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Dipterocarp
Forest
Ecosystems
Towards Sustainable
Management

Dipterocarp Forest Ecosystems: Towards Sustainable Management Downloaded from www.com by UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH on 07/03/14. This page is intentionally left blank .worldscientific. For personal use only.

com by UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH on 07/03/14.Dipterocarp Forest Ecosystems: Towards Sustainable Management Downloaded from www. Berlin V f e World Scientific « • Singapore • New Jersey London • Hong Kong Sinaapore . Dipterocarp Forest Ecosystems Towards Sustainable Management Editors Andreas Schulte German Agency for Technical Cooperation (GTE). Berlin Dieter Schone German Agency for Technical Cooperation (GTE). For personal use only.worldscientific.

Singapore 912805 USA office: Suite IB. P O Box 128. USA. CASSIO and ASSOCIATES PTE LTD PHOTOBANK SINGAPORE 0106 DIPTEROCARP FOREST ECOSYSTEMS: TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT Copyright © 1996 by World Scientific Publishing Co. Danvers. recording or any information storage and retrieval system now known or to be invented.com by UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH on 07/03/14. electronic or mechanical. For personal use only. The photos used on the cover are from: TETONI. ISBN 981-02-2729-9 Printed in Singapore. Pte. MA 01923.Published by World Scientific Publishing Co. 1060 Main Street. For photocopying of material in this volume.worldscientific. including photocopying. River Edge. In this case permission to photocopy is not required from the publisher.. UK office: 57 Shelton Street. All rights reserved. or parts thereof. Pte. Ltd. 222 Rosewood Drive. Covent Garden. without written permission from the Publisher. Farrer Road. . Thisbook. Inc. NJ 07661 Dipterocarp Forest Ecosystems: Towards Sustainable Management Downloaded from www. may not be reproduced in any form or by any means. Ltd. London WC2H 9HE British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. please pay a copying fee through the Copyright Clearance Center.

They include line foresters and project staff in very remote. PREFACE The Dipterocarp forests of Southeast Asia constitute a dominant and particularly valuable component of the world's tropical rain forests. of late. education and professional discipline. graduate students. Extraneous influences aside. political instability.worldscientific. Traditionally. one obstacle to progress in Dipterocarp forestry is the fragmentation of the involved groups by location. poverty. find solutions as best they can. sustainable and economically viable management practices. aware of the forces threatening these forests. and publications. As such. dissipating and applying sustainable management practices. they are intertwined with a Pandora's box of problems that have plagued the world for decades: Over. initiatives. nor a scarcity of internationally available funds that hampers refining. Moreover. Unfortunately. The world community. has also recognized their crucial role in the fate of nations and of our planet. administrators. Nations and international bodies have responded to this challenge with funds. unfortunately. scientists from a wide variety of disciplines. a myriad of institutions. may long remain oblivious to state-of-the art knowledge. isolated corners of the world. including the option of leaving some of these forests completely untouched. Staff foresters in numerous national and international Dipterocarp forest projects usually have access to scientific backstopping and professional V . invariably very involved with the challenges of day-to-day forest management. projects. degradation of the local and global environment. these groups rarely share realms. conferences. Strict protection of the remaining Dipterocarp forests in the virgin state is highly desirable. but. a multitude of international bodies and — last but not least — people who live in. reckless exploitation of natural resources. and detrimental to the common goal. forest politicians. hunger. significantly. it will ultimately be their responsibility to implement management on the ground. It is neither a lack of efforts. the debt crisis. near and from the forest. climatic changes. not a feasible option: survival and maintenance of their vital functions will depend on benign. members of nongovernmental organizations. language. though.com by UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH on 07/03/14. are most aware of practical constraints. Very rarely do they publish. they encounter problems first-hand. readings or reasoning. Foresters at all levels of operations as well as national administrators.and underdevelopment. For personal use only. and.Dipterocarp Forest Ecosystems: Towards Sustainable Management Downloaded from www. The fate of the world's remaining Dipterocarp forests will certainly depend to a large measure on resolution of these persistent global problems. and. population growth.

before publication. Indonesia. international scientists and the staff of international bodies communicate very effectively within their circle. qualified. In a time of jet travel. conference proceedings. although not to many journals and books. and the internet. Members of this community rarely interact with "dirt foresters" described above. Finally. Invariably. reporting consumes a large amount of time. Countless close personal relationships exist. Work is usually published in first-rate. if at all. we as foresters are at times amazed at how under represented our profession appears in the entire international Dipterocarp forest community. years may pass. With the possibility of instant computer access to many of the world's major library catalogues and scientific abstracts. peer-reviewed journals. never enter policies for these forests. research is often hampered by local financial and institutional constraints and by very limited access to the professional world literature. hence. conclusion may reach target groups and decision makers in the field only after a prolonged dormancy period. Spurred on by our shared experience across cultures in forest science. and of bridging their conventional perimeters. and actually aware of regional and national problems.Dipterocarp Forest Ecosystems: Towards Sustainable Management Downloaded from www.com by UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH on 07/03/14. and. Interdisciplinary work is of course essential. For personal use only. Originally conceived barely two years ago as a compendium of Dipterocarp forest ecology. may start work with a more up-to-date knowledge of a particular topic than a professor or decision maker in a remote corner of the Dipterocarp region. practical difficulties quickly whittled away the book's overly ambitious initial concept. give up the goal of linking customarily isolated and widely scattered domains. project pamphlets. as in the discussion of the role planted and natural tropical forests play in climate change mitigation. proposals and resolutions would benefit from feedback and input from experienced forestry professionals. at how often even rudimentary forestry knowledge is overlooked. we did not. writing a term paper in the USA. an undergraduate forestry student. Many of their institutions cannot afford reputable journals and new books. although often highly engaged. management and use. These groups also constitute the contemplated readership of this book. It was our objective to narrow this perceived communication gap among foresters and all members of the international community concerned with tropical forests in general. fax machines. Local researchers in developing nations. but often. for instance. or semiobscure publications of the "gray literature" which rarely reach the scientific circuit. and Dipterocarp forests in particular. however. sometimes fare no better. which was born out of immediate experience in and admiration for the Dipterocarp forests in East Kalimantan. however. Frequently. . vi Preface networks. Communication may be restricted due to lack of contacts and the everpresent language barrier. practical forest management and academic teaching. extremely valuable experiences and insights gained on-site in the Dipterocarp forests end up in internal organization files. While colleagues are aware of the gist of an article long before it actually appears.worldscientific. in spite of great difficulties.

German Forestry Project. to our satisfaction. others have almost turned into Dipterocarp forest dwellers. with whom our encounters were encouraging. a pleasure. The book was compiled as one activity of the Indonesian . Dr. particularly its Rector.worldscientific. We like to thank all authors for their cooperation. Preface vii Leech socks may complement some of the books author's usual attire.com by UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH on 07/03/14. Prof. Scandinavia and Germany. even rewrote sections and who refused to reject any submitted contribution merely on grounds of inadequate language skills. for all the remaining flaws. the USA. Finally. Daddy RUHIYAT.Dipterocarp Forest Ecosystems: Towards Sustainable Management Downloaded from www. As many participants at international scientific conferences will testify. We realize the efforts necessary to prepare book manuscripts from these beginnings. Some articles originated as unpublished research reports. among them. Contributors hail from thirteen countries. while other rarely get out of a lab coat.Indonesian Governmental Cooperation Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH is gratefully acknowledged. Dr. had it not been for the work by Myrna HASLE. Indonesia and would not have been possible without the assistance and cooperation of the University and Faculty of Forestry. style may not. with major representations from Southeast Asia. The book would. we would like to extend our thanks to our Indonesian forestry colleagues and to many partners in other national and international forestry projects. editors and authors take full responsibility. deserved to reach a larger audience. even if the intended meaning is understandable and technical terms fit. which. and numerous reviewers for their assistance. quite simply never have reached the printer. For personal use only. Only a minority are native English speakers. Financial support from the German . Mulawarman University in Samarinda. who labored through some very rough first drafts. corrected. in our view. to communicate well on a professional topic in a foreign tongue is difficult. and a privilege. Therefore. Unfortunately time ran out. edited. Finally. second drafts. a large group of seasoned forestry professionals with considerable experience in practical Dipterocarp forestry. Many professional disciplines are represented. Some are at home in Universities. She agonized about the possibility of doing an author's personal style injustice and adamantly would have preferred at least one more editing cycle. The Editors . Competency to write for professional publications in a foreign language is even more exceptional. therefore. while thanking her for a task extremely well done. others in the form of conference or workshop representations. Yunus RASYID and the Dean of the Faculty of Forestry.

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likely remain a particularly important feature of Dipterocarp silviculture. Reduced impact logging. albeit very judiciously. For personal use only. extremely diverse forests. a decision model for management of forests with multiple.Dipterocarp Forest Ecosystems: Towards Sustainable Management Downloaded from www. at first encounter. are represented.worldscientific. remote sensing methods for land-use planning. intimidate even experienced foresters from other world regions. and an ant-plant association as an example of the myriad of intricate interrelationships among organisms in this forest type. the incredible diversity of species other than Dipterocarps. There is virtually no chance to eliminate conversion of Dipterocarp forest ecosystems during the next decades. management and use with forests all over the world.and agroforestry. silviculture. growing year round at very warm temperatures on sites with large amounts of precipitation and often very low soil nutrient stores may. and harvest practices. Even in regions with a very long forestry tradition and comparatively few tree species. Lack of knowledge and uncertainty will. silvics for these species are still being researched. while Chapter 4 centers on rehabilitation of IX . Forest managers will never know in detail and be able to consider all such mutual influences. for some imposed by ecology and site. management planning. Chapter 1 contains fewer treatises on Dipterocarp forest ecology than initially planned. Some experiences may be transposed. multilayered. is applied here in a new context. fire. we may advance conservation and management by refining forest inventories.com by UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH on 07/03/14. these marvelous forests share facets of ecology. basic forestry principles still apply. INTRODUCTION Dipterocarp forest ecosystems in Southeast Asia. But important facets such as soil. Chapters 2 and 3 treat these aspects. joint implementation for carbon offsets. Climate change mitigation in the forestry sector may be a very significant new development and a chance for conservation of forests and biodiversity. therefore. in the remaining forests. Yet. Moreover. and we may take advantage of new options offered by global climate change mitigation. social. uneven-aged. possibly conflicting objectives. Examples in this collection include theoretical aspects of ecosystems sustainability. Judicious adaptation of general forestry principles to Dipterocarp forests involves regard for specific constraints. but they should be conscious of their existence. growth and yield simulation and a combined stand and forest level model to assure both sustainability and feasibility in management planning. a very desirable practice all over the world. very inaccessible. but particularly for the Dipterocarp region. and for forest management all over the world. community-. But perhaps we can at least mitigate and channel deforestation and assure that future land uses will be productive and sustainable. hydrology.

Last but not least.com by UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH on 07/03/14. the better their chance of survival. private and community forest ownership. which have already been degraded by unsustainable harvests. Chapter 5 addresses the potential of the Dipterocarp forest asset in international trade. x Introduction those millions of hectares of Dipterocarp forests. Moreover.worldscientific. There are numerous concepts of the body of forest management knowledge which still await application in Dipterocarp forestry. Therefore. economic use. in an analogy to forest's classic Control Method of the past. Site mapping and specific management is barely emergent in Dipterocarp forestry and conservation. For us. agricultural use or wildfires. considerate management should gauge responses and preserve options for the forest's future. but constitutes a very important ecological foundation. conservation of Dipterocarp forest ecosystems. polycyclic cutting regimes are but a special case of uneven-aged forest management. A very small sample of such "secondary" products and uses. The more highly valued all products and functions of these forests become nationally and internationally. rattan and Tengkawang butter are included here as examples. there is a high probability that many general and at least some specific use may exist for almost all tree species of the Dipterocarp forest. Concepts and experiences exist worldwide about management boundary conditions. which are likely to persist. Therefore. for which a wealth of new thoughts has accumulated in the global trend towards more natural "new forestry". such as forestry law and policy.Dipterocarp Forest Ecosystems: Towards Sustainable Management Downloaded from www. To simply copy such models without regard for the Dipterocarp forest's uniqueness is not an option. and possibly for many species of the entire flora and fauna. Managerial forest economics will become more important in Dipterocarp forestry as management intensity increases and options multiply. For personal use only. Curbing logging waste and conversion residues few species now considered commercial needs attention. management and conservation of the Dipterocarp forest must allow for uncertainty and large gaps in knowledge. The Editors . and properties and uses for many of its timber species. forest administration and forest service organization. axiomatically includes management and benign. A myriad of others exist or still wait for discovery. to disregard them entirely a waste. For example.

Nutrient Losses from Dipterocarp Forests — A Case Study of Forest Plantation Establishment in Sabah.com by UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH on 07/03/14.: An Overview of Tree Species Diversity in Dipterocarp Forest Ecosystems of Borneo 74 FIALA.G. SCHINDELE Fire in Dipterocarp Forests 155 XI . S.. and E.. Philippines 124 GOLDAMMER. B.A. J. RJ. A..Dipterocarp Forest Ecosystems: Towards Sustainable Management Downloaded from www.worldscientific. Not only Dipterocarps . Ants Benefits Pioneer Trees: The Genus Macaranga as an Example of Ant-Plant Associations in Dipterocarp Forests 102 MARGRAF. SYARIF Soils under Lowland Dipterocarp Forests — Characteristics and Classification 29 MALMER. J. CONTENTS PREFACE v INTRODUCTION ix CHAPTER 1: FACETS OF DIPTEROCARP FOREST ECOLOGY 1 SCHULTE. Malaysia 52 KESSLER. and P.P. B. SEIBERT and W. Dipterocarp Forest Ecosystem Theory Based on Matter Balance and Biodiversity 3 OHTA. MILAN Ecology of Dipterocarp Forests and its Relevance for Island Rehabilitation in Leyte. A. For personal use only.

C. Traditional Management of Dipterocarp Forests: Examples of Community Forestry by Indigenous Communities 335 SARDJONO. UEBELHOR Examples of Sustainability Criteria for Dipterocarp Forest Management 274 MARSH. COMMUNITY AND AGROFORESTRY 247 WEIDELT. PLITZ. Malaysia 293 MOURA-COSTA.M.A. P. GLAUNER. R.J.C.E. SULLIVAN Reduced Impact Logging: A Pilot Project in Sabah. K. F. and T.worldscientific. P. P. M. H.E.com by UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH on 07/03/14.W. Tropical Forestry Practices for Carbon Sequestration 308 SORENSEN. P. A. and M. Multi-Criteria Planning and Management of Forest Sustainability 189 KUNTZ. Sustainable Management of Dipterocarp Forests — Opportunities and Constraints 249 ONG.Dipterocarp Forest Ecosystems: Towards Sustainable Management Downloaded from www. Indonesia 354 GOUYON. C .M. SIEGERT Dipterocarp Forest Mapping and Monitoring by Satellite Data — A Case Study from East Kalimantan 206 ONG. LAGAN. A. KLEINE DIPSIM: Dipterocarp Forest Growth Simulation Model — A Tool for Forest-Level Management Planning 228 CHAPTER 3: TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT — SILVICULTURE. For personal use only. xii Contents CHAPTER 2: TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT — FOREST REGULATION 187 WHYTE. G. J.. TAY. S. and F. Ecological and Socio-Economic Conditions of Rubber Agroforestry in the Dipterocarp Ecosystems of Indonesia 369 . PINARDI. The Lembo System: A Model for Agroforestry in Dipterocarp Forest Ecosystems of East Kalimantan. M. KLEINE and K.

OTSAMO Seedling Production Methods of Dipterocarps 391 APPANAH. and P.. Quantification and Use of Dipterocarp Wood Residue in East Kalimantan 603 SEIBERT. S. G.T.L. Food from Dipterocarps.G. A. B. HOE Rehabilitation of Degraded Sites in Logged-Over Forest Using Dipterocarps 446 OTSAMO. R. ADJERS Reforestation Experiences with Dipterocarp Species on Grassland 464 CHAPTER 5: UTILIZATION POTENTIAL OF DIPTEROCARP FOREST ECOSYSTEMS — MAJOR AND MINOR FOREST PRODUCTS 479 CHOONG. GOTTWALD Wood Structure and Properties Diversity in Commercial Dipterocarp Timbers of Southeast Asia 526 BOSMAN. A. and G.S. BAAS Wood Structure and Properties of Naturally and Plantation Grown Light Red Meranti 578 SULISTYO BUDI. WEINLAND Experience with Planting Dipterocarps in Peninsular Malaysia 411 NUSSBAUM. R.M. and A. M. E. OTSAMO and G. Properties and Utilization of Sapotaceous Timber from Dipterocarp Forests 591 MULADI. S. and S. Utilization of the Tengkawang Species Group for Nut and Fat Production 616 . Contents xiii CHAPTER 4: REHABILITATION AND REFORESTATION OF DIPTEROCARP FOREST ECOSYSTEMS 389 ADJERS. and H.com by UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH on 07/03/14. H. ACHMADI Utilization Potential of the Dipterocarp Resource in International Trade 481 RICHTER.worldscientific. For personal use only.Dipterocarp Forest Ecosystems: Towards Sustainable Management Downloaded from www.T. and A.

Use and Ecologically Well Adapted Cultivation INDEX 649 . For personal use only.worldscientific. xiv Contents WEIDELT.Dipterocarp Forest Ecosystems: Towards Sustainable Management Downloaded from www. H.com by UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH on 07/03/14. Rattan — Distribution. H. Morphology.