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International Journal of Applied Engineering Research ISSN 0973-4562 Volume 10, Number 17 (2015

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© Research India Publications ::: http://www.ripublication.com

FORENSIC PHOTOGRAMMETRIC ANALYSIS FOR PHOTO AND
PHOTO SCANNED IMAGES USING WAVELET TRANSFORMATION
1

K.R Sugavanam 2A.Celine Kavida 3Dr. N.R Shanker
1

Research Scholar, Anna University, Chennai.

1

Asst. Professor, Vel Tech HighTech Dr. Rangarajan Dr. Sakunthala Engineering
College. 2Assoc. Professor, Vel Tech MultiTech Dr. Rangarajan Dr. Sakunthala Engineering
College. 3Professor, Aalim Muhammed Salegh College of Engineering.
Abstract:
Photogrammetry is a technology of obtaining reliable information from physical objects
and environment. The processes of recording analysing and interpreting photographic images
are known as photogrammetry. It is used to extract dimensional information from images
such as the height of object depicted in surveillance camera. In this research a photo is taken
in digital format which is the input image and in the same time photo is taken as a printout
which is known as reference image. The printout of the photo is referred as photo scanned
image. Now the photo and photo scanned images are the input image for forensic image
interpretation using wavelet transform. On comparison of forensic images and the printout
image accurate information is detected and improves the edges in real time applications.
Keyword:- Photogrammetry, forensic image
Introduction:
In forensics input images many methods are available to identify and to extract
information from input image tampering. The anti-forensics method is able to hide the trace
of information from image tampering and it is capable of removing the traces in compression
of images. This technique will remove the traces by blocking artifact that is left by image
compression which divides the image into segments during compression process. The
targeted method is used to remove the compression fingerprints in JPEG format.[1]
A novel accurate framework of demosaicing regularity from source images which
classifies the demosaiced samples into many categories and estimates the underlying
demosaicing formulas for every category based on derivative correlation models. The
classification of reverse scheme is used to iteratively resolve the ambiguous demosaicing
axes in order to reveal the implicit grouping adopted by the underlying demosaicing
algorithm. The results show that our formulation proposed significantly improves the
accuracy of the demosaiced regenerated samples from the sensor samples from a large
number of demosaicing diversified algorithms. The sequential forward selection is used in
conjunction with the probabilistic SVM classifier to achieve superior performance in
demosaicing algorithms in the presence of post-demosaicing processing. [2]
The forensic imaging sensor is used as unique identifiers in numerous forensic
applications such as matching the image in particular area, revealing image manipulation
and determining the approximate age of digital photograph. There exist several different
types of defects in forensic image analysis which causes imperfection in manufacturing, and
physical processes which occur inside the camera. This forensic image begins with analysing
pixel defect which will pointing out the specific problems and formulate the task of involving
defects and noise patterns. These tasks are developed within the frame work of parameter
estimation with signal detection. The performance of the algorithms is demonstrated on realworld[3].
The digital image processing techniques is developed in a rapid speed which causes
image tampering in digital images and has its own traces in forensic images. They may give
rise to forensic problems such as image authentication which evolve quickly in the past

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International Journal of Applied Engineering Research ISSN 0973-4562 Volume 10, Number 17 (2015)
© Research India Publications ::: http://www.ripublication.com

decades. It can be assumed that different imaging devices would introduce different inherent
patterns in the output images. The patterns in the original untampered images are consistent
and would be changed after manipulations of same images[4].
The objective of image forensics is to determine whether the image is authenticated or
not. In this work, we focus on detection of input image manipulations and contribution to the
forensic image. The forgery statistics artifacts can be identified as a high-level information
scene which applies to the majority of digital images. The single image should be
investigated with high-level features of detailed information and the complementary testing is
intentional to disguise the manipulation operation of forensic images. To detect the
benchmark in the pipeline, we develop a novel framework for controlled action of semirealistic forgeries and if the input image is under investigation, the image is stored in JPEG
format as an effective scheme and to expose consistencies in JPEG coefficients[5].
The need for digital camera is used to identify the image origin as quickly with reliable
information needed for forensic images. The forensic images are designed and implemented
for developing the features in images. The robustness of various forensic identification
techniques can be analysed using a camera which can detects the form of reference noise
pattern[6].
Experimental results suggested with digital images are placed in the database to organize
and manage the gathered information. Many types of digital filters include blurring of the
image, weighted blurring of the image, sharpening of the images, histogram, equalization,
and pseudo-random noise filters are implemented to process various images. The images are
used to check the source input and it will be identified after attacking the image. A reference
pattern is obtained by using multiple images from the same digital camera. This intrinsic
signature can be used to correlate the noise pattern in an image with unknown origin. The
pattern is similar with the correlation is above the certain threshold. All images with source
camera are identified correctly for few exception and most of the correlation values are the
images with duplicate values[7]
Digital image have experienced tremendous growth in digital camera which is widely
used in number of applications. With increasing popularity and availability of low cost
software, the image integrity of digital image content can no longer in increased in digital
images. This introduces new methodology for forensic analysis of digital camera is proposed
based on the observation of many processing operation such as acquisition devices. The
traces on digital image and intrinsic fingerprints can be identified and employed to verify the
integrity of digital images[8]. The intrinsic fingerprints of various cameras with input images
are processed and can be estimated through an imaging model with its component analysis.
The captured image is applied for further processing to model and to design a filter. The
convolution technique is applied with a linear time-invariant approximation to estimate
fingerprints intrinsic associated with the associated camera operations. The fingerprints
imposed from the test image indicate that the test image is not the output of camera which is
possibly generated by other product of images. Any inconsistencies among the estimated
imposed fingerprints it is suggested that the image has been undergone some kind of
processing after the initial image capture, such as tampering and steganography embedding.
By this analysis and extensive experimental studies, the effectiveness of the proposed
framework for nonintrusive digital image forensics is demonstrated[9].

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International Journal of Applied Engineering Research ISSN 0973-4562 Volume 10, Number 17 (2015)
© Research India Publications ::: http://www.ripublication.com

Methodology:
The wavelet transform is used to compress the image of photo and photo scanned images
which interpret the contrast as well as the edges between two input images .The compression
is implemented by the following process and hence wavelet has been chosen for different
level. Compute the wavelet decomposition of the signal in much level with threshold
coefficients. For each level the threshold is selected which is applied in detailed coefficients.
Compute wavelet reconstruction using the original approximation coefficients of level N with
the modified detail coefficients of levels from 1 to N. The first step is to expand the signal
and keeping the largest absolute value coefficients. In this case, we can set a global threshold,
or a relative square norm recovery performance. In the technique, the operations defined
in Split, Predict, and Update can be implemented using Haar wavelet via lifting. Split -Divide
means the signal into even and odd polyphase components. Predict - Replace x (2n+1) with d
(n)=x(2n+1)–x(2n). The predict operator is simply x (2n).Update — Replace x
(2n) with x(2n)+d(n)/2. This is more or less but equal to (x(2n)+x(2n+1))/2. The lifting in z
domain can be written in the following matrix

With P(z)=1.
The primal lifting can be written in the z domain in the following matrix

with S(z)=1/2.
Finally, the primal and dual normalization can be incorporated as follows.

Result and Discussion:
The first photograph which is shown below is the digital data taken from the camera for
processing. The second photo is the image of the same digital data of the previous image,
which is been taken as printout and scanned. Now these two images are taken as the input for
the wavelet transform based compression.

Fig.1 photograph of the building in digital data

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International Journal of Applied Engineering Research ISSN 0973-4562 Volume 10, Number 17 (2015)
© Research India Publications ::: http://www.ripublication.com

Fig.2 Image of the building in hardcopy after scanning
When these images are compressed at different level it was found that the image is
same during visual interpretation. When the measurement of the building is performed the no
of count in the pixel is increased in the scanned photograph when compared to the image
data. The difference is about 30 % more when compared to the original height. The figure 3
shows the compressed image of the digital data at first level

Fig.3 photograph of the building in digital data at first level
The figure 4 shows the compressed image of the digital data at first level

Fig. 4 Image of the building in hardcopy after scanning at level 1
The Table below explains how the contrast and the edges in the images have its own
variation during the different level of compression for both the images.

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International Journal of Applied Engineering Research ISSN 0973-4562 Volume 10, Number 17 (2015)
© Research India Publications ::: http://www.ripublication.com

Table 1 shows the statistical values of the photograph and scanned photograph

N=1
Original
image
Compressed
image
N=2
Original
image
Compressed
image
N=5
Original
image
Compressed
image
N=7
Original
image
Compressed
image

Photograph
Contrast

Edges

Scanned Photograph
Contrast
Edges

161.7129

59.6713

126.2824

126.2824

161.7129

59.6713

126.2824

69.0464

Photograph
Contrast
Edges
161.8035 59.7016

Scanned Photograph
Contrast
Edges
126.2037
69.0050

161.8035

126.2037

Photograph
Contrast

59.7016

Edges

69.0050

Scanned Photograph
Contrast
Edges

161.8747

59.7523

126.2413

69.9977

161.8747

59.7523

126.2413

69.9977

Photograph
Contrast
Edges
161.8100
59.6736

Scanned Photograph
Contrast
Edges
126.3115
69.0556

161.8100

126.3115

59.6736

69.0556

Conclusion:
In this anti-forensic technique is capable of identifying the photogrammetry which is
mostly used to extract dimensional information from images by using wavelet-based image
compression schemes. Our technique operates by adding anti-forensic dither to the wavelet
coefficients of a compressed image so that the distribution of anti-forensically modified
coefficients matches a model of the coefficients before compression. Simulation results show
that this technique is able to fool forensic algorithms designed to detect previous applications
of wavelet-based compression by measuring the edges during higher level of compression
rates and the values of edges is drastically increased for the scanned photos and where has
deep fall in the edges in the digital photo.
Reference:
1. C Waits, JA Akinyele, R Nolan, L Rogers ―Computer Forensics: Results of Live
Response Inquiry vs. Memory Image Analysis‖ August 2008 TECHNICAL NOTE
CMU/SEI-2008-TN-017, http://www.sei.cmu.edu
2. M.S.Sreelakshmi and D. Venkataraman, ―Image Compression Using Anti-Forensics
Method‖ Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Amrita Vishwa
Vidyapeetham, Coimbatore, India

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International Journal of Applied Engineering Research ISSN 0973-4562 Volume 10, Number 17 (2015)
© Research India Publications ::: http://www.ripublication.com

3. Hong CAO, Alex C. KOT, ―Accurate Detection of Demosaicing Regularity for
Digital Image Forensics‖ IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION
FORENSICS AND SECURITY, VOL. 4, NO. 4, DECEMBER 2009,pg no899-910
4. Jessica Fridrich ―Sensor Defects in Digital Image Forensic‖ Digital Image Forensics,
2013 – Springer.
5. LUO Weiqi, QU Zhenhua, PAN Feng, HUANG Jiwu ―A survey of passive
technology for digital image forensics‖ Guangdong Key Lab of Information Security
Technology, Guangzhou 510275, China
6. Physikalische und statistische Merkmale inder Bildforensik Der Technischen Fakultät
der Universität Erlangen–Nürnber ―Physics-based and Statistical Features for Image
Forensics‖
7. K.L.Bouman N.Khanna, E.J.Delp ―Digital Image Forensics Through the Use of Noise
Reference Patterns‖ School of Electrical and Computer Engineering Purdue
University West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA.
8. Ashwin Swaminathan, , Min Wu K. J. Ray Liu, ―Digital Image Forensics via Intrinsic
Fingerprints‖ IEEE Transactions ON Information Forensics and Security, Vol. 3, No.
1, March 2008.
9. Tian-Tsong Ng, Shih-Fu Chang Department of Electrical Engineering, Columbia
University New York, NY 10027 ―Passive-blind Image Forensics‖ Qibin Sun Institute
for Infocomm Research Singapore 119613, ibin@i2r.a-star.edu.sg, June 23, 2006

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