15 views

Uploaded by argie2002

Rudi Weikard

- 1 2 SinA Cos a = 2sin 30o Cos 30o
- CAPE Pure Mathematics
- Std09-Maths-TM-2.pdf
- Horizontal Curve Formulas
- Ch6 - Trigonometry - Prelim Maths
- Trigonometry_ How to Find Minimum-maximum Values Quickly
- Complex Analysis - k Houston
- Fourier Series
- Mathcad - CAPE - 2007 - Math Unit 1 Paper 02
- Civeng4 Structural
- Save the Egg
- MVDE Summer 2015
- 4037_s07_qp_2
- Differential equation example
- Plugin Elmwood J
- Section6_2
- 4037_w08_qp_2
- robotics assignment 2
- 04_review.pdf
- 27aieee Answer Paper 1

You are on page 1of 44

MA 648

2013

Rudi Weikard

3

2

2

1

0

0

-2

-1

-1

0

1

2

-2

Contents

Preface

1.1. The algebra of complex numbers

1.2. The geometry of complex numbers

1.3. Sequences and series

1.4. The topology of complex numbers

3

3

4

4

6

2.1. Limits and continuity

2.2. Holomorphic functions

2.3. Integration

2.4. Series of functions

2.5. Analytic functions

7

7

7

8

10

11

3.1. The index of a point with respect to a closed contour

3.2. Cauchys theorem

3.3. Consequences of Cauchys theorem

3.4. The global version of Cauchys theorem

13

13

13

14

15

4.1. Classifying isolated singularities

4.2. The calculus of residues

17

17

18

5.1. Polynomial functions

5.2. Rational functions

5.3. Exponential and trigonometric functions

5.4. The logarithmic function and powers

21

21

22

22

23

6.1. Infinite products

6.2. Weierstrasss factorization theorem

6.3. Counting zeros using Jensens theorem

6.4. Hadamards factorization theorem

27

27

27

28

29

A.1. Topological concepts

A.2. Limits and continuity

A.3. Product spaces

31

31

31

32

i

ii

CONTENTS

Glossary

33

List of Symbols

35

Hints

37

Index

39

Preface

Complex Analysis, also called the Theory of Functions, is one of the most important

and certainly one of the most beautiful branches of mathematics. This is due to the fact

that, in the case of complex variables, differentiability in open sets has consequences which

are much more significant than in the case of real variables. It is the goal of this course to

study these consequences and some of their far reaching applications.

As a prerequisite of the course some familiarity with Advanced Calculus1 is necessary

and, generally, sufficient. Some prior exposure to topology may be useful even though all

necessary terms are defined either in the text or the glossary. Except for the Heine-Borel

theorem results from topology will be proved in the course.

There are many textbooks on our subject; several of the following have been consulted

in the preparation of these notes.

Lars V. Ahlfors, Complex analysis, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1953.

John B. Conway, Functions of one complex variable, Springer, New York, 1978.

Walter Rudin, Real and complex analysis, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1987.

Elias M. Stein and Rami Shakarchi, Complex analysis, Princeton University Press,

Princeton, 2003.

In order to help you navigate the notes a glossary of terms, a list of symbols, and an

index of central terms are appended at the end of these notes. Terms in the glossary are

defined there and not in the text as they are not central, only convenient. The index points

you to the places where terms central to Complex Analysis are defined in the notes.

These notes are not intended to be encyclopedic; I tried, rather, to be pedagogic. As a

consequence there are many occasions where assumptions could be weakened or conclusions

strengthened. Also, very many interesting results living close by have been skipped and

other interesting and fruitful subjects have not even been touched. This is just the very

beginning of the most exciting and beautiful Theory of Functions.

Thanks to my class of Fall 2013 who found a large number of mistakes (but probably

not all).

1

Among many sources my Advanced Calculus notes would serve in this respect. They may be found

at http://people.cas.uab.edu/ weikard/teaching/ac.pdf.

CHAPTER 1

1.1. The algebra of complex numbers

1.1.1 The field of complex numbers. The set C of complex numbers is the set of all

ordered pairs of real numbers equipped with two binary operations + and as follows: if

(a, b) and (c, d) are pairs of real numbers, then

(a, b) + (c, d) = (a + c, b + d)

and

(a, b) (c, d) = (ac bd, ad + bc).

The set C with the binary operations + and is a field, i.e., the following properties

hold:

(A1): (x + y) + z = x + (y + z) for all x, y, z C (associative law of addition).

(A2): x + y = y + x for all x, y C (commutative law of addition).

(A3): (0, 0) is an additive identity (in other words: x + (0, 0) = x for all x C).

(A4): Each x C has an additive inverse x C, called the negative of x (in other

words: x + (x) = (0, 0)).

(M1): (x y) z = x (y z) for all x, y, z C (associative law of multiplication).

(M2): x y = y x for all x, y C (commutative law of multiplication).

(M3): (1, 0) is a multiplicative identity (in other words: (1, 0) x = x for all x C).

(M4): Each x C\{(0, 0)} has a multiplicative inverse x1 C, called the reciprocal

of x (in other words: x x1 = (1, 0)).

(D): (x + y) z = x z + y z for all x, y, z C (distributive law).

For simplicity we will usually write x y in place of x + (y), and xy or x/y for x y 1 .

It is also common to write xy instead of x y and to let multiplication take precedence over

addition, i.e., x + yz is short for x + (yz).

If we identify the real number x with the complex number (x, 0) we find that addition

and multiplication of real numbers are faithfully reproduced in C: i.e., (x, 0) + (y, 0) =

(x + y, 0) and (x, 0)(y, 0) = (xy, 0). Thus we may treat R as a subfield of C. Next note

that (x, y) = (x, 0) + (0, 1)(y, 0). Abbreviating (0, 1) by i this becomes x + iy, the standard

notation for complex numbers. Numbers of the form iy, y R, are called (purely) imaginary

numbers.

Complex numbers are not ordered. Still we will encounter inequalities like z w and,

if we do, we tacitly assume that z, w R.

1.1.2 Real and imaginary parts of a complex number. If a, b R and z = a + ib

is a complex number, then a is called the real part of z (denoted by Re(z)) and b is called

the imaginary part of z (denoted by Im(z)). The number z = a ib is called the complex

conjugate of z. If z C, then z+z = 2 Re(z), zz = 2i Im(z), and zz = Re(z)2 +Im(z)2 0.

If z, w C, then z + w = z + w and zw = z w.

3

of a complex number. If a, b R and z = a + ib is a complex

number, then |z| = a2 + b2 [0, ) is called the absolute value or modulus of z. Note that

this definition is compatible with the definition of the absolute value of a real number.

If z C, then |z|2 = zz, 1/z = z/|z|2 and | Re(z)| |z| and | Im(z)| |z|. The absolute

value of a product of two complex numbers equals the product of the absolute values of the

numbers: |z1 z2 | = |z1 | |z2 |.

1.1.4 The triangle inequality. If x, y C, then

|x + y| |x| + |y|

and

|x + y| |x| |y|.

1.2. The geometry of complex numbers

1.2.1 Distance between complex numbers. Given two complex number z1 and z2 we

call |z1 z2 | their distance. The function (z1 , z2 ) 7 |z1 z2 | is a metric in C, i.e., C may

be viewed as a metric space (please consult the appendix for the definition and properties

of metric spaces). When one wants to emphasize the geometry of C one calls it the complex

plane. In the context of C the open and closed balls are called open and closed disks,

respectively.

1.2.2 Polar representation of complex

numbers. For any non-zero complex number

p

z = x + iy, x, y R define r = x2 + y 2 = |z| > 0 and (, ] by the relations

cos = x/r and sin = y/r. These requirements determine r and uniquely. Interpreting z

as a point (x, y) in a two-dimensional rectangular coordinate system the number r represents

the distance of z from the origin. If 0 it is the counterclockwise angle from the positive

x-axis to the ray connecting z and the origin, otherwise is the clockwise angle. The

numbers r and are called the polar coordinates of z.

1.2.3 Line segments. Given two points z and w in C we call the set {(1 t)z + tw : 0

t 1} the line segment joining z and w. The number |z w| is called the length of the

segment.

1.2.4 Convex sets. A subset S of C is called convex if it contains the line segment joining

x and y whenever x, y S. Every disk is convex.

1.3. Sequences and series

1.3.1 Sequences and their limits. Let z : N C : n 7 zn be a sequence of complex

numbers. We say that z converges to the complex number L if the following statement is

true:

> 0 : N > 0 : n > N : |zn L| < .

We say that the sequence is convergent if there is a complex number L such that it converges

to L. If a sequence is not convergent, we say that it diverges or is divergent.

If a sequence z is convergent there is only one number to which it converges. This

number is called the limit of the sequence z and is denoted by limn zn .

Theorem. Let n 7 zn be a sequence of complex numbers. It converges if and only if

both of the real sequences n 7 Re(zn ) and n 7 Im(zn ) converge. In this case

lim zn = lim Re(zn ) + i lim Im(zn ).

This theorem allows to extend immediately many theorems proved for sequences of real

numbers to sequences of complex numbers. In particular, if the sequences z and w have

limits, then so do z w and zw. In fact,

lim (zn wn ) = lim zn lim wn ,

lim

zn

limn zn

=

.

wn

limn wn

if

> 0 : N > 0 : n, m > N : |zn zm | < .

Theorem. A sequence of complex numbers converges if and only if it is a Cauchy

sequence.

1.3.3 Series. Let z : N C : k 7 zk be a sequence of complex numbers. The sequence of

partial sums

n

X

sn =

zk

k=1

zk .

k=1

If the sequence of partial sums converges to L C we may (and will) also write

zk = L

k=1

P

(abusing notation slightly). In this latter case we say the series k=1 zk converges. Otherwise, we say it diverges.

P

1.3.4

P Absolute convergence of series. The series k=1 zk is called absolutely convergent

if k=1 |zk | is convergent. Every absolutely convergent series is convergent.

P

P

Theorem. P

Suppose that Pn=1 zn converges absolutely and let

n=1 wn be a re

X

n=1

wn =

zn .

n=1

1.3.5 The geometric series. If |z| < 1, then the geometric series

absolutely to 1/(1 z).

1Augustin-Louis Cauchy (1789 1857)

n=0

z n converges

1.4.1 Topology of C. Since C is a metric space it is also a topological space (cf. A.1.4).

The open sets in C are the unions of open disks. Note that open disks are open and closed

disks are closed.

A set S X is open if and only if for every x S there is an r > 0 such that B(x, r) S.

A set S X is closed if and only if for every convergent sequence whose elements lie in S

the limit also lies in S.

1.4.2 Connectedness. A subset S of C is called not connected if there are two open sets

A and B in C such that S A B and S A and S B are non-empty disjoint sets. If no

such sets exist, then S is called connected.

The empty set and any singleton are connected.

Every convex set in C is connected.

1.4.3 Connected components. If S is a subset of the complex plane and x S, let C(x)

be the collection of all connected

S subsets of S which contain x. Any union of sets in C(x) is

connected. In particular, T = CC(x) C is a connected subset of S. Any larger subset of S

is not connected. T is called a component of S. The components of S are pairwise disjoint

and their union equals S.

The components of open sets are open. There are at most countably many of them.

1.4.4 The Heine2-Borel3 theorem. S C is compact if and only if it is closed and

bounded.

This theorem is proved in a course on topology. We shall take it for granted.

3Emile

CHAPTER 2

2.1. Limits and continuity

2.1.1 Limits. Let S be a subset of C, f : S C a function, and a C a limit point of S.

We say that f converges to the complex number b as z tends to a if the following statement

is true:

> 0 : > 0 : z S : 0 < |z a| < |f (z) b| < .

Note that this definition can easily be extended to any metric space.

As for sequences, f can converge to at most one value as z tends to a. This value is

then called the limit of f as z tends to a. It is denoted by limza f (z).

The results on limits of sums, differences, products, and quotients of sequences stated

in 1.3.1 hold analogously also for functions. Moreover, if g has limit b at a and f has limit

c at b, then f g has limit c at a (assuming, of course, that b and the range of g are in the

domain of f ).

2.1.2 Continuity. Let S C and a S. A function f : S C is continuous at a if the

following statement is true:

> 0 : > 0 : z S : |z a| < |f (z) f (a)| < .

Any function is continuous at any isolated point of its domain. Suppose S C, f :

S C, and a S is a limit point of S. Then f is continuous at a if and only if limza f (z)

exists and equals f (a). It follows that sums and products and compositions of continuous

functions are continuous.

2.2. Holomorphic functions

2.2.1 Differentiation. Let f : S C be a function, and a S a limit point of S. We say

that f is differentiable at a if

f (z) f (a)

lim

za

za

exists. The limit is called the derivative of f at a and is commonly denoted by f 0 (a). If

f : S C is differentiable at every point a S, we say that f is differentiable on S.

This definition appears completely analogous to that of a derivative of a function of a

real variable. In fact, when S is a real interval (one of the cases we are interested in) things

are hardly different from Real Analysis; the fact that f assumes complex values is not very

important. However, if S is an open set and z may approach a from many directions, the

existence of the limit has far-reaching consequences.

Before discussing this further we collect some basic properties of differentiable functions:

(1) If f : S C is differentiable at a S, then it is continuous at a.

(2) Sums and products of differentiable functions with common domains are again differentiable.

7

differentiable at f (a), then g f is differentiable at a, and (g f )0 (a) = g 0 (f (a))f 0 (a).

Hint

2.2.2 Differentiation with respect to real and complex variables. Suppose S is a

real interval. Then the function f : S C is differentiable at a S if and only if Re(f )

and Im(f ) are differentiable there.

The situation is completely different if S is an open set. For instance, the function

z 7 f (z) = z 2 is differentiable on all of C and f 0 (z) = 2z. However, its real and imaginary

parts are differentiable only at z = 0. In fact, if a real-valued function defined in B(a, r) is

differentiable at a, then its derivative must be zero.

2.2.3 Holomorphic functions. Let be a non-empty open set. A function f : C

is called holomorphic on if it is differentiable at every point of . A function which is

defined and holomorphic on all of C is called entire.

It is easy to think that the notions of differentiability and holomorphicity are the same.

To avoid this mistake note that differentiability is a pointwise concept while holomorphicicity

is defined on open sets where every point is at the center of a disk contained in the set.

2.2.4 Basic properties of holomorphic functions. Holomorphic functions are continuous on their domain.

Sums, differences, and products of holomorphic functions (on common domains) are

holomorphic. The composition of holomorphic functions is also holomorphic. The usual

formulas hold, including the chain rule.

All polynomials are entire functions. The function z 7 1/z is holomorphic on C \ {0}.

The quotient f /g of two holomorphic functions f, g : C is holomorphic on \ {z :

g(z) = 0}.

2.3. Integration

2.3.1 Paths. Let C be a non-empty open set and [a, b] a bounded interval in R. A

continuous function : [a, b] is then called a path in . If the derivative 0 exists and

is continuous on [a, b], is called a smooth path.

The points (a) and (b) are called initial point and end point of , respectively. A

path is called closed if its initial and end points coincide. The range of , i.e., the set

{(t) : t [a, b]} is denoted by . Note that is a compact set.

The path : [a, b] is called the opposite of : [a, b] if (t) = (a + b t). We

denote the opposite of by .

Rb

The number a | 0 (t)|dt is called the length of .

2.3.2 Reparametrization. The smooth path p2 : [a2 , b2 ] is called equivalent to the

smooth path p1 : [a1 , b1 ] if there exists a strictly increasing, continuously differentiable,

and surjective function : [a1 , b1 ] [a2 , b2 ] such that p2 = p1 . Equivalence of smooth

paths is an equivalence relation, i.e., it has the following three properties:

(1) Any smooth path is equivalent to itself (reflexivity).

(2) If p2 is equivalent to p1 , then p1 is equivalent to p2 (symmetry).

(3) If p2 is equivalent to p1 and p3 is equivalent to p2 , then p3 is equivalent to p1

(transitivity).

Given a smooth path it is always possible to find an equivalent one whose domain is

[0, 1].

2.3. INTEGRATION

interval in R and f a complex-valued function on [a, b]. Then Re(f ) and Im(f ) are realvalued functions on [a, b]. We say that f is Riemann integrable over [a, b] if Re(f ) and Im(f )

are. The integral is defined to be

Z b

Z b

Z b

f=

Re(f ) + i

Im(f ).

a

Z

b Z b

|f |.

f

a

a

2.3.4 Integrals along smooth paths. Suppose : [a, b] C is a smooth path in C and

f : C is continuous. Then

Z b

f ((t)) 0 (t)dt

a

R

is well-defined. It is called the integral of f along and denoted by f (or, if necessary,

R

by f (z)dz).

R

The integrals of f along equivalent smooth paths are all identical. The integral f

R

along the opposite of a smooth path is the negative of f .

We also have the estimate

Z

f sup(|f ( )|)L()

2.3.5R Example. Let : [0, 2] C : t 7 cos(t) + i sin(t) and f : C \ {0} C : z 7 1/z.

Then f = 2i.

2.3.6 Contours. Let be a non-empty open set. Given several (not necessarily distinct)

smooth paths in , say 1 , ..., n , we may be interested in integrating along them successively. We call such a collection of smooth paths in (a multiset, actually, since we allow

repetition) a contour in and write = 1 ... n . Then we define

Z

n Z

X

f=

f.

k=1

A contour 1 ... n is called closed when there is a permutation of {1, ..., n} such

that the endpoint of k coincides with the initial point of (k) for k = 1, ..., n.

Sn

The set k=1 k is denoted by . It is a compact set.

Of course, we will write 1 2 for 1 ( 2 ).

2.3.7 Connected contours. A particularly important instance of a contour = 1 ...n

is when for k = 1, ..., n 1, the end point of k coincides with the initial point of k+1

(perhaps after reordering the indices). A contour of this type is called a connected contour.

The initial point of 1 is called the initial point of while the endpoint of n is called the

end point of . We say a contour connects a to b if it is a connected contour with initial

point a and end point b.

If is a connected contour, then is connected.

10

contour in S, then S is connected. Conversely, if S is open and connected and x, y are two

points in S, then there is a connected contour in S which connects x and y.

Hint

2.3.8 Polygonal contours. Let z1 , ..., zn C. We define k (t) = (1 t)zk + tzk+1

for k = 1, ..., n 1. Then k is a smooth path with initial point zk and end point zk+1 .

Note that k is the line segment joining zk and zk+1 . The length of the line segment

equals the length of k . Moreover, 1 ... n is a connected contour which we denote by

hz1 , ..., zn i. In particular, when n = 4 and z4 = z1 , hz1 , z2 , z3 , z1 i is a closed contour tracing

the circumference of a (possibly degenerate) triangle.

2.3.9 Primitives. Suppose is a non-empty open set and F 0 = f on . Then F is called

a primitive of f . If F is a primitive of f and c is a constant, then F + c is also a primitive

of f .

IfR : [a, b] is a smooth path and the continuous function f has a primitive F in ,

then f = F ((b)) F ((a)).

The primitives of the zero function in a non-empty connected open set are precisely the

constant functions.

2.4. Series of functions

2.4.1 Pointwise and uniform convergence. Let S C and, for each n N, let fn

be a function from S to C. The map n 7 fn is called a sequence of functions. We say

that n 7 fn converges pointwise to a function f : S C if for each point z S the

numerical sequence n 7 fn (z) converges to f (z). We say that n 7 fn converges uniformly

to a function f : S C if for every > 0 there exists N R such that for all n > N and

all z S we have that |fn (z) f (z)| < .

To reiterate, consider the statements

(1) z S : > 0 : N R : n > N : |fn (z) f (z)| < .

(2) > 0 : N R : z S : n > N : |fn (z) f (z)| < .

A sequence n 7 fn converges to f pointwise if (1) holds and uniformly if (2) holds.

Obviously, uniform convergence implies pointwise convergence but not vice versa.

A series of functions is defined as the sequence of partial sums of functions with a

common domain. Thus the definitions of pointwise and uniform convergence extend also to

series of functions.

2.4.2 Cauchy criterion for uniform convergence. Let S C and fn : S C for

n N. The sequence of functions n 7 fn converges uniformly on S if and only if for

all > 0 there exists N R such that for all n, m > N and all z S it holds that

|fn (z) fm (z)| < .

2.4.3 The Weierstrass1 M -test. Let S C and suppose n 7 gn is a sequence of

complex-valued functions defined on S. Assume that therePare non-negative numbers Mn

such that |gn (z)| Mn for all z S and that the series n=1 Mn converges. Then the

following statements hold:

P

(1) The series Pn=1 gn (z) converges absolutely for every z S.

1Karl Weierstra (1815 1897)

11

continuous complex-valued functions on S which converges uniformly to a function f : S

C. Then f is continuous on S.

2.4.5 Uniform convergence and integration. Let [a, b] be a bounded interval in R.

Suppose that n 7 fn : [a, b] C is a sequence of functions which are Riemann integrable

over [a, b] and that this sequence converges uniformly to a function f : [a, b] R. Then f

is Riemann integrable and

Z b

Z b

fn .

f = lim

a

Of course, the analog result holds for series: Suppose that n 7 gn : [a, b]

C is a

P

sequence of functions which are Riemann integrable over [a, b] and that the series n=0 gn

converges uniformly to a function g : [a, b] C. Then g is Riemann integrable and

Z b

Z b

X

g=

gn .

a

n=0

2.5.1 Power Series. Let z C and an C for all non-negative integers n. Then the series

P

n

n=0 an z is called a power series. If the series converges absolutely for every z C we

say that it has infinite radius of convergence. Otherwise there is a non-negative number R

such that the series converges absolutely whenever |z| < R and diverges whenever |z| > R.

The number R is called the radius of convergence of the series. The disk B(0, R) is called

the disk of convergence.

P

P

The series n=0 an z n and n=1 nan z n1 have the same radius of convergence.

2.5.2 Power series define holomorphic functions. A power series with a positive or

infinite radius of

convergence defines a holomorphic

P

P function in its disk of convergence. In

fact, if f (z) = n=0 an (z z0 )n , then f 0 (z) = n=1 nan (z z0 )n1 for |z z0 | < R, i.e.,

the power series may be differentiated term by term.

2.5.3 Analytic functions.

P We say that a function f : B(z0 , R) C is represented by a

power series if f (z) = n=0 an (z z0 )n for all z B(z0 , R).

Let be a non-empty open set. A function f : C is called analytic in if there

are open disks in whose union is all of such that f is represented by a power series in

each of these disks.

For example, z 7 1/(1 z) is analytic in the (open) unit disk as well as in all of C \ {1}.

Theorem. Every analytic function is holomorphic.

The central theorem of complex analysis is that the converse is also true, i.e., every

holomorphic function is analytic, see Theorem 3.3.2 below.

P

2.5.4 Taylor series. Suppose f : B(z0 , R) C is analytic, i.e., f (z) = n=0 an (z z0 )n .

Then f is infinitely often differentiable and an = f (n) (z0 )/n!. We call

X

f (n) (z0 )

(z z0 )n

n!

n=0

the Taylor2 series of f about z0 .

2Brook Taylor (1685 1731)

12

complex-valued functions on [a, b]. Then the function f defined by

Z b

(t)

f (z) =

dt

a (t) z

is analytic in = C \ ([a, b]). In fact, if z0 and if z is sufficiently close to z0 , then

X

f (z) =

an (z z0 )n

n=0

where

Z

an =

a

(t)dt

.

((t) z0 )n+1

Hint

2.5.6 The exponential function. The series

X

zn

exp(z) =

n!

n=0

converges absolutely for every z C and uniformly in every closed disk about the origin. It

represents therefore an entire function, called the exponential function. It is an extension of

the exponential function defined in Real Analysis.

Theorem. If t R, then exp(it) = cos(t) + i sin(t); in particular, exp(0) = 1. Moreover

exp0 (z) = exp(z), and exp(a + b) = exp(a) exp(b). The exponential function has no zeros.

It is periodic with period 2i. Any period of the exponential function is an integer multiple

of 2i. In particular, exp(z) = 1 if and only if z is an integer multiple of 2i.

CHAPTER 3

3.1. The index of a point with respect to a closed contour

3.1.1. Let be a contour in C and = C \ . Since is compact is open and contains

the complement E of B(0, R) for some R > 0. The set E is connected and is part of precisely

one connected component of .

3.1.2. If : [a, b] C is a smooth path and z C \ , define F : [a, b] C by

Z s

0 (t)

dt .

F (s) = exp

a (t) z

Then s 7 F (s)/((s) z) is constant.

3.1.3 The index of a point with respect to a closed contour. Let be a closed

contour in C and = C \ . The function Ind defined by

Z

1

du

Ind (z) =

2i u z

on is an analytic function assuming only integer values. It is constant on each connected

component of and, in particular, zero near infinity.

3.1.4 Example. Consider the smooth paths 1 (t) = exp(it), 2 (t) = exp(it)/2, and 3 (t) =

exp(it)/2 all defined on [0, 2] and the contours 1 = 1 , 2 = 1 2 , and 3 = 1 3 .

The contours are closed so that Indk (z) is defined for z = 0, z = 3i/4, and z = 2.

The number Ind (z) is also called the winding number of the contour around z. The

above examples hint at the origin of the name.

3.2. Cauchys theorem

3.2.1 Cauchys theorem for functions with primitives. Suppose is a non-empty

open set,R f a continuous function on which has a primitive F . If is a closed contour in

, then f = 0.

3.2.2 Cauchys theorem for integer powers. Suppose n Z. Unless n = 1 the power

function z 7 z n has the primitive z n+1 /(n + 1) in either = C \ {0} or = C depending on

whether

R n is negative or not. Consequently, if is a closed contour in and if n Z \ {1},

then z n dz = 0.

The exceptional case n = 1 gives Rrise to interesting complications which we will discuss

later. Recall, though, from 2.3.5 that dz/z = 2i when (t) = exp(it) for t [0, 2].

3.2.3 Triangles. Let a, b, c be three pairwise distinct complex numbers. The set =

{ra + sb + tc : r, s, t [0, 1], r + s + t = 1} is called a solid (possibly degenerate) triangle

with vertices a, b, and c. The line segments joining each pair of vertices are called edges of

the triangle. They are obtained by setting r, s, and t in turn equal to zero and are thus

13

14

subsets of . The contour = ha, b, c, ai traces the edges of the triangle. The mid points

of the edges are c0 = (a + b)/2, b0 = (a + c)/2, and a0 = (b + c)/2. The line segments

ha0 , b0 i , hb0 , c0 i , and hc0 , a0 i divide into four congruent triangles, all contained in and

similar to itself. The circumference (i.e., the sum of the length of the three edges) and

the diameter of each one of the small triangles is half of that of .

0 0

0 0

0 0

If f is continuous

R on ,

R = ha, b, c, ai, and = ha, c , b , ai hb, a , c , bi hc, b , a , ci

0 0 0 0

hc , a , b , c i, then f = f .

3.2.4 Cauchys theorem for triangles. Suppose is a non-empty open set, z0 a point

in , and f : C a continuous function which is holomorphicR on \ {z0 }. If is a solid

triangle in with vertices a, b, and c, let = ha, b, c, ai. Then f = 0.

3.2.5 Cauchys theorem for convex sets. Suppose is a non-empty open convex set,

z0 a point in , and f : C a continuous

R function which is holomorphic on \ {z0 }.

Fix a and define F : C by F (z) = ha,zi f . Then F is an antiderivative of f and

R

f = 0 for every closed contour in .

3.3.1 Cauchys integral formula for convex sets. Suppose is a non-empty open

convex set and f : C a holomorphic function on . If is a closed contour in and

z \ , then

Z

f (u)

1

du.

f (z) Ind (z) =

2i u z

3.3.2 Holomorphic functions are analytic. We can now prove the central theorem of

Complex Analysis.

Theorem. A holomorphic function is analytic on its domain of definition.

From now on the words holomorphic and analytic may be considered synonymous (many

authors do not ever make a distinction between them).

3.3.3 RMoreras1 theorem. Let be a non-empty open set. If f : C is continuous

and if f = 0 for every triangular contour , then f is holomorphic in .

3.3.4 Sequences of holomorphic functions. Let be a non-empty open set. Suppose

n 7 fn is a sequence of holomorphic functions defined on which converges uniformly to

f : C. Then f is holomorphic.

3.3.5 General integral formulas for convex sets. Suppose is a non-empty open

convex set and f : C a holomorphic function on . If is a closed contour in ,

z \ , and n N0 , then

Z

n!

f (u)

f (n) (z) Ind (z) =

du.

2i (u z)n+1

3.3.6 Cauchys estimate. If f is a holomorphic function satisfying |f (z)| M whenever

|z z0 | < R, then

n!M

|f (n) (z0 )| n

R

for all n N0 .

1Giacinto Morera (1856 1909)

15

Zeros and their order. Let z0 be a zero of the holomorphic function f and

P3.3.8

n

a

n=0 n (z z0 ) the Taylor series of f about z0 . Then z0 is an isolated point in the

set of all zeros of f unless an = 0 for all n N0 . If z0 is an isolated zero of f , the number

m = min({k N : ak 6= 0}) is called the order or the multiplicity of z0 as a zero of f . In this

case we have f (z) = (z z0 )m g(z) where g is holomorphic in the domain of f and g(z0 ) 6= 0.

3.3.9 The set of zeros of a holomorphic function. Let be an open connected

subset of C and f a holomorphic function on . Let Z(f ) be the set of zeros of f , i.e.,

Z(f ) = {a : f (a) = 0}. Then either Z(f ) = or else Z(f ) is a set of isolated points.

Hint

3.3.10 Analytic continuation. Let f and g be holomorphic functions on , an open

connected subset of C. Then the following statements hold:

(1) If f (z) = g(z) for all z in a set which contains a limit point of itself, then f = g.

(2) If f (n) (z0 ) = g (n) (z0 ) for some z0 and all n N0 , then f = g.

Suppose f is a holomorphic functions on and that 0 is another open connected

set which intersects . Then there is at most one holomorphic function on 0 which

coincides with f on . This function (if it exists) is called an analytic continuation of f .

3.4. The global version of Cauchys theorem

3.4.1 Continuity of parametric integrals. Let be an open set,

R a contour in C, and

a continuous complex-valued function on . Define g(z) = (z, ) on . Then g

is continuous.

3.4.2 Differentiation under the integral. Let , , , and g be defined as in 3.4.1. Furthermore suppose that (, u) is holomorphic in for each u and denote its derivative

by (, u), so that (, u) is a primitive of (, u) for every fixed u . If : C

is continuous, then g is holomorphic in .

3.4.3 A special (but important) case. Suppose is an open subset of C, f is a

holomorphic function on , and is a contour in . Define : C by

(

(f (u) f (z))/(u z) if z 6= u,

(z, u) =

f 0 (z)

if z = u

and let (, u) be the derivative of (, u) on whenever u . Then and are both

continuous on .

Hint

3.4.4 Cauchys integral formula, global version. Suppose is an open subset of the

complex plane, f is a holomorphic function on , and is a closed contour in such that

Ind (w) = 0 whenever w is not an element of . Then

Z

f (u)

1

du

f (z) Ind (z) =

2i u z

for every z \ .

Hint

2Joseph Liouville (1809 1882)

16

R global version. Suppose , f , and satisfy the same hypotheses as in 3.4.4. Then f = 0.

3.4.6 Cauchys theorem and integral formula for simply connected open sets.

A connected open set in the complex plane is called simply connected if C \ has no

bounded component. The set C \ {0} is not simply connected but C \ (, 0] is.

If is a non-empty open simply connected subset of C and a closed contour in ,

then Ind (w) = 0 whenever w is not an element of . Consequently, if f is a holomorphic

function on , then

Z

1

f (u)

f (z) Ind (z) =

du

2i u z

for every z \ and

Z

f = 0.

3.4.7 Laurent3 series. Suppose f is holomorphic in the annulus = {z C : r < |za| <

R}. Then, f can be expressed by a Laurent series, i.e.,

X

an (z a)n .

f (z) =

n=

X

X

f (z) =

an (z a)n +

an (z a)n ,

n=0

n=1

i.e., convergence of a Laurent series requires convergence of both series of positive and

negative powers.

The coefficients an are given by the integrals

Z

f (u)

1

du

an =

2i (u a)n+1

where = a + r0 exp(it), t [0, 2] and r0 (r, R). Hint

The Taylor series of an analytic function is, of course, a special case of a Laurent series.

CHAPTER 4

Isolated singularities

4.1. Classifying isolated singularities

4.1.1 Isolated singularities. Suppose f is holomorphic in the punctured disk B(z0 , r) \

{z0 } but not defined at z0 . Then z0 is called an isolated singularity of f .

The following are typical examples: z 7 (z 2 z02 )/(z z0 ), z 7 1/(z z0 ), and

z 7 exp(1/(z z0 )).

4.1.2 Removable singularities. Suppose z0 is an isolated singularity of f : C but

f has an analytic continuation to B(z0 , r) for some r > 0. Then z0 is called a removable

singularity.

If z0 is an isolated singularity of f and limzz0 (z z0 )f (z) = 0, then z0 is a removable

singularity of f . Hint

4.1.3 Poles. If z0 is an isolated singularity of f : C and limzz0 1/f (z) = 0, then z0

is called a pole of f .

If z0 is a pole of f , then there is a natural number m such that limzz0 (z z0 )m+1 f (z) =

0. The smallest such m is called the order or the multiplicity of z0 as a pole of f .

4.1.4 Essential singularities. An isolated singularity of a holomorphic function which is

neither removable nor a pole is called an essential singularity of the function.

4.1.5 Meromorphic functions. If P is a set of isolated points, if f is holomorphic on

\ P , and if no point of P is an essential singularity of f , then f is called meromorphic on

.

4.1.6 The Casorati1-Weierstrass theorem. If z0 is an essential singularity of f : C

and r > 0 is such that B 0 = B(z0 , r) \ {z0 } , then f (B 0 ) is dense in C.

4.1.7 Laurent series about an isolated singularity. A punctured disk = {z C :

0 < |z z0 | < R} is a special case of an annulus and thus a function defined on it has a

Laurent series expansion. In particular, if z0 is an isolated singularity of f then there is a

punctured disk (possibly the punctured plane) such that

f (z) =

an (z z0 )n .

n=

the point z0 is a removable singularity if and only if an = 0 for all n < 0. It is a pole of

order m if and only if an = 0 for all n < m and am 6= 0. In the remaining case, when

the set {n Z : an 6= 0} is not bounded below, the point z0 is an essential singularity.

17

18

4. ISOLATED SINGULARITIES

If f has a pole of order m at z0 , then there are complex numbers c1 , ..., cm so that

m

X

ck

z 7 f (z)

(z z0 )k

k=1

has

Pm a removable ksingularity at z0 . The numbers c1 , ..., cm are unique and the sum

k=1 ck /(z z0 ) is called the principal part or singular part of f at z0 .

4.2. The calculus of residues

4.2.1 Residues. P

If the holomorphic function f has the isolated singularity z0 and the

Z

1

a1 =

f

2i

where describes a sufficiently small circle about z0 is called the residue of f at z0 and

denoted by Res(f, z0 ).

4.2.2 The residue theorem. Suppose is an open subset of the complex plane, f is

a holomorphic function on 0 = \ {z1 , ..., zn }, and is a closed contour in 0 such that

Ind (w) = 0 whenever w is not an element of (i.e., does not wind around any point

outside ). Then

Z

n

X

1

f.

Res(f, zk ) Ind (zk ) =

2i

k=1

Z

1

dx

1

+

x4

Z

1

dx

exp(x)

+

exp(x)

Z 2

1

dx

2 + sin x

0

Hints

4.2.4 Counting zeros and poles. Suppose f is a non-zero meromorphic function on ,

Zf = {z1 , z2 , ...} the set of zeros of f , and Pf = {p1 , p2 , ...} the set of poles of f . Let be

a closed contour in \ (Zf Pf ) such that Ind (w) = 0 whenever w C \ . Then

Z 0

X

X

1

f

=

M (zk ) Ind (zk )

M (pk ) Ind (pk )

2i f

k

In applying this result note that there are at most finitely many zeros and poles in those

components of where have a positive index, so that the sums occurring are actually finite

sums.

This result is most useful when Ind assumes only the values 0 and 1 on C \ .

4.2.5 Rouch

es2 theorem. Let f and g be meromorphic functions on and assume

that B(a, r) . Let nz (f ) be the number of zeros of f in B(a, r), counted according

to their multiplicity. Similarly, np (f ) is the count of poles, and nz (g) and np (g) are the

2Eug`

ene Rouch

e (1832 1910)

19

|f (z) g(z)| < |f (z)| + |g(z)| for all z C, then nz (f ) np (f ) = nz (g) np (g). Hint

4.2.6 The open mapping theorem. Suppose f is a non-constant holomorphic function

on . Then f (0 ) is open whenever 0 is an open subset of . Hint

4.2.7 The maximum modulus theorem. Suppose f is a holomorphic function on

and f (z0 ) is a local maximum of f . Then f is constant.

CHAPTER 5

A zoo of functions

5.1. Polynomial functions

5.1.1 Polynomial functions. If n is a non-negative integer and a0 , a1 , . . ., an are complex

numbers, then the function p : C C defined by

p(z) =

n

X

ak z k

k=0

is called a polynomial function or a polynomial for short. The integer n is called the degree

of p if an 6= 0. The zero function is also a polynomial but no degree is assigned to it. Any

polynomial is an entire function.

If p and q are polynomials of degree n and k, respectively, then p + q and pq are also

polynomials. The degree of p + q is the larger of the numbers n and k unless n = k in which

case the degree is at most n. The degree of pq equals n + k.

5.1.2 The fundamental theorem of algebra. Suppose p is a polynomial of degree n 1.

Then there exist numbers a and z1 , ..., zn (not necessarily distinct) such that

p(z) = a

n

Y

(z zk ).

k=1

The coefficients ak are given

Qn as symmetric polynomials in

n

terms of the zeros, e.g., an1 = k=1 zk and a0 = (1)n k=1 zk . They vary continuously

with the zeros. That the converse is also true can be proved with the aid of Rouches

theorem.

PnThe precise statement is as follows: If z0 is a zero of order m of the polynomial

f (z) = k=0 ak z k and if f has no other zeros in B(z0 , r) then the following holds:PFor every

n

(0, r) there is a > 0 such that, if |ak bk | < for k = 0, ..., n and g(z) = k=0 bk z k ,

then g has precisely m zeros in B(z0 , ) (counting multiplicities).

5.1.4 Among the entire functions only polynomials grow like powers. Suppose f

is an entire function and k 7 rk is an increasing unbounded sequence of positive numbers.

Furthermore, suppose there are numbers N N and C > 0 such that |f (z)| C|z|N for all

z lying on any of the circles |z| = rk . Then f is a polynomial of degree at most N .

It is in fact enough to require Re(f (z)) C|z|N to arrive at the same conclusion.

Thus the real (or the imaginary part) of a polynomial grows roughly at the same pace as

the modulus. This is, in fact, a special case of a more general result, the Borel-Caratheodory1

theorem, which allows to estimate the modulus of an entire function by its real (or imaginary)

part.

1Constantin Carath

eodory (1873 1950)

21

22

5. A ZOO OF FUNCTIONS

5.2.1 The Riemann sphere. The set S 2 = {(x, y, z) R3 : x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 1} is called a

sphere. The point (0, 0, 1) is called the north pole of the sphere. Let (x, y, z) be a point in

S 2 other than the north pole. The map t 7 (tx, ty, tz + 1 t), t R, describes a straight

line passing through the north pole and the point (x, y, z). This line intersects the plane

z = 0 in the unique point (x/(1 z), y/(1 z), 0). We have thus defined the map

x + iy

.

1z

This map, called the stereographic projection, is bijective. Points in the southern hemisphere

correspond to points in the unit disk, points on the equator correspond to points on the

unit circle, and points in the northern hemisphere correspond to points outside the closed

unit disk.

With this interpretation the sphere S 2 is called the Riemann sphere and is denoted

by C . Since S 2 is a compact metric space (as a subspace of R3 ), C is a one-point

compactification of C. Note that points on the sphere close to the north pole are those

whose image points in the plane have large absolute values.

We can now view a meromorphic function on as a function from to C . As such

it is continuous at every point of even the poles.

: S 2 \ {(0, 0, 1)} C : (x, y, z) 7

Assume Q 6= C, i.e., q is not the zero polynomial. Then, the function r : (C \ Q) C given

by

p(z)

r(z) =

q(z)

is called a rational function.

A rational function may also be interpreted as a function from C to C by setting

r(z) = if z Q and r() = limz r(z) (which may again be infinity).

5.2.3 M

obius transforms. A rational function of the type z 7 (az + b)/(cz + d) where

ad bc 6= 0 is called a M

obius2 transform. A Mobius transform may be interpreted as a

bijective map from the Riemann sphere to itself. The set of all Mobius transforms forms a

group under composition. Special cases of Mobius transforms are the translations z 7 z + b,

the dilations and rotations z 7 az where a > 0 and |a| = 1, respectively, and the inversion

z 7 1/z. Any M

obius transform is a composition of at most five of these.

M

obius transforms have many interesting properties to which an entire chapter might

be devoted.

5.3. Exponential and trigonometric functions

5.3.1 The exponential function. We have defined the exponential function previously (it

is just too important to postpone its use). Hence some of the following will be a repetition.

The function exp : C C defined by

exp(z) =

X

zk

k=0

k!

is called the exponential function. It is a holomorphic function and exp0 (z) = exp(z).

2August Ferdinand M

obius (1790 1868)

23

exp(z) = 1/ exp(z).

The exponential function has period 2i, i.e., exp(z + 2i) = exp(z). If p is any period

of exp, then there is an integer m such that p = 2mi. Let a be a fixed real number and

Sa = {z C : a < Im(z) a + 2}. Then exp |Sa maps Sa bijectively to C \ {0}.

5.3.2 Trigonometric functions. The trigonometric functions are defined by

cos(z) =

exp(iz) + exp(iz)

,

2

and

exp(iz) exp(iz)

.

2i

They are entire functions, called the cosine and sine function, respectively.

The following properties, familiar from the real case, extend to the complex case:

(1) Derivatives: sin0 (z) = cos(z) and cos0 (z) = sin(z).

(2) The Pythagorean theorem: (sin z)2 + (cos z)2 = 1 for all z C.

(3) Addition theorems:

sin(z) =

and

cos(z + w) = cos(z) cos(w) sin(z) sin(w)

for all z, w C.

(4) Taylor series:

X

(1)n z 2n+1

sin(z) =

(2n + 1)!

n=0

and

cos(z) =

X

(1)n z 2n

.

(2n)!

n=0

In particular, sin and cos are extensions of the functions defined in Real Analysis.

(5) cos(z) = sin(z + /2).

(6) sin(z) = 0 if and only z is an integer multiple of .

(7) The range of both, the sine and the cosine function, is C.

5.4. The logarithmic function and powers

5.4.1 The real logarithm. Since exp : R (0, ) is a bijective function, it has an inverse

ln : (0, ) R. One shows that ln(1) = 0 and ln0 (x) = 1/x so that, by the fundamental

theorem of calculus

Z x

dt

ln(x) =

t

1

for all x > 0.

5.4.2 The logarithm. Suppose is a simply connected non-empty open subset of C \ {0}

and is a contour in C\{0} connecting 1 to z0 . Then we define the function L : C

by setting

Z

du

L (z) =

u

24

5. A ZOO OF FUNCTIONS

depend on as long as remains in . The function L is called a branch of the logarithm

on .

Suppose now that 0 is another contour in C \ {0} connecting 1 to a point in . If z00

is the end point of 0 and is a contour in connecting z0 and z00 , then

L (z) L0 (z) = 2i Ind 0 (0).

Thus there are (at most) countably many different functions L which are defined this way,

even though there are many more contours connecting 1 to a point in . In fact, for

each m Z there is a 0 such that L (z) L0 (z) = 2mi. This shows that defining the

logarithm as an antiderivative comes with certain difficulties (to say the least). At the same

time this behavior gives rise to a lot of interesting mathematics.

L is a holomorphic function on with derivative 1/z. Moreover, exp(L (z)) = z for

all z but L (exp(z)) may well differ from z by an integer multiple of 2i.

5.4.3 The principal branch of the logarithm. Let = C \ (, 0]. Then

Z

du

,

log(z) =

u

where is contour in connecting 1 and z, is uniquely defined for any z (i.e., log = L

where : [0, 1] C : t 7 1). It is called the principal branch of the logarithm. If z has

polar representation z = r exp(it) where t (, ) and r > 0, then

log(z) = ln(r) + it.

The range of log is the strip {z C : | Im(z)| < }. In particular, log(exp(z)) = z if and

only if | Im(z)| < .

The Taylor series of z 7 log(1 + z) about z = 0 has radius of convergence 1 and is given

by

X

(z)n

.

log(1 + z) =

n

n=1

If Re(a) and Re(b) are positive, then log(ab) = log(a) + log(b). The conclusion may be

wrong when the hypothesis is not satisfied.

5.4.4 Powers. Suppose a C \ (, 0] and b C. We then define

ab = exp(b log(a)).

In particular, if we define e = exp(1) we get ez = exp(z).

5.4.5 Power functions. Let p be a complex number. The function C \ (, 0] C :

z 7 z p is called the principal branch of the power function. It is a holomorphic function

which never vanishes. Note that 1/z p = z p .

We can, of course, define other branches of the power function. In fact, for any branch

L of the logarithm we have a branch z 7 exp(pL(z)) of the power function.

If p N0 all branches of the associated power function may be analytically extended to

the entire complex plane and any branch gives then rise to one and the same function. The

same is true if p Z isQnegative, except that the function may not be extended to 0. Note

p

that z 0 = 1 and z p = k=1 z if p N.

If p Q there are only finitely many different branches of z 7 z p in any simply

connected open set. In fact, if m/n is a representation of p in lowest terms, there will be n

branches of z 7 z p .

25

defined on a simply connected open set . If f has no zeros, there is an entire function g

such that f (z) = exp(g(z)).

5.4.7 A definite integral. We will later use the following result (which is also an instructive example):

Z 2

log |1 exp(it)|dt = 0.

0

CHAPTER 6

Entire functions

6.1. Infinite products

6.1.1 Infinite products. If n 7 zn is a sequence of complex numbers, we denote the

Qk

Q

sequence k 7 pk = n=1 zn of partial products by n=1 zn . IfQ

limk pk exists, we will

call it the infinite product of the numbers zn and also denote it by n=1 zn (abusing notation

as we do for series).

P

6.1.2 Convergence criteria for infinite products. Suppose n=1 (zn 1) is absolutely

convergent.

Then there is an n0 N such that

P

Q |zn 1| < 1/2 for all n n0 . Moreover,

log(z

)

is

absolutely

convergent

and

n

n=n0

n=n0 zn converges to a nonzero number. The

latter limit is independent of the order of the factors since

zn = exp(

n=n0

log(zn )).

n=n0

Q

We willQthen say that n=1 zn converges absolutely.

If n=1 zn = 0, then finitely many and only finitely many of the zn vanish.

6.1.3 Infinite products of analytic functions. Let be a non-empty open set and

n 7 fnP

a sequence of holomorphic functions on none

Q of which is identically equal to

function f on . If z0 is a zero of f , then it is a zero of only finitely many of the functions

fn and the order of z0 as a zero of f is the sum of the orders of z0 as a zero of fn .

6.2. Weierstrasss factorization theorem

6.2.1 Elementary factors. The functions

E0 (z) = 1 z

Ep (z) = (1 z) exp(z + ... + z p /p)

are called elementary factors. Note that Ep (/a) is entire and has a simple zero at a but no

other zero.

6.2.2 Estimates for elementary factors. If |z| 1/2, then |Ep (z) 1| 2e|z|p+1 and

2e|z|p+1 log(|Ep (z)|) 2e|z|p+1 .

Also, if |z| 1/2, then

c|z|p log(|Ep (z)/(1 z)|) c|z|p

for some c > 0.

27

28

6. ENTIRE FUNCTIONS

sequence of non-zero complex numbers with no finite limit point. Then there is a sequence

n 7 pn N0 , e.g., pn = n, such that

r > 0 :

n=1

Moreover,

Y

Epn (z/an )

converges to an entire function f . The zeros of f are precisely the numbers an and the order

of z0 as a zero of f equals #{an : z = an }.

6.2.4 The Weierstrass factorization theorem. Let f be an entire function and suppose

that an , n N, are the nonzero zeros of f repeated according to their multiplicity. Then

there is an integer m, an entire function g, and a sequence n 7 pn N0 such that

Y

f (z) = z m exp(g(z))

Epn (z/an ).

n

6.3.1 Counting zeros. If f is an entire function we define nf (r) to be the number of

zeros, counting multiplicities, of f in B(0, r).

6.3.2 Jensens1 theorem. Suppose f is an entire function and f (0) 6= 0. Denote its

nonzero zeros, repeated according to their multiplicity and ordered by size, by ak , k N .

Then

Z 2

n(r)

X

1

log(r/|ak |) + log |f (0)| =

log |f (r exp(it))|dt.

2 0

k=1

6.3.3 Order of an entire function. An entire function is said to be of finite order if the

set

S = {a [0, ) : r0 > 0 : |z| > r0 = |f (z)| exp(|z|a )}

is not empty. The number inf S is called the order of f .

6.3.4 The growth of an entire function controls the number of its zeros. Let f

be an entire function of finite order for which f (0) = 1 and let be a positive number.

Then there is an R > 0 such that

nf (r) (er)+

for all r R.

Hence if s > we may choose (0, s ) and obtain

1

es

.

s

r

nf (r)s/(+)

From this it follows that

1Johan Jensen (1859 1925)

nN

29

with no finite limit point. Then

X

= inf{s > 0 :

|an |s < },

n=1

If f is an entire function of finite order and if the exponent of convergence of the

non-zero zeros of f is , then . In this case Weierstrasss factorization theorem takes

the form

Y

f (z) = z m exp(g(z))

Ep (z/an )

n

6.4. Hadamards factorization theorem

6.4.1 Canonical products. Let n 7 an be a sequence of nonzero complex numbers

without a finite limit point whose

Q exponent of convergence, , is finite. If p N0 is such

that p < p + 1 then g(z) = n Ep (z/an ) is called the canonical product for the sequence

n 7 an .

The function g is an entire function of order .

6.4.2 Controlling decay of canonical products. Suppose an is a (finite or infinite)

sequence of non-zero complex numbers and denote its exponent of convergence by . Let

p N0 be such that p < p + 1. If < s < p + 1 and |z an | |an |p1 for all n N ,

then

Y

|Ep (z/an )| exp(c|z|s )

n

Between any two large natural numbers k and k + 1 there is a number rk such that

|z an | |an |p1 for all z on the circle |z| = rk and all n N.

6.4.3 Hadamards Factorization Theorem. Let f be an entire function of order and

zeros by an , n N . Assume that the an are repeated according to their multiplicities and

are arranged such that |a1 | |a2 | .... Let p = bc, the largest integer not exceeding and

m N0 the order of 0 as a zero of f . Then there exists a polynomial g of degree at most p

such that

Y

f (z) = z m exp(g(z))

Ep (z/an ).

nN

6.4.4 The very little Picard theorem. An entire function of finite order that misses

two values is constant.

Picards2 little theorem states that this so for every entire function. Picards big theorem

states that near an isolated singularity a holomorphic function takes every value, with at

most one exception, infinitely often; this is an extension of the Casorati-Weierstrass theorem.

6.4.5 An entire function of non-integral order assumes every value infinitely

often.

2Emile

APPENDIX A

The following material is covered in a course on topology.

A.1. Topological concepts

A.1.1 Topology for a set. Let X be a set. The system of subsets of X is called a

topology for X if it has the following properties:

(1) and X are in

(2) Any union of elements of is again in .

(3) The intersection of two elements of is again in .

If is a topology for X, the pair (X, ) is called a topological space. The elements of

are called open sets, while their complements are called closed sets.

A.1.2 Metric spaces. Let X be a set. A function d : X X [0, ) is called a metric

or distance function in X if it has the following properties:

(1) d(x1 , x2 ) = 0 if and only if x1 = x2 .

(2) d(x1 , x2 ) = d(x2 , x1 ) for all x1 , x2 X.

(3) d(x1 , x3 ) d(x1 , x2 ) + d(x2 , x3 ) for all x1 , x2 , x3 X (triangle inequality).

(X, d) is then called a metric space and the number d(x1 , x2 ) is called the distance

between x1 and x2 .

If X 0 is a subset of X then (X 0 , d0 ) is again a metric space when d0 is the restriction of

d to X 0 X 0 .

A.1.3 Open and closed balls. Let (X, d) be a metric space, x0 a point in X, and r a

non-negative real number. Then the set B(x0 , r) = {x X : d(x, x0 ) < r} is called the

open ball of radius r centered at x0 while B(x0 , r) = {x X : d(x, x0 ) r} is called the

closed ball of radius r centered at x0 . Note that B(x0 , 0) = so that the empty set is an

open disk. Similarly, a singleton is a closed disk.

A.1.4 Metric spaces are topological spaces. Let (X, d) be a metric space. Then

= {U X : U is a union of open balls}

is a topology for X.

Note that open disks are open and closed disks are closed.

A.1.5 Compact sets. A subset S of a topological space is called compact if every open

cover of SShas a finite subcover. More precisely, whenever V is a family of open

Sn sets such

that S V V V then there is a finite subset {V1 , ..., Vn } of V such that S k=1 Vk .

A.2. Limits and continuity

A.2.1 Sequences and their limits. Let (X, d) be a metric space. A function x : N

X : n 7 xn is called a sequence in X. We say that the sequence x is convergent if there

31

32

L X : > 0 : N > 0 : n > N : d(xn , L) < .

We then say that x converges to L. If a sequence is not convergent, we say that it diverges

or is divergent.

If a sequence x is convergent there is only one element in X to which it converges. This

number is called the limit of the sequence x and is denoted by limn xn .

A.2.2 Continuity. Let (X, d) and (Y, ) be metric spaces and f a function from X to Y .

Then f is called continuous at a X if the following statement is true:

> 0 : > 0 : x X : d(x, a) < (f (x), f (a)) < .

f is called continuous if it is continuous at every point of X.

A.2.3 Sequences in compact metric spaces have convergent subsequences.

A.2.4 Images of compact sets under continuous functions are compact.

A.2.5 Uniform continuity. Let (X, d) and (Y, ) be metric spaces and f a function from

X to Y . Then f is called uniformly continuous if the following statement holds:

> 0 : > 0 : x, x0 X : d(x, x0 ) < (f (x), f (x0 )) < .

If X is compact and f : X Y is continuous, then it is uniformly continuous.

A.3. Product spaces

A.3.1 Product spaces. Let (X, d) and (X 0 , d0 ) be metric spaces. The function

: (X X 0 ) (X X 0 ) [0, ) : ((x, x0 ), (y, y 0 )) 7 max{d(x, y), d(x0 , y 0 )}

is a distance function in X X 0 turning it into a metric space.

Theorem. The cartesian product of compact metric spaces is compact.

Glossary

annulus: In a metric space an annulus is a set lying between two concentric circles.

16

binary operation: A binary operation on a set A is a function from A A to A. It

is customary to express a binary operation as a ? b (or with other symbols in place

of ?). 3

bounded: A set A C is called bounded if there exists a positive R such that

|z| R for all z A. 6

congruent: Two triangles are congruent if their edge lengths coincide. 14

dense: A subset A of a metric space (X, d) is called dense in X if every point of

X \ A is a limit point of A. 17

diameter: In a metric space (X, d) the diameter of a set A X is defined to be

sup{d(x, y) : x, y A}. 14

group: A set in which an associative binary operation is defined so that an identity

and inverses to any element exist is called a group. 22

identity: An identity (in a set A with a binary operation ?) is an element e A

such that e ? a = a ? e = a for all a A. 3

inverse: The inverse of an element a (in a set A with a binary operation ? and

identity e) is an element b A such that a ? b = b ? a = e. 3

isolated point: A point x in a metric space (X, d) is called an isolated point of a

set S X if there exists an open disk B about x such that B S = {x}. 7

limit point: A point x in a metric space (X, d) is called a limit point of a set S X

if B(x, 1/n) S \ {x} =

6 for all n N. 7

linear: A map F is called linear if F (u + v) = F (u) + F (v) for all , C and

all u, v in the domain of F . 9

local maximum: A point z0 S is called a local maximum of a function f : S C

if |f (z0 )| |f (z)| for all z in some neighborhood V (relative with respect to S) of

z0 . 19

multiset: Let A be a set. A multiset is a function A N0 (indicating how often an

element a A is contained in the multiset). 9

periodic: A function f defined on C (or R) is called periodic if there exists a complex

(or real) number a 6= 0 such that f (z + a) = f (z) for all z C (or z R). The

number a is called a period of f . 12

33

34

List of Symbols

to itself. 9

punctured disk: A set is called a punctured disk if it is a disk with the center

removed. 17

P

P

rearrangement: The series n=1 wn is a rearrangement of the series n=1 zn if

there is bijective sequence k : N N such that wn = zkn . 5

similar: Two triangles are similar if the ratios of their respective edge lengths coincide. 14

singleton: A singleton is a set containing precisely one element. 31

symmetric polynomial: A polynomial p in n variables is called symmetric if no

permutation of its variables changes its value. 21

unit circle: The set of points in C of modulus 1. 22

unit disk: The set of points in C of modulus less than 1. 11, 22

zero: x is called a zero of a function f if f (x) = 0. 12, 15

List of Symbols

|z|: the absolute value or modulus of the complex number z. 4

C: the set of complex numbers. 3

C : the Riemann sphere. 22

z: the complex conjugate of the complex number z. 3

B(x0 , r): the open disk of radius r centered at x0 . 31

B(x0 , r): the closed disk of radius r centered at x0 . 31

Im(z): the imaginary part of the complex number z. 3

nf (r): the number of zeros of an entire function f in the disk B(0, r). 28

: the range of the path or contour . 8

Re(z): the real part of the complex number z. 3

Z(f ): the set of zeros of f . 15

35

Hints

2.2.1: A function f is differentiable at a if and only if there is a number F and a

continuous function h with limit 0 at a such that f (z) f (a) = (z a)(F + h(z)).

8

2.3.9: Given a point x in S, let C(x) denote the set of all y S for which there is a

connected contour in S with initial point x and end point y. If S is open, then so

are C(x) and \ C(x). 10

2.5.5: (t) z = ((t) z0 )(1 (z z0 )/((t) z0 ). 12

3.3.9: Define the set A of limit points of Z(f ) in and show that both A and \ A

are open. 15 R

R1 R1

1

3.4.3: (z, u) = 0 f 0 (z + (u z)t)dt and (z, u) = 0 s 0 f 00 (z + (u z)st)dt ds if

z and u are close toR each other. 15

R

3.4.4: Define g(z) = (f (u) f (z))/(u z)du on and h(z) = f (u)/(u z)du

on 0 = {z C : Ind (z) = 0}. Then show that h = g on 0 . 15

3.4.7: Let 1 (t) = a + R0 exp(it) and 2 (t)R = a + r0 exp(it) for t [0, 2] and

suitably chosen r0 and R0 . Then consider 1 2 f . 16

4.1.2: Define h(z0 ) = 0 and h(z) = (z z0 )2 f (z) for z 6= z0 . Then show that h is

analytic near z0 . 17

4.2.3: For the first integral consider a contour made up from the interval [R, R]

and a semi-circle of radius R; for the second one consider a rectangle with vertices

R and R + i; and for the last integral let u = exp(it) and note that 2i sin(t) =

u 1/u. 18

R

4.2.5: Let parameterize the circle and set h = f /g. Then h0 /h = Indh (0) = 0

since (h ) (, 0] = . 19

4.2.6: Suppose w0 f (0 ) and w is close to w0 . Apply Rouches theorem 4.2.5 to

F = f w0 and G = f w. 19

37

Index

absolute convergence

of a series, 5

of an infinite product, 27

absolute value, 4

analytic, 11

analytic continuation, 15

associative law of addition, 3

associative law of multiplication, 3

divergence

of a sequence, 4, 32

of a series, 5

elementary factor, 27

end point

of a contour, 9

of a path, 8

entire, 8

essential singularity, 17

exponent of convergence, 29

exponential function, 12

ball, 31

branch

of the logarithm, 24

of the power function, 24

function

exponential, 22

polynomial, 21

rational, 22

canonical product, 29

Cauchy sequence, 5

closed, 31

closed contour, 9

commutative law of addition, 3

commutative law of multiplication, 3

complex conjugate, 3

complex plane, 4

connected, 6

simply, 16

continuity, 32

at a point, 32

contour, 9

closed, 9

connected, 9

convergence

of a function, 7

of a sequence, 4, 31

of a series, 5

pointwise, 10

uniform, 10

convex, 4

cosine function, 23

holomorphic, 8

imaginary number, 3

imaginary part, 3

infinite product, 27

initial point

of a contour, 9

of a path, 8

Laurent series, 16

length

of a line segment, 4

of a smooth path, 8

limit of a sequence, 4, 32

line segment, 4

logarithm, 24

M

obius transform, 22

meromorphic, 17

metric, 31

metric space, 31

modulus, 4

multiplicity

of a pole, 17

of a zero, 15

degree, 21

derivative, 7

differentiable, 7

disk, 4

distance, 31

distance function, 31

negative of a number, 3

39

40

open, 31

opposite of a path, 8

order

of a pole, 17

of a zero, 15

order of an entire function, 28

partial sum, 5

path, 8

smooth, 8

polar coordinates, 4

pole, 17

polynomial, 21

power series, 11

primitive, 10

principal part, 18

radius of convergence, 11

real part, 3

reciprocal, 3

residue, 18

Riemann sphere, 22

sequence

in a metric space, 31

of functions, 10

series, 5

geometric, 5

simply connected, 16

sine function, 23

singular part, 18

singularity

essential, 17

isolated, 17

removable, 17

stereographic projection, 22

topological space, 31

topology, 31

triangle inequality, 31

winding number, 13

INDEX

- 1 2 SinA Cos a = 2sin 30o Cos 30oUploaded bysunder81
- CAPE Pure MathematicsUploaded byShawn
- Std09-Maths-TM-2.pdfUploaded byTNPSCbooksmaterials
- Horizontal Curve FormulasUploaded byJuliette Mburu
- Ch6 - Trigonometry - Prelim MathsUploaded bydeborahmorton
- Trigonometry_ How to Find Minimum-maximum Values QuicklyUploaded byamitaich1991
- Complex Analysis - k HoustonUploaded byGeovane Junior
- Fourier SeriesUploaded byPankaj Bagga
- Mathcad - CAPE - 2007 - Math Unit 1 Paper 02Uploaded byDaniella Phillip
- Civeng4 StructuralUploaded bysenselessapprentice
- Save the EggUploaded byBrian Wong
- MVDE Summer 2015Uploaded byIsaiahGerardo
- 4037_s07_qp_2Uploaded byDiksha Koossool
- Differential equation exampleUploaded bycharndt
- Plugin Elmwood JUploaded byNashra19
- Section6_2Uploaded bysonti11
- 4037_w08_qp_2Uploaded bymstudy123456
- robotics assignment 2Uploaded byapi-253978194
- 04_review.pdfUploaded byTapara Saya Victor Raul
- 27aieee Answer Paper 1Uploaded bySnehil Arora
- EE 529 Paraxial ApproxUploaded byjamali5274
- Exam ReviewUploaded byJashandeep Singh Kochhar
- 03 Separable Equations2Uploaded byJohn Nelson
- 0606_s16_ms_13Uploaded byDevi Santhani Navarathanam Pillay
- math-9-4q-2016-2017-tq-abeto-version-3.13.2017.docxUploaded byHansel Villasor
- Basic Mathematics.pdfUploaded byArif ALi
- BasicUploaded bymeditans
- Macro CalculatorUploaded byLoNegro
- TrigSheet.pdfUploaded byabcd
- TrigSheet.pdfUploaded byМарија Ристић

- How to Script the Creation of a Replay Create a Volume From a Replay and Map a Replay Volume to a Server SC 6.3Uploaded bySean
- Creation of Entangled UniversesUploaded byYash
- Sections4-4-5_failure criteria.pdfUploaded byRelu Mititelu
- Kahle WickhamUploaded byAbhishek Das
- REPORT_Expt. 1-Chemical Reactions_MSc.lntphuc (20.4.2016)(1)Uploaded byLê Thắng
- EquilibriumUploaded byChristopher Morris
- Agent Free Monitoring Microsoft SCOM 2012 White PaperUploaded byfleetfox
- 02-OOP With JavaUploaded byHabtamu Hailemariam Asfaw
- March of the Candy Cane SoldiersUploaded bybujloudia235
- Project Scheduling -- Probabilistic PERTUploaded bySanjana Ganesh
- ABB_Pressure Transmitter_266DSH-EN_IUploaded byNumero-Uno Tim
- Inter StageUploaded byDeepak Chachra
- physics_u1_specimen_qp.pdfUploaded bywill bell
- 2001JUN15_AMD_AN2015Uploaded bySaurabh Bhise
- cs 2032 data warehousing and data mining question bank by gopiUploaded byapi-292373744
- Fiel Guide to Geometrical Optics - JJhon GreivenkampUploaded bywilliasj
- 5989-8321ENUploaded byFlor
- Pratt Pratt KatalogUploaded byMohammed Alnashar
- SoundPLAN Air ManualUploaded byCsongor Báthory
- ANALYSIS OF ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS.docUploaded byRatsih
- IRJET- Deriving One Dimensional Shallow Water Equations from Mass and Momentum Balance LawsUploaded byIRJET Journal
- Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Spied 2012Uploaded bythongbingdinh3394
- RF 382 InterfaceUploaded byΒΕΗΣ ΣΤΕΛΙΟΣ Veis Stelios
- MAG8000-O&MUploaded byehabkhalil
- Vector CalculusUploaded byMohammad Mofeez Alam
- Y5 Unit Plan SpreadsheetsUploaded byrobinson123456
- 1-s2.0-016041209490281X-mainUploaded bynasim
- Manual CyberOptics 8010680_ENUUploaded byIvanRemi
- Chemistry Notes (5124) for Senior ClassesUploaded byAdrian Robert Mwape
- Attenuation Measurement TechniqueUploaded bysabavoon