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Creating

a Nation
1763–1791

W

hy It Matters

As you study Unit 3, you will learn
that the purpose of the Declaration
of Independence was to justify the
American Revolution and to explain
the founding principles of the new
nation. You will also learn that the
Constitution established a republic, in
which power is held by voting citizens
through their representatives.

American flag,
Revolutionary War

Primary Sources Library
See pages 596–597 for primary source
readings to accompany Unit 3.
Use the American History
Primary Source Document Library
CD-ROM to find additional primary
sources about the American move
toward independence.

128

CHAPTER XX

Chapter Title

Washington Crossing
the Delaware
by Emanuel
Gottlieb Leutze

“Give me
liberty, or give
me death!”
—Patrick Henry, 1775

Road to
Independence
1763–1776

Why It Matters
A spirit of independence became evident early in the history of the American
people. Far from the established rules and restrictions they had faced in their
home countries, the new settlers began to make their own laws and develop
their own ways of doing things.

The Impact Today
The ideals of revolutionary America still play a major role in shaping the society
we live in. For example:
• Americans still exercise their right to protest laws they view as unfair.
• Citizens have the right to present their views freely.

The American Republic to 1877 Video The chapter 5 video,
“Loyalists and Tories,” portrays events leading up to the Revolutionary War
from a Loyalist’s point of view, as well as a Patriot’s.

1763
• Treaty of Paris

1763

CHAPTER 5

1765
• Stamp Act protests

1766

1764
• Mozart (aged
eight) writes
1762
first symphony
• Rousseau publishes
The Social Contract
130

1770
• Boston
Massacre

Road to Independence

1769
1769
• Watt patents
steam engine

1770
• Russians destroy
Ottoman fleet

“Don’t fire until you see the whites of their eyes. Fold the sheet vertically. C Britishs Reolonial n actio Actio ns Draw lines along the fold lines. and Austria Visit tarvol1. fill in the causes (British Actions) and effects (Colonial Reactions) in the correct columns of your foldable. Bunker Hill by Don Troiani Low on ammunition. Step 2 Fold again. Prussia.Cause-and-Effect Study Foldable Make this foldable to show the causes and effects of the events that led the Americans to declare independence from Great Britain. Step 1 Fold one sheet of paper in half from side to side. 1775 1774 • Louis XVI becomes king of France CHAPTER 5 Road to Independence 131 . 1774 • First Continental Congress meets 1776 • Declaration of Independence signed 1775 • Battles fought at Lexington and Concord HISTORY Chapter Overview 1772 1772 • Poland partitioned among Russia. Colonel William Prescott gives the order.com and click on Chapter 5— Chapter Overviews to preview chapter information.glencoe. 1 inch from the top.” 1773 • Boston Tea Party Reading and Writing As you read this chapter. (Tip: The middle knuckle of your index finger is about 1 inch long.) Step 3 Open and label as shown.

Sugar Act Stamp Act Preview of Events ✦1760 1763 Proclamation of 1763 St. They were worried about rumors of Native Americans planning war. Britain issued the Proclamation of 1763. They watched about 100 British soldiers camped on Lake Erie’s shore. writs of assistance. As you read Section 1. repeal British action Colonists’ view Proclamation of 1763 Civic Rights and Responsibilities The American colonists believed that new British laws denied their civic rights. Edward’s crown. • why the American colonists objected to new British laws. To limit settlement of this territory. War raged on the frontier—and the British were in the thick of it! Relations with Britain After winning the French and Indian War. effigy. The British managed to escape in two boats.Taxation Without Representation Guide to Reading Main Idea Reading Strategy Read to Learn The British government’s actions after winning the French and Indian War angered American colonists. and Grenada (a combination of several Caribbean islands). Key Terms revenue. East Florida. resolution. Most importantly. the Proclamation prohibited colonists from moving west of the Appalachian Mountains. • why the British faced problems in North America after the French and Indian War. boycott. Parts of the land acquired through the Treaty of Paris became the provinces of Quebec. re-create the diagram below and describe why the colonists disliked these policies. West Florida. The soldiers—sent by the British Crown—had just stopped to rest on their way to Fort Detroit. nonimportation. Great Britain controlled a vast territory in North America. worn by George III Section Theme ✦1765 1764 Parliament passes Sugar Act 1765 Parliament enacts Stamp Act ✦1770 1767 Townshend Acts tax colonial imports Huron and Ottawa warriors silently peered from the woods. Suddenly the warriors rushed from the forest. Classifying Information British actions created colonial unrest. 132 CHAPTER 5 Road to Independence .

not the colonists. They saw the Proclamation of 1763 as a limit on their freedom. Place What natural feature marked the western boundary of British territory? 2. In 1763 he convinced Parliament to pass a law allowing smugglers to be sent to vice-admiralty courts.Proclamation of 1763 HUDSON'S BAY COMPANY PROVINCE OF QUEBEC M iss is s NS . 300 miles 0 300 kilometers 0 Lambert Equal-Area projection 1. These two measures contributed to the feeling of distrust that was growing between Great Britain and its colonies. Finally. Slower western settlement would also slow colonists moving away from the colonies on the coast—where Britain’s important markets and investments were.000 troops in America to protect their interests. pi R ip 70°W S PA AP Thirteen Colonies Other British territory Spanish territory Proclamation Line of 1763 E W LA LOUISIANA TERRITORY 90°W N IA . Analyzing Information Who controlled the Louisiana Territory in 1763? Britain’s Trade Laws The Sugar Act In 1763 George Grenville became prime minister of Britain. closing western settlement protected the interests of British officials who wanted to control the lucrative fur trade. Grenville knew that American juries often found smugglers innocent. the burden of CHAPTER 5 Road to Independence 133 . These plans alarmed the colonists. The British planned to keep 10. He decided to take action against smuggling in the colonies. This decision set off a chain of events that enraged the American colonists and surprised British authorities. Grenville hoped the lower tax would convince the colonists to pay the tax instead of smuggling. The financial problems of Great Britain complicated the situation. In this way. The Sugar Act and the new laws to control smuggling angered the colonists. the king and Parliament felt it was only fair that the colonists pay part of the cost. The act also let officers seize goods from smugglers without going to court. westward expansion would go on in an orderly way. With a new law in place to stop smuggling. The act lowered the tax on molasses imported by the colonists. Vice-admiralty courts violated their right to a jury trial. The French and Indian War left Britain with a huge public debt. In 1767 Parliament decided to authorize writs of assistance. Many feared that the large number of British troops in North America might be used to interfere with their liberties. Grenville tried to increase tax revenue. and conflict with Native Americans might be avoided. When the colonists smuggled goods to avoid taxes. Desperate for new revenue. in trials at vice-admiralty courts. Writs of assistance violated their right to be secure in their home. Furthermore. He was determined to reduce Britain’s debt. io R CH Oh NM O UN TA I 40°N Atlantic Ocean 80°W F Gulf of Mexico 30°N DA RI LO Stopping western settlement provided several advantages for Britain. In 1764 Parliament passed the Sugar Act. Vice-admiralty courts were run by officers and did not have juries. Britain lost revenue that could be used to pay debts. to control westward movement. or incoming money. These legal documents allowed customs officers to enter any location to search for smuggled goods. They believed their rights as Englishmen were being violated. It allowed the British government. They began plans to tax them.

Otis defined and defended colonial rights. artisans. As the boycott spread. for the British colonies “in all If this be treason. Analyzing Why did Parliament pass the Sugar Act? The Stamp Act In 1765 Parliament passed another law in an effort to raise money. In the colonial cities. In these agreements they pledged not to buy or use goods imported from Great Britain. In addition. All printed material had to have a stamp. when Revenue stamp the right to tax and make decisions he was accused of treason. James Otis. Henry replied. The Stamp Act convinced many colonists of the need for action. every part has a right to be represented. the Stamp Act. persuaded Stamp Act. Parliament gave in to the colonists’ demands and repealed the Stamp Act. Parliament ignored the colonial tradition of self-government. Throughout the summer of 1765. Patrick Henry. it affected almost everyone in the colonial cities. .” The colonists might have won one battle. Thousands of merchants. people refused to use the stamps. protesters burned effigies—rag figures—representing unpopular tax collectors. The Declaratory Act the burgesses to take action against the of 1766 stated that Parliament had Stamp Act. Parliament had interfered in colonial affairs by taxing the colonies directly. According to tradition. which states that the accused is “innocent until proved guilty. argued that no parts of [England’s colonies] can be taxed “ without their consent . Because so many items were taxed. This law. . make the most of it! cases. Yet the colonists’ trust in the king and Parliament was never fully restored. Adams play in colonial protests? “ 134 ” CHAPTER 5 Road to Independence . ” In his speeches and pamphlets.proof was on defendants to prove their innocence. or cancel. Protesting the Stamp Act Parliament passed another act on A young member of the Virginia House the same day it repealed the of Burgesses. In passing the Stamp Act without consulting the colonial legislatures. The Stamp Act Congress In October delegates from nine colonies met in New York at the Stamp Act Congress. They drafted a petition to the king and Parliament declaring that the colonies could not be taxed except by their own assemblies. People in other cities also organized Sons of Liberty groups. and farmers signed nonimportation agreements. but the war over making decisions for the colonies The Virginia assembly passed a resolution—a had just begun. which was applied by British officials. In Boston Samuel Adams helped start an organization called the Sons of Liberty. it taxed the colonists without their consent. formal expression of opinion—declaring it had “the only and sole exclusive right and power to Evaluating What role did Samuel lay taxes” on its citizens. placed a tax on almost all printed material in the colonies—everything from newspapers and pamphlets to wills and playing cards. The Act Is Repealed In March 1766. British merchants lost so much business that they begged Parliament to repeal. They urged merchants to boycott— refuse to buy—British and European goods in protest. While the colonists celebrated their victory over the Stamp Act. This contradicted British law. the Stamp Act. Members took to the streets to protest the Stamp Act. Opposition to the Stamp Act centered on two points. a young lawyer in Boston. They also raided and destroyed houses belonging to royal officials and marched through the streets shouting that only Americans had the right to tax Americans.” These measures alarmed the colonists.

Why did the British government want to halt western movement? Effects Sugar Act Stamp Act Townshend Acts CHAPTER 5 Persuasive Writing Write a letter to the editor of a colonial newspaper in which you attempt to persuade fellow colonists to boycott British goods. The colonists responded by bringing back the boycott that had worked so well against the Stamp Act. They believed this would help the American colonies become economically independent. As a result the new taxes applied only to imported goods. They urged Americans to wear homemade fabrics and produce other goods that were available only from Britain before. paper. Checking for Understanding 1. Road to Independence 135 . Use standard grammar. effigy. Reviewing Themes 3. sentence structure and punctuation. Civic Rights and Responsibilities Why did the colonists think the writs of assistance violated their rights? Women took an active role in the protest against the Townshend Acts. Comparing How did the Townshend Acts differ from the Stamp Act? Critical Thinking 4. By this time the colonists were outraged by any taxes Parliament passed. and repeal. Key Terms Write sentences or short paragraphs in which you use the following groups of terms correctly: (1) revenue and writs of assistance. They understood that the colonists would not tolerate internal taxes—those levied or paid inside the colonies. British Actions Analyzing Visuals 6.130-151_154-159 C05SE-860983 10/15/03 5:34 PM Page 135 History Through Art Patrick Henry Before the Virginia House of Burgesses by Peter F. and lead—that the colonists had to import because they did not produce them. tea. Identifying Central Issues Why did British policies following the French and Indian War lead to increased tensions with American colonists? 5. Why did Henry deliver the speech? New Taxes Soon after the Stamp Act crisis. Geography Skills Review the map on page 133. The goods taxed. however. In towns throughout the colonies. included basic items—such as glass. (2) resolution. In these acts the British leaders tried to avoid some of the problems the Stamp Act caused. 2. with the tax being paid at the port of entry. spelling. women organized groups to support the boycott of British goods. The boycott proved to be even more widespread this time. boycott. Reviewing Facts State two reasons for the deterioration of relations between the British and the colonists. nonimportation. Parliament passed a set of laws in 1767 that came to be known as the Townshend Acts. They believed that only their own representatives had the right to levy taxes on them. Determining Cause and Effect Re-create the diagram below and describe the effects of these British actions. Rothermel Patrick Henry gave a fiery speech before the Virginia House of Burgesses in 1765. The Proclamation of 1763 banned colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains. sometimes calling themselves the Daughters of Liberty.

✦1773 1772 Samuel Adams sets up a committee of correspondence American protest banner 1773 Boston Tea Party occurs ✦1776 1774 Parliament passes the Intolerable Acts In the spring of 1768. re-create the diagram below and describe how the Intolerable Acts changed life for colonists. a merchant and protest leader. Key Terms propaganda. The customs officials. British customs officials in Boston seized the Liberty. however. • why Boston colonists and British soldiers clashed. Trouble in Boston Protests like the Liberty affair made British colonial officials nervous. angry townspeople filled the streets. committee of correspondence Preview of Events ✦1770 1770 Boston Massacre takes place Section Theme Intolerable Acts Groups and Institutions Colonists banded together to protest British laws. • how the British government tried to maintain its control over the colonies. As news of the ship’s seizure spread through Boston. In the summer of 1768. 136 CHAPTER 5 Road to Independence . The ship had docked in Boston Harbor to unload a shipment of wine and take on new supplies. a ship belonging to John Hancock. resulting in the Boston Massacre. charged that Hancock was using the ship for smuggling. worried customs officers sent word back to Britain that the colonies were on the brink of rebellion. Parliament responded by sending two regiments of troops to Boston. The Liberty affair became one of the events that united the colonists against British policies. As angry Bostonians jeered. They shouted against Parliament and the taxes it had imposed on them. Organizing Information As you read the section. the newly arrived “redcoats” set up camp right in the center of the city.Building Colonial Unity Guide to Reading Main Idea Reading Strategy Read to Learn As tensions between colonists and the British government increased. protests grew stronger.

shovels. To make matters worse. and started to trade with British merchants again. Some colonial leaders. oyster shells. Soon other committees of correspondence sprang up throughout the colonies. We did not send for you.” After one of the soldiers was knocked down. The townspeople’s hatred for the soldiers grew stronger every day. “Fire. Aware of the growing opposition to its policies. As the crowd approached. and clubs. Some of them stole goods from local shops or scuffled with boys who taunted them in the streets. the redcoats earned little pay.) Explaining How did the Boston Massacre contribute to the repeal of the Townshend Acts? ssacre The Boston Ma The British soldiers never stood trial for the massacre. That day a fight broke out between townspeople and soldiers. Eight soldiers and the commanding officer at the Boston Massacre were jailed and tried for murder. An engraving by Paul Revere showed a British officer giving the order to open fire on an orderly crowd. (See page 596 of the Primary Sources Library for readings about colonial resistance. bringing together protesters opposed to British measures. They ended their boycotts. 1770. snowballs. “You dare not fire. however. part Native American. killing five colonists. and pieces of wood at the soldiers. Revere’s powerful image strengthened anti-British feeling. First the British had passed a series of laws that violated colonial rights. Parliament repealed all the Townshend Acts taxes except the one on tea. Mostly poor men.Many colonists. the nervous and confused redcoats did fire. The colonists called the tragic encounter the Boston Massacre. stones. In 1772 Samuel Adams revived the Boston committee of correspondence. Many colonists believed they had won another victory. the tension finally reached a peak. We’ll get rid of you. an organization used in earlier protests. especially those living in Boston. We will not have you “ here.” the crowd screamed. . One Bostonian cried out: Are the inhabitants to be knocked down in the “ streets? Are they to be murdered in this manner? ” Among the dead was Crispus Attucks. except on the taxed tea. picking up any weapon they could find—sticks. you bloodybacks. Now they had sent an army to occupy colonial cities. The Boston Massacre led many colonists to call for stronger boycotts on British goods. you lobsters. we’ll drive you away! ” The angry townspeople moved through the streets. Many Patriots thought it was an act of disloyalty to defend the soldiers. The committee circulated writings about colonists’ grievances against Britain. continued to call for resistance to British rule. the soldiers stationed in Boston acted rudely and sometimes even violently toward the colonists. The soldiers’ hopes for justice rested in the hands of John Adams. Several shots rang out. The soldiers competed off-hours for jobs that Bostonians wanted. CHAPTER 5 Road to Independence 137 . Two of the soldiers were found guilty of manslaughter. They pushed forward toward the customshouse on King Street. one man shouted. The others were found not guilty on grounds of self-defense. The Boston Massacre Relations between the redcoats and the Boston colonists grew more tense. Some Patriots questioned Adams’s loyalty. Samuel Adams put up posters describing the “Boston Massacre” as a slaughter of innocent Americans by bloodthirsty redcoats. The Word Spreads Colonial leaders used news of the killings as propaganda—information designed to influence opinion—against the British. who believed that even the enemy should be given a fair trial. Then on March 5. While some British officers tried to calm the crowd. the sentry on duty panicked and called for help. a dockworker who was part African. others argued that the trial showed even the hated redcoats could receive a fair trial. The crowd responded by throwing stones. felt that the British had pushed them too far.

— Samuel Adams. colonists vowed to stop the East India Company’s ships from unloading. and Charles Town. Boston. This measure gave the company the right to ship tea to the colonies without paying most of the taxes usually placed on tea. At large public meetings in Boston and Philadelphia. The Tea Act gave the company a very favorable advantage over colonial merchants. New York. “Fellow countrymen. Parliament passed the Tea Act of 1773.” The British government’s actions in 1773 seemed to confirm that view. December 1773 A Crisis Over Tea In the early 1770s.” Parliament ignored warnings that another crisis was brewing. To save the East India Company. On the evening of December 16. a showdown began. It also allowed the company to bypass colonial merchants and sell its tea directly to shopkeepers at a low price. and others denounced the British monopoly. The British East India Company faced ruin. the citizens of Boston refuse to allow three British ships to unload 342 chests of tea. everything we have done becomes useless!” King George III and Parliament respond by closing the city port.The Boston Tea Party The Boston Tea Party is one of the significant events leading ultimately to American independence. Most of the Townshend Acts are repealed. we cannot afford to give a single inch! If we retreat now. refused . The colonists forced the ships sent to New York and Philadelphia to turn back. “we’ll part with our tea. whose house had been destroyed by Stamp Act protesters. The Daughters of Liberty issued a pamphlet declaring that rather than part with freedom. was just another attempt to crush the colonists’ liberty. Samuel Adams 138 CHAPTER 5 Road to Independence Three tea ships arrived in Boston Harbor in late 1773. The tea sent to Charles Town was seized and stored in a warehouse. In November 1773. Boston citizens disguised as Native Americans board the ships and empty the tea into Boston Harbor. The royal governor. The Boston Tea Party Colonial Demands Colonial merchants immediately called for a new boycott of British goods. The tax on tea remains. In Boston. they argued. some Americans considered British colonial policy a “conspiracy against liberty. The East India Company shipped tea to Philadelphia. The Tea Act. This meant that East India Company tea was cheaper than any other tea in the colonies.

Yet no one spoke of challenging British rule. King George III realized that Britain was losing control of the colonies. further angered the colonists.” Not prepared to give up. Picturing History Examine the material about the Boston Tea Party on page 138. committee of correspondence. Another provision permitted royal officers to be tried in other colonies or in Britain when accused of crimes. Organizing Information Re-create the diagram below and describe how colonists showed their opposition to British policies. Instead the other colonies sent food and clothing to demonstrate their support for Boston. Worse. Parliament passed the Coercive Acts. On December 16. and colonial leaders continued to think of themselves as members of the British empire. The colonists maintained that the Coercive Acts violated their rights as English citizens. Key Terms Use these terms in sentences that relate to the Boston Massacre: propaganda. 5. The Quebec Act. What artifacts are shown? When did the “tea party” take place? Increased colonial opposition CHAPTER 5 Art Draw a cartoon strip showing the story of the Boston Tea Party. This provision ignored colonial claims to the area. The Intolerable Acts When news of the Boston Tea Party reached London. When he ordered the tea unloaded. The feelings of the colonists were made clear by their name for the new laws—the Intolerable Acts. Critical Thinking 4. The Coercive Acts also forced Bostonians to shelter soldiers in their own homes. Use at least four cartoon frames to present the sequence of events from your point of view. the laws banned most town meetings. In the spring of 1774. Analyzing Visuals 6.to let the ships turn back. the king and Parliament vowed to punish Boston. These included the rights to no quartering of troops in private homes and no standing army in peacetime without their consent. Groups and Institutions Why were the committees of correspondence powerful organizations? the laws took away certain rights of the Massachusetts colonists. Drawing Conclusions Do you think the Boston Tea Party was a turning point in the relationship between the British and the colonists? Explain. Compare your cartoon to a classmate’s and describe his or her point of view. Men and women gathered in the streets to celebrate the bravery of the Boston Sons of Liberty. Reviewing Facts How did colonial leaders use the Boston Massacre to their advantage? Reviewing Themes 3. At midnight they boarded the ships and threw 342 chests of tea overboard. Road to Independence 139 . an important form of selfgovernment in New England. a group of men disguised as Mohawks and armed with hatchets marched to the wharves. The Coercive Acts closed Boston Harbor until the Massachusetts colonists paid for the ruined tea. Parliament planned to isolate Boston with these acts. This action prevented the arrival of food and other supplies that normally came by ship. very harsh laws intended to punish the people of Massachusetts for their resistance. Adams and the Boston Sons of Liberty acted swiftly. Summarizing List the effects of the Coercive Acts on the citizens of Boston. For example. passed shortly after the Coercive Acts. the reaction was quite different. 2. This act set up a permanent government for Quebec and granted religious freedom to French Catholics. Colonists strongly objected to the provision that gave Quebec the area west of the Appalachians and north of the Ohio River. Word of this act of defiance spread throughout the colonies. an event that became known as the Boston Tea Party. Checking for Understanding 1. “We must master them or totally leave them alone.

silent audience on the wharf. Then Mr. The axes went through the wood easily enough—the canvas made endless trouble. . but the captain and all his crew had best stay in the cabin until the work was over. Erskine. Excerpt from Johnny Tremain by Esther Forbes. had not gone home. He heard him calling for the captain. It was close upon dawn when the work on all three ships was done. Recall and Interpret Why was the “tea party” expected? 2. © renewed 1971 by Linwood M. and children. Copyright © 1943 by Esther Forbes Hoskins. Captain Hall shrugged and did as he was told. ANALYZING LITERATURE 1.130-151_154-159 C05SE-860983 10/15/03 5:36 PM Page 140 Esther Forbes (1891–1967) Esther Forbes wrote a number of books. that not one thing should be damaged on the ship except only the tea. they formed in fours along the wharf. promising him. But one thing made them unexpected difficulty. . . As the three groups Paul Revere came off the ships. Jr. Evaluate and Connect What does the conduct of the “tea party” participants suggest about the protest? Explain your answer. The “tea party” was not unexpected. All rights reserved. As some men worked in the hold. And yet the great. READ TO DISCOVER In this passage from Johnny Tremain. in the jargon everyone talked that night. They join the crowd at Griffin’s Wharf in Boston Harbor. . their axes on their shoulders. but Captain Hall agreed that beyond that there had not been the slightest damage. others broke open the chests and flung the tea into the harbor. leaving his cabin boy to hand over the keys to the hold. As she researched Paul Revere’s life.. Executor of the Estate of Esther Forbes Hoskins. The tea was utterly gone. READER’S DICTIONARY boatswain: officer on a ship warped: roped jargon: strange language hold: place where cargo is stored on a ship winch: machine for hauling 140 Johnny Tremain T here was a boatswain’s whistle. where three English ships carrying tea are docked and are unable to leave or unload their cargo. The tea inside the chests was wrapped in heavy canvas. among them is the prize-winning biography Paul Revere and the World He Lived In. men. Revere called the captain to come up and inspect. women. Johnny was close to Mr. Revere’s heels. The Eleanor and the Beaver had to be warped in to the wharf. Johnny had never worked so hard in his life. Interdisciplinary Activity Expository Writing Write a one-page paper about how you think you would react in Johnny’s situation. tells the story of such an apprentice. and in silence one group boarded the Dartmouth. a fictional work. Johnny Tremain. Reprinted by permission of Houghton Mifflin Co. Forbes learned that many young apprentices played a role in the American Revolution. Then a hurrah went up and a fife began to play. The boy was grinning with pleasure. 14-year-old Johnny and his friend Rab have disguised themselves as Mohawks. The winches rattled and the heavy chests began to appear—one hundred and fifty of them.

1775 Battle of Bunker Hill is fought At first few colonists wanted a complete break with Britain. One of the most popular songs of the time. The Continental Congress Colonial leaders realized they needed more than boycotts to gain the liberty they sang about in “The Bold Americans. They called the new organization the Continental Congress. 1775 Battles of Lexington and Concord are fought May 10. We are the boys that fear no noise! Success to liberty. our sovereign. re-create the diagram below and list six events leading to the Battle of Bunker Hill.” They needed the colonies to act together in their opposition to British policies. Patriot 5) Preview of Events The Battle of Bunker Hill ✦1775 ✦1774 September 1774 First Continental Congress meets Revolutionary War drum and fife 6) Groups and Institutions With the establishment of the Continental Congress. Sent as delegates from all the colonies except Georgia. 1775 Ethan Allen captures Fort Ticonderoga June 17. In September 1774. while he sits on the throne. If he will grant us liberty. ✦1776 April 19. CHAPTER 5 Road to Independence 141 . 55 men arrived in the city of Philadelphia. these men had come to establish a political body to represent American interests and challenge British control. “The Bold Americans. As tensions mounted. Sequencing Information As you read the section. Seven months later American and British troops met in battle for the first time. so plainly shall you see. Key Terms 1) Section Theme 2) 3) 4) militia. If he grants us liberty.” called for both liberty and continued loyalty to the British king: We’ll honor George. however. • how the colonists met British soldiers in the first battle.A Call to Arms Guide to Reading Main Idea Reading Strategy Read to Learn Colonial leaders met at Philadelphia in 1774 to discuss a united response to British policies. Loyalist. the colonies continued to protest. • what happened at the Continental Congress in Philadelphia. no other king we’ll own. a peaceful compromise was no longer possible. minutemen.

. One of Congress’s major decisions was to endorse the Suffolk Resolves. made bullets. as well as George Washington. The answer came the following spring. two of the most outspoken defenders of colonial rights. They called on the people of Suffolk County to arm themselves against the British. and no colonial goods could be shipped to Britain. Some companies. . King George announced to Parliament that the New England colonies were “in a state of rebellion” and said that “blows must decide” who would control America. Gage had instructions to . By April 1775. and New Englanders are no more. New York sent John Jay. No British products could be brought into or consumed in the colonies. and the several charters” of the colonies. Explaining What was the purpose of the Continental Congress? The First Battles Colonists expected that if fighting against the British broke out. but an American. Their rights were based on the “laws of nature. ” Britain Sends Troops The British also prepared for conflict. it would begin in New England. They declared that these laws violated the colonists’ rights. New Yorkers. another lawyer. . First they drafted a statement of 142 CHAPTER 5 Road to Independence grievances calling for the repeal of 13 acts of Parliament passed since 1763. a British officer stationed in Boston noted in his diary: The people are evidently making every “ preparation for resistance. The people responded by forming militias—groups of citizen soldiers.• Colonists’ tradition of selfgovernment • Americans’ desire for a separate identity from Britain • Proclamation of 1763 • Harsh British policies toward North America after 1763 • A long war with Great Britain • Self-government for the United States • World recognition of United States independence Relations between Britain and America worsened during the 1760s and the 1770s. the principles of the English constitution. Patrick Henry summed up the meaning of the gathering: The distinctions between Virginians. Analyzing Information Why did the colonists fight for self-government ? Delegates to the Congress Major political leaders from all the colonies attended the Congress. they realized they needed to work together. British general Sir Thomas Gage had several thousand soldiers under his command in and around Boston. Massachusetts sent fiery Samuel Adams and his younger cousin John Adams. In the winter of 1774–1775. The delegates also voted to boycott all British goods and trade. with many more on the way. These resolutions had been prepared by Bostonians and others who lived in Suffolk County. Pennsylva“ nians. They are taking every means to provide themselves with arms. ” Decisions of the Congress Although the delegates were hardly united in their views. From Virginia came Richard Henry Lee and Patrick Henry. known as minutemen. a successful lawyer. Massachusetts. Militia companies in Massachusetts held frequent training sessions. I am not a Virginian. boasted they would be ready to fight on a minute’s notice. Many wondered if war was coming. and stockpiled rifles and muskets.

Lexington Militia MINUTEMEN N E W Su SMITH Colonial troops M y st North Bridge MINUTEMEN Colonial messengers S db ur yR iv e r British victory Menotomy (Arlington) Revere captured. He saw a regiment form ranks in Boston Common and then begin to march out of the city. Led by Captain John Parker. 0 British troops Medford Lexington April 19. if they mean to have a war. “The regulars are out!” to the There suddenly appeared a number of the “ King’s troops. Analyzing Information About how many miles did the British troops march from Lexington to Concord? CHAPTER 5 Road to Independence 143 . Revere and Dawes rode to Lexington. to warn Samuel Adams and John Hancock that the British were coming. leading members of the Sons of Liberty. Revere galloped off across the moonlit countryside. Adams could barely control his excitement.’ ” A shot was fired. the minutemen had positioned themselves on the town common with muskets in hand. the foremost of which cried. a town east of Concord. . He ordered 700 troops under Lieutenant-Colonel Francis Smith to march people and houses he passed along the way. ” Alerting the Colonists On the night of April 18. “What a glorious morning this is!” Adams was ready to fight for American independence. Joseph Warren walked the streets of Boston. 1775 i c R. —Captain John Parker. a town about 20 miles northwest of Boston. eight minutemen lay dead. Location In which battle did the Americans win their first victory over the British? 2. Dawes turned back. ye villains. . and then both sides let loose with an exchange of bullets. 1775 3 miles MASSACHUSETTS 3 kilometers 0 Lambert Equal-Area projection RE American victory VE RE Charlestown Cambridge Boston Ch a r l e s R i v e r DA WE S ester Dor cehck N Boston Harbor 1. At dawn the redcoats approached Lexington. he raced to tell Adams and Hancock his news. ‘Throw down your arms. let it begin here!” PRESCOTT Concord April 19. 1775. When he reached Lexington. When the fighting was over. When they reached the center of the town they discovered a group of about 70 minutemen who had been alerted by Revere and Dawes. shouting. Fighting at Lexington and Concord “ to Concord. A minuteman reported. Warren rushed to alert Paul Revere and William Dawes. The Battles of Lexington and Concord “Stand your ground . about a thousand . . Dr.take away the weapons of the Massachusetts militia and arrest the leaders. Gage learned that the militia was storing arms and ammunition at Concord. . where you will seize and destroy all the artillery and ammunition you can find. ye rebels. looking for any unusual activity by the British army.

As the British marched down the road.” The battle for America’s independence from Great Britain had begun. Looking back. was authorized to raise a force of 400 to seize Fort Ticonderoga on Lake Champlain.History Through Art A View of the Town of Concord. Why did the British march to Lexington and Concord? The British troops continued their march to Concord. The garrison surrendered on May 10. saddle makers. known as the Green Mountain Boys. At Concord’s North Bridge. they discovered that most of the militia’s gunpowder had already been removed. Ticonderoga was not only strategically located but was rich in military supplies. Soon the colonial militia assembled around Boston was about 20. 1775 by an unknown artist Two British officers (left) search for fleeing minutemen. Arnold conspired to surrender the key fort of West Point to the British and led British raids against the Americans in Virginia and Connecticut. the poet Ralph Waldo Emerson wrote in “The Concord Hymn” that the Americans at Lexington and Concord had fired the “shot heard ’round the world. Later during the war. and together they caught the British by surprise. a captain in the Connecticut militia. They destroyed the remaining supplies. Arnold learned that Ethan Allen was also mounting an expedition in Vermont to attack the fort. For several weeks. A British officer wrote. farmers. “These fellows were generally good marksmen. the militia fired. the minutemen were waiting for them. Arnold became a general in the British army.” By the time the redcoats reached Boston. When they arrived there. and clerks hid behind trees. rocks. the committees of correspondence sent out calls for volunteers to join the militias. blacksmiths. and many of them used long guns made for duck shooting. Describing What tactics did the colonists use against the British troops on their march back from Concord to Boston? 144 CHAPTER 5 Road to Independence More Military Action Shortly after Lexington and Concord. Benedict Arnold. Arnold joined with Allen’s force. 1775. while British troops march through Concord.000 strong. All along the road from Concord to Boston. . at least 174 were wounded and 73 were dead. Messengers on horseback had spread word of the British movements. and stone fences. the American and British armies waited nervously to see who would make the next move. Building Forces After the battles of Lexington and Concord.

In the end the Americans ran out of gunpowder and had to withdraw. What event in 1763 was significant to the independence movement? Loyalists CHAPTER 5 Expressive Writing Write a oneact play in which a small group of ordinary men. 2. Making Inferences What reasons might Loyalists have had to support Great Britain? 5. Road to Independence 145 . forcing the British to retreat. Reviewing Facts What decisions were made by the First Continental Congress? Reviewing Themes 3. they faced a major decision. Patriots. Choosing Sides As American colonists heard about these battles. For reasons that are unclear. Key Terms One of the following terms does not belong with the other three. With his forces low on ammunition. Comparing Re-create the diagram below and list the differing beliefs of Patriots and Loyalists and those shared by both. receiving furious fire. Groups and Institutions Why did the Continental Congress pass a resolution to form militias? unker Hill The Battle of B The Battle of Bunker Hill was fought on Breed’s Hill. 1775. women. Colonel Prescott reportedly shouted the order. As one British officer wrote in his diary. Patriots Both Analyzing Visuals 6. minutemen. the Loyalists.130-151_154-159 C05SE-860983 10/15/03 5:37 PM Page 145 The Battle of Bunker Hill On June 16. Some remained loyal to the king because they were officeholders who would lose their positions as a result of the Revolution. did not consider unfair taxes and regulations good reasons for rebellion. Describing What did the British learn from the Battle of Bunker Hill? Critical Thinking 4.200 militiamen under the command of Colonel William Prescott set up fortifications at Bunker Hill and nearby Breed’s Hill. were determined to fight the British to the end—until American independence was won. Most of the fighting did actually take place on Breed’s Hill. The next day the redcoats crossed the harbor and assembled at the bottom of Breed’s Hill. Chart Skills Review the causeand-effect chart on page 142.” The British had learned that defeating the Americans on the battlefield would not be quick or easy. Identify the term that does not belong and explain why. Others were people who lived in relative isolation and who had not been part of the wave of discontent that turned so many Americans against Britain. Loyalist. they charged up the hill. Still others expected Britain to win the war and wanted to gain favor with the British.” The Americans opened fire. Should they join the rebels or remain loyal to Britain? Those who Checking for Understanding 1. The Patriot soldiers received instructions to set up defensive positions on Bunker Hill. about 1. chose to stay with Britain. The Patriots. “Don’t fire until you see the whites of their eyes. on the other hand. across the harbor from Boston. and children in a small town react to news of the Battle of Lexington. Bayonets drawn. Terms: militia. The British decided to drive the Americans from their strategic locations overlooking the city. they set up the positions on nearby Breed’s Hill. Remember that reactions varied from colony to colony and that not all colonists wanted independence from Great Britain. another such would have ruined us.000 dead and wounded. The redcoats charged two more times. “A dear bought victory. The British won the Battle of Bunker Hill but suffered heavy losses—more than 1.

and explain how you arrived at your answer. it is an opinion. List at least three facts and three opinions presented in the ads. That’s a fact. on the other hand. superlatives. Applying the Skill Distinguishing Fact from Opinion Analyze 10 advertisements. beliefs. or judgment words? 146 CHAPTER 5 Road to Independence Paul Revere’s ride Practicing the Skill Read each numbered statement below. 2 The redcoats were the most feared soldiers in the world at that time. poor. Although it may reflect someone’s thoughts. it is not a fact. should. advertisements. expresses beliefs. 3 The Daughters of Liberty opposed the Tea Act of 1773. 4 The Boston Tea Party raiders should have sunk the tea ships. To distinguish between facts and opinions. and judgments. or in my opinion. and satisfactory—also usually indicate an opinion. worst. An opinion. It often contains words such as might. . and greatest. Level 1. could. Judgment words that express approval or disapproval—such as good. or judgment? • Does it include phrases such as I believe. Learning the Skill A fact answers a specific question such as: What happened? Who did it? When and where did it happen? Why did it happen? Statements of fact can be checked for accuracy and proven. probably. feelings. it seems to me. we cannot prove or disprove it. 5 George III was a foolish king. “Our school’s basketball team is awesome. 1 Paul Revere rode to Lexington with the news that the British redcoats were coming. and many other kinds of statements.Critical Thinking Distinguishing Fact From Opinion Why Learn This Skill? Suppose a friend says. ask yourself these questions: • Does this statement give specific information about an event? • Can I check the accuracy of this statement? • Does this statement express someone’s feelings. bad.” Actually. An opinion often begins with phrases such as I believe. Knowing how to tell the difference between a fact and an opinion can help you analyze the accuracy of political claims. and ought and superlatives such as best. Tell whether each is a fact or an opinion. I think. provides instruction and practice in key social studies skills. Glencoe’s Skillbuilder Interactive Workbook CD-ROM.

. preamble Government and Democracy The Declaration of Independence declared the colonies free and independent. Organizing Information As you read the section. Adams: You can write ten times better than I can. . the Second Continental Congress assembled for the first time. declaring independence was a long way off. delegates to the Second Continental Congress came to a momentous decision. Jefferson: Why will you not? You ought to do it. Jefferson: You should do it. Adams and Jefferson Colonial Leaders Emerge On May 10. • what happened at the Second Continental Congress. re-create the diagram below and describe the parts of the Declaration of Independence.Moving Toward Independence Guide to Reading Main Idea Reading Strategy Read to Learn The Second Continental Congress voted to approve the Declaration of Independence. 1776 Declaration of Independence is approved In June 1776. . Key Terms Section Theme petition. Adams: Oh! no. Many years later John Adams recalled a conversation with Thomas Jefferson about the writing of the document. I will do as well as I can. if you are decided. Jefferson: Well. They agreed to have a committee draw up a document declaring America’s independence from Great Britain. The conversation between Jefferson and Adams did not occur until more than a year after that first meeting. 1775. CHAPTER 5 Road to Independence 147 . • why the colonists drafted the Declaration of Independence. 1775 Second Continental Congress meets ✦1776 July 1775 The Congress sends Olive Branch Petition to George III ✦1777 March 1776 George Washington takes Boston from the British July 4. Parts of the Declaration of Independence Preview of Events ✦1775 May 10.

On John Adams’s recommendation. The delegates chose Hancock as president of the Second Continental Congress. Its 13 stripes stood for the thirteen colonies. was a wealthy merchant. one of the most accomplished and respected men in the colonies. Richard Henry Lee. 148 CHAPTER 5 Road to Independence John Hancock of Massachusetts. had already acquired a reputation as a brilliant thinker and writer. was the first to represent all the colonies. Among those attending were John and Samuel Adams. 38 years old. or Grand Union flag.The Second Continental Congress acted as a central government for the colonies. In July the Congress sent a petition. He funded many Patriot groups. It established committees to communicate with Native Americans and with other countries. had been an influential member of the Pennsylvania legislature. to George III. it assured the king of the colonists’ desire for peace. during the Stamp Act Crisis. including the Sons of Liberty. In 1765. and George Washington—all delegates to the First Continental Congress held in 1774. Several distinguished new delegates came as well. The Second Continental Congress began to govern the colonies. As a member of the Virginia House of Burgesses. only 32 when the Congress began. Jefferson had become associated with the movement toward independence. he represented the colonies in London and helped secure the repeal of the act. Benjamin Franklin. It authorized the printing of money and set up a post office with Franklin in charge. the Congress created the Continental Army to fight against Britain in a more organized way than the colonial militias could. the Congress unanimously chose George Washington to be the army’s commander. It asked the king to protect the . Most important. America’s Flags Continental Colors. 1775–1777 The Continental Colors. Patrick Henry. or formal request. Thomas Jefferson. The crosses represented the British flag and symbolized the colonists’ loyalty to Great Britain at that time. After Washington left to take charge of the colonial forces in Boston. the delegates offered Britain one last chance to avoid all-out war. The delegates to the Second Continental Congress included some of the greatest political leaders in America. Called the Olive Branch Petition.

. On March 17 Washington led his jubilant troops into Boston. to bombard the British forces. Support for the position of absolute independence was growing. some Americans still hoped to avoid a complete break with Britain. The British troops sailed to Halifax.com army in a semicircle and click on Chapter 5— around Boston and gave Student Web Activities for an activity on the Decthe order for its cannons laration of Independence. Instead he prepared for war.” Their correspondence during the times they spent apart showed a thoughtful exchange of ideas and a strong respect for one another. Moving Toward Independence Throughout the colonies in late 1775 and early 1776. organization. who became a leader in the independence movement. In bold language. which Parliament seemed determined to destroy. . Through her letters to family and friends. and leadership. George III refused to receive the Olive Branch Petition. however. Abigail left us a record of her thoughts about the By March 1776. He positioned the Visit tarvol1. under Sir William Howe. Washington reached Boston in July 1775.000 German troops to send to America and fight beside British troops. I desire you would Remember the CHAPTER 5 Ladies. Marching north from Fort Ticonderoga. The Colonies Take the Offensive Meanwhile the Congress learned that British troops stationed in what is now Canada were planning to invade New York. He argued that it was simply revolution as it developed. Nova Scotia.colonists’ rights. Born into a comfortable Massachusetts household. hurriedly withdrew from the city and boarded their ships. Paine called for complete independence from Britain. In January 1776. The redcoats. He began the hard work of shaping these armed civilians into an army. but he realized they lacked discipline. As Congress considered a declaration of independence. He found the members of the militia growing in number every day. and be more generous and favorable to them than your ancestors. An American attack on Quebec led by Benedict Arnold failed. Abigail Adams would later become the second of the new nation’s first ladies. she teasingly —but seriously—wrote to her husband: “I long to hear that you have declared an independency . however. The Americans decided to strike first.glencoe. Road to Independence 149 . She also shared her hopes for the new nation. WashHISTORY ington judged the Continental Army ready to Student Web Activity fight. a Patriot force captured Montreal in November. The American forces stayed outside the city of Quebec through the long winter and returned to Fort Ticonderoga in 1776. Thomas Paine published a pamphlet called Common Sense that captured the attention of the American colonists. hiring more than 30. Abigail Smith spent her youth reading and studying. At age 19 she married 28-year-old lawyer John Adams. a few weeks after the Battle of Bunker Hill.

the Congress chose a committee to draft a Declaration of Independence. Others argued that war already had begun and a large portion of the American population wanted to separate from Great Britain. In New York American soldiers tore down a statue of George III in celebration. Jefferson was selected to write the document. Jefferson drew on the ideas of thinkers such as English philosopher John Locke to set out the colonies’ reasons for proclaiming their freedom. After making some changes. 1776. bonfires. Eventually 56 delegates signed the paper announcing the birth of the United States.” King George III. Locke wrote that people were born with certain natural rights to life. and of right “ ought to be. Washington had it read to his troops on July 9. . While the delegates debated the issue. free and independent States . and property. and that a government interfering with these rights might rightfully be overthrown.” Common Sense inspired thousands of Americans.” . . the meeting hall was filled with spirited debate. New York did not vote but later announced its support. . firing of musketry and cannon.That these United Colonies are. ” History Thomas Jefferson prepared the draft of the Declaration. 1776. a historic day? “common sense” to stop following the “royal brute. and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain is. On June 7 Virginia’s Richard Henry Lee proposed a bold resolution: 150 CHAPTER 5 Road to Independence The Congress debated the resolution. Paine told the colonists their cause was not just a squabble over taxes but a struggle for freedom—“in a great measure the cause of all mankind.) Explaining Why was Thomas Paine important to the independence movement? The Colonies Declare Independence At the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia. Some delegates still thought the colonies were not ready to form a separate nation. and ought to be. Why is July 2. while Benjamin Franklin and John Adams made suggestions. One central issue occupied the delegates: Should the colonies declare themselves an independent nation. Twelve colonies voted for it. On July 2. and other demonstrations of joy. John Hancock. North Carolina instructed its delegates to support independence. Still others feared Great Britain’s power to hold down the rebellion. totally dissolved. was the first to sign the Declaration of Independence. that people formed governments to protect these rights. the reading of the Declaration of Independence was followed by “repeated huzzas [cheers]. 1776. In Worcester. the Congress finally voted on Lee’s resolution for independence. Massachusetts. or should they stay under British rule? In April 1776. they approved the document on July 4. Hancock’s bold signature stands out on the original document. Next the delegates took up Jefferson’s draft of the Declaration of Independence. Hancock remarked that he wrote his name large enough for King George to read it without his glasses. the president of the Congress. (See page 596 of the Primary Sources Library for another excerpt from Common Sense. Copies of the Declaration went out to the newly declared states. liberty.

Liberty. Reviewing Facts What was King George III’s response to the Olive Branch Petition? Reviewing Themes 3. what are the “unalienable Rights” to which Jefferson referred? Give examples. were ignored or rejected by Britain. The next two sections list the rights the colonists believed they should have and their complaints against Britain. The final section proclaims the existence of the new nation. that “ all men are created equal. The Declaration of Independence states what Jefferson and many Americans thought were universal principles. or introduction. Thomas Jefferson Thomas Paine Samuel Adams Benjamin Franklin CHAPTER 5 Road to Independence 151 . Olive Branch Petition 2. The preamble. the Declaration of Independence. however. We hold these truths to be self-evident. How are the two flags similar? How are they different? Which of the flags more closely resembles the American flag of today? Role Expository Writing Prepare a help-wanted ad to locate a person qualified to write the Declaration of Independence. and the pursuit of Happiness. These petitions. The Declaration ends by announcing America’s new status. is Independence Day celebrated on the fourth? On that day the delegates voted to accept Jefferson’s statement. consent. The crimes of George III included “cutting off our trade with all parts of the world” and “imposing taxes on us without our Checking for Understanding 1. preamble. the Declaration says. The struggle for American independence—the American Revolution—had begun. . our Fortunes. Then write a sentence in which you use each term.” Americans. had “Petitioned for Redress” of these grievances. 5. (See pages 154–157 for the entire text of the Declaration of Independence. Actually. states that people who wish to form a new country should explain their reasons for doing so. Describe the responsibilities of the job as well as the experience and character traits that are needed.The Declaration of Independence The Declaration has four major sections. ” The Declaration states that government exists to protect these rights. it goes on to state that “it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it and to institute new Government. that among these are Life. Organizing Information Re-create the diagram below and describe each individual’s role in the movement toward independence.” The Declaration goes on to list the many grievances Americans held against the king and Parliament. and our sacred Honor. Picturing History Compare the flag on page 148 with the flag on page 128. Why. 1776. Analyzing Visuals 6. Key Terms Connect the terms below with the proper document.” the Americans declared themselves a new nation. then. It begins with a description of traditional English political rights. If it does not. Documents: Declaration of Independence. Now pledging “to each other our Lives. 1776. Analyzing Primary Sources Based on the quote from the Declaration of Independence on this page. that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights.) Summarizing What grievances against King George III were included in the Declaration of Independence? Critical Thinking 4. as the reason why they had voted for independence two days earlier. Terms: petition. Government and Democracy Why was the Second Continental Congress more like a government than the First Continental Congress? ay Independence D Congress voted for independence on July 4. Congress voted for independence on July 2.

It wasn’t until colonists began to unite in opposition to harsh British policies that they began to consider themselves Americans.& GEOGRAPHY EVE OF REVOLUTION HISTORY The Continental Army was organized in May 1775. However. In addition to stating their grievances and voting to boycott British products. Wilmington Savannah Georgetown Charles Town St. and expensive on both sides. In this era before radios or telephones. 1775. they also thought of themselves as Virginians or Georgians or New Yorkers. Soon. How do you think the geography of the colonies made communication difficult? 2.” was the first battle of the Revolutionary War. Near what cities did the early battles take place? 152 Conflict Scale varies in this perspective . the idea spread. Americans joined Committees of Correspondence. the committees spread opposition to British policies into nearly every county. In 1774 delegates gathered at the Continental Congress in Philadelphia to form an organization to represent their interests as Americans. Augustine American Revolution Proclamation Line of 1763 L E A R N I N G from G E O G R A P H Y Post road British fort or post 1. Augusta Camden GEORGIA SOUTH CAROLINA THE SHOT HEARD ‘ROUND THE WORLD The Revolution’s first blow fell early on the morning of April 19. and city. STIRRINGS OF REVOLT In 1772 Samuel Adams convinced a group of Bostonians to join a Committee of Correspondence to communicate with other towns in Massachusetts. British redcoats clashed with colonial minutemen at Lexington and Concord. The Battle of Bunker Hill in June showed that the war would be hard. This clash. In colony after colony. town. long. IN THE EARLY 1770s most colonists thought of themselves as British subjects. later called the “shot heard ’round the world. the Patriots decided to organize their own militias.

Battle of Concord The British Army occupied more than 70 forts and posts in North America when the American Revolution began. N W E S I C N T A L A T E A C O N a Ch rl e s R i Mill Pond Boston Massacre The Harbor N Common E W Boston Tea Party S 0 1/2 mile 0 1/2 kilometer 153 . Ticonderoga MAINE NEW YORK (District of Massachusetts) Saratoga A N H I C L A PA P A VIRGINIA O N I N Albany Bennington NEW HAMPSHIRE Deerfield PENNSYLVANIA MARYLAND Baltimore Washington/ Alexandria Annapolis Richmond Warrenton M U TA S White Plains Morristown Concord CONNECTICUT Lexington Princeton Philadelphia Falmouth MASSACHUSETTS Trenton New Haven New York City Boston RHODE ISLAND Newport NEW JERSEY DELAWARE Jamestown/ Williamsburg NORTH CAROLINA Bath Charlestown ve r New Bern Bunker Hill Post riders and Patriots carried mail along routes called post roads. Quebec Montreal Ft. a rider could travel to Charles Town. in 16 days or less. South Carolina. Crown Point Ft. From New York City. to Williamsburg in 4 to 8 days. or to Boston in one day.

a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation. The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America. 1776. Liberty. usurpations unjust uses of power 154 154 The Declaration of Independence [Preamble] When in the Course of human events. An unalienable right is a right that cannot be surrendered. That to secure these rights. while evils are sufferable. the Declaration of Natural Rights. It goes on to explain that. pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism. and accordingly all experience hath shown. in a republic. than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature’s God entitle them. as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence. Governments are instituted among Men. and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. July 4. laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form. it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it. lists the rights of the citizens. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations. and to institute new Government. [Declaration of Natural Rights] We hold these truths to be self-evident. The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations. indeed. [List of Grievances] Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies. He has refused his Assent to Laws. impel force What It Means Natural Rights The second part. people form a government to protect their rights. it is their duty. that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights. and to assume among the Powers of the earth. that mankind are more disposed to suffer. The word unalienable means nontransferable. it is their right. to throw off such Government. all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends. Notice that King George III is singled out for blame. will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes. The Declaration refers to these rights as unalienable rights. and the pursuit of Happiness. . deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed. it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another. and to provide new Guards for their future security. that among these are Life.In Congress. that all men are created equal. the most wholesome and necessary for the public good. let Facts be submitted to a candid world. What It Means The Preamble The Declaration of Independence has four parts. endowed provided despotism unlimited power What It Means List of Grievances The third part of the Declaration lists the colonists’ complaints against the British government. To prove this. The Preamble explains why the Continental Congress drew up the Declaration.

and raising the conditions of new Appropriations of Lands. by refusing his Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary Powers. and sent hither swarms of Officers to harass our people. He has refused for a long time. for the tenure of their offices. unless those people would relinquish the right of Representation in the Legislature. and convulsions within. for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures. he has utterly neglected to attend to them. whereby the Legislative Powers. He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual. and the amount and payment of their salaries. relinquish give up inestimable priceless annihilation destruction convulsions violent disturbances Naturalization of Foreigners process by which foreign-born persons become citizens tenure term The Declaration of Independence 155 155 . He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of large districts of people. for that purpose obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of Foreigners. and eat out their substance. and when so suspended. a right inestimable to them and formidable to tyrants only. unless suspended in their operation till his Assent should be obtained.He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing importance. have returned to the People at large for their exercise. uncomfortable. for opposing with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people. He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone. to cause others to be elected. refusing to pass others to encourage their migrations hither. He has endeavoured to prevent the population of these States. incapable of Annihilation. He has obstructed the Administration of Justice. and distant from the depository of their Public Records. after such dissolutions. He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly. the State remaining in the mean time exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without. He has erected a multitude of New Offices.

establishing therein an Arbitrary government. burnt our towns. They too have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity. and hold them. in times of peace. and has endeavoured to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers. whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant. We have warned them from time to time of attempts by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. Standing Armies without the Consent of our legislature. in Peace Friends. giving his Assent to their acts of pretended legislation: For quartering large bodies of troops among us: For protecting them. by declaring us out of his Protection and waging War against us. is unfit to be the ruler of a free People. abolishing our most valuable Laws. ravaged our Coasts. the merciless Indian Savages. and unacknowledged by our laws. He has affected to render the Military independent of and superior to the Civil Power. whose known rule of warfare. He has plundered our seas. of the benefits of Trial by Jury: For transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pretended offences: For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighbouring Province. which. Enemies in War. and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpations. and altering fundamentally the Forms of our Governments: For suspending our own Legislature. We must. desolation and tyranny. He is at this time transporting large armies of foreign mercenaries to compleat the works of death. We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity. to become the executioners of their friends and Brethren.quartering lodging render make abdicated given up perfidy violation of trust insurrections rebellions petitioned for redress asked formally for a correction of wrongs unwarrantable jurisdiction unjustified authority consanguinity originating from the same ancestor 156 The Declaration of Independence He has kept among us. from Punishment for any Murders which they should commit on the Inhabitants of these States: For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world: For imposing taxes on us without our Consent: For depriving us in many cases. acquiesce in the necessity. He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitution. and enlarging its Boundaries so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule into these Colonies: For taking away our Charters. which denounces our Separation. In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Redress in the most humble terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated injury. He has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high Seas to bear Arms against their Country. and destroyed the lives of our people. and declaring themselves invested with Power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever. would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence. He has abdicated Government here. already begun with circumstances of Cruelty & perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages. sexes and conditions. A Prince. . or to fall themselves by their Hands. as we hold the rest of mankind. therefore. He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us. We have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here. and totally unworthy the Head of a civilized nation. by a mock Trial. Nor have We been wanting in attention to our British brethren. is an undistinguished destruction of all ages.

and by Authority of the good People of these Colonies. that they are Absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown. and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States. Thomas Lynch. conclude Peace. Assembled. our Fortunes and our sacred Honor. with a firm reliance on the Protection of Divine Providence. solemnly publish and declare. Jr. they have full Power to levy War. John Hancock President from Massachusetts Georgia Button Gwinnett Lyman Hall George Walton North Carolina William Hooper Joseph Hewes John Penn South Carolina Edward Rutledge Thomas Heyward. do. 1776. rectitude rightness What It Means Signers of the Declaration The signers. Most members signed the document on August 2. Connecticut Samuel Huntington William Williams Oliver Wolcott Roger Sherman New York William Floyd Philip Livingston Francis Lewis Lewis Morris New Jersey Richard Stockton John Witherspoon Francis Hopkinson John Hart Abraham Clark New Hampshire Josiah Bartlett William Whipple Matthew Thornton The Declaration of Independence 157 . is and ought to be totally dissolved. and that as Free and Independent States. and to trade with other countries. in the Name. And for the support of this Declaration. Francis Lightfoot Lee Carter Braxton Pennsylvania Robert Morris Benjamin Rush Benjamin Franklin John Morton George Clymer James Smith George Taylor James Wilson George Ross Delaware Caesar Rodney George Read Thomas McKean Massachusetts Samuel Adams John Adams Robert Treat Paine Elbridge Gerry Rhode Island Stephen Hopkins William Ellery What It Means Resolution of Independence The final section declares that the colonies are “Free and Independent States” with the full power to make war. in General Congress. to form alliances. therefore. the Representatives of the united States of America. declared the colonies independent from Great Britain. Jr. Jr. appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions.[Resolution of Independence by the United States] We. contract Alliances. Arthur Middleton Maryland Samuel Chase William Paca Thomas Stone Charles Carroll of Carrollton Virginia George Wythe Richard Henry Lee Thomas Jefferson Benjamin Harrison Thomas Nelson. we mutually pledge to each other our Lives. and to do all other Acts and Things which Independent States may of right do. and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain. as representatives of the American people. establish Commerce. That these United Colonies are.

What was the purpose of the First Continental Congress? 14. repeal 6. but an American”? 20. revenue 4. Organizing Information Re-create the diagram below and show ways the colonists. According to the Declaration of Independence. propaganda 7. Analyzing Information According to the Declaration of Independence. How did the events of 1776 move the colonists closer to self-government? 15. Critical Thinking 17. by working in groups.Reviewing Key Terms Road to Independence Follow the arrows to review the causes and the effects that led to the colonies declaring independence. Analyzing Primary Sources What did Patrick Henry mean when he said. what are the three basic freedoms to which every person is entitled? . Parliament passes Sugar Act and Stamp Act Becomes Cause Effect: Colonists boycott British goods Cause Becomes Effect: British send troops to Boston. “I am not a Virginian. Use only one term in each statement. Below each false statement explain why it is false. Patriot 2. What did the British do to keep colonists from moving westward? 11. Indicate which statements are true and which are false. militia 8. What incident caused the British Parliament to pass the Coercive Acts? 13. British defeat colonial forces at Bunker Hill Congress signs Declaration of Independence 158 10. Group action by colonists 19. resisted the British during the revolutionary period. Drawing Conclusions Why did the colonists think that the Stamp Act ignored the colonial tradition of self-government? 18. 1. Cause: French and Indian War leaves Great Britain in Write five true and four false statements using the terms below. boycott 5. unalienable rights debt Reviewing Key Facts Effect: Britain taxes colonies. How did the British government use the colonies to raise revenue? Why did this anger the colonists? 12. what do people have the right to do? 16. Identify the four sections of the Declaration of Independence. if a government does not protect the basic rights of the people it governs. preamble 3. resulting in the Boston Massacre Becomes Cause Effect: British repeal import taxes Becomes Cause Effect: Colonists respond with Boston Tea Party Becomes Cause Effect: Parliament passes the Coercive Acts Becomes Cause Effect: First Continental Congress drafts a statement of grievances Becomes Cause Effect: British troops fight colonists at battles of Lexington and Concord. minutemen 9.

Economics Activity 31. have the groups come together as a class. The Stamp Act placed a tax on almost all printed material in the colonies. What bodies of water did the Proclamation of 1763 prevent colonists from reaching? 26. These included the right to life. Persuasive Writing What do you think a good citizen is? Is it someone who follows the law? Or might it be someone who breaks the law in order to stand up for an ideal? Do you think that people like the Sons of Liberty acted as good citizens? Write a persuasive paper explaining your views. Work with a group of classmates to create your own “Declaration of Independence. locate the computer address for the National Archives or the Library of Congress in Washington. 24. the passage refers to life. 23. Thomas Jefferson was a better writer than John Adams. 25. An English philosopher named John Locke wrote about his belief that people had natural rights.130-151_154-159 C05SE-860983 10/15/03 5:42 PM Page 159 HISTORY Self-Check Quiz Practicing Skills Distinguishing Fact From Opinion Read the following statements. Outline the basic freedoms that you expect to have as a citizen and describe why these freedoms are important to you. It also states that people had the right to overthrow the government. Intolerable Acts. D.com and click on Chapter 5— Self-Check Quizzes to prepare for the chapter test. The Daughters of Liberty urged Americans to wear homemade fabrics.glencoe. After your group has completed its Declaration of Independence. people had the right to overthrow the Directions: government. How did laws passed by the British after 1763 affect American trade and industry? Write your answer in a one-page paper. A B C D Proclamation of 1763. Locke wrote that people Standardized created government to protect natural rights. and property. 21. Declaration of Independence. Great Britain should not have tried to stop the colonists from settling west of the Appalachians. liberty. liberty and property. If a government failed in its basic duty of proTest Practice tecting natural rights. Search each site for documents concerning the drafting of the Declaration of Independence and/or photos of pamphlets produced by the colonies in the 1700s.Choose the best answer to the following Locke’s ideas contributed to the question. Using the Internet On the Internet. Visit tarvol1. Standardized Test Practice Read the following passage and choose the best answer to the question that follows. Tell whether each is a fact or an opinion. In Two Treatises of Government. then answer the following questions. Geography and History Activity Study the map on page 133.” Use the original Declaration of Independence on pages 154–157 as a guide to create your document. 22. Which answer does this information best support? CHAPTER 5 Road to Independence 159 . The land west of the Appalachian Mountains became part of what province? 28. Print a copy of what you find or sketch a likeness to share with the class. Articles of Confederation. Look for clues in the passage to support your answer. Share all the groups’ documents and compare the ideas expressed in each. Alternative Assessment 32. What natural feature was cited in the Proclamation of 1763 as an approximate boundary? Citizenship Cooperative Activity 29.C. What nation claimed the land west of the Mississippi River? 27. Then write at least three responsibilities and/or sacrifices that citizens should be willing to make to enjoy the freedoms you listed. Test-Taking Tip: Technology Activity 30. For example.