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Impact Assessment of LV Distributed


Generation on MV Distribution Network
R. Caire, Student Member, IEEE, N. Retire, S. Martino, C. Andrieu and N. Hadjsaid, Member, IEEE
Abstract--Utility Power systems are faced to an increasing
number of small size producers requiring interconnection
particularly to the Low Voltage (LV) network. Since most
distribution systems are not designed to receive large scale
power injections, these small generation units may impact these
networks specifically in terms of quality of the energy delivered,
reliability and safety of the whole distribution system from LV to
Medium Voltage (MV) levels.
In this paper, a methodology, based on a parametric study, is
proposed to investigate Distributed Generation (DG) impacts
when interconnected to distribution networks.
The proposed methodology has been validated for a particular
case of voltage profile (LV/MV). The test system used for this
study is a real urban network containing 11 feeders with 2
transformers of 36 MVA.
Index Terms-- Distributed Generation, Distribution Network,
Parametric study, Load Flow, Voltage profile.

generation units to the LV networks.


This paper deals with the assessment of technical impacts
related to the interconnection of DG to distribution networks
[4] with the emphasis on the interaction between LV and MV
networks in terms of a voltage profile in the presence of DG.
First, the methodology for the impact study is described.
The test network used for the validation of this methodology is
described in section IV. This network is a typical French urban
distribution network which characterises the specified impacts.
In sections V & VI, the application for the voltage profile
methodology when considering the potential technical impacts
regarding the connection of DG at distribution level is
presented and a list of the most critical distribution network
parameters, characterising the effects of DG on the utility
system, is proposed.
II. METHODOLOGY

I. INTRODUCTION

HERE is more and more concern with the opening of the


energy market [1]. Indeed, with deregulation, competition
is particularly fostered in the generation side thus allowing
more and more producers to be interconnected to the grid.
This situation has been observed for both transmission and
distribution networks. For distribution systems, on one hand,
the concerns are small size units but on a large scale basis. On
the other hand, this particular networks have originally been
designed for the supply of the end users and to be
unidirectional (power flow, protection, etc.). This situation
may be conflicting for operating these networks with large
number of generating units even for small size ones. This new
technical and economical environment has to be well
understood and studied in order to be compatible with the
present electrical systems [7] - [2]. Indeed, several technical
questions arise especially about the connection of these small
This work was supported by Inventer la Distribution Electrique de
lAvenir (IDEA), joint research laboratory between EDF (French provider of
Electricity), Schneider Electric S.A. and INPGrenoble.
R. Caire is with IDEA, BP 46, 38402 Saint Martin dHres, France (email: raphael.caire@ieee.org).
N. Hadjsaid and N. Retiere are with IDEA and the Laboratoire
dElectrotechnique de Grenoble, Institut National Polytechnique de Grenoble,
Saint Martin dHres, 38402 France (e-mail: Nouredine.Hadjsaid Nicolas.Retiere@leg.ensieg.inpg.fr).
S. Martino is with IDEA and Electricit de France, BP 408, 92141
Clamart, France (e-mail: Sylvain.Martino@edf.fr).
C. Andrieu is with IDEA and Schneider Electric SA, 38050 Grenoble
cedex 9, France (e-mail: christophe_andrieu@mail.schneider.fr).

In order to evaluate properly DG impacts on distribution


systems, it is necessary to set up a methodology which allows
critical impacts to be determined. In addition, this
methodology should be independent from the network
ensuring the study to be generic. The methodology proposed in
this paper is based on a parametric study. Figure 1 shows
briefly the proposed methodology:

6WXGLHGLPSDFW
FKRLFH

6LPXODWRU

7DUJHW 1HWZRUNV

$QDO\WLFDOWRRO

,QGH[ FKRLFH
3DUDPHWHUVFKRLFH
6LPXODWLRQ H[SORLWDWLRQ
,PSDFW GHWHUPLQDWLRQ
Fig. 1. Illustration of the methodology.

From the studied impact and the target networks, two major
tools are used for quantifying the potential impacts. These
tools are complementary: an analytical tool enables an easy
investigation of the impacts whereas a simulator is used to
study a real network. Then, we have to define, from previous

0-7803-7519-X/02/$17.00 2002 IEEE

1423

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choices, an index that will give us a relative view of the impact
to quantify them. At last, a parametric investigation is
performed in order to determine whether an impact is critical
for the network operation or not.
A. Choice of the studied impact
The methodology is as generic as possible. This means that,
within the proposed framework, as many impacts as possible
should be studied. Section III presents briefly some impacts
that may occur with a LV DG on distribution networks.
B. Choice of the simulated networks
In order to characterise completely a specific impact, three
networks have been used: a MV and LV ones and a simplified
network, used for analysis. The first two are chosen to be as
close as possible from a typical distribution network. The third
one is used for the purpose of checking analytically the results
(see section IV).
C. Choice of the analytical tool
The analytical equations must be, first, as simple as possible
to investigate easily the impacts. If there is any significant
differences between the analytical results and the simulations,
this may lead to refine the equation or the different network
equipment models considered. In section V-A the simplified
expression for the particular case of the voltage study is
presented.

directional although the distribution network have originally


be designed for unidirectional power flow, from transmission
system to end users. Finally, a check up of the possible
impacts on network equipment will be done.
Thus, the different potential impacts that may occur are
divided in three major classes related to the impacts on:
Electric variables,
Operation and planning,
Equipment.
A. Impacts on electric variables
- Active and reactive power flow: a local generator will
change the power flows, in respect to his own power
delivered to the grid. Figure 2 shows a simple distribution
network and the power flow that may take place.

Producer
Custumer

Power Flow

Fig. 2. Example of power flow.

D. Choice of the simulator


When the network is modelled, a computer tool which fit
the study has to be chosen. This choice is linked to the choice
of the studied impact (see section V-B for our study case).
E. Choice of the index
In order to carry out some relative studies, the impacts of
DG are quantify by an index or rate. Of course, the index will
depend on the nature of the impact. See section V-C for the
study case.
F. Choice of the parameters
Once the analytical equations are established, all their
parametric inputs are defined. These are the ones used for the
parametric investigation. See section V-D for the study case.
G. The simulations
The parametric study is performed with the simulator. Its
results are interpreted with the help of the analytical tool.
H. Impact classification
On the basis of the simulation results and analytical
investigation, it is possible to consider whether or not an
impact is critical for the whole system operations (see section
VI).
III. POTENTIAL IMPACTS
The interconnection of a DG in a distribution network may
affect the power flow. The question that first arises is about the
electrical variables (such as voltages at different nodes, etc).
In addition, the power flow induced by DG may become bi-

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- Voltage profiles: the powers P,Q flowing through


network impedance give (as a first approximation) a
voltage drop illustrated at figure 3. Connecting a
Distributed Producer to a LV distribution should raise the
voltages on both the LV voltage and the MV level
depending of the amount of power generated.
HTB / HTA
Producer
Load
Urms
Autmotic Tap changer

+ 5%

Limits
Without DP
With DP

5%
lligne

Fig. 3. Profile of the MV level along the lines.

- Harmonics: one of the new sources of harmonics in a


network can be the proliferation of Power Electronic
inverters that may be associated with the new production
units [6]. Those harmonics can distort significantly the
voltage signal, or can disturb electronics devices and
telecom signals or other network equipment (i.e. sensors).

- Unbalanced voltages: French legislation allows the


connection of single phase generation units at LV level;
but this can unbalance the voltages. Indeed, a small
amount of power will change the voltage of one phase
and may unbalance the 3 phase voltages at both LV and
MV levels through the MV/LV transformers.
- Stability: by adding some small rotating alternators to the
grid, oscillations may occur after a disturbance or even
loss of synchronism. The low inertia of those generators
may increase the weakness of the system [8] and [3].
- Short-circuit current: every synchronous motor and
generator of a distribution network will deliver (if any

3
fault occurs in the grid) a short circuit current which
depends on several parameters. This current will then
participate to the global fault current, increasing or
decreasing it. See figure 4 for the contribution of DG in
short-circuit current (Za and Zb are MV line impedance,
Zsi are LV line impedance, m is the ratio of the
transformer and A is the considered short circuit point).

- The engagement currents of transformers could also be


modified.
- Every over-voltage and every over-current due to the DG
slowly destroy the dielectrics of the cables.
IV. DESCRIPTION OF THE NETWORKS

A. MV distribution network
For the parametric study, a real urban network that contain
Z A Z m Z
Z Z
mainly underground cables was simulated. The simulated
feeder gives us a reference as a typical French urban
distribution network. Its total length is 11960 meters and the
Fig. 4. Contribution of DG in short circuit current in A.
WRWDO ORDG LV  N: WDQ     7KHUH DUH  /9 
B. Impacts on the operations and the planning
customers) and 6 MV networks. Figure 7 represent the
- Utility operators If a new DG produces (with unexpected geographic distribution of the loads.
daily variations) power at a specific point of the network,
The short-circuit power of the substation is 712 MVA.
this will change the value of the voltage nodes of the
whole distribution network. For instance, on the figure 5,
N55
the voltages V1 and V2 may be modified daily but can not
be forecast (Zlign are the MV line impedance and Vd is
constant). Then, , the strategy of the existing tap changers
may be inadequate.
a

V1

HV / MV

e1

Z lign
Z lign

MV / LV
V2

e3

e2

N29

Power flow
with a daily
variable input
of generation

S
N1

MV / LV

Fig. 5. Modification of the other LV voltage values.

- The protection schemes may be inefficient. Indeed,


modifying the circulation of currents at the occurrence of
a fault, a DG could blind a protection device if the fault is
on the same feeder, or inopportunely trip a safe feeder if a
fault occurs on an other feeder by feeding the fault
through the protection of his own feeder (see figure 6).
HTB / HTA

inopportune

HTB / HTA
2

HTA/ BT

blinded

Fig. 7. Geographic distribution of the MV urban network feeder simulated


PRAO (EDF) screen caption (S is the HT/MV utility).

B. LV distribution network
A generic LV network with two loads at the two terminals
of the cables was chosen. The figure 8 presents the model of
the network (type 5 is a 4 wires 3 phases cable - 3*150mm
and a neutral of 70mm, type 7 is the 4 wires 3 phases cable 3*95mm and a neutral of 50 mm). The DG can be connected
to the fifth nodes. Transformers between MV and all LV
networks are 630 kVA.
MV / LV

HTA/ BT

N1

PBT , Q BT

type 5

type 7

N2

Fig. 6. Inopportune and blinded trip for protection.

type 7

- The exploitation and operations could be modified if we


try to get the best from the different DG. Indeed the
structure of the network should change to optimise the
operations and the power flow of the different DG.
- In France, there are several signals which use power lines
such as a tariff signal which is added to the voltage (a
frequency of 175Hz or 188Hz or higher). By connecting a
DG at any node, the equivalent impedance of the branch
will be changed. This will modify the level of those
signals and cause some malfunctions of their
transmission.

N4

158 m

PN 3 , Q N 3
type 7

N5

309 m

PN 5 , Q N 5

Fig. 8. General layout of the LV network.

C. Analysis network
To remain as simple as possible, we build a general radial
network, with n loads, n-1 lines, a short circuit impedance
(R1X1 in series with a perfect voltage source) and a distributed
generator, placed in the feeder.
R1 , X cc
U source
R1 , X cc

source

N1

R2 , X 2

P1,Q1

C. Impacts on network equipment


- When engineers design the network and the different
breakers, the Recovery Transient Voltages (RTV) have to
be taken into account. If the DG is still running when an
automatic reclosure operates, this could modify the RTV.

N3

392 m

33 m

N1

P1,Q1

Ri , X i

N2

P2 ,Q2
R2 , X 2

P2,Q2

Pi , Qi U with producer (Ni)

Pg , Qg
N2

Ni

Ri , X i

Ni

Pi , Qi

U without producer (Ni)

Fig. 9. Analysis network with and without DG connected to node 2.

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V. APPLICATION OF THE METHODOLOGY TO THE MV VOLTAGE
PROFILE
The methodology described previously is going to be
applied to the voltage profile as a validation.
A. Simplified tool
The voltage drop which occurs, when we connect a PQ node
to two bus is presented in figure 10:
U

R, X
P,Q

U = R .P + X . Q
U
U
2

(1)

In this illustration, only parameters which produce a


variation of the voltage level are presented. The ranges of
variation which are usual for different types of networks are
also given in the table I.
VI. RESULTS OF THE VOLTAGE PROFILE STUDY
Simulations are achieved on the real network and the results
of the variation of the index (due to the variation of the
parameters) as a function of feeder nodes are presented below.
The legend of each figure gives the information of the position
of the DG and its nominal power.
A. R,X parameters

Fig. 10. Voltage drop across a R,X impedance.

- Position of the LV network which contains the DG.

Indeed, nearly every passive series network components can


be simulated as R and X impedance (such as lines, cables,
breakers,).

C. Voltage index
As we study the voltage profile, the index is built as (2):
U with _ producer ( N j ) U without _ producer ( N j )
r (N j ) =
(2)
U without _ producer ( N j )

D. Set of Parameters of network equipment


The parameters are ranked into three major classes :
parameters which depend:
on impedance (R,X)
on power (P,Q)
on both impedance and power.
TABLE I

R,X parameters
Position of DG (m)
Feeder - extremity
Shortcut power (MVA)
200 712 2000
Length (km)
0.5.lmax 1.lmax 1.5.lmax
with lmax = 11960m
Number of LV networks
0-3
with DG
P,Q parameters
Power of 1 DG (kW)
0 250 KW
Power of loads (kVA)
1/5 Pmax Pmax = 4,458
Power of 2 DG (kW)
Total Power = 100 kW
R,X and P,Q parameters
Massive DG (MW)
Up to 5

0 .2 0
r

N1

0 .1 0
0 .0 0

2000 4000 6000 8000 10000

250kW @ N 1
250kW @ N 29
250kW @ N 55

12000

L e n g th (m )

Fig. 11. Different DG position along the MV network

Figure 11 shows that the index er (Nj) has two major


evolutions (before and after the DG connection point).
For the particular case of radial networks, this index may
be specified by (3). Equation (3) is applied for nodes that
are located between the substation and the injection node.
j

Pg . Rk + Qg . X k
k =1
k =1
r ( Njbefore ) =
(3)
k j
n
n k j

U source Rl .Pk + X l .Qk


k =1 l =1

k =1 l =1


Rk and Xk are respectively the equivalent resistance and
reactance for the considered distance, Pk and Qk are
respectively the consumed active and reactive powers at
node Nk. Pg and Qg are respectively the produced active
and reactive powers at node Ng. Considering (3), it can be
seen that in the numerator side, only DG power is in
factor with the line impedance up to the point of
connection. Though, the index increases linearly along
with the location of the considered node.

g
Pg . Rk + Qg . X k
k =1
k =1
r ( Njafter ) =
(3 bis )
n k j after
n k j after


2
U source Rl .Pk + X l .Qk

k =1 l =1
k =1 l =1


After the connection point, the numerator is constant
(power of DG in factor of the impedance from the source
to the connection point) and the denominator varies
slightly because Usource is higher than the other terms
(equivalent to Usource 8  VHH  bis). Hence, the index
remains constant after the interconnection node.
before

Uwith_producer(Nj) is the voltage at the node Nj when the DG is


interconnected and produces some power. Uwithout_producer(Nj) is
the voltage at the node Nj when the DG is not interconnected
(see figure 9).

Parameters set

N 29

(%)

B. Software tool
The whole system was simulated with the real time transient
simulator ARENE (developed by the French utility
Electricit De France) in order to be able to deal with fault
conditions in a real time environment. Even if, in the following
chapters, we will only give the results of the steady state
operations for the voltage.

N55

0 .3 0

1426

before

before

before

5
- Variation of the impedance which models the substation
short circuit power.

All the impedances are P-Q linear so we can use the


superposition theory when P-Q nodes are used.

0,30

B. P,Q parameters

(%)

0,20

- Variation of the power of the producer.


0.30

0,10
0,00

0.20
4000

6000

712 MVA @ N55

8000

10000

12000

Length (m )

200 MVA @ N55

0.10

2000

(%)

2000MVA @ N55

0.00

Fig. 12. Index variation for different short-circuit impedance

As we can see on figure 12, there is no significant


difference between the three considered cases. Indeed, by
considering (4):
jbefore
jbefore
Pg . Rk + Qg . X k + Qg . X cc
k =2
k =1

r ( Njbefore ) =
( 4)
n k jbefore
n k jbefore

U source Rl .Pk + X l .Qk


k =1 l =1
k =1 l =1


%HFDXVHRIWKHFKRLFHWDQ  WKHYROWDJHGURSGXHWR
Xcc is small compared to other terms. In this case, there is
no change in the voltage index.

2000

4000

6000

250kW @
100kW @

8000 10000 12000

Length (m)

Fig. 15. Index variation for different output DG power

This evolution is easily explained by (6):


r ( Njbefore )m.Pg , m.Qg
r ( Njbefore ) Pg ,Qg

jbefore
jbefore
m.Pg . Rk + m.Qg . X k
k =1
k =1
= m (6)

=
jbefore
j before

Pg . Rk + Qg . X k
k =1
k =1

- Variation of the power consumed by loads from the initial


power given in section IV: from 4458 kW to a fifth.
0 .3 0

(%)

0 .2 0
r

- Variation of the length of the network by multiplying the


length of cables.
0 .3 0

0 .1 0
0 .0 0
0

0 .1 0

h = 1 - 2 5 0 kW

@ N29

10000

r ( N 2) P
r ( N 2) P

15000

L e n g th ( m )

h = 0 ,5 - 2 5 0 k W @ N 2 9
h = 1 ,5 - 2 5 0 k W @ N 2 9

Fig. 13. Index variation for different lengths

The different impedances can be written in respect of


their length. For example, a R(mL) indicates the
resistance for a length between two nodes equal to m
times L whereas R(L) is used for a length L. However,
the ratio of the indexes should be equal to the ratio of the
respective lengths which is not true as shown in figure 13.
This is due to the capacitance effects which have to be
taken into account in figure 13 as follows:
javant k
javant k

Usource R(mL)l .Pk + X (mL)l . Qk C(mL)k 2 .Usource

k =1 l =1
k =1 l =1
m
javant k
j avant k

Usource R(L)l .Pk + X (L)l . Qk C(L)k


.Usource
2

k =1 l =1
k =1 l =1

(5)

8000

10000

12000

L e n g th (m )

50 kW @ N1
50 kW @ N29
50 kW @ N55

3*50kW @ N1
& N29 & N55

0.04
0.00
2000

4000

6000

8000

,Q max

min

,Q min

(7)

In (7): the denominator varies very few because of the


Usource term is higher than the other one (equivalent to
Usource 8  $V D UHVXOW WKH YDULDWLRQ RI SRZHU
consumption has no major effect on the index as it is
shown on the figure 16.
- Two simulations have been carried out for the same
amount of DG power but for two different dispersions.
0.12

0.08

0.04

20 00

40 00

N1 & N29 @ 50 kW
N55 @ 100 kW

6000

80 00

10000

12 00 0

Length (m )

Fig. 17. Spreading the generation

It can be seen from figure 17 that the variations of the


indexes are very different. Indeed, by spreading the
interconnection node in the MV network the impact of
DG is reduced.
As a result, the classical ratio (generation/load) used to
quantify the level of dispersed generation is not relevant.

0.12

0.08

U source (X CC .(Q1 min + Q2 min ) + R.P2 min + X .Q2 min )


1
2
U source (X CC .(Q1 max + Q2 max ) + R.P2 max + X .Q2 max )
2

max

0.00

- The effect of three DG with the same amount of power in


different positions is given below.

6000

5000

(%)

0 .0 0

(%)

4000

Fig. 16. Index variation for different network powers

(%)

0 .2 0

2000

P=Pn
P = P m in i

10000 12000

Length (m )
Fig. 14. Index variation for several DG

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C. P,Q and R,X parameter
For a significant DG introduction (8 LV feeders containing
DG so that the power produced is 1.13 times the power
consumed), the obtained results are the following:

(%)

3.00

dnergie lectrique de moins de 1 mgawatt, ministerial decree, 21


July 1997
[6] R.C. Dugan, H. Wayne Beaty, Mark F. McGranaghan, Electrical Power
Systems Quality, New York, Mc Graw-Hill, 1996, ISBN 0-07-0180318, pp 17- 28
[7] N. Jenkins, D. Kirschen, G. Strbac, R. Allan, P. Crossley, Embedded
Generation, London, The Institution of Electrical Engineers, 2000,
ISBN 0-85296-774-8

2.00
1.00

[8] P. Kundur, Power System Stability and Control, New York, Mc GrawHill, 1994, ISBN 0-07-035958-X

0.00
0

5000

10000

Length (m)
Fig. 18. Significant amount of DG

With this amount of DG and the dispersion chosen, 3 %


variation of voltage profile is reached. It is to be noted that
the test network used for this study has been oversized by
design. Nevertheless, if this is compared to the extreme
voltage levels allowed by the French law [5] (5% of the
nominal voltage), it appears that DG may be critical for the
voltage profile. However, for weak networks, the impact
may be more significant [2].

[9] O. Huet, O. Maugeard, O. Chilard, I. Popiel, F. Klein, C. Moreau, P.


Tantin, J. Pernot, D. Chatrefou, Improving site tests efficiency by realtime testing of a new communication link between sensors and a
protection device , , Seventh International Conference on
Developments in Power System Protection, (IEE) ,pp 218-221, 2001

X. BIOGRAPHIES
Raphael Caire received his DEA from INPGrenoble in
2000. He was working in Power Electronic field, in
France at the Laboratoire dElectrotechnique de Grenoble
(LEG) and in USA at the Center of Power Electronic
System (CPES). He is now working toward a PhD
degree. His research is centered on the impacts and
production control of dispersed generation on
distribution system.

VII. CONCLUSION
In this paper, a generic methodology to qualify the impacts
of a DG connected to the LV distribution network was first
described. Then, this methodology was validated on MV
voltage profile.
This study has shown that, even if a LV network DG
introduction has not an important relative impact on MV
voltage profile, it could become critical in some operating
conditions.
Other specific DG impacts have been tested but not
presented in this paper.
In all cases, if a large amount of dispersed generators is
interconnected to the distribution network (either on the MV
or LV sides), new network control strategies have to be
designed in order to ensure power quality and a safe, reliable
operations of the network.
These works are currently in progress.

Nicolas Retire was born in Nantes (France) in 1969. He


received the Eng. Degree in 1993 and the Ph.D. in 1997
from The Polytechnic Institute of Grenoble (France). He
is currently serving as an associate professor of Electrical
Engineering at the Institute. His principal research
interests are modeling and analysis of power systems and
electric machines.

Sylvain Martino received the Engineering Diploma and


the DEA in electrical Engineering from INPG in 1999. In
2000, he joined Electricit de France Research and
Development. Since then, he worked on the impacts of
dispersed generation on distribution system. In 2001, he
has been sent to IDEA (Inventer la Distribution
Electrique de lAvenir), joint research laboratory between
EDF (French provider of Electricity), Schneider Electric
S.A. and INPGrenoble to work as a Researcher and as a Project Manager on
Dispersed Generation considerations.

VIII. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
We sincerely acknowledge R. Belhomme (EDF R&D) and
F. Dumas (Schneider Electric SA) for their great support and
all the data they provide to us.
IX. REFERENCES
[1] C.E.T. Foote, G.W. Hault, G.M. Burt, J.R. McDonald, Enhancing
Flexibility and Transparency in the Connection of Dispersed
Generation, CIRED 2001, June 2001
[2] N. Hadjsaid, J.F. Canard, F. Dumas, Dispersed Generation Impact on
Distribution Network, IEEE Computer Application in Power, pp 22-28,
April 1999
[3] M.K. Donnelly, J.E. Dagle, D.J. Trudnowski, G.J. Rogers Impacts of
the Distributed Utility on Transmission System Stability, IEEE Trans.
on Power Systems, pp 741-746, May 1996
[4] P. Lemerle, D. Cortinas, S. Vittet, J.L. Meyer, J.L. Fraisse, Connection
of Embedded Generation to LV Network, CIRED 99, June 1999

Christophe Andrieu received the Engineering Diploma


and the DEA in electrical Engineering from INPG in
1991, and Doctorat de lINPG degrees from the Institut
National Polytechnique de Grenoble (INPG) in 1995. He
joined the Research and Development Center of
Schneider Electric SA in 1995. He works on electrical
power system analysis and becomes involved in
microgeneration connection. He works with IDEA as a
Researcher and as a Project Manager on Dispersed Generation considerations.
Nouredine Hadjsaid received his Diplme dEtudes
Approfondies (DEA) and Doctorat de lINPG degrees
from the Institut National Polytechnique de Grenoble
(INPG) in 1988 and 1992. From 1988 to 1993, he served
as a research and teaching assistant at the Ecole
Nationale Suprieure dIngnieurs Electriciens de
Grenoble (ENSIEG)
and
at
the
Laboratory
dElectrotechnique de Grenoble (LEG). He is an associate
professor at INPG-ENSIEG-LEG. His research interests are power system
operation and security.

[5] J. Batail, Arrt du 21 Juillet 1997 relatif aux conditions techniques de


raccordement au rseau public des installations de production autonomes

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