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HCB 2023/ HBB 2023: Islamic Knowledge And Sciences




Table of contents
Chapter 1: Museum Visit Summary......................................................................2
1.1 Introduction:.................................................................................................. 2
1.2 Arms and Armor collection inside the museum.......................................3
1.2.1 Lightness on Islamic Armour................................................................3
1.2.3 Overview of other sections:..................................................................4
1.3 Summary......................................................................................................... 6
Chapter 2: History and context of the middle ages..........................................7
2.1 Introduction:.................................................................................................. 7
2.2 Catholic church in the middle ages:...........................................................9
2.3 The rise of Islam in the middle ages:.........................................................9
2.4 Art and Architures in the middle ages:.....................................................9
Chapter 3: The stages of development of ancent arms:................................10
3.1 Abbriged history of acnient arms:...........................................................10
3.2 The charcterstic of Islamic arms during anient time:...........................11
3.3 Preservation on the techniques used in islamic arms:......................15
3.4 Arms and armor throighout islamic civilization:.................................18
Chapter 4: Arms in the early,later and present stages:
4.1 Prrent stage.............................................................................................. 19
4.2 Later stage................................................................................................ 19
4.3 Present stage........................................................................................... 20
Chapter 5: Arms & Armour during Malmluk And Othermanian period........21
5.1 Mamluk Period.......................................................................................... 19
5.2 Othmanian period.................................................................................... 19
Chapter 6: ARMS of the chirstian Medival ages..............................................21
6.1 Spears........................................................................................................ 19
6.2 Arrows and Longbows.............................................................................19
6.3Crossbows.................................................................................................. 19
Personal Reflection of the trip ...........................................................................21

References............................................................................................................. 22
Appendix................................................................................................................ 23

Chapter 1: Museum Visit Summary


1.1 Introduction:
It`s with great enthusiastic to establishes the visit to The Islamic Arts
museum for it`s impressive displays of beautifully decorated firearms,
swords, , maces, spears, shields and armor, which give a wide overview to
learn from the old history including wide ranging of collection of the ancient
stuff. The Islamic Arts Museum Malaysia opened in 1998, with 30,000 sq.m.
Of exhibition space located in a quiet corner of Kuala Lumpur next to the
scenic Lake Gardens provide the view of how the ancient Muslim In Middle
east, Africa, asia and southeast asia live long time ago after the death of
prophet Muhammad SAW based on artifacts. Evidence of the Ottoman
Empire such as the Mehmed II cannon, the replica of Haghia sopia a.ka. Blue
mosque signifies Islamic development In Turkey. Other mosques such as Taj
mahal in India shows the great Mughal Empire, Al Hambra of Granada shows
Andalusian Empire. Apart from the mosque it also prove the existence of
Muslim scientist from the books written by muslim scholars such as Ibnu
Sina, Ibnu Khaldun, Al Khawarizmi, Ibnu Rusyd and many others . History of
Islamic science derived from the Greeks, Indian and roman Philosophy
recorded by the influence in greeks ideas. Muslim costumes such as the
ottoman cannon, the Seljuk soldiers warsuit shows how the development of
military in Islam. The Islamic Arts Museum (IAMM) is one of the best
museums in Malaysia with over 7000 top quality artefacts from all over the
Islamic world.

Fig (1): Islamic Art Museum Malaysia

1.2 Arms and Armor collection inside the museum

1.2.1 Arts of war
Many cultures have put considerable effort into beautifying the arts of war,
but in the Islamic world there is a spiritual dimension as well. Religious
inscriptions abound. While Japanese and European armourers were also
adept at making a dramatic impression, their Muslim counterparts used the
written word to unparalleled effect. In addition to sophisticated acid-etching
techniques and inlays in precious metals, the superb quality of steel with a
high-carbon blend was allowed to shine through. Collected for centuries as
weapons, and much respected

by their opponents in warfare.

[Figure 1 ,A Large Horse, India 18th Century AD / 12th century AH]

Figure 2 ,Moro suit of armour Mindanao, Philippines 19th century AD / 13th

century AH

1.2.2 Lightness on Islamic Armour

Islamic armour has always been noted for its lightness and flexibility. The
most typical example is chain mail, often combined with steel plates. Equally
characteristic are the pointed helmets that were so widely used in Iran and
India. Inspiring fear, as well as admiration, was the objective. Helmets which
incorporated horns or the faces of ferocious animals must have made the
right impression, and horses were also equipped with awe-inspiring
headgear. Islamic warriors favoured armour that matched their weapons for
decorative effect. This might feature gilding, inlay, damascening or being set
with gems.

A picture of the old Islamic sword in othmanian kingdom

centurey /AD


1.2.3 Overview of other sections: India
Revealing the world of the Mughals with their superb Islamic metalwork and
examples of portraiture China
This is where the Chinese and Islamic influences merged to produce some
exquisite artworks including cloisonn wares and calligraphic scrolls. Malay World
In this gallery it emphasize the use of natural motifs such as plants, fruits
and clouds make their way into local arts such as textiles. Examples of wood
carving, metal handicrafts and kris designs are also featured. Jewellery
Displays include elaborate and opulent Indian jewellery sets made from
diamonds, emeralds, rubies and pearls together with examples of more

simple ethnic styles from North Africa, Central Asia and China featuring items
like nose and toe rings. Textiles
Collections of complete costumes from all over the Islamic world are on show
as well as some fine wall coverings and rugs. Arms & Armour
Impressive displays of beautifully decorated firearms, swords, daggers, axes,
maces, spears, shields and armour are on view. Coins & Seals
IAMM has a wide ranging collection of both coins and seals dating back many
centuries. Metalwork
Exhibits include brass and bronze trays, bowls, jugs, vases and so on. Ceramics
Blue and white collections, Ottoman Iznik ceramics, Kashan lustreware and
Nishapur calligraphic bowls are among the artefacts.

1.3 Summary
Based on the artifacts present, we can identify how Muslim way of arming
are differs and rich .Futuremore, it`s an consequence of what Muslim world
faces from colonization and to protect themselves they had developed to
many ways of defending themselves resulting in multi-armours and arms .
Armies, as well as individuals, had their own accoutrements. Military
standards have a universal value, although in the Islamic world they were
usually made from metal rather than cloth. Steel alam were used in most of

Islams empires. They tend not to be as elaborately ornamented as weapons

and armour, although they usually included inscriptions from the Quran and
details of the ruler to whom they belonged. Each of these groups of objects
was often signed by their maker.


2.1 Introduction:
In European history, the middle ages or medieval period lasted from
the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the collapse of the Western
Roman Empire and merged into the Renaissance and the Age of
Discovery. The middle ages is the middle period of the three traditional

divisions of western history: Antiquity, medieval period, and modern

period. The Medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early, the High,
and the Late Middle Ages [1].

The catholic church in the middle ages

After the fall of Rome, no single state or government united the
people who lived on the European continent. Instead, the Catholic
Church became the most powerful institution of the medieval period.
Kings, queens and other leaders derived much of their power from
their alliances with and protection of the Church.Ordinary people
across Europe had to tithe 10 percent of their earnings each year to
the Church; at the same time, the Church was mostly exempt from
taxation. These policies helped it to amass a great deal of money and
power [2].


The rise of Islam in the middle ages

Meanwhile, the Islamic world was growing larger and more powerful.
After the prophet Muhammads death in 632 CE, Muslim armies
conquered large parts of the Middle East, uniting them under the rule
of a single caliph. At its height, the medieval Islamic world was more
than three times bigger than all of Christendom [2].
The rise of Islam brought significant contributions to the medieval
world in politics, thought, and culture. Though the Empire was the
largest geographically for its time, the unity amongst regions of the
Muslim tribes and former Christian lands was remarkable. The
discovery of paper and the annual pilgrimage to Mecca not only
allowed for easy transmission of culture, but knowledge as well. The
advancements in science and philosophy would contribute greatly to
the medieval world in thought, politics, and everyday life.
The influences that the empire would have on its own regions and
that of Western Europe are evident through the translations and
commentaries of Aristotle into Arabic and later Latin. The role of the

Islamic Empire in the medieval world was one of preservation and

advancement upon a rich history of Greek thought and science that
otherwise, may very well have been lost [3].

Art and architecture in the middle ages :

As a way to show devotion to the Church was to build grand
cathedrals and other ecclesiastical structures such as monasteries.
Cathedrals were the largest buildings in medieval Europe, and they
could be found at the center of towns and cities across the
continent.Between the 10th and 13th centuries, most European
cathedrals were built in the Romanesque style. Romanesque cathedrals
are solid and substantial: They have rounded masonry arches and










windows.Also, before the invention of the printing press in the 15th

century, even books were works of art. Craftsmen in monasteries and
later in universities created illuminated manuscripts: handmade sacred
and secular books with colored illustrations, gold and silver lettering
and other adornments [2].
In the 12th century, urban booksellers began to market smaller
illuminated manuscripts, like books of hours, psalters and other prayer
books, to wealthy individuals.By the beginning of the 8th century, the
Carolingian Empire revived the basilica form of architecture. One
feature of the basilica is the use of a transept, or the "arms" of a crossshaped building that are perpendicular to the long nave. In the 12th
and 13th centuries, Europe saw economic growth and innovations in
methods of production. Major technological advances included the
invention of the windmill, the first mechanical clocks, the manufacture
of distilled spirits, and the use of the astrolabe. Military affairs saw an
increase in the use of infantry with specialized roles. Along with the
still-dominant heavy cavalry, armies often included mounted and
infantry crossbowmen, as well as sappers and engineers. The first

years of the 14th century were marked by famines, culminating in the

Great Famine of 131517 [1].
For many, the Muslim world in the medieval period 900-1300 means
the crusades. While this era was marked, in part, by military struggle,
it is also overwhelmingly a period of peaceable exchanges of goods
and ideas between West and East. Both the Christian and Islamic
civilizations underwent great transformations and internal struggles
during these years [4].
Islamic art and architecture, works of art and architecture created in
countries where Islam has been dominant and embodying Muslim
precepts in its themes.Abstract decoration of the surface is an
important factor in every work of Islamic art and architecture, whether
large or small. Curving and often interlaced lines, of which the
arabesque is a typical example, and the use of brilliant colors
characterize almost all of the finest productions, which are of greatly
varied styles.The earliest architectural monument of Islam that retains
most of its original form is the Dome of the Rock (Qubbat al-Sakhrah)
in Jerusalem as seen in figure(1), constructed in 69192 on the site of
the Jewish Second Temple. Muslims believe it to be the spot from which
Muhammad ascended to heaven.


Figure (5) : Dome of the Rock (Qubbat al-Sakhrah) in Jerusalem

Late in the 9th century the governor of Egypt, Ibn Tulun, initiated the
high period of Egypto-Islamic art with the building of his famous
mosque in Cairo. In the 10th century. TheFatimids introduced into
Egypt the decorative stalactite ceiling from Iran and placed emphasis
on decorative flat moldings. The most important Fatimid buildings are
the Cairo mosques of al-Azhar and al-Aqmar [5].
In India a distinct style, preserved mainly in architecture, developed
after the Delhi Sultanate was established (1192). This art made
extensive use of stone and reflected Indian adaptation to Islam rule,
until Mughal art replaced it in the 17th cent. The square Char Minar of
Hyderabad (1591) with large arches, arcades, and minarets is typical.
From the 10th to the mid-13th century great strides were made in
the arts; Egypt became a center of these arts and of calligraphy, which
was of prime importance all over the Islamic world. Arabic script
represents the expression of the will and strength of Allah, and as such
is regarded as sacred by the faithful. One of Islam's most renowned
calligraphers was Ibn Muqlah of Baghdad who invented the six most
prominent cursive scripts. Certain scripts were favored for specific
uses, such as Kufic for copying the Qur'an.
Islam was able to draw on a much more varied range of models for
cultic buildings than was Christianity, which says much for the
simplicity of Islamic communal worship and its refusal to be tied down
to a narrow range of architectural expression. Its austerely simple
liturgy meant that Islam could appropriate almost any kind of building
for worship [6].



In all countries, and as much among primitive tribes as among civilized
nations, the question of weapons has been on of great importance. From the
beginning, man, exposed on the earth without arms of defense, must have
been forced to invent methods of repelling the attacks of those creatures
who were him joint properties of the soil, and to whom Nature, in depriving
them reason, had given as compensation natural weapons. Hence, weapons,
originally invented for destructive purposes, have become the most powerful
means of civilization; the improvement of these deadly instruments has
constantly supplied deficiency of numbers, and finally secured the triumph of
reason; for, in modern times, the most ambitious of conquerors contributes
to civilization, since he is always followed by the pioneers of intellectual and
mechanical culture. Gunpowder has, in all probability, opened the road to
printing, has lessened the stoppages and smoothed the road of progress by
supplying strength to disciplined minorities arrayed against barbarous
masses. Mind has found means of resisting and subduing brute force. If we
deplore warfare, we must not regret the ever increasing perfection of
weapons, which, by shortening renders it eventually less fatal to mankind.
Even among the most backward in civilization, the improvement of
weapons can have nothing injurious to the progressive march of society,

since all progress is mutually advantageous; and soon as intellectual culture

gains ground, no matter in what branch, the chances of unjust war, and
dread of the reign of brute force, diminish. Of the earliest known civilizations
such as f those of India and America, though lost and almost ignored, has left
the most ancient trace of a defensive weapon, perfected in its form.
Earth, wood, stone and the skins of animals, which can be found over
all the earth, must of necessity have been the first materials which man
employed in the manufacture of his utensil and weapons. The use of stones
for the manufacture of the latter dates back everywhere to the infancy of all


3.2 The characteristic of the Islamic armors during ancient time :

The most familiar characteristic of Islamic armor is perhaps the distinctive
conical-shape helmets, which, with some variation, are found in most
European and Near Eastern areas under Islamic rule. One variation is known
as a "turban helmet." Its prototype can be found in the pre-Islamic Sasanian
tradition (224336) of Persia, but its sweeping outline, reminiscent of the
domes of mosques, has contributed to this type of helmet being recognized
today as decidedly Islamic. Many of the early surviving examples date from
the fifteenth century and seem to have been made in Iran and Turkey.
Additional protection was afforded by shields, usually of round shape, and
constructedunlike the majority of their European counterpartsof metal.
The weapon most readily associated by today's audiences with Muslim
warriors of bygone times is probably the scimitar or saber, having a long,
slightly curved blade with a single cutting edge. Other arms included javelins
(throwing spears), battle axes, maces, and recurve bows (so called because
the ends of the arms/limbs in their relaxed state curve forward, adding
additional momentum to the arrow when the bow is strung). Although the
above weapons were certainly also used by foot soldiers, all were essentially
suited for use by cavalry.
Firearms had been introduced to the Islamic world by trade and armed
conflict in both the East and West, and the manufacture of cannon and
handheld firearms became a highly regarded craft in many regions under
Islamic rule. What are today commonly referred to as "Islamic firearms" are
weapons from various regions, which were derived from seventeenth-century
European prototypes in the construction of their locks and in the shape of
their butts. Many were fitted either with European locks, acquired by trade or
as booty, or with locks that were manufactured in Islamic regions but were in
fact copies of European types. Some types, such as the matchlock, remained
popular in some areas under Islamic rule until long after they had become

obsolete in western Europe.

Many examples of Islamic arms and armor are especially noteworthy for their
opulent decoration, a fact for which they were already renowned in the
Middle Ages. Sword blades of "Damascus steel" or "watered steel" refer to
blades that had been given a wavy or "watered" pattern, produced in the
steel prior to forging using specific smelting and crucible techniques.
Although this technique was practiced in the Islamic Middle East at least
since the Middle Ages, in western Europe such blades were believed to
originate from Damascus (Syria), hence the name. Along similar lines, the
inlay of metal surfaces such as those of a breastplate or a sword blade with
gold or silver was known as "damascening," a term again alluding to the city
of Damascus and the apparent Eastern origins of this technique.
3.3 Preservation on the techniques used in Islamic arms :
Islamic arms and armor were decorated using a variety of techniques such as
damascening, gilding, inlay, gold and silver encrusting, as well as setting
with jewels and enameling. On some ceremonial items, the decoration could
achieve such sumptuous and spectacular effects that the final appearance of
the object has more in common with an item of jewelry than a weapon.
Indeed, the splendor of the Mughal empire was such that even today the
term "mogul" is synonymous with enormous wealth and power, a notion









of Islamic

iconography on arms and armor is confined tocalligraphy. Although the

representation of (sacred) figures is not strictly forbidden in the Qur'an,
images as objects of devotion were avoided in Islamic art from its very
beginning. Islamic artists relied instead on the words of the Prophet
Muhammad to inspire and to give literal shape to their designs. As a result,
calligraphy in Islamic lands developed into a fine art, becoming in the
process the principal form of religious ornament. Thus, Islamic arms and

armor were often decorated with a wide variety of Qur'anic passages and
pious invocations, which functioned as expressions of piety, as powerful
defenses in the form of talismans, or simply as visually pleasing ornament..
3.4 Arms and Armor throughout Islamic Civilization
"Islamic arms and armor" is to some degree restrictively connected to arms
and armor of the Mamluk period (12501517) in Egypt and Syria, the
Ottoman empire (ca. 12991922), the Near East, particularly Persia, and
those ranges of India under Mughal rule (15261858). Contrasted with its
European partners, it is generally lighter and less extensive. An example is
with the improvement of plate armor toward the start of the fifteenth
century, western Europe had to a great extent consigned this sort of defense
to a secondary position. In Islamic armor, the utilization of plate was
normally restricted to cap, short vambraces and greaves, and, to some
degree, fortification of the mail.
Aside from chainmail, " shirt made out of steel plates joined by ranges of
mail is one of the typical "Islamic types of body protection, which developed
first in Iran or Anatolia amid the mid fifteenth century. Plates of diverse sizes
and setups were being worn in numerous parts of the Ottoman empire by the
sixteenth century and brought into India early in the Mughal period because
of the Ottoman impact on Mughal military practices.
The most familiar characteristic of Islamic armor is perhaps the distinctive
conical-shape helmets, which, with some variety, are found in most European
and Near Eastern ranges under Islamicrule. One variety is known as a
"turban helmet."Its model can be found in the pre-Islamic tradition (224336)
of Persia, however I tssweeping outline, reminiscent of the domes of
mosques, has added to this sort of helmet being perceived today as
positively Islamic .A large portion of the early surviving examples date from
the fifteenth century and appear to have been made in Iran and Turkey. Extra


insurance was managed by shields, more often than not of round shape, and
constructedunlike the majority of their European counterpartsof metal.


Throughout the history, there were varieties of that has been recorded
produce from a variety of materials. In the early history, armour were made
with rudimentary leather protection and evolving through mail and metal
plate into today's modern composites. The technology and employment of
armour were dominated by the manufacture of metal personal armour.
Development of many important technologies of the Ancient World were
droved by armour production technique, including wood lamination, mining,
metal refining, vehicle manufacture, leather processing, and later decorative
metal working. Industrial revolution influences the production and furthered
commercial development of metallurgy and engineering. Armour was the

single most influential factor in the development of firearms, which in turn

revolutionised warfare.


Armour did not always cover all of the body; sometimes no more than a
helmet and leg plates were worn. The rest of the body was generally
protected by means of a large shield as done by the Aztecs (13th to 15th
century CE). Various types of armour were commonly used at different times
by multiple cultures in East Asia including, scale armour, lamellar armour,
laminar armour, plated mail, mail, plate armour and brigandine. Cuirasses
and plates were usedaround the dynastic Tang, Song, and early Ming Period,
with more elaborate versions for officers in war. Partial plates were prefered
by the Chinese for covering "important" body parts instead of their whole
body since too much plate armour hinders martial arts movement.
Mail also known as "chainmail", made of interlocking iron rings first appeared
around 300 BC. Small additional plates or discs of iron, hardened leather and
splinted construction were added to the mail to protect vulnerable areas
such as arm and leg pieces. The coat of plates was developed, an armour
made of large plates sewn inside a textile or leather coat. In 13th15th
century, plate were made of iron. That were carburised or case hardened to
give a surface of harder steel. Plate armour became cheaper than mail by
the 15th century as it required much less labour.
Infantry were able to defeat armoured knightsdue to advances in weaponry
developed in the early 15th century. As the armies became bigger,the quality
of the metal used in armour deteriorated and armour was made thicker,
necessitating breeding of larger cavalry horses. By the late 16th century the
armour weighed around 25 kg compared to during the 1415th centuries
where armour seldom weighed more than 15 kg.



One plate element after another was discarded in the mid-16th century, to
reduced weight for foot soldiers. Throughout the entire period of the 18th
century and through Napoleonic times, back and breast plates continued to
be used in many European (heavy) cavalry units, until the early 20th century.
Cavalry had to be far more mindful of the fireas muskets could pierce plate
armour. In Japan, armour continued to be used until the end of the samurai
era, with the last major fighting in which armour was used happening in
1868. Samurai armour had one last short lived use in 1877 during the
Satsuma Rebellion.
At the start of World War, thousands of the French Cuirassiers rode out to
engage the German Cavalry. The shiny armour plate was covered in dark
paint during that period and a canvas wrap covered their elaborate
Napoleonic style helmets. The cavalry had to beware of high velocity rifles
and machine guns, unlike the foot soldiers, who at least had a trench to
protect them as their armour was meant to protect only against sabres and
light lances.
Today, ballistic vests made of ballistic cloth (e.g. kevlar, dyneema, twaron,
spectra etc.) The US Army has adopted Interceptor body armour, which uses
Enhanced Small Arms Protective Inserts (E-S.A.P.I) in the chest, sides and
back of the armour. Each plate is rated to stop a range of ammunition
including 3 hits from a 7.6251 NATO AP round at a range of 10 m (33 ft).
[13] Dragon Skin body armour is another ballistic vest which is currently in
testing with mixed results.




5.1.1 Introduction
After the fragmentation of the Abbasid Empire, military slaves, known as
either mamluks or Ghilman, became the basis of military power throughout
the Islamic world. The Fatimids of Egypt had forcibly
taken Armenian, Turkic, Sudanese and CopticEgyptian adolescents from their
families in order to be trained as slave soldiers, who formed the bulk of their
military and often their administration The powerful vizier Badr al-Jamali, for
example, was a mamluk of Armenian origin. In Iran and Iraq, the Buyids used
Turkic slaves throughout their empire, such as the rebel al-Basasiri who
eventually ushered in Saljuq rule in Baghdad after attempting a failed
rebellion. When the later Abbasids regained military control over Iraq, they
also relied on the military slaves called Ghilman.[
Under Saladin and the Ayyubids of Egypt, the power of the mamluks
increased until they claimed the sultanate in 1250, ruling as the Mamluk
Sultanate. Military slavery continued to be employed throughout the Islamic
world until the 19th century. The Ottoman Empire's devirme, or "gathering"
of young slaves for the Janissary corps, lasted until the 17th century.


Mamluk period (12501517)

The Islamic Orient retained a fashion in armour, which was most profoundly
developed in Wrope amid the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. In the
campaigns, the Arab chiefs wore armour of ring or chain mail, admirably
wrought, strong, and capable of great resistance, yet light and flexible, and
in every respect very greatly superior to the more massive and cumbersome
personal equipment of the Crusaders.

In Ayyubid society (1171-1250) the wearing of protection appears to have

been the benefit of the military aristocracy, and we are indebted to the
memoirs 09 Usama ibn Munkidk, an Arab knight, that the armour of a prince
during the Ayyubid period can be visualized. It consisted of a helmet
(khawdha), a mail shirt (dera' or zardiya), stockings (ranat), leggins (sak almuza) and boots (khuff) with spurs (mihmagz), while his arms comprised
sword (saif), dagger (dashan or nimdja), or knife (sikkina), lance (rumh),
javelin (harba), and shield (turs or daraka).
Three sorts of protection were primarily being used in Syria and Egypt from
the twelfth to the fifteenth century, if not likewise after: the layer of mail, the
support defensive layer and the brigandine - the most widely recognized kind
was the plain layer of mail. From easygoing references, layers of mail were
worn separately or twofold, short or long, and some of them were not only
long but rather dragging, covering the horseman's legs. Connections of this
and prior networking mail spots, or scriptural writings. Every connection of
Islamic mail is bolted, a few times with two defensive layer pegs, which
puncture the metal directly through.
From early Mamelukes onward, layers of mail fortified by rectangular
overlapping splints (djawshan) had been widely utilized, and some time later
under the Circassian dynasty in Egypt (fourteenth fifteenth Cent.) they were
utilized almost exclusively for the expensive armour of high emirs (princes).
To the same type, belongs the coat of mail of Sultan Qaitbay (ruled 14681496).

5.3 Ottoman period (1299-1922)

The armour of Persia and Central Asia appears to have delighted in
extraordinary prestige in the eighth century. For the tenth, eleventh, and
twelfth centuries, there are only a few documentary references and no
illustratlons, but from the beginning of the 13th century on, miniatures

provide accurate pictorial records, especially manuscripts of the Shah-Ndma,

which describes the arming of Persian horses for single combats and for
The manufacture of armour was well organised by Ghazan-Khan (12951304). There were in each province and town many armourers, both Persians
and Mongols, who made bows, arrows, quivers, swords, etc., they received
annually a salary from the State, and were in return to furnish a certain
number of arms.
With the XVth century, we come to the point where we have actual pieces of
Persian armour such as corslets, and these can be fairly well distinguished by
comparison with the miniatures which are rich in illustrative material and are
often dated. The mail shir reinforced with iron plates, once in the Oriental
department of the Zeughaus, Berlin, is a good example of the protective
armour of the first half of the XVth cent. The rings in the chain mail of this
period have, as a rule, a flat rectangular cross-section. Until late in the XIXth.
cent. the rings were constantly affixed with bolts.
In addition to mail shirts, the Tartar-Mongolian form of armour was
additionally utilized, comprising of two round shields, one on the breast, the
other on the back, together with side plates, neck piece and stomach plates.
All these were usually made of damascened steel, joined by the essential
fragments of chain mail. It is important that in the XVIth cent., the breast and
back pieces were ornamented with flutings. The suits of armour are
decorated on the rim and the centre of the reast and back disks with gold
inlaid inscriptions, while the side plates are ornamented with vines and
flowers, exceptionally rich and exquisite in execution.
ITo conclude, the typical armour suit (Indo-Persian) comprised of a shirt of
chain-mail (zirah baktar), over which was buckled a cuirass in four pieces
(char aina). On each fore-arm was an arm-guard (dastana), hat on the right
arm usually being longer than the other, as it was not secured by the circular

shield (dhal). The head was covered by a hemispherical helmet with a nasal
coming down in front, and with a curtain of chain-mail hanging from the
sides and back resembling he medieval camail .

Chapter 6


Spear is one of the type of weapons that was used by feudal armies during the middle

Ages. All men in The Middle Ages were expected to know how to fight. They were expected to
be readily available when called to fight for the king. Their lives were organized and structured
to have military training incorporated in their daily lives.


6.2 Arrows and Longbows:

The arrows in this era were made from lightweight, porous woods. Of the few examples
that survive, the Mary Rose arrows have only the shaft and a few points. The Westminster arrow
almost at 1440 contains only the point and glue fragments. There are, however hundreds of
representations of archers shooting arrows, starting from the 8th Century up to the 17th. These
arrows by and large appear to be of a fairly uniform composition. They are all under a yard long
which is considered to be the average tall of men at that time and have three feathers fletched to
the base of the arrow. The shape of the fletching varies but does fall into three primary shapes,
delta, shield, and parabolic. The arrow was fit to the bowstring by means of a nock, or groove,
cut into the base of the arrow. The points, many of which do survive, vary widely based, it is
assumed, on their purpose
As arrowheads are the most commonly surviving pieces of medieval arrows since tens of
thousands were shot at one battle, it will be examined first. The most commonly found point is
the bodkin point. A simple needle-shaped point that could penetrate most anything the medieval
world had to offer.


6.3 Crossbows:
The crossbow was considered by many to be a weapon of mass destruction. Not
only was it was remarkably accurate and particularly deadly, worse, it
allowed any lowly peasant to kill a high-born mounted knight with the simple
squeeze of a trigger.
No one, neither a king in full suit of armor nor lowly conscript in homespun,
could escape a well-aimed crossbow bolt. And that was something medieval
elites feared would shatter the natural order of society.
More advantages of the crossbow it could be loaded and be ready to fire long
before it was needed whereas it took time for a regular bowman to load his
weapon. It was more accurate than a bow because the crossbowman could
use two hands to aim it. He didn't have to apply pressure like a bowman had
to do when drawing the bow string back.



Personal Reflection on the Trip Omar Ahmed Salem Basyoal (ID:










UniverisitiTeknologi PETRONAS was successful and beneficial. I learned that a

good preparation leads to a fantastic results. For instance, I have prepared
some books to read as the way from UTP to Kuala Lumpur is quite long. I
have benefited from that as I could know something new and avoid myself of
being bored all the way. Additionally, preparing of expected required items
like coat inside the bus to avoid being cooled.
The Islamic Arts Museum Malaysia visit was full with knowledge. The
Portrayal of Pakistan by AwaisYaqub gave me a lot of knowledge about the
life in Pakistan, their culture and the famous things in their lives. I was
shocked by the over concern about the decoration of the vans. The unusual
inverted dome is another thing to ponder about. Meanwhile, the beautiful
thing about the museum is that can give you chance to learn about other
cultures or countries while you are here in Malaysia without the need for
travelling there. For example, I knew about the Chinese relationship with
Islam and how it came into and the places of minority Muslims in China. One
of the best things about the Islamic Arts Museum Malaysia is their online
website which arranged in a good manner, updated with new activities in the
museum. By visiting the website you gain an adequate knowledge about the
museum to prepare for your visit.
The visit to Putrajaya was nice. Although, most of the books which I
have seen in the book fair was in Malay Language, I was touched by some
students who are really concerning about reading and buying books.
Moreover, the beautiful historical pictures of the two sacred places, the
Makkah and Madinah is attaching to the heart. Furthermore, the Chinese
calligrapher had withdrawn my attention. The ability of making fast, accurate

and complex drawings is a sign of ALLAHs Perfection, Beautifulness and

Ability. The Chinese calligrapher fluently in Arabic attracted me and my Arab
colleagues and this is the power and importance of speaking the people







Islamwasimplemented in many occasions throughout the trip. For instance

when choosing restaurant to have our lunch in was very difficult as some
international students does not like to eat Malaysian food. Another case after
finishing the visit before the allocated time, discussion on advancing the
return time to UTP.

Personal reflection on the trip- Muhamad HarithNaufal Bin Nor Azni

The trip to Islamic Art Museum Malaysia was very beneficial as I have
gain a great deal of information relating to Islamic history and culture around
the world and how it influence our daily lives. There were numerous galleries
relating to the Quran and manuscript, Islamic architecture, Islamic influence
on the Malay, Chinese, and Indian culture and development, the arms and
armour, and even the smallest coins provide information on the history of
The Islamic Architecture galleries portrayed the earliest expression of
Islamic art. The mosque was the manifestation of Islamic arts as no other
religion looks to a building as determinedly as Islam looks to its most sacred
shrine. As communal worship every Friday is incumbent on male Muslims,
the mosque is about community as well as devotion. Theres also a gallery
on the Malay world which I took great interest in. The Malay Archipelago has
been the most easterly frontier of Islam for the past 500 years. For centuries
it has been part of the greatest trading route the world had ever seen,
surpassing the Silk Road for quantity and variety. It was a meeting place for

different Asian empires, as well as the new trading powers that emerged
from the West. Central to these global influences was Islam, guiding a culture
of restrained opulence which, like the Islamic art of China, is only now being
explored by art historians.
The arms and armor galleries shown me that many cultures have put
considerable effort into beautifying the arts of war, but in the Islamic world
there is a spiritual dimension as well. Religious inscriptions abound. Muslim
used the written word to unparalleled effect. In addition to sophisticated
acid-etching techniques and inlays in precious metals, the superb quality of
steel with a high-carbon blend was allowed to shine through. Collected for
centuries as weapons, and much respected by their opponents in warfare,
they are an enduring reminder of the armourers advanced sense of
aesthetics and commitment to his craft.Coins and seals are invaluable to the
art historian, as well as having an aesthetic dimension of their own. Up to the
modern age, coins throughout the Islamic world shared a certain identity.
They were highly calligraphic, usually with religious inscriptions and details
of rulers. As an empire with a keen interest in trade, coins of the Caliphate
were distributed around the world. They were imitated as far away as AngloSaxon England, and discoveries of Umayyad and Abbasid coin hoards happen
regularly in Sweden and Russia.
In conclusion, the trip has been very insightful to me. During the trip,
not only was I exposed to the Islamic civilization and culture and how they
affect our daily life, I was shown how Islamic art help to shape the world we
live in today. I was amaze by how Islamic culture influences the civilization
around the world.
Personal reflection on the trip- Nasreldin Abbas Babiker 17770

The trip was really interesting as we got to learn from the ancient history
regarding to the way of how they were living , it`s good to get observation of

what haapend in the past and to learn fron the old history , The vist to the
The Islamic Arts Museum Malaysia houses more than seven thousand
artefacts, as well as an exceptional library of Islamic art books. The art
objects on display range from the tiniest pieces of jewellery to one of the
worlds largest scale models of the Masjid al-Haram in Mecca. The aim is to
create a collection that is truly representative of the Islamic world. Instead of
concentrating on works from the heartlands of Persia and the Middle East,
IAMM also puts the emphasis on Asia. China and Southeast Asia are
especially well represented. The third component of the Malaysian melting
pot is India, which is also given special status. India, China and the Malay
World are in an exceptional category. Other parts of the collection are
displayed according to type rather than geographical origins in the
museums 12 galleries.
The style of the museum building is modern, with an Islamic feel created by
the details rather than by the structure itself. Iranian tile workers
transformed the iwan-style entrance into a ceramic tapestry that frames a
welcoming verse from the Quran. On the roof, these artisans turned the
dome-construction traditions of Central Asia into the buildings crowning
glory. The turquoise-coloured domes are now a landmark on the Kuala
Lumpur skyline.

Personal reflection on the trip- Omer Mohammed Jamil ( 17731 )


In the end ,Islamic culture had a big influence on the traditional way of
armors . From its origins in the 7th century, armor and weaponry were
central to Islamic culture not only as a means of conquest and the spread of
faith, but also as symbols of status, wealth, and power. More than 120
exceptional examples from the renowned collection of The Metropolitan
Museum of Art are presented in detail to demonstrate the remarkable
craftsmanship and beauty of Islamic arms and armor. These diverse objects,

which have never been catalogued or published in detail, span ten centuries
and represent nearly every Islamic culture, from Spain to the Caucasus.
Among these masterpieces are rare early works, such as the oldest
documented Islamic sword, and fine examples of decorated helmets and
body armor from late-15th-century Iran and Anatolia. Also included are lavish
gem-studded weapons from royal courts in the Ottoman world and India.
Each piece is handsomely photographed, with a detailed discussion of its
technical, historical, and artistic importance. Made by master artisans in
conjunction with leading designers, goldsmiths, and jewelers, these stunning
objects demonstrate how utilitarian military equipment could be transformed
into striking and extravagant works of art.

e_Medieval_ World


Old Armours that can identified in the old times and golden time of
Islamic empire scriptures copies pictures: from the Islamic arts
museum Malaysia.