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Negative Output KY Boost Converter, a recent development in the field of
non-isolated DC-DC boost converter is identified for minimum voltage ripple.
In this article a Fuzzy controller is designed to minimize the output voltage
ripple of the Negative Output KY boost converter output. The Fuzzy Logic
Controller is designed in MATLAB/Simulink model and the digitally
simulated results show a reduction in output ripple from 60mV of the existing
PID controlled converter output to 3mV in the proposed Fuzzy Logic
Controlled converter and the settling time of the output is found to be fast in
comparison with the existing PID controller output.

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**ISSN 0973-4562 Volume 9, Number 24 (2014) pp. 23689-23699
**

© Research India Publications

http://www.ripublication.com

**Design of FLC for OVR Reduction of Negative Output KY
**

Converter

K. R. Sugavanam1, R. Senthilkumar2, S. Sri Krishna Kumar3, S. Karthikumar4,

V. Tamilmullai5

Abstract

Negative Output KY Boost Converter, a recent development in the field of

non-isolated DC-DC boost converter is identified for minimum voltage ripple.

In this article a Fuzzy controller is designed to minimize the output voltage

ripple of the Negative Output KY boost converter output. The Fuzzy Logic

Controller is designed in MATLAB/Simulink model and the digitally

simulated results show a reduction in output ripple from 60mV of the existing

PID controlled converter output to 3mV in the proposed Fuzzy Logic

Controlled converter and the settling time of the output is found to be fast in

comparison with the existing PID controller output.

Keywords: DC-DC Boost Converter, KY Converter, Fuzzy Logic Control,

Voltage Ripple Reduction, PWM control.

Nomenclature

CCM – Continuous Conduction Mode

ESR – Equivalent Series Resistant Capacitance

FLC – Fuzzy Logic Controller

LC – Inductance Capacitance filter

OVR – Output Voltage Ripple

PID – Proportional-Integral-Derivative controller

PWM – Pulse Width Modulation

ce – change in error

d – duty cycle

e – error

NB – Negative Big

NM – Negative Medium

PB – Positive Big

PM – Positive Medium

Z – Zero

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K. R. Sugavanam et al

**Cb – Energy Transferring Capacitor
**

Co – Output Capacitor

Db – Reverse Bias Diode

Df – Free-wheeling Diode

fs – Switching frequency

L – Output Inductor

Ro – Load Resistor

S – MOSFET Switch

Vi – Input Voltage

Vo – Output Voltage

Introduction

Innovation of electronic communication systems entails a negative output DC-DC

boost converter source for specific input voltage. To ensure robust operation of these

systems, design aspects such as output voltage ripple content, settling time and load

transient response of the DC-DC boost converter has to be taken into concern.

Conventional non-isolated DC - DC boosting converters be likely to cause large

output voltage ripples. The ripple content reduction techniques such as Equivalent

Series Resistant (ESR) Capacitor [1] or by adding an inductance – capacitance (LC)

filter [2] were proposed for the converters working in Continuous Conduction Mode

(CCM) [3]-[9] which leads to good load transient response. Also various controlling

techniques like coupling inductors [3], voltage control techniques [4]-[9], sliding

mode converter [10] and loop bandwidth control [11] were used for voltage ripple

reduction. But these converters [3]-[9] have one right – half plane zero in CCM mode

which is difficult to achieve in practice. In recent decades non-linear control

techniques like Fuzzy Logic Control [14]-[15], Neuro-Fuzzy control [16]-[18] and

other controlling techniques exhibit better performance over the conventional

methods. The KY boost converter [12]-[13] recently proposed by K. I. Hwu and Y. T.

Yau produces Output Voltage Ripples (OVR) around 60 mV which is controlled by a

conventional PID controller.

In this article Fuzzy Logic Control technique [14] is employed to minimize the

output voltage ripple of the KY boost converter and the performance of the converter

is estimated. The converter along with Fuzzy Inference System is designed in the

Matlab/Simulink® model and the simulated results exhibit a reduction in output

voltage ripples from 60 mV of the existing PID controlled converter to 3 mV of the

proposed Fuzzy controlled converter. The following sections enumerate the design

and analysis of the KY Negative Output Boost Converter and its performance.

**Negative Output KY Boost Converter
**

The Negative Output KY boost converter [12]-[13] shown in the following fig. 1

operates in two modes of operation based on switching sequence. Negative output KY

boost converter consists of switch S with protective diode Ds, inductor L, two

Design of FLC for OVR Reduction of Negative Output KY Converter

23691

**capacitors, Cb for transferring energy and Co for output capacitor with load Ro. It also
**

consists of Df, a freewheeling diode and Db, an energy transferring diode.

**Fig. 1. Negative Output KY boost converter
**

In mode 1 operation of Negative Output KY boost converter as shown in fig. 2,

MOSFET switch S is in ON state. As a result inductor L is magnetized to a value

equal to the input voltage Vi. Simultaneously in mode 1 capacitor Cb is charged and

freewheeling diode Df is in action in mode 1 operation. The following equations (1)

represent the mode 1 operation.

iL

vi

t

vo

vo

Co

t

Ro

vi

i i i L Cb

t

L

(1)

**Fig. 2. Mode 1 operation of Negative Output KY boost converter
**

In mode 2 operation of Negative Output KY boost converter as shown in fig. 3,

MOSFET switch S is in OFF state. As a result inductor L is demagnetized in mode 2

while capacitor Cb is discharged and energy transferring diode Db is conducting. The

following equations (2) represent the mode 2 operation.

iL

vi vo

t

iL ib

L

Fig. 2. Mode 2 operation of Negative Output KY boost converter

(2)

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K. R. Sugavanam et al

**From the equations (1) and (2), the relationship between input and output
**

voltages, vi and Vo is regarded by the equation (3) as follows, where D is the duty

cycle for PWM generation.

Vo

1

Vi 1 D

(3)

**KY Boost Converter specifications
**

For the proposed controller, the specifications adopted by K. I. Hwu [12] is

considered as mentioned in Table I to compare the obtained results with existing

technique.

TABLE I: SPECIFICATIONS ADOPTED FOR KY BOOST CONVERTER

Parameter

Input Voltage

Rated Output Voltage

Inductor

Output Capacitor

Energy Transferring Capacitor

Load

Switching frequency

Symb

ol

Vi

Vo

L

Co

Cb

Ro

fs

Value

Unit

5

12

10

2200

1000

6

195

V

V

µH

µF

µF

Ω

kHz

**Where Li and Lo are input and output inductors; Cm represents buffer capacitance;
**

Cb represents energy transferring capacitor; Co represent output capacitor and load

resistance is represent by RL.

**Modeling of FLC for Negative Output KY Boost Converter
**

Fuzzy Logic Controller [14] – [15] designed to control the output voltage ripple of the

Negative Output KY boost converter is shown in Fig. 4 in which the input to the

Fuzzy controller is error (e) and change in error (ce), where error (e) is the deviation

in output voltage Vo and reference voltage Vref. The output of Fuzzy controller is the

duty cycle (d) which is fed to a PWM generator to produce control signal which is fed

as switching signal to the KY boost converter switches to produce a boosted voltage

Vo.

Fig. 4. Block diagram of Fuzzy Controller for KY boost converter

Design of FLC for OVR Reduction of Negative Output KY Converter

23693

**Fig. 5 shows the Simulink model of the proposed Fuzzy controller for Negative
**

output KY boost converter which shows a Fuzzy controller, PWM generator block

with Negative output KY boost converter block with a reference output voltage of 12

V. The switching frequency generated by the PWM block is 195 kHz which is fed to

the Negative output KY boost converter.

Fig. 5. Fuzzy control of KY Boost converter Simulink model

**KY Boost Converter Simulink modeling
**

The KY boost converter realized in Simulink model is shown in Fig. 6 in which

switch is represented by S; Li represents input inductor; Cb represent energy

transferring capacitor; Co is output capacitor; Db is energy transferring diode; Df is

freewheeling diode and R is load resistor. The switching signal is fed through

connector M and the output voltage and output current are taken across the Load R.

Fig. 6. KY boost converter Simulink structure

**Fuzzy controller Simulink modeling
**

The Fuzzy controller designed for the proposed technique is Mamdani fuzzy inference

system in which the fuzzifier consists of inputs error (e) and change in error (ce)

which is classified into Gaussian membership function with five classifications

namely negative-big (NB), negative-medium (NM), zero (Z), positive-medium (PM)

and positive-big (PB). The defuzzifier consists of output duty cycle (d) which is

classified with the above mentioned membership function classifications. Fig. 7, Fig.

8 and Fig. 9 shows the above said classification of input functions “e” and “ce” and

output function “d”.

23694

K. R. Sugavanam et al

Fig. 7. Membership function view for input signal error

Fig. 8. Membership function view for input signal change in error

**Fig. 9. Membership function view for output signal duty cycle
**

The Fuzzy knowledge rule base consists of 25 fuzzy rules which define the relation

between the input variables and the output variable for controlling the duty cycle (d)

to generate PWM signal which is given by the following Table II.

TABLE II: Fuzzy Rule Base

e

ce

NB

NM

Z

PM

PB

NB

NM

Z

PM

PB

NB

NB

NM

NM

Z

NB

NM

NM

Z

PM

NM

NM

Z

PM

PM

NM

Z

PM

PM

PB

Z

PM

PM

PB

PB

Design of FLC for OVR Reduction of Negative Output KY Converter

23695

**The surface view of rule base developed for this controller is depicted by the
**

Fig.10 as given below.

Fig. 10. Fuzzy rule base surface view

Simulation Results

The digitally simulated results of the KY boost converter with input voltage 5V and

rated output voltage of 12V for a load current of 2A which is simulated with

Matlab/Simulink is shown by the following figures Fig. 11 and Fig. 12.

Fig. 11 shows the output voltage waveform of Fuzzy controller for a time period

of 0.02 second. The settling time of the output voltage waveform is 3.5mS which is

reduced to greater extent by the proposed Fuzzy controller as shown below.

**Fig. 11. Output Voltage waveform for PID and Fuzzy controlled
**

Negative Output KY Boost Converter

Fig. 12 shows the output voltage ripple for the proposed Fuzzy controller output.

It clearly shows that the output voltage ripple for an output voltage of 12V is about 3

23696

K. R. Sugavanam et al

**mV which is very low when compared to the output of 60mV for the existing PID
**

controller.

**Fig. 12. Output Voltage ripple waveform of Fuzzy controlled
**

KY Negative Output Boost Converter

Conclusion

In this paper a Fuzzy Logic Controller is designed and implemented to improve the

performance of Negative output KY boost converter and the results of the controller

illustrate a reduction in settling time and rapid reduction in output voltage ripple. The

resulting output values of the proposed Fuzzy Logic Controller are compared with the

existing controller output in the following Table III. The minimization of output

voltage ripple from 60 mV to 3 mV is validated through hardware output.

TABLE III: Comparison Of Existing And Proposed Technique Output

Parameter

Settling time

Output Voltage ripple

Existing

controller

50 mS

60 mV

**PID Proposed Fuzzy Logic
**

Controller

3.5 mS

3 mV

References

[1]

[2]

**M.K. Kazimierczuk, R.S. Geise, A. Reatti, Small-signal analysts of a PWM
**

boost DC-DC converter with a non-symmetric phase integral-lead controller,

17th International Telecommunication Energy Conference ~INTELEC’95~, 29

Oct - 1 Nov, 1995, Dayton, OH.

R.B. Ridley, Secondary LC filter analysis and design techniques for currentmode controlled converters, IEEE Trans. Power Electronics, vol. 3, n. 4, Oct

1988, pp. 499 – 507.

**Design of FLC for OVR Reduction of Negative Output KY Converter
**

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H.B. Shin, J.G. Park, S.K. Chung, H.W. Lee, T.A. Lipo, Generalised steadystate analysis of multiphase interleaved boost converter with coupled inductors,

IEE Proc. Electr. Power Appl., vol. 3 n. 152, 2005, pp. 584 – 594.

F.L. Luo, Positive output Luo converters voltage lifting technique, IEE Proc.

Electr. Power Appl., vol. 4 n. 146, 1999, pp. 415 – 432.

X. Chen, F.L. Luo, H. Ye, Modified positive output Luo converters, Proc. IEEE

PEDS 1999, vol. 1, 1999, pp. 450 – 455.

F.L. Luo, H. Ye, Negative output super-lift converters, IEEE Trans. Power

Electronics, vol. 18, n. 5, Jan 2003, pp. 1113 – 1121.

F.L. Luo, H. Ye, Positive output super-lift converter, IEEE Trans. Power

Electronics, vol. 18, n. 1, Jan 2003, pp. 105 – 113.

M. Zhu, F.L. Luo, Development of voltage lift technique on double output

transformerless DC-DC converter, Proc. IEEE IECON Conf., 2007, pp. 1983 –

1988.

M. Zhu, F.L. Luo, Implementing of developed voltage lift technique on SEPIC,

Cuk and double-output DC-DC converters, Proc. IEEE ISIE Conf., vol. 2, 2001,

pp. 723 – 727.

A. Savu, C. Radoi, A. Florescu, Sliding Mode PWM Control for a Buck

Converter Under DCM/CCM Boundary, International Review of Electrical

Engineering, vol. 5, n. 5, Oct 2010, pp. 1963 – 1971.

Y.U. Hong, S.H. Jung, Y.J. Woo, B.K. Choi, G.H. Cho, Single-chip quasi-PWM

DC-DC converter with fast transient response comprising loop-bandwidth

control, IEEE Letters, vol. 8, n. 41, 2005, pp. 501 – 503.

K.I. Hwu, W. C. Tu. Y.H. Chen, A Novel Negative –Output KY boost

converter, IEEE PEDES, 2009, pp. 1155 – 1157.

K.I. Hwu, Y.H. Chen, W. C. Tu, Negative Output KY boost converter, IEEE

International Symposium on Industrial Electronics, July 5-8, 2009, Seoul,

Korea.

N. F. N. Ismail, I. Musirin, R. Baharom, D. Johari, Fuzzy logic controller on

DC/DC boost converter, Proceedings of the IEEE PECon, Nov29-Dec1, 2010,

Kualalampur.

N. F. Nik Ismail, N. Hasim, R. Baharom, A Comparitive study of Propotional

Integral Derivative controller and Fuzzy Logic controller on DC/DC Buck Boost

converter, IEEE symposium on Industrial Electronics and Applications

~ISIEA2011~, Sept 25-28, 2011, Langkawi.

S. Karthikumar, N. Mahendran, Modeling of Neuro Fuzzy Controller for

Negative Output KY Boost Converter Voltage Ripple Reduction, Elektronika Ir

Elektrotechnika, vol, 19. No.6, 2013, pp. 47-50.

S. Karthikumar, N. Mahendran, Neuro Fuzzy Controller for Positive Output KY

Boost Converter to Reduce Output Voltage Ripple, Elektronika Ir

Elektrotechnika, vol, 19. No.8, 2013, pp. 19-24.

S. Karthikumar, N. Mahendran, S. Sriraman, Implementation of Neuro Fuzzy

Controller to Reduce Output Voltage Ripple of KY Boost Converter,

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**[19] S. Karthikumar, N. Mahendran, S. Karthikraja “Neuro-Fuzzy Control of 2nd
**

Order KY Converter”, IEEE – PEDES, Bangalore, India, Dec 2012.

Authors’ information

Asst. Prof, V.T.H.T Engineering College, Chennai, India

Asst. Prof, V.T.H.T Engineering College, Chennai, India

Asst. Prof, V.T.H.T Engineering College, Chennai, India

Assoc. Prof, Saveetha university, Chennai, India

K.R.Sugavanam obtained his B.E in Electrical and Electronics

Engineering from University of Madras in 2003, M.E in Power

Electronics and Drives from Anna University in 2009. He has nearly

eight years of teaching experience in various engineering colleges. He

had published manuscripts in various National and International

Conferences and Journals. Current research interests include Power

Electronics, Electrical Drives and Special Electric Machines.

Mr. K.R.Sugavanam holds life membership in professional society IAENG, ICST,

EAI (eu).

R. Senthil Kumar has completed his graduation in Electrical and

Electronics Engineering from Mookambigai College of Engineering,

pudukottai under Anna University during 2007, and post-graduation in

Power Electronics and Drives from A.C.C.E.T, Karaikudi under Anna

University during 2009. He has teaching experience of nearly 5 years

in engineering colleges . He had published manuscripts in various

National and International Conferences and Journals His current area of research

includes power electronic converters, power electronic applications to power system,

circuit analysis for power electronic circuits.

Mr. R. Senthil Kumarr holds life membership in professional society IAENG,

ICST, EAI (eu).

S. Sri Krishna Kumar has completed his graduation in Electrical and

Electronics Engineering from RVSCET, Dindigul under Anna

University during 2008, and post-graduation in Power Electronics and

Drives from Government College of Engineering, Salem under Anna

University during 2011. He has teaching experience of nearly 3 years

in engineering colleges. His current area of research includes power

electronic converters, power electronic applications to power system, circuit analysis

for power electronic circuits.

Mr. S.Sri Krishna Kumar holds life membership in professional society IAENG,

ICST, EAI (eu).

Design of FLC for OVR Reduction of Negative Output KY Converter

23699

**S. Karthikumar obtained his B.E in Electrical and Electronics
**

Engineering from University of Madras in 2000, M.E in Applied

Electronics from Anna University in 2010 and currently pursuing his

research in Power Electronics and Drives from St. Peter’s University,

Chennai, India. He has nearly twelve years of teaching experience in

various engineering colleges and has three years research experience.

He had published manuscripts in various National and International Conferences and

Journals. Current research interests include Power Electronics, Electrical Drives and

Special Electric Machines.

Mr. S. Karthikumar holds life membership in professional societies IEEE, IET,

ISTE, IETE, IAENG. Also he is reviewer of various journals such as Taylor and

Francis, JEET, ELEKTROTECHNIK journals.

Tamilmullai.V has completed her graduation in Electrical and

Electronics Engineering from Dr.M.G.R Engineering College, Chennai

under Anna University during 2006, and post-graduation in Power

Systems from Govt. College of Technology under Anna University

during 2010. She has teaching experience of nearly 4 years in

engineering colleges. She had published manuscripts in various

National and International Conferences and Journals. Her current area of research

includes power electronic applications to power system, Power System analysis.

23700

K. R. Sugavanam et al

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