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International Journal of Applied Engineering Research

ISSN 0973-4562 Volume 9, Number 24 (2014) pp. 23689-23699
© Research India Publications
http://www.ripublication.com

Design of FLC for OVR Reduction of Negative Output KY
Converter
K. R. Sugavanam1, R. Senthilkumar2, S. Sri Krishna Kumar3, S. Karthikumar4,
V. Tamilmullai5

Abstract
Negative Output KY Boost Converter, a recent development in the field of
non-isolated DC-DC boost converter is identified for minimum voltage ripple.
In this article a Fuzzy controller is designed to minimize the output voltage
ripple of the Negative Output KY boost converter output. The Fuzzy Logic
Controller is designed in MATLAB/Simulink model and the digitally
simulated results show a reduction in output ripple from 60mV of the existing
PID controlled converter output to 3mV in the proposed Fuzzy Logic
Controlled converter and the settling time of the output is found to be fast in
comparison with the existing PID controller output.
Keywords: DC-DC Boost Converter, KY Converter, Fuzzy Logic Control,
Voltage Ripple Reduction, PWM control.

Nomenclature
CCM – Continuous Conduction Mode
ESR – Equivalent Series Resistant Capacitance
FLC – Fuzzy Logic Controller
LC – Inductance Capacitance filter
OVR – Output Voltage Ripple
PID – Proportional-Integral-Derivative controller
PWM – Pulse Width Modulation
ce – change in error
d – duty cycle
e – error
NB – Negative Big
NM – Negative Medium
PB – Positive Big
PM – Positive Medium
Z – Zero

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Cb – Energy Transferring Capacitor
Co – Output Capacitor
Db – Reverse Bias Diode
Df – Free-wheeling Diode
fs – Switching frequency
L – Output Inductor
Ro – Load Resistor
S – MOSFET Switch
Vi – Input Voltage
Vo – Output Voltage

Introduction
Innovation of electronic communication systems entails a negative output DC-DC
boost converter source for specific input voltage. To ensure robust operation of these
systems, design aspects such as output voltage ripple content, settling time and load
transient response of the DC-DC boost converter has to be taken into concern.
Conventional non-isolated DC - DC boosting converters be likely to cause large
output voltage ripples. The ripple content reduction techniques such as Equivalent
Series Resistant (ESR) Capacitor [1] or by adding an inductance – capacitance (LC)
filter [2] were proposed for the converters working in Continuous Conduction Mode
(CCM) [3]-[9] which leads to good load transient response. Also various controlling
techniques like coupling inductors [3], voltage control techniques [4]-[9], sliding
mode converter [10] and loop bandwidth control [11] were used for voltage ripple
reduction. But these converters [3]-[9] have one right – half plane zero in CCM mode
which is difficult to achieve in practice. In recent decades non-linear control
techniques like Fuzzy Logic Control [14]-[15], Neuro-Fuzzy control [16]-[18] and
other controlling techniques exhibit better performance over the conventional
methods. The KY boost converter [12]-[13] recently proposed by K. I. Hwu and Y. T.
Yau produces Output Voltage Ripples (OVR) around 60 mV which is controlled by a
conventional PID controller.
In this article Fuzzy Logic Control technique [14] is employed to minimize the
output voltage ripple of the KY boost converter and the performance of the converter
is estimated. The converter along with Fuzzy Inference System is designed in the
Matlab/Simulink® model and the simulated results exhibit a reduction in output
voltage ripples from 60 mV of the existing PID controlled converter to 3 mV of the
proposed Fuzzy controlled converter. The following sections enumerate the design
and analysis of the KY Negative Output Boost Converter and its performance.

Negative Output KY Boost Converter
The Negative Output KY boost converter [12]-[13] shown in the following fig. 1
operates in two modes of operation based on switching sequence. Negative output KY
boost converter consists of switch S with protective diode Ds, inductor L, two

Design of FLC for OVR Reduction of Negative Output KY Converter

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capacitors, Cb for transferring energy and Co for output capacitor with load Ro. It also
consists of Df, a freewheeling diode and Db, an energy transferring diode.

Fig. 1. Negative Output KY boost converter
In mode 1 operation of Negative Output KY boost converter as shown in fig. 2,
MOSFET switch S is in ON state. As a result inductor L is magnetized to a value
equal to the input voltage Vi. Simultaneously in mode 1 capacitor Cb is charged and
freewheeling diode Df is in action in mode 1 operation. The following equations (1)
represent the mode 1 operation.
iL

 vi

t

vo
vo 
Co
 
t
Ro 
vi 
i i  i L  Cb
t 
L

(1)

Fig. 2. Mode 1 operation of Negative Output KY boost converter
In mode 2 operation of Negative Output KY boost converter as shown in fig. 3,
MOSFET switch S is in OFF state. As a result inductor L is demagnetized in mode 2
while capacitor Cb is discharged and energy transferring diode Db is conducting. The
following equations (2) represent the mode 2 operation.
iL

 vi  vo 
t


iL  ib
L

Fig. 2. Mode 2 operation of Negative Output KY boost converter

(2)

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From the equations (1) and (2), the relationship between input and output
voltages, vi and Vo is regarded by the equation (3) as follows, where D is the duty
cycle for PWM generation.
Vo
1

Vi 1  D

(3)

KY Boost Converter specifications
For the proposed controller, the specifications adopted by K. I. Hwu [12] is
considered as mentioned in Table I to compare the obtained results with existing
technique.
TABLE I: SPECIFICATIONS ADOPTED FOR KY BOOST CONVERTER
Parameter
Input Voltage
Rated Output Voltage
Inductor
Output Capacitor
Energy Transferring Capacitor
Load
Switching frequency

Symb
ol
Vi
Vo
L
Co
Cb
Ro
fs

Value

Unit

5
12
10
2200
1000
6
195

V
V
µH
µF
µF

kHz

Where Li and Lo are input and output inductors; Cm represents buffer capacitance;
Cb represents energy transferring capacitor; Co represent output capacitor and load
resistance is represent by RL.

Modeling of FLC for Negative Output KY Boost Converter
Fuzzy Logic Controller [14] – [15] designed to control the output voltage ripple of the
Negative Output KY boost converter is shown in Fig. 4 in which the input to the
Fuzzy controller is error (e) and change in error (ce), where error (e) is the deviation
in output voltage Vo and reference voltage Vref. The output of Fuzzy controller is the
duty cycle (d) which is fed to a PWM generator to produce control signal which is fed
as switching signal to the KY boost converter switches to produce a boosted voltage
Vo.

Fig. 4. Block diagram of Fuzzy Controller for KY boost converter

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Fig. 5 shows the Simulink model of the proposed Fuzzy controller for Negative
output KY boost converter which shows a Fuzzy controller, PWM generator block
with Negative output KY boost converter block with a reference output voltage of 12
V. The switching frequency generated by the PWM block is 195 kHz which is fed to
the Negative output KY boost converter.

Fig. 5. Fuzzy control of KY Boost converter Simulink model

KY Boost Converter Simulink modeling
The KY boost converter realized in Simulink model is shown in Fig. 6 in which
switch is represented by S; Li represents input inductor; Cb represent energy
transferring capacitor; Co is output capacitor; Db is energy transferring diode; Df is
freewheeling diode and R is load resistor. The switching signal is fed through
connector M and the output voltage and output current are taken across the Load R.

Fig. 6. KY boost converter Simulink structure

Fuzzy controller Simulink modeling
The Fuzzy controller designed for the proposed technique is Mamdani fuzzy inference
system in which the fuzzifier consists of inputs error (e) and change in error (ce)
which is classified into Gaussian membership function with five classifications
namely negative-big (NB), negative-medium (NM), zero (Z), positive-medium (PM)
and positive-big (PB). The defuzzifier consists of output duty cycle (d) which is
classified with the above mentioned membership function classifications. Fig. 7, Fig.
8 and Fig. 9 shows the above said classification of input functions “e” and “ce” and
output function “d”.

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Fig. 7. Membership function view for input signal error

Fig. 8. Membership function view for input signal change in error

Fig. 9. Membership function view for output signal duty cycle
The Fuzzy knowledge rule base consists of 25 fuzzy rules which define the relation
between the input variables and the output variable for controlling the duty cycle (d)
to generate PWM signal which is given by the following Table II.
TABLE II: Fuzzy Rule Base
e
ce
NB
NM
Z
PM
PB

NB

NM

Z

PM

PB

NB
NB
NM
NM
Z

NB
NM
NM
Z
PM

NM
NM
Z
PM
PM

NM
Z
PM
PM
PB

Z
PM
PM
PB
PB

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The surface view of rule base developed for this controller is depicted by the
Fig.10 as given below.

Fig. 10. Fuzzy rule base surface view

Simulation Results
The digitally simulated results of the KY boost converter with input voltage 5V and
rated output voltage of 12V for a load current of 2A which is simulated with
Matlab/Simulink is shown by the following figures Fig. 11 and Fig. 12.
Fig. 11 shows the output voltage waveform of Fuzzy controller for a time period
of 0.02 second. The settling time of the output voltage waveform is 3.5mS which is
reduced to greater extent by the proposed Fuzzy controller as shown below.

Fig. 11. Output Voltage waveform for PID and Fuzzy controlled
Negative Output KY Boost Converter
Fig. 12 shows the output voltage ripple for the proposed Fuzzy controller output.
It clearly shows that the output voltage ripple for an output voltage of 12V is about 3

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mV which is very low when compared to the output of 60mV for the existing PID
controller.

Fig. 12. Output Voltage ripple waveform of Fuzzy controlled
KY Negative Output Boost Converter

Conclusion
In this paper a Fuzzy Logic Controller is designed and implemented to improve the
performance of Negative output KY boost converter and the results of the controller
illustrate a reduction in settling time and rapid reduction in output voltage ripple. The
resulting output values of the proposed Fuzzy Logic Controller are compared with the
existing controller output in the following Table III. The minimization of output
voltage ripple from 60 mV to 3 mV is validated through hardware output.
TABLE III: Comparison Of Existing And Proposed Technique Output
Parameter
Settling time
Output Voltage ripple

Existing
controller
50 mS
60 mV

PID Proposed Fuzzy Logic
Controller
3.5 mS
3 mV

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Design of FLC for OVR Reduction of Negative Output KY Converter
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Authors’ information
Asst. Prof, V.T.H.T Engineering College, Chennai, India
Asst. Prof, V.T.H.T Engineering College, Chennai, India
Asst. Prof, V.T.H.T Engineering College, Chennai, India
Assoc. Prof, Saveetha university, Chennai, India
K.R.Sugavanam obtained his B.E in Electrical and Electronics
Engineering from University of Madras in 2003, M.E in Power
Electronics and Drives from Anna University in 2009. He has nearly
eight years of teaching experience in various engineering colleges. He
had published manuscripts in various National and International
Conferences and Journals. Current research interests include Power
Electronics, Electrical Drives and Special Electric Machines.
Mr. K.R.Sugavanam holds life membership in professional society IAENG, ICST,
EAI (eu).
R. Senthil Kumar has completed his graduation in Electrical and
Electronics Engineering from Mookambigai College of Engineering,
pudukottai under Anna University during 2007, and post-graduation in
Power Electronics and Drives from A.C.C.E.T, Karaikudi under Anna
University during 2009. He has teaching experience of nearly 5 years
in engineering colleges . He had published manuscripts in various
National and International Conferences and Journals His current area of research
includes power electronic converters, power electronic applications to power system,
circuit analysis for power electronic circuits.
Mr. R. Senthil Kumarr holds life membership in professional society IAENG,
ICST, EAI (eu).
S. Sri Krishna Kumar has completed his graduation in Electrical and
Electronics Engineering from RVSCET, Dindigul under Anna
University during 2008, and post-graduation in Power Electronics and
Drives from Government College of Engineering, Salem under Anna
University during 2011. He has teaching experience of nearly 3 years
in engineering colleges. His current area of research includes power
electronic converters, power electronic applications to power system, circuit analysis
for power electronic circuits.
Mr. S.Sri Krishna Kumar holds life membership in professional society IAENG,
ICST, EAI (eu).

Design of FLC for OVR Reduction of Negative Output KY Converter

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S. Karthikumar obtained his B.E in Electrical and Electronics
Engineering from University of Madras in 2000, M.E in Applied
Electronics from Anna University in 2010 and currently pursuing his
research in Power Electronics and Drives from St. Peter’s University,
Chennai, India. He has nearly twelve years of teaching experience in
various engineering colleges and has three years research experience.
He had published manuscripts in various National and International Conferences and
Journals. Current research interests include Power Electronics, Electrical Drives and
Special Electric Machines.
Mr. S. Karthikumar holds life membership in professional societies IEEE, IET,
ISTE, IETE, IAENG. Also he is reviewer of various journals such as Taylor and
Francis, JEET, ELEKTROTECHNIK journals.
Tamilmullai.V has completed her graduation in Electrical and
Electronics Engineering from Dr.M.G.R Engineering College, Chennai
under Anna University during 2006, and post-graduation in Power
Systems from Govt. College of Technology under Anna University
during 2010. She has teaching experience of nearly 4 years in
engineering colleges. She had published manuscripts in various
National and International Conferences and Journals. Her current area of research
includes power electronic applications to power system, Power System analysis.

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