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Ultrasonic Machining for

Nuclear Fabrication and PWSCC
Mitigation
Matt Short - EWI
Technology Leader
614.688.5137
mshort@ewi.org

ATI CSC11
Paper 8H – 09/29/2011

Steve Levesque
Project Manager
614.688.5183
slevesque@ewi.org

High Frequency Ultrasonics
u 

High-frequency ultrasonics – convey information

high-frequency acoustic energy to change materials.High-Power Ultrasonics (HPU) u  HPU .application of intense. processes Power supply Ultrasonic Transducer 60 ~ Ultrasonic energy causes change in Material or Process Transmission Material/Process .

Ultrasonic Machining Technical Background !! What is Ultrasonic Machining (UM) !! It is application of ultrasonic (US) vibrations to traditional machining processes (drilling. turning. increased accuracy. faster drilling. ") Concepts of adding US vibrations to various machining processes . better tool life. drilling of hard materials.. milling ") to improve performance (e.g.

Prior Work Cincinnati Milacron US turning. 1970s OSU. Turning 1970s . US Cutting 1970s Sonobond Drilling. 1960s Grumman US Drilling.

5 kW) ─  Take advantage of better control technology of modern US systems ─  Apply modern FEA analysis to tool development u  Initial Application ─  Jointly sponsored NASA.5-kW Transducer Dukane 5-kW Generators Vibrational Analysis of Twist Drill .5. 2.vs. NCDMM program on US Twist Drilling 4.Progression of Ultrasonic Machining u  EWI approach to US Machining ─  Utilization of higher US power than previously used (starting at 4.

torques ─  Showed significant reductions in normal force and torque when drilling aluminum ─  Optimum vibration amplitude u  For 4340 steel.91% 69. 1/8 and ½ drills Used dynamometer to evaluate drilling forces. system torque and rpm insufficient for tools >1/2-in 1/2 Drill in 6061 Al Amplitude Mz Fz Mz Reduction Fz Reduction 0 37 45 55 27.88% 39.1 763.14% 65.85% 39.3 389.59% .74 12.41 9.9 431.NCDMM Testing u  u  Focused on 6061-T6.195 16.26% 66.1 55.67 1263.

Progression of Ultrasonic Machining Lath Test Bed EWI Drill #1 .

2s ─  Power draw up to 600W u  ¾ drill in development ½ holes in steel plate .Drilling Tests u  ½ drill bit into ¾ steel plate ─  without sonics: 45s ─  with sonics: 15s ─  Power draw up to 2kW u  1/8 drill bit into ¼ steel plate ─  without sonics: 15s ─  with sonics: 1.

no lubricant ─  Cutting edge wear indicated W/O US ─  Third pass showed significant wear Wear indicated Severe wear No US Energy Material transfer With US Energy Hole 1 Hole 2 Hole 3 .Tool Life Assessment u  Tool Performance With and W/O US ─  Trials conducted on Inconel.

Tool Life Assessment u  Loads increase as wear increases Hole 1 – W/out US ~70-N ~40-N ~85-N ~65-N ~150-N ~90-N Hole 1 – with US ~55-N Hole 3 – W/out US Hole 2 – W/out US ~65-N Hole 2 – with US ~55-N ~65-N Hole 3 – with US ~70-N ~70-N .

Extending Technology to Nuclear Applications u  Is it possible to integrate an US transmission line to portable equipment – such as AREVA s drilling hardware .

Challenges u  Climax Drill Design ─  Improve overall process efficiency ─  Process speed ─  Tool wear ─  Surface finish ─  Dimensional stability ─  Clearance of transducer on platform ─  Stack-up length ─  Ease of use and adaptability ─  Use of internal mandrel acting as collet ─  Ability to revert to standard practice with minimal effort .

Transducer Overview u  u  Off-the-shelf transducer designed to operate at 20-kHz If the components are not tuned properly. it will not work Transducer end 28-32 µm .

87 ─  This does not take into account shrink fit portion of shank due to tuning 20242 Hz .Finite Element Analysis u  Shank modified by reducing length of Morse taper to overall length of 10.

then combine components into a multi-wave assembly λ λ/2 λ/2 .The Transmission Line u  Design each component as half or full wavelength.

AREVA Design Concept !! !! Successfully isolated all vibrations from surrounding equipment Continues to drive longitudinal vibrations .

AREVA System Overview u  Transmission Line Components ─  Rigid. interchangeable shrink-fit collet ─  Half wave extension ─  Transducer u  Assembly ─  Each component makes up λ/2 ─  Accomplished with single bolt at interface Mandrel/Shrink-Fit Collet Patent Pending Half Wave Extension Transducer .

AREVA System Overview u  Climax Drill Assembly ─  Install Collet/Mandrel into drill bore engaging drive key ─  Transmission lines transmits torque while transmitting acoustical vibrations to cutting faces ─  Protective boot covers λ/2 extension and provides easy removal ─  Transducer attaches to back side of extension .

Not desirable due to surface finish Successfully met surface requirements at ~5-min operation time Improved true position of hole Maintained ability to revert to Morse taper tooling Completely isolated vibrations from drill head Capable of performing several operations with same drill bit .AREVA Drilling Results u  u  u  u  u  u  Capable of performing operation in 36-sec.

g. drilling tools and/or milling tools) will be a next step in expanding US machining technology Haas 5-axis MC .Ongoing Developments u  Development of a machining center compatible US machining units (e.

Design Details u  Concept to incorporate 20-kHz transducer into live spindle case ─  Must consider the following: ─  Electrical contacts ─  Various mounting provisions accepting different size tool holders ─  HSK/CAT 40. etc. ─  Repairable/serviceable ─  Use of shrink-fit tooling ─  Isolate vibrations from spindle . 60.

Amp.Vibration Analysis Static.00% 55. Amp Displacement Tool Tip Displacement Radial Amp at Back Mass Long.00% .00% 65.00% 85.00% Long.00% 95. Node Amp Displacement Radial Amp at Nodal Position Bore Face Amp Displacement Back Mass Long. @ Tool Holder Interface Rad. Amp. Amp. @ Back End of Case 105. @ Node Position with Case Rad.00% 75. Case Mounted 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 35.00% 45.

Results .

688.CR&R 434. P. Inc.5137 mshort@ewi. .832. Special Projects AREVA NP. Poling.For technical questions or to request more information. contact: Gary R.com Matt Short Technology Leader – Ultrasonics EWI 614.2962 Gary.org .Poling@areva.E.