B',

a

a,

co'

0),

C

on a

lie

circle.

on a conic.

of the above proposition follows at once

The converse

see

are concyclic.

b', c'

,

lie

we

whose sides touch a

that, since the circumcircle of a triangle

.•.

249

FOCI OF CONICS

CIRCULAR POINTS.

by

reciprocation.

We

253.

have in the preceding

article

obtained a proof of

the sides of two triangles touch

the general proposition that

if

a conic, their six vertices

on another conic by the projection

of

what

is

lie

a particular case of this proposition, viz. that the

circumcircle of a triangle whose sides touch a parabola passes

through the

focus.

This process

is

known

as generalisiiig by projection.

proceed to give further illustrations of

Let us denote the circular points

254.

n, n', and their projections on the
course

co

and

to'

tt

We

will

it.

in the

plane by w,

are not the circular points in the

p

co'.

tt

plane by

Then of
But

plane.

by a proper choice of the ir plane and the vertex of projection
0) and Q)' may be any two points we choose, real or imaginary.
For if we wish to project H and H' into the points a) and &>' in
space, we have only to take as our vertex of projection the
point of intersection of the lines wD. and co'il', and as the plane
TT some plane passing through o) and to'.

The

255.

figures in the

and

following are the principal properties connecting
ji

and

tt

planes

when

Ci.

and

fl'

are projected into

&>

co'

1.

points
2.

Circles in the
o)

and

co'

tt

Parabolas in the

the line ww' in the
3.

p

in the

tt

plane project into conies through the
plane.

p

plane project into conies touching

plane.

Rectangular hyperbolas in the p plane, for which, as we
H and ft' are conjugate points, project into conies

have seen,
having

co

and

co'

for

conjugate points.

250

CIRCULAR POINTS.

The

4.

FOCI OF CONICS

centre of a conic in the

p

plane, since

of fin', projects into the pole of the line

Concentric circles in the

5.

having double contact at w and

A

6.

pair of lines

OA,

a>'

OB

it is

the pole

cow'.

plane project into conies

p

in the tt plane.

at right angles in the

p

plane

project into a pair of lines oa, oh harmonically conjugate with

This follows from the

Ota'.

Oft),

that

fact

OH, OH'

double lines of the involution to which OA,

0{AB,

therefore
o{ah,

&)&)')

A

7.

120')

= -!

82); from which

conic with

^

as focus in the

p

ft)

the two

and

256.

that

foci

&>'

S and

*S^'

plane.

of a conic in the j9 plane will project

In
&)

by drawing tangents
tt

plane.

importance that the student should realise

are not the circular points in the

tu'

they are the projections of

by

follows that

it

to the projection of the conic in the

It is of

and

ft)

the

plane will project into
tt

into the vertices of the quadrilateral formed

from

are

belong, and

= — 1.

a conic touching the lines sw, sw' in the

And

OB

O

and

tt

plane

when

Xl'.

252 we have denoted the circular points in the tt plane
w', but they are not there the projections of the circular

§

and

points in the

Our

p

plane.

practice has been to use small letters to represent the

So then we use to
If H and H'
are the circular points in the p plane, <w and w are not the
circular points in the ir plane and if w and co' are the circular
points in the tt plane, ft and H' are not the circular points in
the p plane. That is to say, only one of the pairs can be circular
points at the same time.
projections of the corresponding capitals.

and

wl for the projection of 12

and

fl'

respectively.

;

We

257.
isation

will

now proceed

to

some examples

Consider the theorem that the radius of a
point

of general-

by projection.

A

is

perpendicular to the tangent at A.

circle to

any

Project the circle into a conic through

C

of the circle projects into the pole of

The
co'

CO,

at

generalised theorem

of a conic meet in

c,

is

251

FOCI OF CONICS

CIRCULAR POINTS.

to

and w

:

the centre

&)&>'.

that if the tangents at two points
be any point on the conic and

and a

the tangent there

a{tc,

oi(o')

= —1.

258.
Next consider the theorem that angles in the same
segment of a circle are equal.
Let AQB be an angle in the
segment of which AB is the base. Project the circle into a
conic through w and to' and we get the theorem that if q be any
point on a fixed conic through the four points a, b, (o, w q (abuxo)
,

is

constant

Thus
conies.

245).

the property of the equality

ment of a
of

of angles in the same segproperty

circle generalises into the constant cross-ratio

CIRCULAR POINTS.

262

FOCI OF CONICS

Again we have the property of the rectangular hyperif PQR be a triangle inscribed in it and having a
right angle at P, the tangent at P is at right angles to QR.
259.

bola that

Project the rectangular hyperbola into a conic having
a>'

for

eo

and

conjugate 'points and we get the following property.

If p

be

any iwint on a

jugate j)oints and
]) {qr,

coco')

k (pq,

coco')

260.

r

q,

= — 1 and
= — 1.

Lastly

we

tivo

conic for which

w and

co

are con-

other jmints on the conic such that

if the tangent at

will generalise

p

meet qr in k then

by projection the theorem

that chords of a circle which touch a concentric circle subtend
a constant angle at the centre.

CIRCULAR POINTS.

FOCI OF CONICS

253

Let PQ be a chord of the outer circle touching the inner
and subtending a constant angle at G the centre.

The

concentric circles have double contact at the circular

points fl and H' and so project into two conies having double

contact at

The
C, is

w and

centre

C

the pole of

&)'.

is

the pole of Hfl' and so

The property we obtain by
If

c,

the projection of

woi'.

tiuo conies

projection

is

then

have double contact at two jJoints

if the tangents at these points meet in

c,

and if pq

of the outer conic touchinfj the inner conic, then

co

be

lo' and
any chord

aiid

c (pqcoo)')

is

constant.

EXERCISES
If

1.

be

centre of a conic,

tlie

12,

12'

the circular points at

and if Dim' be a self-conjugate triangle
conic must be a rectangular hyperbola.
infinity,

2.

If a variable conic pass

and touch two given straight

for the conic, the

through two given points F and F',
shew that the chord which joins

lines,

the points of contact of these two straight lines will always meet

FF'

in a fixed point.

3.

If three

common

conies have

two points

in

common, the opposite

chords of the conies taken in pairs are concurrent.

and X, circumscribe the quadrangle ABCD.
Two conies
4.
in ^and G,
Through A and B lines AEF, BGH&.VQ drawn cutting
and S^ in F and //. Prove that CD, EG, Fll are concurrent.
**>',

<S'._>

5.

If a conic pass

conic at a given point,

through two given points, and touch a given
its chord of intersection with the given conic

passes through a fixed point.
f2, 12' be the circular points at infinity, the two imaginary
parabola coincide with 12 and 12', and the centre and second
real focus of the parabola coincide with the point of contact of 1212'

6.

If

foci of a

with the parabola.

15. 14. OF are concurrent. Prove and generalise by projection the following theorem of the circle circumscribing a triangle which is selfconjugate with regard to a parabola lies on the directrix. to the of the Deduce that the polar reciprocal of any circle with regard to any to the circular points as tangents. find the reciprocals circular points with regard to any circle. 12. 254 7. 8. 8. 16.] If out of four pairs of points every combination of three pairs gives six points on a conic. Given that two lines at right angles and the lines circular points form a harmonic pencil. common tangent if to the intersection of the other three conies pass through the same four points. either the four conies thus deter- mined coincide or the four lines determined by the four pairs of points are concurrent. D is taken in . P and P' into the circular points. and has the lines from point the reciprocal of the centre of the circle for the corresponding chord of contact. 9. Prove that AD. 10. . Generalise by projection the theorem that the locus of the is the centre of a rectangular hyperbola circumscribing a triangle nine-points circle of the triangle. and the points P and P' all lie on a conic. 13. Reciprocate the theorem of Ex. If [Project 11. P' tangents be drawn to a conic. : The centre P and P' are two points in the plane of a triangle ABC. it also passes through pair of common tangents. a Prove that. of If a conic two given FOCI OF CONICS be drawn through the four points of intersection and through tlie intersection of one pair of conies. from two points P. any two of the conies is cut harmonically by the third. BE. the four points of contact of the tangents with the conic. 17. Generalise by projection the following theorem : The lines perpendicular to the sides of a triangle through the middle points of the sides are concurrent in the circumcentre of the triangle. common tangents. BC such that BC and BA are harmonically conjugate with DP and DP' E and F are similarly taken in CA and AB respectively.CIRCULAR POINTS. Generalise by projection the theorem that the locus of the centre of a rectangular hyperbola with respect to which a given triangle is self-conjugate is the circumcircle.

A CD and I meet CD in P. the poles of the line AB with respect to them will lie on a line /. Generalise by projection the theorem that confocal conies cut at right angles. system of conies pass through the four points A. is orthogonal. If two conies have double contact at A and B. and if PQ a 19. and on the tangent at X{PT. PA I. 20. IS. RT)^-\. Defining a focus of a conic as a i)oint at which each pair of conjugate lines circle 1 PB and pair of tangents from a fixed point third fixed tangent to the conic in 24. are hai-monic L and P T L'. D. C. Prove and generalise that the envelope of the polar of a given point for a system of eonfocals of the eonfocals a parabola touching the axes is and having the given point on its directrix. Generalise : The FOCI OF CONICS feet of the perpendiculars from any point on the circumcircle are of a triangle 255 on to the sides collinear. prove that the polar reciprocal of a with respect to another circle the second circle for a focus. a point prove that the locus of A' meet a any point on taken such tiiat to a conic P is X is is a straight line. If a Moreover if this line conjugates of 23. B. then {PQ. chord of one of them touch the other in Ji and meet AB in T.CIRCULAR POINTS. LL') = — . is a conic having the centre of . the conic. 21. 22.

the centre of inversion. a curve >S'. if OP' = A constant such P' is called the inverse of P. and the curve or surface described by P is called the inverse of that described by P' and vice versa. a point . OP' = the square of the radius. that OP. = i/c. P and P' are inverse points if they lie on the same radius and OP. P and P' are on the same side of the centre. not necessaril}^ a plane curve. is called the centre of inversion. Let k be the radius of inversion. where k is real. respect to its jilane is First let 0.256 CHAPTER XIX INVERSION We 261. 'Phe inverse of a circle with a circle or straight line. That is. in Prop. then we must consider P' as the inverse of a sphere round 0. the point P' will describe another 8' are called inverse curves. centre of a circle. *By this is meant the centre of the circle or sphere with respect to which the points are inverse. . lie on the circle. k". 262. two have already in inverse points ' ' § 13 explained what with respect to a meant is by- being the circle. unless the circle have an imaginary radius. whether P P with respect to be confined to a plane or OP be a fixed point in space and P' be taken on not. P If is called the describe a curve in space. It is convenient sometimes to speak of a point P' as inverse to another point that is P with respect to a j)oint 0. As curve P describes S and S'. and the radius of the circle radius of inversion.

OQ = sq. of tangent from • Take B on and BP' is parallel to OA • to the circle = t" (say). OP' = ^'•^ and OP.^^ ~ OQ such that OB OA t'' k' f 5 is a fixed point AQ. be the centre of the circle. which is a right angle. = Ic'=OA.*.257 INVERSION Draw Let the diameter P OA. its inverse. OP' Then . the angle AA'P' A' be the inverse of A.•. J. Next Let not be on the circumference of the let P be Let OP Let A any point on the P' circle. the locus of P' A A'.-. right angles to . qp. 'P' is at . and passing through the inverse of A. 17 . let be any point on the OP. Then OP. its inverse. PAA'P' is cyclic. 0A\ the supplement of is APP'. a straight line perpendicular to the is diameter OA. .•. cut the circle again in Q. circle. P' circle.

1. t- P' describes a circle Thus the inverse of the circle is round B. vice versa. Q' will be the inverse 8 and of Q.'. The inverse of a straight line through the centre of inversion. and the radii of the circles are to one another in the ratio of the distances of their centres from 0. the 2.INVERSION 258 BP' .S which corresponds to the part of the circle S' which and convex to is is concave to 0. point is Prop. OB = 7=nr = OA h^ t. Two of the common tangents of S and S' go through 0. Note. and in the second figure the two circles will generate spheres each of which will be the inverse of the other. and the points of contact with the circles of each of these tangents will be inverse points. is a circle passing If two circles be inverse each to the other. 263. ^ And . . centre of inversion is a centre of similitude (§ 25) . another circle. The inverse of a sphere with respect This proposition follows at once from the figures to any a sphere or a plane. Cor. Cor. The part of the circle *. round OA as axis will generate a sphere .vY AQ . if we call the two circles S'. last by rotating the and line in the first figure the circle and plane each of which is the inverse of the other. and if OPQ meet S' again in Q'. > ^^ ^ ^ constant. The student should observe that.

circle may be regarded as the intersection of two spheres. These spheres will invert into spheres. neither of which need pass through 0. 259 circle luith respect to a point plane. which is the inverse of the intersection of the other two spheres. For we have only to take the radical centre of the three circles as the centre of inversion. 265. a point in its A circle will invert into itself with respect to plane if the radius of inversion he the length of the tangent to the circle This OPQ that is P and and Q are inverse That is. Prop. 17—2 as . 1. Cor. the part of the circle concave to is OT- inverts into the vice versa. Any three coplanar circles can be simultaneously inverted into themselves. for cut the circle in P from if of inversion. that is of the original circle. of coaxal circles can be simultaneously if the centre of inversion be any point on the axis of the system. the centre obvious at once. not in its For the The inverse of a is a ciixle. since OP OQ = . and the tangent from it the radius. will be a circle.INVERSION Prop. 2. 0. and their intersection. part which Cor. OjT be the tangent from Q. 264. convex and Any system inverted into themselves it and follows points.

PTo be their tangents there. then Q' moves up at the same time to P' and P'Q^ Now S = k' = OQ let becomes the tangent at P' . we have two curves »S\ and PTi.INVERSION 260 Prop. and *S^2 if intersecting at P. Ttuo coplanar curves cut at the any point their inverses with respect to Let same angle as in their plane. and the inverse curves be . Then since OP.'. the tangents at P The tangents however Now. . OP' . Q move up to P so that PQ becomes the tangent to P.-. and P' make equal angles with OPP'. is cyclic. P' and Q' their inverses with respect to 0. OQ'.-. ^OPQ = zOQ'P'. are antiparallel. P and Q be two near points on a curve 8. not parallel. if to the inverse curve S'. 266. at QPP'Q' .

that the centre of Again. = at. P. Since P and Q are inverse points for 8. inverse of the circle OPQ will cut 8' orthogonally. P. Thus and S^ intersect at the same angle >S'i If two curves touch at a point Cor. 267. 261 So intersecting at P'.'P't:. Let be the centre of inversion. since 0. P as their inverses. then and Q'. their inverses touch at the inverse of P. Therefore P'Q' is lies OPQ is a line the inverse of the circle Therefore P'Q' cuts 8' orthogonally. . their tangents. Q If a circle 8 a he inverted into inverses P of and Q ^respectively. it 8' orthogonally every circle through P and Q cuts 8 P' and Q' cuts follows that every circle through (§ 266). P' and be inverse points luith respect to 8.INVERSION /S/. is. the be inverse points luith ivill respect to 8'. on the circumference. therefore orthogonally every circle through circle through 0. passes through 8'. P'T^' be follows at once from the above reasoning that ^t^pt. . it and PT/. Prop. circle S'. the inverse of P. the OPQ. since orthogonally. But the inverse of the circle centre of inversion. Therefore the P and Q. and 8 cuts in particular the Q.

2). are inverse points for the circle S'. . . P.) = -1. if ^j be the centre of S'. A^P'. perpendicular to BC and let it meet the circum- K. Let 0. orthocentre Draw OD circle in Now bisects the angle to BO. of the circles.'.-.INVERSION 262 Therefore. Let ABC be a triangle. 269.II. A cut U be BG in R. a right angle. S'. (AR. the circum- and nine-points centre respectively. AII^ which AL perpendicular centre. LI and X/j are equally . since inclined to RLA BC is (§ 27. that the nine-points circle of a triangle touches the inscribed and the three escribed circles. system of non-intersecting coaxal circles can be inverted into concentric circles. .iQ' = square of radius of Hence P' and Q' A Prop. L(AR.) = -1. L Invert the system with respect to L. J. since BI and BI^ are the internal and external bisectors of angle B. the limiting points and L' are real. The system being non-intersecting. 268. viz.'. Let M and ilfj this ecircle with Let the Draw line be the points of contact of the incircle and BC. is But L being the centre of the circle of inversion. Cor. its inverse Therefore L' must invert into the centre of each at infinity. I its incentre and /j ecentre its opposite to A. ' The of inversion principles may be illustrated by their application to prove Feuerbach's famous theorem. Feuerbach's Theorem. Now L and L' being inverse points with respect to each the system. II. their inverses will be inverse points for circle of each circle in the inversion.

XL. be the middle point of tangent from M and that AXM. X are Cor.INVERSION the polars of .D = zXMD.-. conjugate points for both N for the middle point of . then the square of the N to both circles = NX^ = ND^.". will L 263 with regard to the incircle and the ecircle be equally inclined to BC. (§ 12.D = AXMD. Let the incircle goes through MX be the polar of L Then . L through M^.e. .) L for the ecircle. aXM. Now the polar of for the ecircle Let for since D is MiX is the incircle cutting the polar of MM. i. L and circles. OD in X.-.

The point of contact of the nine-points circle with the incircle will be the inverse of inverse of Mi. and the line.\ DN the pedal line of K.-.'. this line touches the nine-points . the middle point of OP. the inverse of the nine-points But .*. and DL is circle. Similarly CoK. goes through D.INVERSION 264 iV is on the radical axis of the . . DM = DM. with respect to the or K bisects KP. it touches the other two ecircles.'. invert the nine-points circle. is But the pedal KNP . N being on the touches both ecircle. ND the radical two circles but so also . [See Ex. is since JV Now line of U is its middle point. M.*. for must be a invert into themselves. points on the circle. the pedal since be perpendicular to AK. N a straight line and a point on the nine-points is must line and L. the incircle and ecircle. The two latter circles will invert into themselves nine-points circle will invert into the line BG nine-points circle the inverse of that circle D UN=\OK. .'. both the incircle and circle . circle. and with the ecircle the EXERCISES 1. Prove that a system of intersecting coaxal inverted into concurrent straight 2. II. and clearly also. Now the pedal line of and K this is perpendicular to J/j. is . A sphere is inverted from a point on to a system of meridians two systems and parallels its surface on the surface of coaxal circles in the inverse figure. is i) since axis. . the incircle and ecircle whose centre circle N is and radius ND NL. K is on the bisector of the angle A..] circles can be lines. shew that will correspond . And . 16 of Chap.

C. be a fixed point in the plane of a system of coaxal P P' the inverse of circle of the system. i*i. PCD bisects . D' the four points inverse to them. is also the inverse of So with regard to Cj. result of inverting at a coaxal system circles of is any odd number of equivalent to a single inversion at one and determine the . 10. B respectively. respect to another and so on. 13. then these circles will meet circumcircle of the quadrilateral drawn through OAB 0. P". the circle and externally) the angles given circles. are concyclic. be a point in the plane of a system of coaxal P^. 9. of the system. OCA. inverses with respect to the different circles Pj &c. tliat the triangles Also that 0. the centres P.CD~ A'B' CD'' . circle of the system circle. C. circumscribing which lies on the . P" P If 5. BCD with (internally the circles inverse to two given circles P be equal. and P If 4. with respect to a the inverse of P' with respect to another P" with P'" of circle. then P'. shew If A. POP'. POQ.-. Prove that the nine-points circle of a triangle touches the inscribed and escribed circles of the three triangles formed by joining 1 1 the orthocentre to the vertices of the triangle.INVERSION D If A. and A'. B'. OBC. P. B. at right in a point OPQR. ACD. the nine-points circle and one of the angular points of a triangle be given.. if three other circles are to cut the circles any other R of the three circles OAB are concyclic with 0. be its circles. P'" &c. Shew that 8. 265 be four collinear points. point. a fixed is of the circles which circle so equivalent is to three given ones in a given order.B'D' AB. Pi. P'OQ' is a second fixed Shew that the 7. 12. C\ and Co cut orthogonally. B. point. CC AA\ BB'. Three of points if respect to a given point circles cut AB'C touch at A. are concyclic. Prove that if of intersection of the two one another orthogonally at the three pairs prove that the circles through ABC. A . Q. 0. the inverse of S^ with regard to C. OCA. then AC. 3. respectively shew that if C'l ^S*! . QOQ' are two chords of a circle and Prove that the locus of the other intersection 6. circles The figures inverse to a given figure with regard to two and Cn are denoted by and S. circles.BD A'C . C C be three collinear points and OBC. locus of the orthocentre tiie is a circle.. Pg jfec. angles.

P'. the angle between a circle and its inverse is bisected by the circle of inversion.INVERSIOX 266 Shew that 14. Shew that a. The perpendiculars. inverses of P. one of which other. 22. to 0.points circle of a triangle in circle The then orthogonally. ABC and the line joining opposite to between AB A A to the point of contact with BC of the ecircle are equally inclined to the bisectors of the angles and AC. is *S' S and Shew that shew that circle. A circle radical axis of 19. CN to the sides of a triangle meet in the orthocentre K. c..] . [Invert with A as centre so that C inverts into itself. AQ if OA'- A. Q' be the P'Q' meet OA in ^. particular case of on of inversion lies Q be three Q with respect P. lies tlie circle. if c h. KLGM touches the circumcircle of the triangle ABC. Prove that each of the four circles which can be described to touch the three circles about AN.] wholly within the proposition of § 151. 21. Prove the following construction 15. and AP. then a and b are inverses with respect to 18. and the circumcircle into the nine-points Invert two spheres. AL. cut orthogonally the circle ABC with the : HY is contact Y drawn BC in A meets bisector of the angle tangent The to the incircle.. then collinear points. C is a incircle of a triangle. B. and if P'. A. of this tangent and D H. 16. AG of a triangle and to touch the circumcircle internally at U. BM. into concentric spheres. ABC KM KNBL. 20. From H the otlier line joining the point of BC the middle point of cuts the incircle again in the point required. prove that this line is the the circle of inversion. [Invert the three circles into the sides of the triangle by means of centre K. Examine the where O the centre 23. their inverses with A and B are inverses with respect to C. Shew that AE 24. PBD. are three circles and respect to any other circle. inverted into a line.A^Q' " UI} A circle is drawn to touch the sides AB. and the the circle PAD the circle if PAC circle PAR cut orthogonally the circle must cut the PBG circle for obtaining the point of contact of the nine. FCD. If A. Given the circumcircle and the locus of the centroid 17. *S'.

We and similarly situated figures are and the point to F. and these lines are in a constant ratio.OQ . and that PQ P'Q' = OP OP' the For if sponding points in F' since . the centre of perspective being the homothetic centre. if and if on each radius vector OP. . PQ : : constant : P'Q' : ratio. for since OP -. then P' will determine another figure F' which said to be similar Two such honiotlietic. see that two homothetic figures are in perspective. In the case where PQ : = the . and we may regard as an assemblage be a fixed point in the plane.-. 270.267 CHAPTER XX SIMILARITY OF FIGURES Homothetic Figures. and P'. produced if necessary. The line joining two jyoints in the figure F is parallel to the line joining the corresponding points in the figure F' ivhich is homothetic with it. is called their homothetic centre. a point P' be taken on the same side of as P such that OP OP' is : constant (= is k). Q' the correOP OP' = OQ OQ' it follows that and P'Q' are parallel. If i^ be a plane figure. Q is in the line constant ratio. P and Q be two points in F. wliicli of points typified by P. conveniently called.OP =0P' : OP it is still true that OP OQ = OP' OQ' OQ' : - : OP'. 271. in one word. Prop.

If Figures directly similar. centre 0. For is if two pairs of corresponding points P. that is. The homothetic centre of two homothetic figures 272. *S^ at corresponding points the tangent at P is and a near point Q on S. P'. OP and OP' have to be in the same direction.SIMILARITY OF FIGURES 268 . and the tangent at P' the limiting position of the line through the corresponding points P' and Q'. in the case in this line The point : is : thus uniquely determined. and its plane round through any angle.-. is determined by the equation OP OP' = PQ P'Q'. Q' be given QQ'. them to OP:PQ=OP':P'Q'. For the limiting position of the line through P If the figures Cor. . where Q is in the line PP'. PQ. F and F' be curves and *S" the tangents P and P' will be parallel. now two F and F' be homothetic. for have to have the same sign. Two and is Two such figures F and F^ are said to be directly similar called their centre of similitude.P'Q'=OP:OP'. the intersection of Or PP' and Q. determined by two pairs of corresponding points. have a new figure Fi which is similar to F but not now figures the figure F' be turned in we shall similarly situated. is Prop.'. 273. directly similar figures possess the property that the .

. Q^ be two pairs of corresponding 274. OPjQi are similar. Q. If P.SIMILARITY OF FIGURES Z POPi between points P and Pj PQ:PiQi = the is lines joining constant. and the triangles OPQ. P^. Z. points of two figures directly similar. is the For since other intersection of the circles P-RP^. and to : the same constant. Prop. and if PQ. P^Q^ intersect in R.Q^ QRQj. Also OP 269 two corresponding OP^ is constant.OPQ=zOP.

Thus the proposition is is proved. The centre of similitude of two directly similar figures determined by two pairs of corresponding points. are in opposite directions. been assumed thus It has Px nor with If far that P does not coincide with Qj. POP.T. . then this point is itself the centre of similitude. PQ : .SIMILARITY OF FIGURES 270 OPR . is cyclic.Q. Z . and 1\ are corresponding points in the two figures. Cor. . : QT= P. QiOQR is cyclic. then T = Z PQT and Q. and collinear with it. of the one is parallel to the line joining the corresponding points P' and Q' of the other hut PQ and P'Q' two points . If P coincide with Qi we can draw QT and Qi?\ through Q and Qi such that z P. and the two members of each pair of corresponding points are on opposite sides of 0.•. and the centre of similitude is may be called called the anti- homothetic centre. the figures antihomothetic.T.-. When two figures are directly similar.R Similarly and Z OPiR are supplementary. P coincide with Pi. When two figures are antihomothetic the line joining any P and Q.Q. 275.

Let The S be the centre of similitude triangles PSA. it clear from § 25 that is the homothetic centre and 0' the is antihomothetic centre for the two We spoke of these points as ' circles. . If we 271 circles. and A. and internally at 0' in the ratio of the radii. = AP : : for this correspondence. are similar.SIMILARITY OF FIGURES Case of t^vo coplanar 276. but we now see that they are only particular centres of similitude. centres of similitude ' before. and it is clear that there are other centres of similitude not For taking the centre lying in the line of these. P^SA^ SA SA. = ratio of the radii. circle to A of one correspond with the centre A^ of the other.P. divide the line joining the centres of two given circles externally at 0. we then take any point P may of the one to correspond with any point Pi of the other.

Draw P'L perpendicular to the axis OX and in Pi. since OX bisects Z POP' AOLP'=AOLP„ OP. If if Figures inversely similar. . OPi : OP is constant. 277. and . ^ be a figure in a plane. This circle we have already called the circle of similitude and the student now understands the reason of the name.272 SIMILARITY OF FIGURES Thus S lies Thus the on the circle on 00' as diameter (§ 27). the two figures F and F' are said to be inversely similar is then called the centre and OX the axis : OP' is constant. let it meet OP . Then plainly. and another figure F' be obtained by taking points P' in the plane to correspond with the points OP P of ^ in such a way that and all the angles POP' have the same bisecting line OX. = OP'. locus of centres of similitude for two coplanar circles is the circle on the line joining the homothetic and anti- homothetic centres. a fixed point in the plane.'. of inverse similitude.

figure The student that F'. inversely similar to we easily obtain that P'Q' and we see that the angle regard to this last point directly similar 279. P'OQ'). P. : OP'. but the two similarly situated except in the case for in the plane of P'K be drawn perpendicular that P'K = KP. and P'. G. PQ = the constant ratio POQ = angle Q'OP' (not Given two pans of corresponding points similar figures. In of between figures similar. we see the distinction and figures inversely to OP it. Q' the corresponding points in the figure F'. To : we observe that if PP' cxrt the axis 18 .273 SIMILARITY OF FIGURES Thus the figure formed by the points Pj will be homothetic with F.2 if any will have no OY be difficulty in taken through if typified by P^ will proving himself F and and produced to F to formed with the points be similar to F. in tivo inversely find the centre and axis of similitude. If P and Q be two points in the figure F.2 then the figure and so line OY where will not be coincides with OX. 278. Indeed the figure F' may be regarded as formed from a F^ homothetic with F by turning F^ round the axis OX through two right angles. solve this problem A.

-. If Shew also that the pairs of corresponding sides of the triangles intersect in points forming a triangle directly similar to them. Q. directly similar. figures. If two triangles be inscribed in the same circle so as to be inversely similar. Q' . construct the centre of similitude of the syltem of triangles so formed and . if orthogonally projected. 3. . 5. then PF FP' = : OP : OP' since the axis bisects the angle POP'. triangle ABC points X. shew that they are in perspective. the triangles F'Q'R' are sin)ilar in PQR. S and . G. Prove that homotlietic figures be projected into homothetic 2. be inscribed in the same shew that the centre of the circle is their centre of similitude. in two If P. the locus of the centre of similitude of 4. P' these lines at is Q. then the line FG : the axis. two triangles. join PP' and QQ' and divide the ratio PQ P'Q'. CA.. If S and *S" be two curves directly similar. circle. Note. Chapter IX. Hence if P. The student who wishes for a fuller discussion on the subject of similar figures than seems necessary or desirable here.*>" in the different positions of S will be a circle. P' . If on the sides BC. Q' . R. prove that if S be turned in the plane about any point. the Take the point Pj symmetrical with P on the other side of axis. should consult Lachlan's Modern Pure Geometry. Z be taken such that the triangle X YZ is of constant shape. XYZ is a . then is determined by the intersection of P'Pj with the axis.ABoi-e. Y.274 SIMILARITY OF FIGURES OX in F. EXERCISES 1. R' be three corresponding pairs of points figures either directly or inversely similar. F and G in be given. prove that the locus of the orthocentre of the triangle straight line. the Euclidean sense. PF:FP'=PQ:P'Q'. will. and that the axis of perspective passes through the centre of the circle.

X^ T. the 'circle of similitude. Z be taken on the sides of a triangle and respectively. 9. the locus of the centre of similitude and the axis P 10. EF prove that AB. C B. circle of similitude of two given circles belongs to the coaxal system whose limiting points are the centres of the two given circles. ABC opposite to A. 18—2 . E. point. 11.' still is through a fixed point. and P' are corresponding points on two coplanar regarded as inversely similar and Q this case. when Q and similarity. BZX and CXY. similitude for the circles on 12. Prove that SS' is a diameter of the circle of similitude. two coplanar If circles be regarded as inversely similar.SIMILARITY OF FIGURES If three points 7. AD ABCD is a BC in F and cyclic quadrilateral . The 275 if three similar and A YZ. similarly situated ellipses be described round common they will have a 8. CD Generalise by projection similitude of two circles is coaxal is . of similitude passes is S is circles the centre of similitude in the other extremity of the diameter through P. AC and BD intersect in a diameter of the circle of as diameters. the theorem that the circle of with them. and P' are corresponding points in the two circles for inverse »S" is the centre of similitude.

prove that the sides of the quadrisections of their diagonals at the orthocentre. 0^ are the centres of its escribed and OjOo. B.2 . Prove that the line A. Q. C. ABC lie a circle. L. JV the points where these sides are cut by the . similarly situated to Aj^B^C^. form a triangle equiangular with the given . ZjZg.276 MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES Prove that when four points A. respectively Z. are the points of contact of the incircle with the sides opposite to A. B. and that the divided in the ratio D lie on BCD. Mj. is parallel to the line 4. D. . M. the on an equal which joins the centres of these circles is of three to one by the centre of mean position orthocentres of the triangles line of the points A. and quadrilaterals be inscribed in and one side of each through the middle point of the upper segment of the corresponding perpendicular. 0^. DAB. G^ the centres of the circles escribed to the sides BC% CA. C respectively .Again AA-^ is the bisector of the angle A cutting 3C in A^. ABC is the centre of a triangle. circles. ABC is PQR. R are the middle points of MjM^. three triangles LB^C^.^BJJ^ M. Z. ABC is and having a triangle. C. Oa^s meet AB. circle. Oi. B. Shew that the orthocentres of the MC^A^. 2. GDA. shew be described on the sides Qf a given triangle as them having the inter- diameters. 3. 0' . BC respectively that 00' is perpendicular to LM. If circles in L and M . passing laterals opposite to these one. C. 5. and A^ is the harmonic conjugate of A^ with respect to B and C B^ and Cg are similarly taken.^ is taken as the harmonic conjugate of L^ with respect to B and C and N^ are similarly taken P. N-^ its orthocentre at 0. a triangle the centres of whose inscribed and circum- scribed circles are 0. 1. 5i. its inscribed circle. and AB Jj. B. . JVA^B^ form a triangle similar and bisectors of the angles A. iVi#2.

Prove that the problem of constructing a triangle whose sides each pass through one of three fixed points and whose vertices 15. SP have their . E and F are 9. shew that it bisected at the point of contact. one so that circles are such that a quadrilateral can be inscribed in touch the other. bola. on a hyperan asymptote in Q. Reciprocate with regard to any point in this plane the theorem that the circumcircles of the triangle formed by the four lines are concurrent at a point which is coucyclic with their four centres. 8hew how to construct a triangle of given shape whose sides sliall pass through three given points. ES and QR. DF which join the middle point of the base to the middle points E and F of the sides CA.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES Two 6. collinear A. its sides 277 Shew that the points of if contact of the sides be P. A tangent is drawn to an ellipse so that the portion inter- cepted by the equiconjugate diameters is is a minimum . 12. B. A straight line drawn through the vertex A of the triangle lines DF. Construct a hyperbola having two sides of a given triangle as asymptotes and having the base of the triangle as a normal. lie one on each of three fixed straight lines is poristic. points of intersection on the same fixed line. the envelope of the polar of P with respect to the pai'abola is a conic. S. Prove that the line through asymptote meets PF. A parallelogram. 8. then the diagonals of PQRS are at right angles and prove that PQ. 16. P a moving point. C. 13. B. obtain a construction depending on the ruler only for a straight line through the point parallel to the given line. 14. and . Y shew that BY parallel to CX. a point and a straight line in the same plane being given. Four intersecting straight lines are drawn in a plane. parallel to the other through Q parallel to Any 10. 7. D are four points in a plane no three of which are and a projective transformation interchanges A and B. 11. when the three given points are collinear and the three given lines are concurrent. E PE meets and two fixed points. Q. AB in JT. and with its parabola is in a fixed point the line described to touch two fixed straight lines Prove that directrix passing through a fixed point P. ABC meets the \s.

one from each of a pair of the triangles. F respectively 22. OB. two common points P and Q ABC with P and Q for foci. 23. R ai'e collinear. 19. Q. and that there . C . Shew that these hyperbolas meet the circle in eight points. A. and the diameters conjugate D. A BO is inscribed in a circle of which two hyperbolas are drawn. choosing the pairs of triangles and the pairs of sides in Prove that the six lines form a complete every possible way. vertices on another given line. 24. C. and its A . BE. Determine in each case the tangents at the two given points. OB as directrix and passes through A. OA as directrix and passes through B the second has C as a focus.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES 278 C also and D. quadrangle. envelope of the tangent at the vertex its OC is Shew that the a parabola and determine focus and directrix. touches the sides of a triangle OA. axis passes through a second given point. is C. meet any tangent CF meet in a point. Prove that the locus of the middle point of the common chord of a parabola and its circle of curvature is another parabola whose latus rectum is one-fifth that of the given parabola. with a point of intersection of the other two sides of those triangles. problem : Shew that in general there are four distinct solutions of the To draw two conies which have a given point as focus and intersect at right angles at two other given points. Q. Q. R lias its axis parallel to PQR. centre 0. conic through A. Give a pencil and ruler construction for the point any arbitrary point P is changed and shew that any into which . Shew that the points P. prove that AD. C. the first has C as a focus. is equilateral triangle the centre : . ellipse. B. Prove also that the parabola which touches the given line and the tangents at P. in parabola touches a fixed straight line at a given point. . of a regular polygon of nine sides. to ABC. 17. Three parabolas have a given common tangent and touch one another at P. E. D transformed into is itself. 18. An 21. B that they have a conic circumscribing Three triangles have their bases on one given line and their Six lines are formed hy joining the point of intersection of two sides. Three hyperbolas are described with B. and A. which with C form the angular points An 20. Shew for foci passing respectively through A. B. R.

PQ is a para- . Prove that where 0. if of the quadrilateral harmonically. A straight line AB that the chord to X at A and 29. . BE' CF' . and XP. AB of a triangle Prove that the straight lines AD. meet in a point which lies on the polar of the centre of gravity of the triangle ABC. C. E. Q. points are taken on a circle in such a are parallel. so The tangents fixed circles oi that P. Q. Shew that the envelope of the chord joining them is a parabola. A variable line PQ intersects two fixed lines in points P and Q such that the orthogonal piojection of PQ on a third fixed line is of constant length.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES Three 25. The A. On AB. F stands Also explain the convention of signs on. CA. 33. in CF cuts two X and Y. R. in a point P. manner that the sum of the squares of their distances from a fixed point is constant. F' are constructed. for the chord D. 34. AF AF. thi'ough ABC. two conies be inscribed in the same quadrilateral. ABC BE.FB DC EA. E. 32. S. 27. centre 0. bola. YQ meet line ABCD X is equal to the chord CD of Y. 6'. and so which must be taken. S lie on a fixed in four points circle.B oi& triangle ABC are fixed. P. the 30. inscribed in a triangle is on the circle meets BC in D. the circle OAB. X and a hyperbola of A parabola touches the sides BC. AF. P Y are Shew that as P a fixed straight line AB. Shew that a common tangent to two confocal parabolas subtends an angle at the focus equal to the angle between the axes of the parabolas. The line perpendicular to OD meets PD in D' The corresponding tangent at any point Two Shew that AU . . CE = . B. points A". A circle. B meet the tangents to F at C and D Shew P. the two tangents at any of their points of intersection cut any diagonal 31.BD. 26. and the foot A lies on a fixed straight line determine vertices of the bisector of the angle the locus of 28. F respectively. locus of i2 is and Q are taken two fixed points moves along tlie which AB is an asymptote. E on the are concyclic F on OCA. The P . and Shew that the envelope of find the direction of its axis. circles pass A intersections are A. two points PQ is of constant length. circle if 279 through a given point and their other point £> is taken on the circle OBC. D. such that .

oi Prove that Q'. C'R' are concurrent. ) as directrix. Q. P\ PQ' . circle. that. *S' are ends of a diameter. Prove fixed in direction. C of the transversal are bisected in ABC is The lines OA.^B^ passes through the centre of the given txnangles P^A^B. C R . . RP.>B. QR' RP' . CA.. and B^C^. triangles A-^B^C^. B-^C^. in the plane of a triangle AB ABC. and the segments QR. Through any point 42. Shew that the three sides in P. R'. B'Q'.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES 280 With 35. such that Y. and X. 43. CZ OQ and If the points of intersection of Q and be respectively R. B' . is that the six lines so constructed together with the line of collinearity and the three diagonals themselves touch a parabola. a focus of a given ellipse (A P any point A and its P meets TSD \xi BOY. A. COZ OR S l)ethe Shew What are the directions of D its circle passes the sides BG. R. in P. =-P'Q OC a. lines. lines A'P'. PQ P'.-. AX and AX. focus.. asymptotes and the tangent described similar it. \ . tlie bisector of the angle and as focus.. Z AOX. . is ? If 37. and the middle point of the intercept between any two sides is joined to the point in which they 39. A transversal 41. and respectively in cuts the three sides BC. The middle points of the diagonals drawn. C-^A^ intersect in P^. Q. are bisected in A'./J^ are reciprocal with respect to a given circle. Shew that the radical axis of the circles which circumscribe the P^A. a second ellipse (B) it Shew intersect. CA. triangle B and Q'R R'P. at Show to (A). Q' R'. BY and through two fixed points. drawn From any to a point P on a given given circle whose centre is circle tangents PQ. PQ' are on the circumference of the . line of collinearity of the of a quadrilateral on if a rectangular hyperbola of which is are right angles. has a given focus and touches two fixed straight ellipse any point is points ai'e an then the director 38. axis passes through a fixed point D. shew that are equally inclined to OA. AB also cuts thi'ee concurrent lines through A. further that the locus of T is parabola touches two fixed lines whifh intersect in T. C^Ao in P. The 40. respectively. in the plane of a triangle drawn a transversal cutting the OB. that (B) touches the minor axis of (A) at the point where the normal at 36.

is circle 49. M. ^. C. C AL. R to the diameters CR. C on the opposite sides meet them in L. centre C. the chords of contact will pass each sides of a fixed through a fixed point. B. to a conic. AL CN at at N. 44. JV. CQ respectively. . a triangle and the perpendiculars from ^. OA the same for all positions of A. AB:CQ = 2DP:CR. one to touch H. B . any parabola be described touching the If triangle. the middle point of AB. is one touching a second touching third touching at A. xi respectively. a Prove that A parabola touches two fixed lines meeting in T and the chord of contact passes through a fixed point A shew that the dii-ectrix passes through a fixed point 0. given the Triangles which have a given centroid are inscribed in a circle. are described A . 50. L and N and passing through passing througli J/and passing through touch the same conic. From D. common and conies are inscribed in the triangles so as to have centroid for centre. prove that they all have the same fixed director circle. then AO is always normal to an ellipse the sum of whose semi-axes is the radius of this circle. 45. the other to touch BC at iV one another at L. prove that CH. Circles BC at M and AB at and AC at A'. and that the ratio I'D to 48. and Q. and being produced pass each through the point of contact of the other circle with the remaining side. AB ' 46. prove that the lines joining the points of contact of each circle with the hypothenuse and that side intersect one another at i-ight angles. and deduce that the four tangents on either 51. If the circles touch triangle are described within the triangle. is A circle is inscribed in a right-angled triangle and another escribed to one of 'the sides containing the right angle. Three conies 47. the other. M. CR are the semidiameters parallel to and DP.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES first 281 shew that the chord joining the points where these tangents first circle is fixed in direction and intersects QQ' on the line : cut the of centres. drawn from . Also shew that the polars of any point on either of these lines with respect to the two circles meet on drawn from any point form a harmonic pencil. . Z. Also that if A move on a whose centre is T. tliey all CX. The side BC of a ABC is trisected at M. BM at BM. ABC BK pass through L. a tangent DP is drawn Shew that if CQ. of these lines to the circles If ordinates be a triangle PQR circumscribe a conic.

54. real common self-conjugate triangle focus. A circle through the of foci a rectangular hyperbola reciprocated with respect to the hyperbola is shew that the reciprocal is an ellipse with a focus at the centre of the hyperbola and its minor axis is equal to the distance between the directrices of the . In a triangle 55. F and on two conies JJ Prove that the corners of the quadrangle whose pairs of opposite sides are the tangents at P. any point be taken on this circle its polars with regard to the three circles are concurrent. BMQ. circle and the tangent of another fixed to the circle. 58. A circle can be drawn to cut three given circles orthogonally. AB in P. hyperbola. PR. .282 MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES the line joining the feet of the ordinates will pass through the points of contact of PQ. Shew that P. Q. CiV are the perpendiculars on the sides and MN. to a conic at two points A and B meet in 7\ prove that T(A'AB'B. focal. B' in T' . LM when produced meet BG. OQ' are drawn two confocal conies OP. OQ. . A moving in a plane always touches a fixed circle. P'Q'. and V 59. P' and Q. Prove that the four lines PQ. PQ'. ABC. OQ' the other. moving circle from a fixed point is always constant length. CNR lie on one straight line. P. circle and the circumcircle of ABC. OQ. CA. 57. 52. OP' touch one conic. Q' lie on a conic which passes through the four points of intersection of f/'and V. If 56. Shew that the point of intersection of the two comn)on tangents of a conic and an osculating circle lies on the confocal conic which passes through the point of osculation. P. Q' are four collinear points respectively. From any point tangents OP. P'Q all touch a third con- to . jVL. OP'. BM. Q. Prove that tlie common chord of a conic and its circle of curvature at any point and their common tangent at this point divide their own common tangent harmonically. AL. R lie on the radical axis of the nine-points Q. common The tangents those at A'. = T'{A'AB'B). If two parabolas have a they cannot have a 60. and that the centres of the circumcircles of ALP. Pi'ove that the moving circle always touches 61. 53.

E. . 70. /3. ABC BDCX. P' and cuts S' orthogonally. D in be the middle points of A A'. BB'. then the circumcircles of the triangles form another coaxal system. be a triangle and line joining the circumcentres of D any point on BC. Y. prove that the polar of the centre of the circle with regard to the conic is parallel to a fixed straight line. PR. Db'. P' respectively. 67. be concurrent. CA. AFBZ be three (XBCD) (A YCE) {A BZF) = 1. R. in a. . P and cuts S orthogonally. B. in a. C and the circle passing through D. C 01 are coaxal. If A'. DD'. y respectively. R. and A D. Q'. R. The triangles PQP. Q. FO pass through their other points of intersection A. B through A any is drawn cutting the circles again in P. EF and the conic in c E cuts the lines and F a. BOH. an involution. G. Z will be collinear. CF is ranges such 'that a triangle. B. then 71. shew that the four 65. ACD (i) the touches a parabola: . CEAY. CA. Prove that P{QR'Q'Ii) = P'{QJi'Q'Ji) and P. B. and the other of which passes through B. S points conjugate to A. 63. D' be the /-•. . b. c respectively are harmonically conjugate to lines Da. F. FQ'. S' inteisect in A. F. B'. H. 68. If ABC . AB Dc meet BC. R' lie on a conic. EO. with respect to E. Q. P'R P'Q'L" are such that PQ. A conic passes through four fixed points on a circle. {PQRS) = {ABCD) {AB'CD'). D A. on a circle the pedal line of each of these with respect to the triangle formed by the other three is drawn 64. a. F intersects the circles again in G. 69. system of triangles is 283 formed by the radical axis and P to a coaxal system of each pair of tangents from a fixed point Shew circles. C. . /3. . in a point. that a.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES A 62. Q\ R' respectively to a conic. straight line Shew that the locus of the other point of intersection of the circles. drawn meet lines so are four points on a conic. b. one of which passes through B. . b' c The Shew y are collinear. then ABD. are tangents at Q. I respectively. 66. If A''. . BE. and CO'. Prove that the circles AOG. that P if lies on the polar of a limiting point with respect to the coaxal system. is the straight line through B Four points lie perpendicular to AB. Three so that their respective diameters circles intersect at DO.Two given circles S. AB BC. C.

QP' ai-e tangents to an ellipse. H 74. cuts the sides BC. QMi?. Prove that the locus with respect to circles which touch the circles of the points inverse to two given circles is another circle touching the given circles in 0. b. If A. If is the orthocentre of the triangle PQP'. AB BC of the in the same Lines are drawn through the middle points of BC. a triangle. a third point on the paraHence draw bola in a. ACB. CI. SB. BE. SC and AB »S' be a point respectively in cut the sides FF. CA. DE in three collinear points. B. O shew that the points where C cuts A and B touch O. there of this problem 76. CA. shew that these lines AB meet at . CF respectively . Two of the line joining the centres of the circles BD. SE. are the points where circles coaxal with 78. then the tangent at B may be constructed by drawing through B a parallel to the line joining the intersection of BC and the parallel through A to one asymptote with the intersection of AB and the parallel through C to the other. ABC is circle escribed to way. If ABC. 79. C. A circle cuts three given circles at right angles. the locus of the points which have the same polars with regard to >S^ and S'. Two touch one another at 0. the perpendicular on the chord of contact I'P and K is the pole of QM. QP. through a given point a chord of a parabola that shall be divided in 75. B. chord AC : : How many a given ratio at that point. i) BC E \ and is F a point of contact with are found on CA. c.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES 284 the line joining the incentives (ii) bisectors of the angles Find the envelope 72. escribed to the sides touches a conic touching the ABC. Prove that the tangents at A and C to a parabola and the meet the diameter through B. FD. calling these circles A. 77. then SA. 73. such that aB Bh = Ah bC ^ Bb cB. SF two coplanar triangles. prove that UK is perpendicular to QC. variable circles S and touch two fixed a^S" find circles. parallel to AD. (7/) respectively. DEF be such that SD. and find its radius in terms of the radii of the given circles. the incentre. G : different solutions are ? be three points on a hyperbola and the directions of both asymptotes be given. three collinear points.

262 • Auxiliary circle 11(2 Conjugate hyperbola 170 Desargues' theorem 227 Diameters 106. 248 Conjugate points and lines 15. 234 Collinearity 31. 94. 171 147. 92. 222. 158. 249 54. 236. 262 Envelopes 130. 271 Simson line 6 267 262 Inverse points 13. 236. 145. 53. 224. 136. 92 Homographic ranges and pencils Incircle 24. 166 Axis of perspective 61. 165. 96. 186 Ordiuates 107 Oithocentre 2. Menelaus' theorem 31 Newton's theorem 117. 256. 62 Latus rectum 114. 246 Generalisation by projection Loci 245 Signs 28. 152. 145. 168 Parallel chords 95 Parameter 136 214- 5. 253 Ecircles 10. Di. 132 Director circle 150. 180 Similar figures 268 Simititude. 147. 245 Coaxal circles 20. 138. 127. 226. 150. 237 Salmon's theorem 17 Self-conjugate triangles 16. 133. 108. 248 Radical axis 17 Reciprocal figures 220. Quadrilateral 75. 147. 104. 174. 194. 235. figures 113. 187 Circular points 242 Circumcircle 1. 127. 133. 179. 74 Conjugate diameters 151. 94 Pair of tangents 111. 229 Projective propeities 45. 93. 155. 205 Axes 101. 92 Quadrangle 91. 62 Homothetic Normals 8 Pedal line Harmonic properties 74. 212 Equiconjugates 156 Feuerbach's theorem 262 Focus and directrix 10. 50. 232 Orthogonal circles 22. 261 Involuti(m criterion 81 Involution properties 84. 137. 227 222. 133 Pole and polar 13. 224. 195. centres of 24 Similitude. 126. 130. 226. 119. 59. 127. 121. 126 Limiting points 21 Brianchon's theorem 215 Carnofs theorem 116 Ceva's theorem 33 Circle of curvature 120. 60. 73 Orthogonal involution 85. 180 Nine points circle 3. 5. Tangents 108.INDEX The references are to pages. 214 Concurrence 33 Coufocal conies 165. 153. Isogonal conjugates 37 Antiparallel Asymptotes 36 103. 178. 153. 149. 75. 177. 107. 169 Double contact 246. circle of 25. 224 76. 179 Medians Pascal's theorem 233. 164. Subnormal 128 Symmedians 37 216. 164 Triangles in perspective 64 .

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