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English Grammar Step by Step

In order to form a passive2 sentence, we must bear in mind
the following:
The direct object of the active becomes the subject of
the passive.
Then, we add the verb be + the past participle of
the active verb.
When we have a direct object and an indirect object in
the active, both of them can be the subject of a passive
sentence, but the indirect object3 is usually preferred
as the subject of a passive sentence. If we wish to give
emphasis to the thing (DO) rather than the person (IO),
we make the direct object the subject of the passive
Somebody gave her (indirect object) an ice lolly
(direct object). (active)
Somebody gave an ice lolly to her. (active)
She was given an ice lolly. (passiveindirect object)
An ice lolly was given to her. (passivedirect object)
My mother has bought me a cardigan. (active)
My mother has bought a cardigan for me. (active)
I have been bought a cardigan. (passiveindirect object)
A cardigan has been bought for me. (passivedirect
If the information given by the subject of the active is
important, it must be mentioned in the passive by using
by4 + the subject of the active. This is called the
agent. An active sentence like Someone stole my car
becomes My car was stolen in the passive. We cannot say
My car was stolen by someone because someone does not
provide any useful information. Compare the following
example with the one just seen: Peter stole my carMy
car was stolen by Peter. In this case, the agent is
necessary because if we remove it, we omit some
important information. A sentence such as The police
arrested the thief becomes The thief was arrested in
the passive, as there is no need to mention the agent
here, since it is already implied by the context that
the job of the police is to do things of this sort.
Change the following sentences from the active voice to the
passive voice.

Example: (simple present)

The window cleaner cleans these windows once a week. (active)
These windows are cleaned once a week. (passive)


We never use this television set.

They make furniture here.
People call him Mr Efficient.
They teach French and German here.
They pay us very badly.

Example: (simple past)

Her sergeant wounded her with a knife last night. (active)
She was wounded by her sergeant with a knife last night5.

a Christopher Columbus discovered America in 1492.

b They offered me a rise.
c The police arrested him for murder.
d They cancelled the meeting owing to unavoidable
e They swore the president in6 yesterday.

Example: (present continuous)

He is washing my car. (active)
My car is being washed. (passive)


Nobody is doing anything about it.

Are you offering me a bonus?
Are they renting the house now?
They are still holding the meeting.
Theyre still discussing the same topic.

Example: (past continuous)

Somebody was robbing the bank when the alarm went off.
The bank was being robbed when the alarm went off. (passive)
a They were interrogating him then.
b They were installing a burglar alarm in the house when he
c A tiger was chasing us when they saw us.
d We noticed that someone was following us.
e Nobody was feeding the bears when we got there.

Examples: (infinitives7)
Theyll lend us THE MONEY WE NEED. (active)
Well be lent the money we need. (passive)
THE MONEY WE NEED will be lent TO us. (passive)
Theyre going to give her A BOX OF CHOCOLATES. (active)

Shes going to be given a box of chocolates. (passive)

A BOX OF CHOCOLATES is going to be given TO her. (passive)
You should recast your speech in more formal language.
Your speech should be recast in more formal language.

If you behave well, Ill buy you a cornet.

We ought to build the dog a kennel.
They wont pay you tomorrow.
Were going to need a lot of help.
We cant carry out our threat.

Examples: (perfect infinitives8)

They cant have hijacked the aeroplane. (active)
The aeroplane cant have been hijacked. (passive)

a They would have signed the contract if you hadnt put your
in it. (Leave the if-clause unchanged.)
b They must have redecorated their house.
c In two months time, this contagious disease will have
all the population in the town.
d The town council would have contracted out the job of
the streets to this firm if they were more efficient.
e Nobody can have kidnapped her.

Examples: (perfect tenses9)

Nobody has seen her for the last two weeks. (active)
She has not been seen for the last two weeks. (passive)


They still havent finished the report.

When we went there, they had already sold the house.
They have overlaid the walls of our house with a synthetic
fibre against damp.
d Later on, I realised that somebody had eaten my ice-cream
as well.
e Somebody has torn the buttons of my jacket off.

Revision exercise.
They used to cut this fabric by hand, but now they use a
They showed me the door.
Id have opened the door if I had had the key.
The police have trapped two of the murderers so far.
My wife gives me a kiss every single morning.
Did Jane Green win the tournament?
Many people would not have contracted AIDS if they had been
more careful.


Im afraid well have to put off the programme on account

of circumstances beyond our control.
Somebody had torn some pages out of her diary.
A rabid dog attacked my father when he was striding across
the fields.
The way he smelled put me off.
Did he promise her the moon?
They sell fish and chips10 here.
Last month someone punctured three of my tyres.
Shell set her fierce dog on anyone that enters the place.
Somebody had slashed two of my tyres.
A ferocious beast must have attacked and killed her.
Who discovered penicillin?
Alexander Fleming discovered it in 1928.
They are pulling down the old cinema.
Jane Austen wrote Pride and Prejudice.
The enemy was invading the island when our air force arrived.
The enemys commando throttled the sentry and blew up the
powder magazine.
We repair dishwashers.
Somebody stabbed her when she was sleeping.
The local authority should knock this building down.
They havent invited Amy to their party.

Examples: (infinitives and gerunds)

We dont want you to invite Amy. (active)
We dont want Amy to be invited. (passive)
I would like you to send me A COPY OF THE CONTRACT. (active)
I would like to be sent a copy of the contract. (passive;
the subject of the sentence and the indirect object are
the same (I-me), so the indirect object is omitted.)
I would like A COPY OF THE CONTRACT to be sent TO me.
direct object)
I dont mind people sending her FLOWERS. (active)
I dont mind her being sent flowers. (passiveindirect
I dont mind FLOWERS being sent TO her. (passivedirect
I dont mind people sending me FLOWERS. (active)
I dont mind being sent flowers. (passive; the subject of
the sentence and the indirect object are the same (I-me),
so the indirect object is dropped.)
I dont mind FLOWERS being sent TO me. (passivedirect

I cant stand people laughing at me.

I dont like my pupils to give me gifts.
I asked them to admit me to the club.
Id prefer them not to phone me.
They dislike people shouting at them.

10 Example:
He saw an ice-cream van park in front of his house. (active)

An ice-cream van was seen TO park in front of his house.

Some verbs are followed by an object + an infinitive without
to, but take a to-infinitive in the passive. For more
see unit 23, section 5.

They made him work in shifts.

He heard her say that her van was in its last legs.
Everyone watched him strike her with a stick.
They made us confess everything.
We saw Brenda dance to rock and roll music.

11 Examples:
People say
He is said
It is said
People say
He is said
It is said

(that) he is a raver. (active)

to be a raver. (passive)
(that) he is a raver. (passive)
(that) he was a raver. (active)
to have been11 a raver. (passive)
(that) he was a raver. (passive)

The two passive constructions seen above are synonymous

and only possible with verbs such as say, think,
believe, consider, find, know, report.

They claimed he stole/had stolen her purse.

They expect that the match will take place on Friday evening.
People think she is touched.
They alleged that he robbed/had robbed the jewellers.
People consider that he was a corrupt politician.

12 Examples:
She suggested breaking into the house by night. (active)
She suggested that they should break into the house by
night. (active)
She suggested that the house should be broken into12 by
night. (passive)
They advised us to buy a new tractor. (active)
They advised buying13 a new tractor. (active)
They advised that we should buy a new tractor. (active)
They advised that a new tractor should be bought. (passive)
We were advised to buy a new tractor. (passive)
They decided not to lend him ANY MONEY. (active)
They decided that they should not lend him ANY MONEY.
They decided that he should not be lent any money. (passive)
They decided that NO MONEY should be lent TO him. (passive)
After some verbs we can have two structures in the active: a
gerund or an infinitive and a should-construction; the latter
being more formal. In the passive, the should-construction is
required, unless we have a verb such as advise, in which

case the indirect object may be the subject of a passive

sentence; thus, we can avoid using should. For further
information, see unit 22, section 36. Despite what we have
seen here, there are other options, but they are usually less
common than the ones used in this section. For these options,
see the next section.

She urged her boss to expand the business.

He ordered14 his men to take up their positions right then.
The authorities recommended not making any fires in the area.
The Prime Minister insisted upon reducing the public
We suggested employing another accountant.

13 Examples:
People have demanded that the government should create more
jobs. (active)
It has been demanded that more jobs should be created.
They decided15 not to lend him any money. (active)
They decided that they should not lend him ANY MONEY.
It was decided not to lend him any money. (passive)
It was decided that he should not be lent any money/that NO
MONEY should be lent TO him. (passive)
People suggested16 not demolishing the building.
People suggested that no-one should demolish the building.
It was suggested not demolishing the building. (passive)
It was suggested that the building should not be
demolished. (passive)
We can use it as a preparatory subject of a that-clause,
an infinitive construction or a gerund phrase to make a
passive sentence, as has just been seen above. Nonetheless,
you must take into account that this is only possible with
some verbs, such as demand, decide and suggest.
Compare this section with the previous one.
a They have recommended not to use dynamite in the mine.
b They have recommended that nobody should consume this
of cheese, as they say that some batches are off.
c One may well think that one should put a traitor to death.
d They have announced that they are going to cut down
public spending.
e People are demanding to know the whys and wherefores of
their decision.
14 Examples:
I had/got my fountain pen pinched. (= Somebody pinched my
fountain pen.)

We had/got our van fixed yesterday. (= A mechanic fixed our

van yesterday.)
We use have/get something done17 to denote that somebody
does something to us or for us. Get is colloquial, and
may indicate some sort of difficulty or effort, or the
idea of having something to do. For additional information,
see units 6 (part 4, sections 5 and 6) and 23 (section 10).
a A translator is going to translate this letter into English
b This tap is dripping. Well have to employ a plumber to mend
c Somebody bruised my eye in a fight.
d Someone has broken my spectacles.
e A hairdresser is doing her hair.
15 Revision exercise.
a They are taking down our former house.
b I do not object to your promoting me, but I do object to
your paying me so little.
c They thought he was overseas.
d The wind had torn the flag away from its pole.
e Who signed this document?
My brother signed it.
f They have promised us the earth.
g He proposed our giving them a pay rise.
h Id love you to take me to the opera tonight.
i Shes not responsible for telling the enemy our intentions.
j He allows18 his students to use dictionaries in his
k Somebody helped her to exterminate the plague of rats.
l The government has decided to spend more money on education.
m The murderer had ripped the phone wires out so that no-one
could ring the police.
n Her boss sent her to London last month.
o Im sick and tired of people taking me photographs.
p A mechanic is going to check my brakes.
q We saw and killed the enemy when they were sliding into
the barracks.
r We hate people ordering us around.
s The painter is painting my bungalow.
t People believe that he has not gone out with a woman in his
u Simon Brown knocked Tony Taylor down in the second round.
v We saw her leave the house hurriedly.
w We saw her speaking to Mrs Green.
x Peter Jones holds the world record for javeling throwing.
y Well have to invest more money in the project.
z The strangler strangled her with a scarf.

Not all transitive verbs take the passive voice:

She has a car (active)
*A car is had. (This passive construction is not correct.)

Reflexive and reciprocal pronouns cannot be the subject

of a passive sentence:
I sent myself a bunch of flowers. (active)
*Myself was sent a bunch of flowers. (This passive
is impossible.)
We kissed each other. (active)
*Each other was kissed. (This passive sentence
is not possible.)
Deserve, need, require and want plus a gerund have a
passive meaning: This plant needs watering/to be
watered. For more details, see unit 23, section 18.
This passive construction is impossible in some languages;
for instance, in Catalan and Castilian.
Occasionally, another preposition can occur in place of by:
What she said amazed me.
I was amazed by/at what she said.



Note also:
My heart filled with sadness.
Sadness filled my heart
My heart was filled with sadness. (not by sadness)
Note the word order.
Swear in is normally used in the passive.
Infinitives continuous are avoided in the passive:
They cant be cleaning the swimming-pool.
*The swimming-pool cant be being cleaned. (This structure
is not generally used so as to avoid the combination be
Perfect continuous infinitives are avoided in the passive:
They ought to have been fixing my car.
*My car ought to have been being fixed. (This construction
is not normally used so as to avoid using been being.)
In order to avoid saying been being, we do not usually
put perfect continuous tenses into the passive voice:
They have been attacking us for the last two days.
*We have been being attacked for the last two days. (Avoid
This object is singular.
The perfect infinitive refers to a previous action.
Another instance: The authorities reported (a later
action) that he was murdered/had been murdered (an
earlier action) with a knife.He was reported
to have been murdered with a knife/It was reported
that he was murdered/had been murdered with a knife.
Compare this with the following:
People said he was handsome.
He was said to be handsome. (to have been handsome
would imply that he was not handsome any more or that
he was already dead.)

It was said (that) he was handsome.

The subjunctive is also possible with these verbs; the only
thing you have to do is to leave out the word should: She
suggested that the house be broken into. For the employment
of the subjunctive, see unit 22, sections 35, 36 and 37.
See unit 23, section 7.
This structure indicates that he told his men direct; the one
with should, that he told somebody else, which is why it
be much better not to use the should-construction here.
Note the position of the agent:
His employer decided not to lend him any money.
His employer decided that he should not lend him any money.
It was decided by his employer not to lend him any money.
It was decided by his employer that he should not be
lent any money/that no money should be lent to him.
Notice the position of the agent:
The authorities suggested not demolishing the building.
The authorities suggested that no-one should demolished
the building.
It was suggested by the authorities not demolishing
the building.
It was suggested by the authorities that the building
should not be demolished.
However, it is possible to say the following as well:
My fountain pen was pinched.
Our van was fixed yesterday.
See unit 23, section 7.
Author: Miquel Molina i Diez

Pages: 1 and the key

1 Negative and interrogative sentences (Page 2 and the key)
2 Short answers (Page 2 and the key)
3 Question tags (Page 2 and the key)
4 Questions and exclamations (Page 2 and the key)
5 So, neither, nor, either (the key)
6 Be, used to, would, be/get/become used to, dare, have, get, become, grow, go, turn, fall and
feel (Page 2 and the key)
7 Verb tenses: forms (Page 2 and the key)
8 Irregular verbs
9 Verb tenses: uses (Page 2, Page 3, Page 4, Page 5 and the key)
10 Personal pronouns, possessives and reflexive pronouns (Page 2 and the key)
11 The genitive case (the key)
12 Singular and plural nouns (Page 2 and the key)
13 Gender (the key)
14 A, an, some, any, no, not, none, each, every and the; compounds of some, any, no and
every (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)
15 Neither, not...either, none, not...any, both and all (the key)

16 A few, few, a lot, lots, a little, little, many, much, no and plenty (the key)
17 Enough, too, so and such (the key)
18 Comparative and superlative sentences (Page 2 and the key)
19 Adjective order (the key)
20 Relative clauses (Page 2 and the key)
21 Do and make (the key)
22 Modal verbs (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)
23 Infinitives, gerunds and present participles (Page 2 and the key)
24 Conditional sentences (Page 2 and the key)
25 Passive sentences (the key)
26 Reported speech (Page 2 and the key)
27 Purpose (the key)
28 Word order (the key)
29 Inversion (the key)
30 Connectors (Page 2 and the key)
31 Prepositions (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)
32 Phrasal verbs (the key)

UNIT 9 - The key

1a boil; are b rises; sets c does not revolve d never take
e usually works
2a boil; is dripping b is getting c Are you watching d is
your daughter getting e are they doing; are building
3a is taking b am staying c are inviting d is taking e is
4a is lodging b do not fly c is having d is watering;
generally waters e Do you usually leave f normally arrives
g are making h is destroying i is smoking j is beginning k
leads l is pouring m is not getting n is cooking o makes p
never irons q expands; contracts r Are you going; is
pouring s eat t Are they learning u always give v Dont you
ever pray; pray; go w gather x are having y is making z is
5a are b dislikes c knows d seems e do not mind
6a am expecting b expect c tastes d are you smelling; Does
it smell e hurt/are hurting
7a is being b is being c are being d is being e is being
8a is constantly boasting b always arrive c are always
cheating d are continually getting e is perpetually smoking
9a are just sitting b is just winning c are just going d is
just getting e is just having

10a produce b am trying c want d aches/is aching e feel/am

feeling f is she doing; is watching; loves g do you do h
normally work; are being i am j live k makes l is; is
looking m are inviting; n smells o is doing p consider q
are all these people clapping; is r are the children doing;
are playing; are all the time playing; Dont you think; is
s proves; am t are you tasting; am; like u are always
telling; know; hate v is just arriving w feel/am feeling x
does not often perspire y are being z is rotting
11a are you carrying b do not generally wear; am wearing c
is not joining d is not coming e are using
12a leaves b stay; go; spend; leave; head; arrive; have;
continue c thinks; sails; discovers d does the volleyball
match finish e run
13a was just going; tripped; tumbled b saw; was flying c
was taking; put d was forever snatching; was e were
gradually forgetting; caught; were
14a dont you bring b isnt he wearing; always wears; do
not know c didnt you come d found e Do you suffer; am; am
f think; are; make g was going; approached; shot; h was
wondering1; dont you ask your parents; dont want;
squander i was flying; came j are belching; gets k saw;
treated; felt l was; was walking m arose; were; was;
managed; saw; succeeded n rose; did not pay; simply
followed; heard, remembered o dreamt/dreamed; were
creeping; was; looked; was crawling p awoke; realised q
hanged; accused; was; do you know; was; robbed r hung;
stole s hit, ran t did not forgive; felt; had; is living u
forgot v had; came; had/has; is considering; does not want;
detests w think; is; dare; are x stabbed; were having; ran;
are looking y did she get; made; signed; was working z are
perpetually leaving
15a drew; shot; did he use b has not rained c has written d
did not clear e told; was; burst
16a have just shaken b has just admitted c Has anybody just
called d have just had e have just killed
17a spoilt/spoiled b said; are; not only kill; are still
suffering; get; is; have; do not look; Are we c is; grows d
have been; do not fight e beset; was f told; was; gave g
has made h eats, feed; Dont you think; is; dont you feed
i were diving; appeared j was blowing; crapped k delayed;
had l saw; were lying m have been seeking/have sought; have
not found n usually sweeps; did not sweep; still has not

swept/still hasnt swept/has still not swept; is o does she

look; has (got); is p have not heard; went q entered;
heard; did you do; asked r is accompanying; wish s was
bleeding; got t have devoted u are constantly libelling v
keeps w is just giving; goes x has just given; have just
become y flung z jumped; had
18a have never seen b Have you fed c Has he ever fallen d
Havent we been e has painted
19a has phoned b has not eaten c sewed d has not shone e
have won
20a assume; follow b has shrunk c have sent d have rebuilt;
are considering; belongs e have sawn; have not sawn f Have
you ever ridden; rode; have never ridden g ever spells/has
ever spelt/ spelled; h is forever spitting i feel/am
feeling j give k drank; had; had l Does God exist; asked;
responded m am playing n conducted o has always led; does
not know; means p jumped; escaped q wanted; ran;
leapt/leaped r overtook; crashed s broadcast t have never
besought/beseeched; need; owe u are inviting v has lent;
is; is always trying/always tries w do not understand; are
saying/say; do not speak x came; was crying y is leaning z
told; did not trust; hung
21a has composed b composed c has ever made d have flown e
has built
22a Have you ever seen b Has she still not thrown c Has he
paid d have already manufactured e have been
23a am spending b wrote c bought; is not working d Have you
heard; have just forbidden e froze f overslept g undertook;
only obeyed h has stopped; Did you wind; am; forgot i
abandoned; underpaid j was searching; was having k
happen/should happen l is always boasting; do not like m am
giving n hardly ever let; really want o are perpetually
entreating; do not feel; have offered; prefer p hid;
managed; succeded; is living q never chats; is chatting r
won s open t dont you put; is u got; were; tried; arrived
v are being w lit x has bitten; muzzles y is being repaired
z saw; broke; got; wanted; think; work; are
24a have arrested; did that happen b have passed; did you
do c have been; last went d has had e has asked; did he
ask; did you answer; answered
25a have never been b has never eaten c have never drunk d
never drink e never poke/have never poked

26a has painted; is thinking b has left c held d sank e

swore; died; keep f are continually upsetting; dont you
leave g is forever beating; wish h did not know; had i
bespoke j does maelstrom mean; means k came; did not give l
have rewritten; still is not/still isnt/is still not/is
not still m went n were; hated; lived; were quarrelling;
liked o smoke; drink; are damaging; dont you try p never
snored; snores; suffers q has never hurt r Has your
conscience ever smitten; do not believe s only struck;
exploded t are eating u were not going; were coming v has
just stung; itches/is itching w get x think; is leaking;
dont you send y dates z has just bought
27a comes2 b arrives c (had) had; came d get e could3
say/had been able to say/were able to say; (had) told
28a have been running b has been drawing c has drawn d have
drunk e have been drinking
29a has sculped b has been knitting c has knitted d have
you been doing; have been greasing e has been pulling
30a rings b think c has been stalking/has stalked; presume
d was stalking; noticed; ran e are; are f look g set; is
looking h hates; says; stole; wants; guess; is; fear i
gripped; saved j Have you ground; have bought k keep l have
not cast; Do you think m sound n did not rewind o dressed;
missed p has outgrown; no longer likes q breeds/is
breeding; thought r bet; lost; did not win s have misled;
have just done; is t have not repaid; do not do it u
dwelt/dwelled v is continously bending; reckon w are still
clinging; has not died; have not found; presume x mistook;
said; was not; liked; assumed; wanted y misspells z are
thinking; are considering
31a have been wishing b has loved c has been longing d have
been thinking e has had
32a has been sleeping4 b has been snowing c has been
thundering d have always wanted e have been taking
33a has been eroding/has eroded b have you been married;
have been married; Have you been changing/have you changed;
got; have had; Are you thinking; loves; wishes; sympathize
c is forever dwelling; made d do not believe e has been
wanting f withdrew g do you make h taught; was i have been
waiting j suppose; restored k have done; have not finished
l have been hunting/have hunted m has spread n are always
making; wish o know; have been leaking/have leaked; confess
p hangs; seeps q went; was not running r begins; ends s
produces; disappear/have disappeared; does not wear; does

not pass t have rebuked; u think; have misheard; have just

said v do not overcome w has just bitten x proved y stings
z was
34a had been working/had worked b had never lived c still
had not/ still hadnt/had still not turned d had just
regained e had begged
35a switched; had fled b wanted; had not done; was c had
reserved; arrived d got; noticed, had snowed/had been
snowing; were; had been making; had left; had had; had not
had e had struck; was lying; had
36a had been whispering; (had) arrived; told; did not want;
left b had eaten; had never seen c was snowing/had been
snowing/had snowed; was watching; brought; was d came, had
already passed; felt/could feel; was getting e had already
perished; did not feel; had appeared; was f was; treated;
was; wished; did not find g brake h tries; has i abided;
did j does not bend k do you make l acted; ruled m has been
lying n dates o was just going; owed; appeared p Have you
been overeating; have had q has been shoeing; did not know;
was r have been; Are wars s came; told; had been weaving;
felt/was feeling; told t kidnapped; underfed; liberated u
have never met v still has not/still hasnt/has still not
apologised w has never worked; prefers; disagrees x is
always saying; pities; drives y had just bought; were
sitting z heard; dived
37a am not doing/am not going to do b am having c is
buying/is going to buy d are supplying e are going (to go)
38a are going to furnish; are looking b is getting c are
you going; am going to hail d was peeling/was going to peel
e was going to peel
39a is he going to do; is going to shear; was going to cut
b will light c will make d am going to be e am going to fix
40a mishit b withheld; want; am not going to help c never
forbear d are you going; am going to cut; will look; will
help e have been learning/have learnt/have learned f will
bring g kept; was doing h had misspent i very rarely use j
had treated; said k did you buy l had studied/had been
studying; smelt/smelled; had been; scolded; are not m
thinks; believes n do not add; remains o Do you mind; smoke
p tells; always begs q learnt/learned; had been doing/had
done/were doing; felt r persuaded; loved s has beaten; will
teach; is always hitting t shook; burst; was u does be
born mean; means v carries w does a cat shed x always has;
does not like y will take; (will) try z got; had already

41a will recognise (I think so.)/are going to recognise
(There are signs of this or I am convinced about this.) b
will have to resign (He has no other alternative.); is
going to resign (This is his intention.) c will believe d
will refuse e will perceive
42a had sprung b would not be here c will get d would not
have become e overflew
43a Arent you going to play/Arent you playing b
Will/Would you answer c Are they really going to decorate d
Will/Would you organize e Are you going to take/Are you
44a do b went; was wearing c Will/Would you find d Have you
insured e do not keep f Will/Would you give g had never
strung; liked h Are you meeting; is waiting i Will/Would
you stand j had torn; (had) thrown k would not seek l are
you going; am going to buy; are m Is it raining n will take
o do not know; will ask p have censured; has been
handling/has handled q misunderstood; misunderstand; have;
learn; do; see; happens r did not want; had done s Did you
know; did it happen; heaved t have felt/have been feeling;
Have you been poisoning u Is you daughter coming/Is your
daughter going to come v disobey w will take x have not
brought; will lend y had not wrung z had rebound; would not
have come; would not be missing
45a will not come b will not use c will not eat d will not
hunt e will not make
46a were going to perish b are going to crash c is going to
be d is going to shoot e is going to beat
47a will watch b will release c will treat d will give;
will have e will root; (will) plant
48a invite b do not bid c will/shall stay d is not e
49a will have b saw c is; will attack; bit; was going d
will/shall miss e will/shall have f wrung; congratulated;
was going g bellow h have been hoping/have hoped; left i
will get j will never be; works k had knelt/had kneeled;
(had) prayed l retold m studied n would not be/would not
have been; will take o had foretold p had already killed;
was q brings r entered; had abandoned s did not want t are
eating; will buy u likes/liked v sneezed w interwove x had
just spilt/had just spilled; had done y am just coming z

stink; have not washed

50a will always fear5; will defend b will never listen c
would crack d will send e will take
51a Shall we go b Shall I come c shall/should we do d
Shall/Will I live e Shall I stay
52a shall6 have b Will you be; will c shall pay d shall
have e Will you shut
53a will intend b knew; would like; bought c will remember;
see; promise; know; will/shall always love d had crossbred
e will/shall find f will encourage/is going to encourage g
passed h loathe; will happen i had retaken j will have k
will/shall wring l Shall we help m Shall we pick n have
withstood; will/shall beat o Will they accommodate; will p
is always forcing q waylaid; Did he report; do not know r
has not been; shall not/will not have s had misdealt/had
been misdealing; got t outwitted; crossed u shall/will come
v dont we investigate w underwrote x will bring; will cook
y am studying; is expecting z had speeded; would have
reached; will/shall be
54a do not make b Do not count c Do not make d Do not make
e Come; Make
55a had b to declare c were not/was not d took e die; help
56a had stayed b had not mixed c had not emptied d had not
eaten e had not called
57a would not graze b would rain c would stop d would get e
would not hail
58a were/was b remind c will turn d dont we go; have e not
overlook f Make g had not upbraided h Do not overdo; will
believe i had not sedated j to go k to get l Help m said;
move; will/shall kill n shall/will eat o will find p has
rusted q seem; are always mislaying r forsook; died; did he
do; think; had; fled s overspend t Halt; Halt; will/shall
shoot u had not screamed; will know v would stop w did not
come; do not invite x do not do y had not endured; had
asked z outbid; is; inherited/has inherited (or was; had
59a were/was b are having c have d were/was e have
60a will not start (or does not start) b would like c like
d would train e will/would tell

61a was badly miscast b has just been inlaid c is/has

swollen d has been read e be sent
62a does not like b have been overselling/have oversold; do
not think c were/was d will/would kindly sign; will not
have e like f had not sold; would have got g do not tell;
have seen h had not been put; will/shall never get i would
like; will have j put k dreamt/ dreamed; was following;
wanted; ran; was always l keep; stop; will be taken; will
be tortured m will not apprehend/do not apprehend n would
not regard o do not contradict p Will/Would you pass q are
you going; am going to chop; will help; Have you (got)/Do
you have; Look r misread; thought s Shall I call t
undersell u have passed v smelt/smelled; were leaving w has
been sitting; Tell x go; will always find y Rid; will/shall
be given z has often overridden; has realized/realizes; am
63a will be working b will be chatting c will probably be
diving d will be breaking e will/shall be selling
64a will be collecting; will be wearing b Will you be
staying7/Are you staying/Are you going to stay c will/shall
be seeing d will be taking e Will you be using/Are you
going to use/Are you using
65a will not lend/is not going to lend8 b will not be
coming/is not coming c will not go/is not going (to go) d
will not rub/is not going to rub e will not be meeting/is
not meeting
66a were overpaid; told; was underpaid; dont you ask b was
she weeping; saw; had just had; had just been taken c would
like d had; had e asked f to walk g is; was born h
will/shall be kissing i was isolated j will not be going;
will be travelling k Do not touch l passed; contracted; did
he catch; think; is called m will be launching n was
leaving o will not sing p will not walk q saved; would be r
will be; do not think s Do not be; will not sting t have
ever met u will/shall be contemplating v had overseen w
will not partake/are not partaking/are not going to
partake; will/shall win (or did not partake; won) x is
beginning/will be beginning; will be y will probably be
saying; celebrates z had had; was; decided; arrived; had
slit; was lying
67a will have become b will have escaped c will have been d
will have been standing/will have stood e will have been
staying/will have stayed
68a do not take b is perpetually picking c Keep back; burst

d is forecast(ed) e will have risen f renovated g were

fluttering h are having; like i will not corroborate; will
try j will probably be wallowing; am wallowing k assure;
will/shall have exterminated l will have been firing/will
have fired; Dont you think m had not disappointed; do not
even want n had attacked o oversell p Will you be needing;
want q Stop r will have been raising s had gone t die; go u
will be drinking; drinks; goes v didnt you take; went w
outran; hid x had not ambushed y has left z had upheld;
would not be; will definately not follow/definately will
not follow/definately wont follow
69a chatting/having chatted; to look b to flutter c to take
d leaving e to rain/raining
70a persist; thinking; is; be b will forswear; is; do not
think c to be; undersell d need; is it; last varnished e
will play; will tell f to update g wish; had had h had not
ripped; told; had i to trust; will never fail j go; (will)
destroy k remind; to unfreeze; get l has sprinkled; Dont
you like; know; hate m being n will/shall let; know o
congratulated; winning p direct; Go; turn q have always
walked/are always walking; were/was; r have (got) s serves;
got t accept; know; u move; buy; mean; will have v ring w
have never taken; do not take; we will/shall lose x Will
you be using; take y got; realised; had been eating; had
also lit; (had also) drunk z were not; be; are
71a would be working b would kiss c would not go d would
not be going e would get/would be getting
72a would not stay b Will/Would you partake c will unfreeze
d did not say e will take; is not; say that he is/said that
he was; occurred f would not be g is; to make; meet; does
not change; will be h has subsided/subsides; will/shall
continue; stay; light i Will/Would you clear; will do; am
going to clear j eat k was raining/had rained/ had been
raining; lent l would not come m Not understanding; ran n
having died; going; advised; not to continue o had been
walking; to stop; (to) have; to eat p Stand; get q have
been dying; stop r has just had s had; had been drinking;
had drunk/drank; had not drunk; would not have had t
would/should be staying/was going to stay/was staying u
Will/Would you turn v will do w have been trying/have
tried; to get; were founded; remains x writing; not use y
had substituted z are; have you been working
I wonder if/whether would sound less hesitant:
I wonder if/whether you could come tomorrow. (Why dont you

come tomorrow?)
I was wondering if/whether you could lend me a thousand
pounds. (I do not know what you will say about this, but
the fact is that I need that sum of money.)
If we use has come, we imply that it will take her a long
time to come. The same goes for exercises b and d.
For could, see unit 22, section 2.
The simple form is not impossible in some cases where we
have used the continuous form, but the continuous tense is
a much better alternative.
The simple present is also possible in this section.
In this section, will is also possible instead of shall.
In the following sections, I shall only give the first
The first alternative in this section is far better than
the second. In the next sections, I have only included the
first one, usually.
Author: Miquel Molina i Diez

Pages: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and the key

1 Negative and interrogative sentences (Page 2 and the key)
2 Short answers (Page 2 and the key)
3 Question tags (Page 2 and the key)
4 Questions and exclamations (Page 2 and the key)
5 So, neither, nor, either (the key)
6 Be, used to, would, be/get/become used to, dare, have, get, become, grow, go, turn,
fall and feel (Page 2 and the key)
7 Verb tenses: forms (Page 2 and the key)
8 Irregular verbs
9 Verb tenses: uses (Page 2, Page 3, Page 4, Page 5 and the key)
10 Personal pronouns, possessives and reflexive pronouns (Page 2 and the key)
11 The genitive case (the key)
12 Singular and plural nouns (Page 2 and the key)
13 Gender (the key)
14 A, an, some, any, no, not, none, each, every and the; compounds of some, any, no
and every (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)
15 Neither, not...either, none, not...any, both and all (the key)
16 A few, few, a lot, lots, a little, little, many, much, no and plenty (the key)
17 Enough, too, so and such (the key)
18 Comparative and superlative sentences (Page 2 and the key)
19 Adjective order (the key)
20 Relative clauses (Page 2 and the key)
21 Do and make (the key)
22 Modal verbs (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)
23 Infinitives, gerunds and present participles (Page 2 and the key)
24 Conditional sentences (Page 2 and the key)

25 Passive sentences (the key)

26 Reported speech (Page 2 and the key)
27 Purpose (the key)
28 Word order (the key)
29 Inversion (the key)
30 Connectors (Page 2 and the key)
31 Prepositions (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)
32 Phrasal verbs (the key)