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From Materials Evaluation, Vol. 66, No. 12, pp: 1234-1240.
Copyright © 2008 The American Society for Nondestructive Testing, Inc.

Measurement of Pre-penetrant Etch Rate
by William L. Glass*

ost penetrant testing specifications
go into great detail about how to
control the penetrant materials, the
equipment and the process, but some say little about how to control pre-penetrant etching. For example, paragraph 7.1.5 of ASTM
E 1417-05 says “Etching processes shall be
developed and controlled to prevent damage to components under test” (ASTM,
2005). Statements like this leave the controls and degree of control wide open. Who
agrees to whatever is developed? Nadcap
mandates much of what we do at our business, such as the statistical process control.
This is because we also perform chemical
milling, macro-etching and passivation,
and we are required by most of our customers to have chemical processing approval from Nadcap. Nadcap does not require these same controls for NDT labs or
manufacturers that perform their own
etching in support of their penetrant testing. So how does the NDT industry control
etching when there may be only limited
specification requirements? This paper is
limited to how we measure etch rate at our
particular business: perhaps some of the
questions brought up herein will inspire
others to write about some of their own
etching control methods. Important equations are discussed in the body of the
paper, with their derivations given in the


Typical surface stock removal requirements for pre-penetrant etching range from
1.27 to 17.78 mm (0.05 to 0.7 mil) per surface. We all know that an etched surface
will have a fogged appearance, and the
greater the etching the greater the fogging. While many of the controlling specifications say how to measure the etch
* ST&I Inc., 7517 Jefferson St., Paramount, CA
90723; (562) 634-6396; fax (562) 634-1754;
1234 Materials Evaluation/December 2008

rate, almost none require measuring the resulting stock removal on the etched part.
The removal from the part is usually assumed to be what the etch rate said it
should have been. This is probably the best
approach, as mechanically measured removal values are not trustworthy for reasons discussed later. However, this means
that control of etch rate and visual testing
of the etched surfaces is very important.

So how does the NDT
industry control etching
when there may be
only limited

At our workplace, we have seen parts
etched for the required time (as measured
by an etch rate tab) come out of the etching
tank bright and shiny — and un-etched.
There was some difference in the part’s surface (texture/condition/contamination)
that prevented the part from etching at the
same rate as the tab. The operator must be
trained to recognize this condition when it
occurs and to bring it to the attention of
quality and/or management. Bright and
shiny is never acceptable (though this leads
to questions about pre-etch cleaning controls and personnel training, which will not
be covered in this paper).
Etch rate, therefore, is a major controlling factor of the process. What then are
some of the factors affecting etching rate
and how should etch rate be measured?

First, let’s talk about the units of etch rate
measurement. Most American specifications express etch rate in inches per surface
per minute, inches per surface per hour, mils
per surface per minute or mils per surface
per hour. This results in number like
0.00008 in./surface/minute or 0.08 mils
/surface/minute (a mil being 0.001 in.). Because of the quantity of zeros in these numbers, they are difficult to handle when doing
a calculation for the required total etching
time. The error of dropping or adding a zero
in the required time calculation will result in
an error of a factor of 10 in the answer. If the
operator does not catch this error, the results
can be disastrous, and it is very easy to add
or drop a zero when recording such numbers or when entering such numbers into a
calculator or a computer.
Since most requirements for stock removals are something like 5.08 to 10.16 mm
(0.2 to 0.4 mil) per surface, we measure and
record etch rate in minutes required to remove 2.54 mm (0.1 mil) of stock per surface.
An etch rate of 2 mm (0.08 mil)/surface
/minute is the same as 1.25 minutes to remove 2.54 mm (0.1 mil)/surface (the required removal divided by the etch rate). If
the target stock removal is 7.6 mm (0.3 mil)
/surface, then the calculation for the required etching time is simply 3 ¥ 1.25 =
3.75 min, and you can do the calculation (in
mils) in your head. If the etch rate was
0.15 mm (0.006 mil)/surface/minute, that is
16.7 min to remove 2.54 mm (0.1 mil), and
the required etching time is 3 ¥ 16.7 =
50.1 min. While you may not be able to do
this calculation in your head, you can multiply 3 ¥ 15 in your head to get 45 and thus
know that the answer is a little more than
45 min. Now, if you make a calculation
error and come up with an answer of 5.01
or 501 min, you will realize that a mistake
was made. For these reasons you may
want to measure your etch rate in minutes
to remove 2.54 mm (0.1 mil) of stock per
surface. Also, a number like 1.25 has a more
intuitive meaning to most people than a
number like 0.00008.

Most often. We use constant agitation based on our own experience. both before and after etching.4 times faster than a non-blasted tab. too. but our experience is that it is very inaccurate. Even if the chemical analysis says the etching solution is good. Etch rate (R) was then: (1) T0 − TF 2te measured in inches/surface/minute. So when calculating the etch rate (in minutes to remove 2. ETCH RATE AND STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL Our working practice is to perform an etch rate on each standing tank in the morning and at the end of each working day. a blasted aluminum tab etches about 1. It should be noted that in the past we performed a failure mode and effects analysis study that indicated that the best etching time to use for our etch rate measurement was 20 min. The operator tends to get the final thickness measurement (TF) he or she needs to obtain the expected etch rate by repeating measurements using different thickness gage closing pressures. etch solution agitation rate and the tab’s surface finish. It is doubtful whether anyone discards the tab after a single use. If the part alloy is the same as one of Materials Evaluation/December 2008 1235 . if the etch rate is not in statistical control the solution is adjusted or replaced (Figure 1). Our tanks are air-agitated. This is why thickness gage measurement methods for verification of small amounts of stock removal on production parts are unreliable (though they can be fine for chemical milling. THE ETCH RATE TAB Production etch rate is normally measured on a test tab of the same or a similar alloy as the production part. or at different spots on the tab. Also. Also. so we have a sequence of air valves: one preset and locked in a partially open position and the other fully opened when the tank is in operation (fully closed when not). as the surface finish is the same each time. Some specifications recommend that a tank be agitated for a period of time. There are many factors that affect the rate of etching of a test tab. This makes the tabs re-usable. or the solution replaced.4. such as 15 min.1 mil]).1 mil] per surface) is tracked statistically using X-MR charts. The tab is blasted with100-mesh silicon dioxide grit at 448 kPa (65 lb/in. These are our standard test tabs mentioned earlier. A standard etch rate tab (explained in the next section) is used for each etching tank and the data (in minutes to remove 2. At some arbitrary point. and if you do this yours do. TEST TAB LOCATION IN THE TANK AND ETCHING TIME The tab is introduced into the etching tank at the same location every time. our formula for calculating the etching rate has a built-in correction factor for this. The tabs measure 51 by 102 mm (2 by 4 in. The most commonly used etch rate measurement time is probably 15 min. the tab surfaces are grit blasted prior to each use. we measured the tab thickness before (T0) and after (TF) etching with a microthickness gage (to 2. which removes more material). This only exaggerated the microthickness gage measurement problem. turned over and the blasting process repeated on the other side. TAB AND PART SURFACE FINISHES Standardizing the etch tab preparation process as described above creates another potential problem.1 mg. our test tabs are now weighed on an analytical balance to the nearest 0.54 mm [0. However. STANDARD AND NON-STANDARD TAB CONFIGURATIONS AND USAGE Next comes the configuration of the etch rate tab. The results? Our etch rates fluctuated wildly. we used the same tab over and over again (with no conditioning between runs) until the etched surfaces of the tab were badly attacked by the repeated etching.) thick (the aluminum tabs are 76 by 76 mm [3 by 3 in. it is a piece of flat plate stock assumed to be representative of the part. the grit-blasting unit is used only for test tab preparation. they are discarded and replaced. including tank temperature. which is usually machined. re-blasted.54 mm [0.5 min. STANDARD FLAT PLATE TEST TABS AND MECHANICAL MEASUREMENT Unless otherwise specified. The surface finish of our blasted test tab is usually not the same as that of the production hardware. The tabs are blasted just prior to etching and no other cleaning is performed on the tab other than wiping off the dust with a clean paper towel.54 mm [0. This resulted in tabs that were no longer flat and that no longer had parallel surfaces. Blasting is performed in one direction. based upon this statistical etch rate control. then the tab is turned 90º.04 to 0. the tab etch rate is multiplied by 1. This assumption may or may not be true. We’ve all done it. just prior to use and then that the agitation be shut down during the etching period.08 in.) from the surface.2) with the nozzle at about a 45º angle 51 to 76 mm (2 to 3 in.Figure 1 — Individual control chart for a given tank (no temperature correction). so the problem remains. We have found that there is practically no difference in our measured etch rate for blasted versus non-blasted tabs of nickel. with te being etch time. Sometimes. While tank chemistry is checked on a specific schedule.) and are 1 to 2 mm (0.1 mil] surface) for machined aluminum parts. titanium and steel alloys. Where necessary. the chemistry is also examined or adjusted. This provides the same amount of agitation at all times. After the tabs fall below a specified weight. we use etch rate tabs made from plate stock of common alloys of known density. In the past. This is probably the most common etch rate calculation method. the tab surfaces were ground with a hand grinder down to shiny parent metal and the process repeated all over again. this test tab comes from the trim area of the part.]). STANDARD FLAT PLATE TEST TABS AND WEIGHT LOSS MEASUREMENT To get around the thickness gage problem. until the expected value is obtained. location of the tab in the tank during etching. To get around the inconsistency of the test tab surface finish. however. We have not experimented with this but think that this approach might be a problem for parts with large surface areas and for geometrically complex parts. We use 20 ± 0.

For example.3535 = = R ∆W ∆W (we actually use 2. should be no thicker than 2.) tab would have an even greater surface area to thickness ratio.288/DW t = 2. flat tabs. then. then this estimate does not hold. See Appendix 2 for the derivation of this equation.1 mil) per surface. what you have actually lost is 50% of the tab volume. a total etching time of 1. flat. (b) thick.350/DW . the equation for the etch rate is: (7) R= ( ∆W )T0 ( W0 ) ( 2)( te ) where ∆W = the weight loss (W0 – WF) in grams W0 = the original weight in grams T0 = the tab starting thickness measured to 2. for a 51 by 102 mm (2 by 4 in. (d) short cylindrical.1 mil) with a microthickness gage te = the etching time (20 min in our case).8 min.943.54 mm (0.12 min. If the tab is thick. you have lost 50% of the tab thickness. Non-standard Alloy Tabs If the available tab is not thin (surface area to thickness ratio < 100 to 1).22 cm2 (16 in.) aluminum tab on a non-machined part 76 by 76 mm (3 by 3 in. This may or may not be true. the surface area to thickness ratio of the tab should be no less than 100 to 1. then the percent thickness loss is a reasonable estimate of and substitute for the percent volume loss.) cast steel tab 51 by 102 mm (2 by 4 in. then the stock loss from the total surface area of the tab must be taken into account (including the edges).1 mil) per surface is (6) t = 0. As previously noted. ignoring the surface area of the edges creates a 5.0001 ⋅ 23 535 2. This gives the rate in inches/surface /minute if the thickness is measured in inches. great! If not. The etch rate (R) was then 1. In fact. what then? There are several approaches for measuring and calculating the etch rate using various configurations of etch rate tabs. the equation would be (4) R= ∆W ( AS )( 2)( d )(te ) See Appendix 1 for the derivation of this equation. Given tab length l. the etch rate becomes: ∆W R= (5) 23 535 and the time (t) in minutes to remove 2.080 in. and for this tank the grand average (X-bar) is 1.54 mm (0. and in millimeters/surface/minute if the thickness is measured in millimeters.surface was 1. For a 51 by 102 by 2 mm (2 by 4 by 0.1 mil) of stock per Thin.) nickel based tab t = 1.).4 min would be required.54 mm (0.010/DW t = 4. and you can no longer use the percent thickness loss as a substitute for the percent volume loss (Figure 2b). To take another example.1389 g. Thin. Thick.42 cm2 (16. our titanium etch tank had a standard UNS R56400 (6-4 Ti) tab with a starting weight of 26.08 in. which when subtracted from 1 and multiplied by 100% gives a 5.350/DW t = 4. we statistically track the time to remove 2. the surface area to thickness ratio is 100 to 1 (2 ¥ 4 / 0.7% error in the etch rate value.62 mm (0.8 min with a range of 0.3 mil)/surface.3767 mm (0.05420 mil)/surface/min and the time to remove 2. and a final weight of 25.638/DW t = 2. The tab.1 mil) per surface for the noted alloy families. uniform piece of plate stock (Figure 2a). Non-standard Alloy Tabs What if a standard test tab of the part alloy is not available? Then we use a different calculation that depends on the percent weight loss. This calculation ignores the area of the edges of the tab and is probably the second or third most common method of calculation for measuring etching rate. the etch rate formula becomes: Table 1 Etch time calculation table for various alloy tabs where AS = surface area (in square centimeters) d = density (in grams per cubic centimeter) the resulting etch rate is in centimeters per surface per minute. Flat Plate Tabs of Known Alloys For a thin.7% error. This comes from the following. The concept is that if you lose 50% of the tab weight. To remove 7. the etch rate can be calculated from the following equation: (2) R= WO − WF 454 ( AS ) ( 2 )( d ) (te ) R= ∆W 454 ( AS ) ( 2 )( d ) (te ) or (3) where WO = original weight (in grams) WF = final weight (in grams) 454 = the approximate number of grams in a pound d = density (in pounds per cubic inch) AS = surface area (in square inches [the 2 reflects the fact that there are two surfaces being etched]) te = etching time (in minutes) ∆W = the weight differential (original weight minus final weight) the resulting etch rate is in inches per surface per minute. For thin. If the previous calculation was the second most commonly used calculation. then this is the third most common.180/DW t = 4. The surface area to thickness ratio should be no less than 100 to 1.54 mm (0.2) equals 0. A thinner 51 by 102 mm (2 by 4 in. We use the equations in Table 1 to calculate the time to remove 2. Flat. Because this method ignores the area of the edges of the tab. (c) long cylindrical. Flat. If the tab is thin.54 mm (0. flat. In SI units. width w and thickness T.) tab.2737 g in 20 min.032 mm (0.) titanium tab 51 by 102 mm (2 by 4 in. It works only for tabs with large surface to thickness ratios.162 lb/in.49 g/cm3 (0.3) and using a 20 min etching time.0001 0.96 in.) UNS R56400 (6-4 Ti) tab that has a density of 4.8003 g. The advantage of this calculation is that you do not need to know the density of the tab and the tab does not need to be of a standard size or shape.08). We would round this off to 6 min. of a known alloy with a known density. The assumed total surface area of 103.350). 1236 Materials Evaluation/December 2008 76 by 76 mm (3 by 3 in. (a) (b) (d) (c) Figure 2 — Tabs: (a) thin. which gave a ∆W of 1. and the following equation should not be used.) aluminum tab on a machined part 51 by 102 mm (2 by 4 in.8 ¥ 3 = 5.2) divided by the actual total surface area of 109. our standard test tabs.) precipitation hardened steel tab 51 by 102 mm (2 by 4 in.

you will have made an error of a factor of 2 in the calculated etch rate and you will remove only one half the stock you thought you did.1 mil. (A1) V = AS ( 2 ) λ st where V = volume AS = surface area lst = stock loss per surface. We are not a research lab and our equipment and time are very limited. and the etch rate corrected to compensate for any change in bath temperature during the day. Then. What we hoped would work is something like (11) RS = RD + 0. Averages may be used for each of the tab dimensions.05 ( τ − τ S ) where RS = the corrected etch rate to a standard temperature RD = the daily etch rate tS = the standard temperature t = the actual temperature 0. but the bath will not work very well — which makes us wonder why some customers get so hung up on chemistry. Again. APPENDICES 1: Thin. then the rate corrected to a standard 297 K (75 °F) would be 2 + 0. Another consideration is the chemistry of the tank. The total volume removed is twice this volume. ASTM International.54 mm (0. You may never have to use the equations for thick test tabs or round test tabs.8 K (5 °F). OTHER ETCHING CONTROL CONSIDERATIONS Of course. If the etch rate is good and in statistical control. we re-measure the etch rate. Substituting V in Equation A1 for that in Equation A2. the area of the ends may be ignored. ASTM E 1417-05: Standard Practice for Liquid Penetrant Examination. The thought was to develop an equation that corrects the daily etch rate to that at a standard temperature so that the daily rates may be compared. differing only in the percentages of the constituents. This is a messy equation and you would want to avoid the use of such a test tab if at all possible.0 min to remove 2. We do not have our own lab operation. and the etched surface appearance is good. meaning we can’t get instantaneous results. but this will decrease the accuracy of the etch rate value. The answer is that some of our customers supply the etch rate tabs with the job and we have seen every configuration described more than once. then the round tab length should be at least 8.7% error for thin flat tabs. We have tried to develop equations to take temperature changes into account but have been unable to develop effective ones. you now have the equation. The actual relationship is probably a logarithmic function. 2005. In all of the measurements we have made. See Appendix 4 for its derivation. such as the effect of bath temperature changes on the etch rate.3 times the tab diameter. The weight (W) of this lost stock is the product of the volume of stock removed times the density (d) of the metal or. Another problem with chemistry is that some customers use the same basic mixes. However. at the same temperature. the total stock removed during etching consists of two small volumes. We are a job shop and the volume of product going through any specific etching tank is constantly changing. You may ask why we have listed all of the above equations. we have not been able to see any reliable trends. one from the top and one from the bottom surface of the tab.75 min. secondary to the etch rate. We use some etching mixes that over time develop contaminates (dissolved metal salts and so forth) that affect both the etch rate and the etched part sur- face appearance. However.1 mil) per surface at 294 K (70 °F). If you use the percent weight loss equation for a thin flat tab to calculate the etch rate for a long round tab by substituting the tab diameter for the thickness T in the flat tab equation. REFERENCES ASTM. If one accepts the previous 5. Of course. If the area around the edge of the tab is small compared to the total surface area of the tab. our ability to make small special mixes and to carefully control the processing parameters in the use of such mixes is very limited. you would want to avoid the use of such a test tab. or (A4) ∆W = W0 − WF (A5) ∆W = AS ( 2)( d ) λ st Materials Evaluation/December 2008 1237 . Flat Plate Tabs of Known Alloys The equation in English units is derived as follows. Each volume is the product of the tab’s length times its width (this product is its surface area) times the thickness of the removed stock. Our basic feeling is that chemistry is. Short Non-standard Cylindrical Tabs What if the available cylindrical tab length is not at least 8. but if you do you now know what they are and where they come from and. or at least should be. then the area of the edge may be ignored. If the tab is a hollow tube. The mix chemistry may look good. If the bath temperature changes by more than ±2.05 = the correction factor. Then the etch rate can be calculated from: (9) ∆W ( d ) R= W0 ( 4 ) te where d = the starting tab diameter (in inches) measured with a thickness gage to 0.(8) R= ( ∆W ) Tlw W0 ( 2) ( lw + Tw + lT ) te See Appendix 3 for the derivation of this equation. there are other etching considerations that may require controlling. this is a very messy equation and. if at all possible. then all other factors willing. but for small temperature changes it was hoped that a linear relationship would be accurate enough. Then. West Conshohocken. substitute the difference between the outer and inner diameters for d in the above equation. Long Non-standard Cylindrical Tabs What if the available test tab is round (Figure 2c)? If the tab length is reasonably greater than the tab diameter. each thinks his is the best and the only reliable mix.25 = 1. we get (A3) W = AS ( 2)( d ) λ st The weight loss (∆W) is the difference in the tab weight before and after etching. For example. if necessary. Pennsylvania. I hope this article has been helpful and may encourage more research into other variables that affect pre-penetrant stock removal such as those noted above. the correct stock will have been removed and there will be no intergranular attack or end grain pitting.05(70 – 75) = 2 – 0. Sometimes our etch rate data give us the feeling that our baths are actually etching faster with a drop in bath temperature — but this can’t be. the equation for etch rate becomes (10) ∆W ( l )( d ) R= W0 ( 2)( d + 2l ) te See Appendix 5 for the derivation of this equation. you can modify them to your use. How do changes in the bath chemistry affect the etch rate? Again. (A2) W = Vd and this weight is the weight lost from the etching operation.3 times greater than its diameter (Figure 2d)? With diameter d and length l. other factors seem to obscure the changes caused by small temperature changes. so chemical analysis is handled by an outside vendor. if you can’t. if the etch rate is 2.

This is not exact. then the total tab volume is simply the product of these three values or lwh. Use of this equation requires knowledge of the value of the inner diameter (ID). Then. In the following equation. Non-standard Alloy Tabs The accuracy of the microthickness gage measurement does not greatly affect this calculation. (A8) R= ∆W 454 ( AS ) ( 2 )( d ) (te ) R is in inches/surface/minute. This equation ignores the stock loss from the edges of the tab. 2: Thin. d is in pounds/cubic inch. The 2 is because the loss is attributed to two surfaces on the tab. is the percent weight loss.943 and (A18) l = 0. Then the ratio of the weight loss to the original weight is equal to the ratio of the volume loss to the original volume or. This produces (A16) πdl = 0. both the part length (l) and π are in the numerator and denominator and therefore cancel each other out: π ( d )( λ st )( l ) (A12) ( ) ( l) π d 2 = R= ∆W ( d ) λ st = te 4W0 ( te ) The equation given above to determine the volume of the plate derived from an unrolled tube is used in lieu of the exact equation. times the stock loss (lst). This factor is 1 lb = 454 g. which is what we are trying to measure and is therefore unknown — so the exact equation for the volume loss is not a convenient formula to use. and the etching time is in minutes.943 = = 8. The equation is derived from the following.943d 2 (A19) 0.943l + 0. The volume lost in etching is the total surface area of the tab times the per surface stock loss thickness (lst). the volume loss divided by the original volume times 100%. which is equal to its diameter squared divided by 4. Flat. times the tab length (l). but is close enough for our purposes.057l = (A20) l 0. w for width and h for height. For a tab where the thickness is not small. Non-standard Cylindrical Tabs This etch rate equation may not seem intuitive but it comes about because the stock removal is actually from only one surface (the circumference of the part). (A6) ∆W = AS ( 2 )( d ) λ st 454 Solving this relationship for the stock loss per surface gives (A7) λ st = ∆W 454 ( AS )( 2)( d ) To determine the removal per unit of time. Non-standard Alloy Tabs This equation comes from the following. Then.114 4 ( λ st ) d 4 The ratio of the volume loss to original volume is equal to the ratio of the weight loss to original weight. 3: Thick. The 8. rectangular. 1238 Materials Evaluation/December 2008 (A9) ∆W ( lw + hw + lh )( 2) λ st = W0 hlw Solving for lst gives (A10) λ st = ( ∆W ) hlw ( W0 ) ( 2 )( lw + hw + lh ) Again. (A13) (A15) If the tab is a hollow tube. A good approximation of the volume lost is the circumference of the tab (which is π times the tab diameter). round or any other shape. Consequently.943. like a drinking straw. AS is in square inches (and is the area of one face of the tab.943d 2 Then 0. the stock loss must be divided by the etching time used. W is in grams. the volume of a cylinder is a function of its radius squared.943 2π d 2 πdl + 4 Canceling π and d gives l (A17) l+ d 2 = 0. not the total surface area on both sides of the tab).3 tab length to diameter ratio comes from dividing the assumed surface area by the actual surface area and setting this ratio equal to 1 – 0. It makes no difference what the shape of the tab is: square. times the tube length. to get etch rate we must divide by the etching time or. This comes from π ( d )( λ st ) l ( ) (A21) π d2 l ∆W 4λ st = W0 d ß 4 becoming (A14) π ( OD + ID )( λ st ) l ∆W ( d ) λ st = 4W0 ( ) π OD 2 − ID 2 l (A22) which equals 4 . The percent volume loss is. not two surfaces as in thin flat tabs. if multiplied to 100%. it works only for tabs with a large surface area to thickness ratio. which is π(OD2 – ID2)(l)/4. Think of a very thin tube. The term ∆W/W0 in the equation. Also. the four corners and the middle). and if the tab is not of uniform thickness an average thickness based upon thickness gage measurements at several spots on the tab may be used (we normally try to use five spots. Flat. substitute (OD – ID) for d in the etch rate equation.3 d 0. The surface area is two times the sum of lw + hw + lh. a correction factor must be used to convert the weight lost in grams into pounds. The original volume of the tab is the length of the tab times the area of one end face: π(d2)/4. The volume of this plate is the tube circumference. times the tube wall thickness. as long as the surface area to thickness ratio is large (greater than 100/1). If the dimensions of the tab are l for length. the total volume lost must be used. The ID value is created by the stock loss. then. sliced lengthwise and rolled out to form a thin flat plate (this is the lost stock). The weight loss in grams must be divided by 454 to get the weight loss in pounds.057 = 0. (A11) R = ( ∆W ) hlw W0 ( 2)( lw + hw + lh)( te ) 4: Long. Then.Since the weight is measured in grams and the density is in pounds per cubic inch. or the etch rate (R).

The area of each end is πd2/4 and the area of the cylindrical surface is πdh. Non-standard Cylindrical Tabs The equation may be derived as follows. is  (A27) R= ( ∆W ) dl 2W0 ( d + 2l ) te If the tab is a hollow tube. the starting volume is πd2h/4. 5: Short. If d is the diameter and l is the length. The total surface area is the cylindrical surface area plus the area of both ends of the tab. Then the ratio of the weight loss to the original weight is equal to the ratio of the volume loss to the original volume or ( )  + πdl   2π d 2  λ st     4 ∆W (A25) = W0 π d2 ( ) 4   h (A26) λ st = ( ) ∆W d 2 l  d2  4W0  + dl  2  which. the area of the ends is probably very small and you can use the equation for hollow tubes in Appendix 4. when simplified and divided by the etch time.(A23) 4 ( OD + ID ) λ st OD ( + ID) ( OD − ID) which equals (A24) 4λ st ( OD − ID) This is the equation for the rod with (OD – ID) substituted for d. The volume loss is the total surface area times the stock loss. Ω Materials Evaluation/December 2008 1239 .