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Seismic Prediction for Carbonate Reef or Oolitic Reservoirs

Downloaded 11/24/15 to 128.111.121.42. Redistribution subject to SEG license or copyright; see Terms of Use at http://library.seg.org/

Deng Ying*, Zeng Tao, Jiang Wei
CNPC Chuanqing Drilling Engineering Company Limited Sichuan
Geophysical Company, Sichuan Province,610213,China
1.Summary
With the drilling success of well LG1 in
Longgang area, 40 exploratory wells have
been deployed by using 3D seismic volume,
presently, 22 wells has been completed,
among them, 20 wells has drilled reef or
oolitic reservoir,the successful rate reaches 90
% . In recent years, under the guide of
geological research achievements and through
seismic data analysis, we summarized and
developed a set of reservoir prediction
technology series which first predict the
distribution of sedimentary facies zone based
on seismic facies, then predict favorable facies
belt of reef or oolitic reservoir. Now, these
seismic prediction techniques have been
widely applied, and have promoted and widen
the hydrocarbon exploration fields in Sichuan
Basin.

gas-water relationships, so it is very difficult
for seismic prediction. The reef or oolitic
compound gas reservoirs were discovered in
the carbonate reservoir in Upper Permian -and
Lower Triassic by well Lg1 in the LG area of
central Sichuan in 2006, which lifted the
curtain on exploration and development of the
reef or oolitic reservoirs in this area.
The development of reef or oolitic
reservoirs in LG area was predicted by using
seismic data and guided by the geological
achievements. The seismic prediction results
are well consistent with the drilling results,
showing that these technologies play a
supporting role on exploration and
development in LG area.

2. Introduction

3.1 Sedimentary facies analysis

The previous studies show that the
sedimentary
evolution
process
and
palaeogeomorphology settings of open sea
platform-ocean trough sedimentary facies belt
formed in the Late Permian in Sichuan basin
are very complicated, the platform
continuously increased , and ocean trough
gradually disappeared in Feixianguan Period,
the development of the reef or oolitic reservoir
are related with sedimentary facies with
high-energy in the trough edge. Owing to the
influence of depositional environment, the
physical properties of the reef or oolitic
reservoirs have features of lithologic traps,
such as strong heterogeneity and complex

3. Seismic prediction for reef reservoir

The results of comprehensive research show
that the sedimentary facies of Upper Permian
in Sichuan Basin include mainly open sea
platform, uplift reef, foreslope and ocean
trough (Figure 1 ) . The paleotectonic
background of platform~ocean trough which
was formed in early of Upper Permian and
extended in late of Upper Permian controls the
variations of sedimentary thickness and
lithofacies of the formations in Upper
Permian.
In the Late Permian, the sedimentation rate
of open ocean platform with shallow water
depth is faster than that of deep water ocean
trough, so the sedimentation thickness of

CPS/SEG Beijing 2009 International Geophysical
Conference & Exposition
1

1 Open sea platform facies In shallow water open sea platform.111. its lithology mainly contains light-grey massive biogenic limestone. In the respect of lithofacies change. Seismic facies classify section In LG area The shale contents in ocean though facies belt is higher. Foreslope Ocean trough Sea level Upper Permian Longtan Figure 1.121. The uplift reef facies is characterized by uplift. the shale content is low and dolomite reservoirs were widely developed. there. scutiger. it intuitionistically reflects the zonal progradation sedimentary Open sea platform Changxing Formation Uplift reef phenomena. its lithology mainly is medium thickness to massive biogenic limestone. due to its stable low energy sedimentary environment. Redistribution subject to SEG license or copyright. echinoderms. and time differences of reflected wave group and the configuration of seismic reflections and so on. see Terms of Use at http://library. Drilling thickness comparison diagram in Upper Permian in LG area LG11 open sea platform LG1 uplift reef LG10 ocean trough. Figure 2 is histogram of strata thickness contrast of Upper Permian revealed by the drilling data in LG area. Changxing formation primarily is a set of normal carbonate stable sediment of shallow sea in open sea platform facies.org/ platform is significantly larger than that of ocean trough. organism is mainly algae. its main features are as follows: 3. foraminifera. phase. sponge. The drilling data indicates that the reefs have the relatively narrow ancient tectonic setting and the geologic features of obvious physical differences between the reef front and backreef 3.2 Seismic facies pattern Seismic facies reflects the changes of formation physical properties with such attributes as frequency.seg. CPS/SEG Beijing 2009 International Geophysical Conference & Exposition 2 .42.Downloaded 11/24/15 to 128.foreslope TT1f4 TT1f1 TP2l Figure 3. Figure 3 shows seismic facies classification section in LG area which cross ocean tough-platform. siliceous formation. The variations of sedimentary thickness and lithofacies of different sedimentary facies correspond to seismic facies changes. Sedimentary facies diagrammatic map late Permian at Sichuan Bsian Ocean trough Uplift reef Open sea platform Foreslope T1f1 SHUISHEN1 LG3 LG2 LG1 LG4 BIAN 1 HEBA1 Figure 2 . amplitude. chert nodule formation. But on the uplift reef facies. calcilutite are deposited which is typical for deep water-semi-deep water facies. and progradation towards deep water. that is platform changes thinner towards ocean trough.2. because deposition of progradation role and large carbonate accumulation by marine organisms,the formation thickness increase.

see Terms of Use at http://library. and abnormal seismic facies in small extents. the interval time difference in Upper Permian decreases towards ocean trough.2. Its boundary is marked with the amplitude of T1f1 top weakens obviously from platform to uplift reef. kinematics.3 Uplift reef facies and foreslope facies (1)Uplift reef facies The reflection layer of the Changxing formation represents as uplift reflection shape with chaotic interior reflection. the information about lithology and petrophysical of the reservoir can be extracted. 3. including continuous reflection events.Downloaded 11/24/15 to 128. chaotic interior reflection. if there are the uplift. Seismic attributes contain lots of geologic information of the reservoirs. Based on seismic attribute analysis. it reflects favorable sedimentary facies belts of reef uplift. sub-parallel.2. Figure4. top of T1f1 being stable and strong or secondarily strong amplitude.2 Ocean trough seismic facies Ocean trough seismic facies have the similar characters with open sea platform facies. strong amplitude and parallel or sub-parallel reflection shape. So seismic facies pattern for difference sedimentary facies were built: regionally continuous. 3. (2) Foreslope Between uplift facies and deep water ocean trough. According to the cycle of reef generation. if the entire seismic facies represent as progradation reflection configuration and downlap facies towards ocean basin. it shows foreslope facies. and favorable hydrocarbon zones can be predicted. then. But interval time difference of the reflective layer in Upper Permian decreases significantly.org/ the seismic facies characters include continuous reflection events.121. Generally. the parallel or sub-parallel reflection shape. the reservoirs of Changxing formation can be divided into four sets of reservoirs (Figure 4). seismic facies are characterized by continuous events with strong amplitude. Redistribution subject to SEG license or copyright. the continuity of reflection events is better. the reflection layer shape expresses as progradation reflection configuration. the interior reflection phases increase close to the reef facies. In deep water ocean trough. The development of reef in Changxing formation The reef gas reservoirs in LG are multiple lithologic trap reservoirs developed in a large monocline background. larger interval time difference,medium-strong or strong amplitude of T1f1 bottom represents open marine platform sediment. Figure 5 shows the different seismic attributes extracted on the first set of reservoir. 3. which decreases to a narrow phase of ocean trough from two wide complex phase of open sea platform facies. amplitude of T1f1 bottom weakens. and the interval time difference decreasing obviously towards deep water area. Multiple gas reservoirs of lithologic trap are overlap disorderly vertically and distributed continuously in the plane. kinetics and statistics related to seismic wave derived from mathematical transform of seismic data. we can obviously CPS/SEG Beijing 2009 International Geophysical Conference & Exposition 3 . but towards deep water ocean trough. large interval time difference. and downlap to the reflection layer of deep water ocean trough.seg.3 Seismic attribute extraction Seismic attribute is characteristics of kinematics. and have the characteristics of multiple water-gas contacts and multiple pressure systems.42.111. the distribution of primary lithology zone can be determined.

sea level began to decline.1997). Seismic reflection termination includes disappearing or CPS/SEG Beijing 2009 International Geophysical Conference & Exposition 4 . slow sedimentation , which is respectively dominated by shale-rich low-oolitic subsequence sedimentation.121. According to the Exxon sequence stratigraphic model. Dissimilar seismic attribute ichnograph in LG area which is bounded by discontinuity surface (unconformity and sedimentary discontinuity).Downloaded 11/24/15 to 128. and distribution of reef reservoirs can be delineated. transgressive system tracts(TST). the rising rate of accommodation space decreased.42. rapid growth of early stages of accommodation space.org/ distinguish the uplift reef belt based on these seismic attributes. Seismic prediction for oolitic reservoir 4. The marine carbonate rocks in Feixianguan Period of LG area belong to highstand system tract. In seismic sequence analysis. see Terms of Use at http://library. therefore. upwards change shallow sedimentary sequence. analogy and geological genesis relations. a complete sedimentary sequence consists of instantaneous phase (down TT1f1 0-30) three parts: the lowstand system tracts (LST) or shelf marginal system tracts(SMST). when build isochronous seismic sequence stratigraphic framework. it is the key to recognize stratigraphic interface of seismic sequence which based on the features of seismic reflection termination. reef reservoirs can be predicted qualitatively or semi-quantitatively.seg. by using multiple attributes and by logging-seismic calibration. highstand system tracts (HST). water tended to be stable and were good in circulation carbonate rock yield increased.1 Seismic sequence prediction Sequence is deemed as stratigraphic sequence which characteristics are relatively integrative and have genetic connection. their top and bottom boundaries are unconformity surface or their correlative conformities surface (Mitchum etc.111. the seismic section are divided into a series of stratigraphic units (sequence and system tract) Phase average energy (down TT1f1 0-30) phase energy half decay time waveform correlation (down TT1f1 0-30) Figure 5. Redistribution subject to SEG license or copyright. Although the various seismic attribute reflects different formation characteristics. 4. and a low yield of carbonate rocks. but various seismic attribute have similarity. which is respectively dominated by low mudstone and oolite-rich subsequence. In Late Feixianguan period.

the lithology is mainly composed of mudstone and micrite. see Terms of Use at http://library. Section T1f4 and sequence division schematic diagram in LG area Figure 7. containing fewer oolite. TT1f4 uplap Sequence B Sequence A TT1f1 Sequence C downlap uplap Sequence D downlap downlap Figure 6. downlap.1. Under the guidance of sequence stratigraphy, we analyzed the sedimentary evolution process of Feixianguan with seismic data(Figure 7).. and there are progradation reflection configuration internally. that is sequence A. downlap. is typical highstand system tract in the Changxing formation relative to deep water sediments.111. offlap. divergence.42. Redistribution subject to SEG license or copyright. the platform facies has large moveout. sequence D and sequence E. although there are sediment accommodation space. and further increased relative height difference between CPS/SEG Beijing 2009 International Geophysical Conference & Exposition 5 . Sedimentary evolution schematic diagram in Feixianguan (1)Sequence A Sequence A is overlain on the Changxing formation. sequence B. including onlap.org/ pinchout relationships upwardly. divided totally five fourth-order seismic sequences from bottom to top.1 Sequence division of Feixianguan Through analysis of seismic data in LG area (Figure 6),there are abundant information in Feixianguan strata,especially in the area of foreslope~ocean trough in the Late Permian. including onlap. then. onlap and downlap represents the relationships between seismic stratigraphic 4. downwardly or laterally revealed by the seismic section. ocean trough facies has small moveout. truncation. there are obvious phenomenon of reflection configuration change. high energy reservoir (oolitic limestone beach bar) are not developed.seg. uplap and so on. uplap etc.121.Downloaded 11/24/15 to 128. sequence C. Characteristics of progradational sediment configuration and the different progradation scales controlled by foreslope gradient in the Late Permian result in that the early sediment of platform margin migrated in different extent towards ocean trough. unit and the bottom boundary , while truncation and uplap represents the relationships between the seismic stratigraphic unit and the top boundary.

C.121. so. shale content is low. the deep water region of ocean trough greatly reduced.Downloaded 11/24/15 to 128.3~0. the lithology of the corresponding layers are basically identical. from wide and smooth marine basin changes to paleo-slopes with significantly steep and slow transition skirt. the scale of the progradation sedimentary reflection becomes bigger , platform margin zone extends about 3~4. The sedimentary period of sequence B~C in Feixianguan:in the western area. carbonate rock generation rate increased. sea water became shallow.1. but sea water with low energy are not beneficial for the development of the higher energy oolitic reservoirs. the scale of the progradation sedimentary reflection is weak, the migration distance of platform margin in the end of sequence A is 0. secondary dolomitization are obvious. the oolitic limestone are very developed in the high energy environment. Gradually changing shallow of the sea water is beneficied for development of high energy oolitic beach. C. sedimentary thickness increases gradually in the horizontal direction. Therefore. initial palaeoterrain of ocean trough. but in slope and deep water area .111. deposition period of seismic sequence B ~ C is the critical period of dolomitized reconstruction of platform margin oolitic shoal and reservoirs.seg. In platform margin zone in the central of the study area,underlying reef front slope is steep. Steep foreslope and shallow platform margin provided the higher energy sedimentary environment for later carbonate rock sediment. their reflection structures are quite different with that of the underlying sequence A reflection. these seismic sequences are carbonate sediments with relative low energy. Redistribution subject to SEG license or copyright. (2) Sequence B.5km,the largest time difference of sequence A is about 40ms;in the western and eastern part of the study area. The sedimentary period of sequence D~E in Feixianguan:it is still high in the west and low CPS/SEG Beijing 2009 International Geophysical Conference & Exposition 6 . In the slope turn location of the top in the underlying seismic sequence A. 2)Seismic sequence D~sequence E Sequence D~sequence E also belong to late highstand sedimentary. therefore. the higher energy oolitic beach reservoirs are relatively developed. E Sequence B.org/ shallow-deep water areas. the lithology is mainly original micrite sediment.5km towards ocean trough , the biggest time difference is about 100ms. platform margin extends about 2~8km towards ocean trough. their sedimentary structures are consistent with that of seismic sequence B ~ C. finely crystalline limestone. D. E are located at upper part and middle part of the Feixianguan formation.42.It displays as: 1)Seismic sequence B~sequence C Relative sea level of late highstand begins becoming lower. all of this provide absolutely necessary sedimentary palaeogeomorphology conditions for forming of shoal reservoir or dolomitization reservoir in the periods of sequence B and C . see Terms of Use at http://library. the paleogeomorphy of top boundary of seismic sequence A is the main factors controlling development of higher energy oolitic shoal reservoirs. the higher energy oolitic beach reservoirs are not developed. D. the corresponding lithology includes mostly oolitic limestone. 4. they have divergence reflection features (aggradation deposition). that is small time difference at shallow water area and bigger time difference at deep water area . underlying reef front slope becomes gentle.2 Variation features of seismic sequences in the LG area The sedimentary period of sequence A in Feixianguan: owing to the influence of the gradient of underlying reef front slope in Late Permian , its extension scales of the progradation sedimentary reflection structure are quite different.

which isn’t beneficial for the development of high energy oolitic shoal. Redistribution subject to SEG license or copyright. Figure8.seg. Amplitude slice at the bottom of oolitic beach reservoir So ancient physiognomy variations in the interior of Feixianguan formation show that the platform margin of lg2~lg1~lg6 regions and of nearby eastern zone of lg8~lg7 are the favorable zones for oolitic reservoir development. Joint well forward modeling results show that while reservoir thickness is more than 15m or velocity difference between reservoir and surrounding rocks is more than 100m/s. marine basin is basically flat. high porosity. deep and shallow resistivity positive difference”. the reservoir bottom represents as seismic response of continuous strong-medium amplitude. CPS/SEG Beijing 2009 International Geophysical Conference & Exposition 7 . the paper put forward facies-controlling inversion prediction technique for reef or oolitic reservoir. Different sedimentary facies belts should be inverted with different models.121.3 High precision multi-well constrained inversion based-on facies controlling Seismic inversion is a common and effective technology for quantitative prediction of reservoir physical property. that is “low-velocity. Based on the calibration between seismic and logging data. Ancient landform at the sedimentary end of sequence A schematic diagram Figure9. Therefore. that is an inversion under guidance of sedimentary facies. 9) 4.111. such as velocity. the amplitude strengthens with the reservoir thickness increase or velocity decrease. see Terms of Use at http://library. upper and lower reservoirs,the logging properties of reservoir are mainly characterized by “three low. oolitic shoal reservoirs in LG area consists of two sets of reservoirs.42. the favorable zone of the reservoir development can be predicted qualitatively (Fig. 4. the platform margin belts are mainly distributed in the southern part of the study area.org/ in the east. low-gamma. the slope significantly becomes very gentle.Downloaded 11/24/15 to 128. the reservoirs are primarily developed in the layer of 60~85ms below the bottom of T1f4 , due to the impedance difference between the oolitic reservoir with relatively developed porosity and the underlying compact limestone,the bottom of the reservoir appears as seismic response properties of relative strong peak amplitude in the seismic section. The drilling results have proved that reservoir prediction results provided by facies controlling inversion match well with the well data (Figure 10). porosity and so on.2 Seismic attributes Generally. one high and positive difference”. low-density. to ensure logging information interpolation in the same sedimentary facies zone during inversion interpolation. Aiming at the features of reservoir development being controlled by sedimentary facies. Figure 8 indicates sketch map of ancient physiognomy in the late period of sequence A. by extracting the amplitude information of the reflection layer corresponding to the bottom of the reservoir.

This method has many advantages in avoiding blind reservoir prediction in some favorable or unfavorable sedimentary facies zones.Seismography of Carbonate Rocks.org/ SCGC has made prediction studies of carbonate reef or oolitic reservoirs for many years. Conclusions Downloaded 11/24/15 to 128. and has obtained remarkable oil and gas exploration effects.seg. By using the technology series of lithology oil/gas reservoir prediction in carbonate reef or oolitic shoal with seismic data has gained a great deal of geological achievements in reservoir prediction of marine carbonate in Sichuan basin. we summarized and developed the technology series for reef or oolitic reservoir prediction. REFERENCES [1]Chinese Petroleum Society Geophysical Speciality Committee. which first predict the distribution of sedimentary facies belts favorable for reef or oolitic development on the basis of seismic facies. 2000 [3]Sichuan Geophysical Company.42.5. 2005 CPS/SEG Beijing 2009 International Geophysical Conference & Exposition 8 .Reservoir prediction technique and exploration target evaluation of Feixianguan formation in east Sichuan basin. Redistribution subject to SEG license or copyright. and then predict reef or oolitic reservoirs within the favorable facies belts. and has obtained some good effects on oolitic reservoir prediction.111. 1998 [2]Sichuan Geophysical Company. This method has not only made up the deficiency that lateral variations of sedimentary facies zone of carbonate rock in Permian-Triassic are unknown due to lacking of geological and drilling data , but also provided reliable technical supports for searching the key exploration blocks and objectives. Wave impedance inversion section achievements and through analysis of seismic data.121. see Terms of Use at http://library. but hasn’t got great breakthrough on reef reservoir prediction.Research on seismic facies and sedimentary facies of Kaijiang-Liangping ocean though with seismic data in Sichuan basin. Under the guide of geological research Oolitic low-resistant anomalous T1f4 T1f1 P2l Reef low-resistant anomalous Reef low-resistant anomalous Figure 10.