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Although generally unrecognized, Romanian aerodynamics pioneer Henri Coanda was
actually the first person to build and fly a jet powered aircraft. It is commonly believed
that the first jet engines were developed during World War II. Dr. Hans Von Ohain
designed the first German jet aircraft, which made its first flight on August 27, 1939.
Unaware of Dr. Von Ohain's work, A British engineer named Sir Frank Whittle also
independently designed a jet aircraft, which first flew on May 15, 1941.

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The Coanda- 1910, the world's first jet aircraft

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Although these two men are generally thought of as the fathers of jet aircraft, Henri
Coanda built and "flew" the first recorded jet aircraft about 30 years earlier.
In 1934 he obtained a patent in France for an effect presently named after Coanda
and was described as:
"Deviation of a plan jet of a fluid that penetrates another fluid in the vicinity of a
convex wall."
Unfortunately Coanda couldn't obtain funding to continue his research after he
wrecked his airplane, and so his contribution to jet propulsion never became
widespread. If he had been able to continue his work, France could have had a

- planetf1, another site with
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and statistics. Biased toward
British teams, but anyway
good read.
-, Great
history site. You can learn a
lot from this site. Pictures,
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-, La Fédération
Internationale de
l'Automobile, representing
the interests of motoring
organisations and motor car
users. Head organisation and
ruler in auto sport.
-, I don’t
believe that I have to tell you
anything about this site. It’s
not about Formula 1
technology, but you can learn

To perform a simple demonstration of this effect. Just as water flowing around the spoon's curved surface draws it into the stream. Move the spoon up to the edge of the stream so it barely touches. As an aside. . he did make a very important contribution to how the aircraft wings produce lift when he discovered what is now called the Coanda Effect. air blown over the curved paper is what causes the lift in that common paper lift demonstration. A natural question is "how the hell does the wing divert the air down?" When a moving fluid. A concave curve will naturally push the flow. the water will be projected out at a remarkable distance. the pressure of the moving air becomes less than it would be if the air wasn't moving. It helps to attach a piece of tape at the handle end to act as a hinge. Spoon is actually being pulled towards the stream of water. a lot about that too. the pressure on that side of the surface will be less than the pressure on its other side. Since air behaves exactly like any fluid.carbibles. All visitors have a more powerful search engine than ever before on this site. such as air or water. this characteristic plays a huge role in how weather systems work! If you can cause air to move faster on one side of a surface than the other.jet-powered air force before WWII began. Dangle the spoon next to the stream coming from the tap. so when you see the water behaving strangely with the spoon. Get a small stream of water coming down from the sink. and then place the bottom of the spoon next to the stream.The F1 Links Page is a database for all relevant F1 links. no need for highly technical lab. grab a spoon and find a sink. Technical reviews and explanations of some in-car gadgets. Gases behave pretty much like liquids. What is unusual about the Coanda effect is the fact that the fluid or gas flow is pulled so strongly by a curved surface. . that's what the air does with the curved paper. The degree to which the water and the curved surface remain attached goes beyond the expected. When you do the water will flow around the bowl of the spoon and off the bottom deflected to the side and the spoon will move into the stream. comes into contact with a curved surface it will try to follow that surface. a great site for normal car users. With a tap. Same situation apply to the wing. but the fact that a convex one would react so strongly to fluid or gas is unusual. You can easily demonstrate the Coanda effect for yourself. I say dangle because you want to hold it loosely enough so it can swing back and forth a bit. these are often found together in the kitchen. Any time the wind is blowing or a fan blows air. . Even though he didn't build another jet aircraft. Coanda Effect: A moving stream of fluid in contact with a curved surface will tend to follow the curvature of the surface rather than continue traveling in a straight line. Here you can find explanations of almost everything about your car and how it works. Bernoulli’s principle applies.

the air will exert an upward force back on the wing. the air above the wing must move up and down to follow the curve around the wing and stay attached to it (Coanda effect). To get around air stream . In motion. the airflow will follow the curvature of the wing. This diagram shows that increasing the angle of attack increases how much the air is deflected downwards. This configuration of the wing. We can say that wing is stalled. it causes heavy vibrations on the wing and greatly decreases the efficiency of the wing. Coanda effect plays an even larger role in producing lift. with longer lower part of the wing will produce opposite force.One of the most widely used applications of Bernoulli's principle is in the airplane wing. consequently it must travel faster than the air moving under the wing. For this reason. Wings are shaped so that the top side of the wing is curved while the bottom side is relatively flat. and some of the air moves downward below the wing. we need to understand something called angle of attack. If the wing is curved. This wing efficiently directs the airflow downward. The higher pressure air on the bottom of the wing pushes up on the wing with more force than the lower pressure air above the wing pushes down. This gives the angle between the wing and the direction of the air flow. the front edge of the wing hits the air. while the air below the wing moves very little. Though Bernoulli's principle is a major source of lift in an aircraft wing. The air pressure on the top of the wing is therefore less than that on the bottom of the wing. aircraft wings are generally angled like the middle wing in the diagram. while some moves upward over the top. to reach the back edge at the more or less same time. Lift pushes the wings upwards and keeps the airplane in the air. In order to produce lift. As the air rushes in to fill this space. The angle of attack indicates how tilted the wing is with respect to the oncoming air. The air moving on the top of the curved wing must travel farther before it reaches the back of the wing. But we can apply same rules. This result in a net force acting upwards called lift. In order to use this to produce lift. according to Bernoulli’s principle. Newton's third law says that there must be equal force acting in the opposite direction. As shown in the bottom of the diagram. this creates a small vacuum just behind the wing. or downforce acting on the wing. called cavitations’. Since the top of the wing is curved. producing lift. called downforce. as shown in the following picture. Look at how the Coanda effect directs the airflow for different angles of attack in the diagrams below. you get formula 1 or any wing in use in auto sport. If you turn this wings on upper picture up side down. the air flow will no longer follow the curve of the wing (Coanda effect is loosing the power). If we can exert a force on the air so that it is directed down. If the angle of attack is too high. which in turn pushes up on the wing.

among them speed of fluids stream. no more thrust. the science behind this effect is known as fluid dynamics. creating lower pressure. and a centrifugal effect if the surface is curved. You don't find it much in nature. but the drag caused by the difference in velocity between the airstream and the surface is just a loss of energy. bending air away from the rear tires contribute to reducing drag. Coanda effect helps airstream to stay attached to the wing surface. like the neck and shoulders of a coke-bottle. and creates no net force. By means of the Coanda effect. the air flowing along the flanks of the sidepods adheres to the contours at the rear. away from the vital airflow underneath the car. aerodynamic lift or downforce is increased. Coanda effect is a balancing act between many factors. where air moving over the wing can be "bent" using flaps over the curved surface of the top of the wing. that's how a wing stalls. Bargeboards are used to guide turbulent air from the front wing wake. The Coanda effect is used on a modern Formula 1 car everywhere sometime to generate downforce. or in our area of interest. these allow for some of the high pressure flow from (in Formula 1 case) the upper surface of the wing to bleed to the lower surface of the next flap energizing the flow. Stringent requirements have been placed on the location of the exhaust exit. For example. If the airstream gets turbulent and stops following the curved surface. Just so you know. The Coanda effect is also used by the bargeboards. In addition. a situation which is usually man-made. and engine . increasing downforce and reducing the boundary flow separation. the rear of a modern Formula 1 car is tightly tapered between the rear wheels. Fluid dynamics represents and study the motion of liquids or gases.separation problem in airplane wing construction and in Formula 1. there's no more low air pressure. and the airflow here is accelerated. on the racing car wing. the accelerated airflow between the rear wheels and over the top of the diffuser does raise the velocity of the air exiting the diffuser. The bending of the flow results in its acceleration and as a result of Bernoulli's principle pressure is decreased. The Coanda effect has important applications in various high-lift or high downforce devices on aircraft. you can see this concept taken to the extreme. In itself. pressure. acting as a skirt. and increase the Coanda effect on wings. with multi-element wings creating huge amounts of downforce and little air stream separation even on the flaps with extremely high angle of attack. helping to seal the lower pressure area under the car. Pull of surrounding air causes turbulence. On the end of 2011 exhaust blown diffusers where prohibited by the FIA. but for guiding and conditioning airflow in one place. as a means of maximizing downforce on other. If you look at a F1 rear wing few years ago on picture above. drag from the surface and from the ambient air. this tranverse pressure differential on either side of the car cancels out. aerodynamic appendages typically sited between the trailing edge of the front wheels and the leading edge of the sidepods. dual or more element or slot-gap wings are used. In addition. Main trouble of the Coanda effect is the airstream becoming turbulent and detaching from the surface. molecular attraction. the lower trailing edge of a bargeboard creates a vortex which travels down the outer lower edge of the sidepod. However. there is no Coanda lift on an airfoil. Studying this science can lead to many consequential discoveries like the Coanda effect. The Coanda effect only works in specific conditions where an isolated jet of fluid (or air) flows across a surface. but sometime not for generating downforce directly. It's a goal to pull as much as possible ambient air into the airstream. Notice how unlikely is to have a wing in flight with air flow only on one side. Since all applications of a Coanda effect involve a fluid object flowing over a solid one. but Bernoulli principle and difference in pressures are the reason why we have a lift or downforce. This increases the speed of the flow under the wing.

Well. With this set up the exhaust plume is curved downwards by both the shape of the bodywork aft of the tailpipe . secret is to design this part of the bodywork and bodywork in front of the exhaust exit in the way to optimize this effect and give a proper and exact route for gasses to flow downward in diffuser direction. the more the jet is deflected. But this was not sufficient to eliminate exhaust-blown diffusers. it will no longer be possible to blow the exhaust directly between the outer edge of the diffuser and inner face of the rotating rear wheel. effect called "Downwash". aligned with the exhaust exit. Parra and K. When an exhaust jet exits into a cross-stream of fresh air. Exits of the pipe can be positioned inside green box with exhaust tailpipe pointed upwards. Moreover. Aerodynamic effectiveness of the flow of exhaust gases in a generic formula one car configuration If the exhaust exit is placed flush in the rearward face of sidepods sweeping downwards at a fairly steep angle. the first thing to note is that it is not possible to point the exhaust exit down at the diffuser in same way as before. but with clever design and optimization you can get few percent more of download. and 250mm above the reference plane underneath the car. L. The exhaust exit must also be angled upwards by at least 10 degrees. and terminating at the rear axle line. In short. the exhaust jet bend with the air stream.mapping restrictions are imposed to eliminate off-throttle pumping of the exhaust jet.Kontis in their 2006 . Hence. now energized air stream (mixed with exhaust jet) to the bodywork. it will be illegal to place any sprung bodywork in a cone-shaped region. these move the exhaust exit to at least 500mm in front of the rear axle line. this will not necessarily prevent the exhaust jet itself from blowing in that direction. Picture from paper published by F. New positioning of the exhaust pipes exits and limitations are shown on picture below. coanda effect will take over and "glue". diverging at 3 degrees. then the free stream airflow could deflect the exhaust jet downwards in direction of the diffuser. The smaller the ratio. The degree to which the jet is deflected is determined by the ratio between the velocity of the jet and the velocity of the cross-stream flow. This effect is well documented and often termed “jet in cross flow”. After that. Of course. Effect of diffuser blowing is not as strong as before.

(coanda) and by the airflow passing over the sidepod (downwash). To learn more about Exhaust Blown Diffuser check my article here. Back to the top of the page .