You are on page 1of 44

1

s
Greenwich University

PROPOSAL
BBA-DISSERTATION

Topic of Dissertation
The use of children in advertisements of liquid hand washes and soaps that influence
buying behavior and patterns
Student Name
Maryam Rizwan
Reg # BS33 2772
Supervisor
Mr. Kamal Ayub Quraishi

Dissertation submitted to Greenwich University in partial fulfillment of the requirements


for the Degree of Master in Business Administration

CHAPTER 1............................................................................................................. 7
INTRODUCTION...................................................................................................... 7
1.1 Background....................................................................................................... 7
1.2 Consumer and customer........................................................................................ 8
1.3 Buying Behavior................................................................................................. 8
1.4 Advertising........................................................................................................ 9
1.5 Children as influencers to mothers...........................................................................9
1.6 Lifebuoy brand and company analysis....................................................................11
1.6.1 Philosophy................................................................................................. 11
1.6.2 Mission..................................................................................................... 11
1.6.3 Product Positioning...................................................................................... 11
1.7 Consumer Analysis of Lifebuoy (liquid hands wash)...................................................12
1.8 Aim of this study............................................................................................... 14
1.9 Research Objectives........................................................................................... 14
1.10 Research questions........................................................................................... 14
1.11 Research problem............................................................................................ 15
1.12 Rationale of the study....................................................................................... 15
1.13 Scope of the study............................................................................................ 15
CHAPTER 2........................................................................................................... 16
LITERATURE REVIEW............................................................................................ 16
2.1 Socialization of children...................................................................................... 16
2.2 Information-processing theory.............................................................................. 16
2.3 Advertising and media........................................................................................ 17
2.4 Brand positioning.............................................................................................. 19
2.5 Consumer oriented market................................................................................... 22
2.6 Educating children............................................................................................. 23
2.7 Personal hygiene............................................................................................... 24
CHAPTER 3........................................................................................................... 27
METHODOLOGY.................................................................................................... 27
3.1 Research methods.............................................................................................. 27
3.2 Sample size..................................................................................................... 27
3.3 Data Collection Method...................................................................................... 27
3.4 Time orientation................................................................................................ 27

3
3.5 Dimensions of this reseach................................................................................... 28
3.6 Data analysis.................................................................................................... 28
CHAPTER 4........................................................................................................... 29
DISCUSSIONS....................................................................................................... 29
4.1 Childrens Perception......................................................................................... 29
4.2 A marketers take on the topic............................................................................... 30
4.3 An Advertising Agencys Perspective......................................................................31
4.4 Mothers Views................................................................................................. 33
CHAPTER 5........................................................................................................... 35
CONCLUSION....................................................................................................... 35
CHAPTER 6........................................................................................................... 36
RECOMMENDATIONS............................................................................................ 36
CHAPTER 7........................................................................................................... 37
LIMITATIONS......................................................................................................... 37

DECLARATION
I, Maryam Rizwan, affirm that my dissertation titled: The use of children in advertisements
of liquid hand washes and soaps that influence buying behavior and patterns declares that
this thesis is my own work and effort and that it has not been submitted anywhere else.
Where other sources of information have been used, they have been acknowledged
I also confirm that I have fully acknowledged all those individuals and organizations who
have contributed to the research for this dissertation.
It is explicitly understood that Greenwich University reserves the right to check originality of
manuscript both manually & electronically (by using software approved by HEC).

Roll Number: BS332772

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Firstly I would like to thank the Allah Almighty for his blessings and for the timely
completion of the research. I would also like to thank and appreciate the efforts of my thesis
supervisor Mr. Kamal Ayub Quraishi for his assistance at every step of the report.I would
also like to thank Mr. Sherbaz Khan for providing me with valuable information and guiding
me throughout this research.Lastly, to all the students who co-operated really well with the
whole procedure of the research. Without their co-operation, I would not have been able to
collect the data properly.

ABSTRACT

This study is an explorative study that focuses on the use of children in the
advertisements of soaps and liquid hand washes, and they way the children who are influence
purchase of these products. Marketers are targeting children in such advertisements that not
only inform them about such products but educate them about personal hygiene as well. The
key words used to gain literature for this research were use of children in advertisements,
marketing to children, personal hygiene, and consumer behavior. Interviews were conducted
to attain a better understanding of the topic, the interviewees were children, mothers,
marketing executives and ad agency executives.

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background
For any marketer it is very important to understand the target market for each
particular brand, and then create awareness and the desire to purchase through advertisements
which are designed to attract the specific group of people. There are many factors which may
affect or influence buying behavior. Households which have children are highly influenced by
their preferences and opinions regarding certain brands. Children may not have the
purchasing the power but they sure do have an impact on the end purchasing decision. This
study strongly focuses on the influence of children on products like soaps and liquid hand
washes. Children these days have become highly opinionated due to the intense exposure to
the media. The marketers have taken advantage of that and began molding the minds of the
children to influence buying decisions based on their preferences or choices of such brands
that they have no concern of using for instance liquid hand wash.
Housewives and mothers are usually the ones responsible for the household groceries
and decide which brands to choose over others. They are very particular on the usage of
brands because they want their families to get the best. Advertisers have grasped that and
started to use children in promotional campaigns and advertisement which portray children
being associated with products like soaps, liquid hand washes and other FCMG products that
have a great deal of impact on housewives and mothers and influence their purchase
decisions.

1.2 Consumer and Customer


A consumer and customer are usually defined as the same person, which is buying
and utilizing a product. Analyzing both these terms more closely a customer and consumer
may not be the same individuals, a customer only buys a certain commodity where as a
consumer is the end user of a commodity. Not all customers are the consumers, an example
could be taken of diapers, a mother would be a customer who purchased a particular diaper
brand but the baby is the consumer. The relationship between a customer and consumer is
interrelated. The consumer greatly relies on the customer to satisfy his needs and wants. A
customer has the purchasing power as well as the end buying decision. a consumer is the one
who is the end user of the product.
A customer is the one who usually evaluates all the benefits of a product or brand.
Housewives and mothers act as customers because they have the end buying decision and the
family is mainly the consumers who are more focused on the utilization of a product. Another
example could be of tea, the housewives who are responsible for the purchasing of groceries
decide on buying a particular brand as the family members approve of the brand after they
had consumed it.

1.3 Buying Behavior


The buying behavior patterns change from person to person. There may be many
factors that play a role in influencing purchase decision. Brand loyalty and consumer
preference play a vital role in predicting in buying a good. Consumer preference may change
due to competitors or change in the trend of the society. Brand loyalty nowadays doesnt exist
in many markets, stiff competition and many more alternates have given the people more
choices to choose from; thus loyalty is vanishing. The preferences of a customer vary from
one another as well as change constantly with time, season and trends. New brands are

emerging daily into the market which provide variety to the customers to choose from. This
variety doesnt benefit the customer more but it confuses the customer. The products are the
same but branding and marketing differentiates them from one another.

1.4 Advertising
Advertising is the most important aspect of marketing of any brand. Advertising
creates brand awareness and connect with the target market. The ad campaign has to be
effective and relatable to the audience; the marketers know that effective advertising will help
boost sales. Companies allot millions of dollars into their advertising campaigns and
promotions. Advertising is a way of connecting to the audience and creating awareness about
a product that is in the market. People see the brands on the shelves of the stores and they
know that a particular brand is in the market but at times people tend to forget about the
brands benefits and attributes. Effective advertising mainly helps on choosing one brand over
its competitors, an example of soaps could be of Dettol and Lifebouy , and both are anti
bacterial soaps belonging to credible companies and have the same attributes. Marketers and
advertisers work day and night to come up with new ideas for their ad campaigns that would
create distinction between their brands from their competitors.

1.5 Children as Influencers to Mothers


Marketers and advertisers use children in ads because they feel that children have a
stronger connection emotionally to the audience. Many housewives and mothers are the
customers for FMCG products like soap or liquid hand wash, having children in such ads
make it more relatable. Children are quick learners are grasp everything that is thrown at
them.

10

The 21st century has witnessed the height of technological and scientific research. This
has surely benefited the society in every step of a successful living, but all along it also
stepped into a very hazardous environment. Mostly it has created by one factor alone that is
pollution generating through air, water and soil pollution. Children urban areas of Karachi
have been attacked and infected with deadly diseases such malaria, typhoid, jaundice, dengue
and many more all due to the negligence in usage of health care products. The deaths of
infants and children are also at peak level. Now because of health awareness programs
through all kinds of media people in general have learned to fight against these bacterial
diseases and to protect their children and household. Numerous brands have emerged into the
market advertising the same message that they are more capable of fighting these
environmental borne deadly diseases. Some brands may prove to live up to their mark
whereas others are affectless, but are still present in the market following leading brands.
Mothers in general are more influenced by the health care products such as soaps and
liquid hand washes for the safety of their families. Children are the main concern because
their immune system is weaker as compared to the adults. They are highly exposed to the
unhealthy environment and they are more likely to be affected by harmful diseases.
In Karachi one can easily witness a children playground or a street where a child
mostly plays, filled with all sorts of garbage that homes these unseen deadly bacteria and
germs. An innocent child can easily become a victim of one of any fatal disease. For this
matter mothers are more concerned and use these health care related products without giving
any second thought that is where these brands become successful using a mothers emotion.
Today marketers and advertisers of such companies use the emotion of mothers to their
advantage when they advertise and promote their products.

11

An active child who is mostly outside being in it schools or playgrounds could easily
dirty their clothes. The marketers, who once used working class adults as their target, now
shifted their aim towards actively playing children.
In most families men usually allot the monthly budget for the household products to
their wives. The marketers have acknowledged that in most families men generally allot the
monthly budget to their wives who have the end purchasing decision. Through advertising
they influence these houses

1.6 Lifebuoy Brand and Company Analysis


1.6.1 Philosophy
To feel and need to be clean and healthy is essential to everyone regardless the age or
SEC class. Lifebuoy understands this feel and need in the market to make the world a
hygiene and healthy place. Their Philosophy is to come up with inspiring projects which
could motivate the consumers to improve and develop a hygienic behavior.

1.6.2 Mission
Lifebuoy has a strong ambitious mission towards their consumers and aims to change
their behavior towards hygiene of 1 billion people by the year 2015 across Asia, Africa and
Latin America, through promoting the concept of hand washing on key or important
situations, hence reducing health problems and other diseases which take place because of
germs etc.

1.6.3 Product Positioning


Lifebuoy has always positioned all its products as the medium for getting rid of
germs. Back in the day if we look at lifebuoy products, we notice their focus was always on

12

killing germs and staying healthy. Today due to change in consumer behavior theyve slightly
shift their on just killing germs, now they focus on killings germs superfast. The Product
Lifebuoy hand was positions itself as a superfast antibacterial liquid hand wash soap which
does the same job of getting rid of germs and making sure you stay healthy. Only this time
its more effective and efficient.
Lifebuoy which started off as a brand of soap created by the Lever Brothers soap
factory in 1894, the first to use carbolic acid in soaps, which is why it was red in color with a
strong medicinal scent. Today Lifebuoy is sold in all over the World. Then need to be clean,
active and healthy is important to everyone irrespective of age or economic status etc.
Lifebuoy understands this need and fulfills the need for hygiene and health around the
world. Lifebuoy as a brand defines and portrays itself to the audience as a caring and
hygienic agent providing protection form bacteria diseases, but at the same time aiming for
convenience so their products can be used as simply and easily for their consumers, because
that is what every consumer wants (convenience).
In the olden days though the brand had a more firm/excitement and patriarchal image
because of the their old TVCs, but today they portray their brand personality as competence,
sophisticated and somewhat to the level of sincerity, because reiterating the same message of
killing germs 99.99% is what every brand does, hence it makes people cynic. Where as in in
terms of product life cycle Liquid hand wash, (this product line is something new to the
Pakistani audience and its comparatively new in the market, its been approx. 3 years since
this line of product has been introduced in the market by Lifebuoy.

1.7 Consumer Analysis of Lifebuoy (liquid hands wash)


Lifebuoy Liquid Hand Wash caters to SEC A & B, currently targeted primarily
towards children and secondary target is house wives and working wives. In terms of

13

demographics theyve segmented their market catering to school going children under 12 and
mothers, because a lot of mothers show a keen interest in their childs personal health and
hygiene. In terms of Psychographics, a lot of kids today have this absurd way of doing things
impatiently, they dont get time to do what they dont really want to do, always find
convenience in everything to just get done with boring schedules of their day and get on with
games or sports whatever attracts them the most. Hence theyve positioned their product to be
this super-fast clinical agent which keeps you healthy and germ free. However there are a lot
of other consumers with different age bracket who do use the product because it also focuses
on the convenience aspect of using a liquid soap compared to a bar soap. Considering the fact
that Lifebuoy in their campaign achieved its objective, and their focus in the campaign was
easy to use and convenience. Its safe to assume that the consumers like this product because
of its simple and easy to use. Its convenient than a bar soap. They prefer lifebuoy liquid hand
wash because it saves them from the trouble of using bar soap and saves time, at often times
it slips from your hand and drops on the floor, when youre in a hurry.
Keeping their market share in mind consumers are definitely loyal to the brand and
the product. Every consumer looks for convenience in every brand or product. Liquid soap
consumers perceive the brand as a convenient antibacterial liquid soap, which performs much
faster than a traditional soap. The criteria for making a purchase decision involves price,
worth the money, and accessible. These are some of the primary concerns from a consumers
point of view while making a purchase decision. Then comes the secondary concerns if they
need an antibacterial soap theyll go for this option if it meets their primary concerns.
There shouldnt be any geographical difference because it comes under monthly
grocery list. Hence people often buy this item on a monthly basis. Health and hygiene is
something which everyone takes care of, it doesnt vary because geographical location,
however it might be the case that people in some areas where its more humid consume more.

14

1.8 Aim of this Study


The aim of this study to understand that the use of children in the advertisements of
FMCG products such as liquid hand washes and soaps that have an influence in the buying
behavior and patters of consumers.

1.9 Research Objectives


1. To understand the concept of using children to boost sales of soaps and liquid hand
washes.
2. To comprehend the psychological connection with housewives and mothers that see
children in FMCG products such as liquid hand washes and soaps advertisements.
3. To understand the level of influence children have on buying behavior of consumers
of FMCG products.
4. to understand how advertisements educate children.

1.10 Research Questions


1. Do children in advertisements actually help in boosting sales of FMCG products?
2. Is there an emotional and psychological connection between children and the
consumer of FMCG goods such as soaps and liquid hand washes?
3. Are marketers and advertisers targeting to children who act as influencers to force
purchase decisions of liquid hand washes and soaps?
4. Are companies trying to educate children on personal hygiene?

1.11 Research Problem


Marketers and advertisers are very conveniently using children in advertisements of
soaps and liquid hand washes like lifebuoy. The problem lies in understanding if it is

15

effective to target the children in such ways that they influence their parents and consumers
who have purchasing power to buy the products.

1.12 Rationale of the Study


The rationale of the study is to understand the concept behind the influence of
children in purchasing decisions. Children may not have the power to purchase but their great
deal on influence plays a major role in the sales of FMCG products like liquid hand washes
and soaps. This study will help marketers and advertisers to comprehend using and depicting
children in advertisements that will help in such ads being more effective.

1.13 Scope of the Study


This study will be conducted in the city of the areas of Defence and Clifton Karachi,
Pakistan. Children and mothers will be interviewed to attain a better understanding of the
study. The children of The Hampton School will be interviewed

16

CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Socialization of Children


The research done by Pettersson (2006) focuses on the fact that the socialization of
children into market behavior and their indoctrination involves the principles of consumption
are essential to the stability of a capitalist social order like the United States. This section
focuses on the phase of childhood when new consumers are coming of age, the ways
marketers shape their buying behavior, the images and values that ads relate to the children,
and the controversies and ethical queries that appear from marketing to children. It examines
these issues from the various perspectives of the advertising industry, government regulators,
parents, and activist ( Pettersson 2006).
Parents of these days are very particular of the information that is given to the
children and the level of exposure to the world. They have become very protective of their
children, due to immense knowledge that is out there and is easy accessible to them. Peer
pressure is also an issue being addressed by the parents that have a great deal of impact in the
behavior of the children.

2.2 Information-Processing Theory


A study conducted by David (1977) focuses on the information processing theory
which states that people of different ages process and make sense out of information given to
them in various manners. His main focus was on children of 11 years and younger, and their
methods of grasping information. Basically information processing theory is a psychological
study that provides findings and proves that children, who are 11 years and under do not have
the complete capabilities and efficiency to acquire, encode, organize, decode and retrieve

17

information. This helps one understand that their abilities to gather and interpret information
isnt fully refined. They process primary messages given in commercials and advertisements.
Marketers and advertisers have to keep that in mind when they are working with brands that
target the children like juices, chocolates, toys etc (David 1977).

2.3 Advertising and Media


As a study conducted by Clow (2007) defined advertising as a tool for marketing that
persuades, encourages, manipulates or influences people that could be readers, viewers or
group, through communication. The main objective of advertising is to influence the
consumer to make purchase of a particular brand of product being advertised (Clow, 2007)
A research done by Reynolds and Howard (1995) discussed that advertising is the practice of
promoting creating awareness of any firms services or products on different forms of medias
mediums. Those mediums could be radio transmissions, television commercial, newspaper
ads or billboards and magazines. The advertisements have been made kept in mind the
preferences and needs of their specific target market. If the target market is convinced of the
products usefulness and influenced by the advertisement and the message conveyed then only
will they make a buying decision. The advertisements and the message being conveyed
should be well tailored according to the target market and clear as well as effective to create
an impact and encourage purchase (Reynolds and Howard, 1995)
For any business the basic motive is profit and profit is only made by sales.
Companies invest millions of dollars in advertising so that their companys products or
services are in front of the consumers. Marketers and adverting agencies are putting in many
efforts in making their adverts as effective as thinkable. Advertising agencies are coming up
with more innovative ideas and tactic as well as a deeper understanding of the consumer.

18

They hire psychologists and consultants to comprehend the minds of the target market in a
more elaborated manner.
Nowadays, ads are made to create an attachment and binding with the viewers.
Advertisers take into advantage emotions and vulnerability of the audiences while making
advertisements. The use of artificial sentiments and music in ads has a greater deal of impact
in igniting emotions in people. Just like music which is captivating to the audiences like
children the use of color has also distinct effects on the mind which draws one to close to it.
In advertisements for ice cream vibrant and bright colors are used with jingles that attract
children towards it and force their parents to buy it for them. This indicates the extent to
which companies tend to go in order to prompt sales. Details are very important when it
comes to making the product attractive and relatable to the people.
As Nelson and Phillip (1974) mentioned in their study that the young generation is
very opinionated and strives for knowledge; advertisers take that into consideration and
create such ads that convey a message and reach out to the youth. They make the youth
realize that something is lacking their daily lives and how badly the need it to stay updated
with the world. These days the young generation is being portrayed in advertisements to
attract youngsters. An example of Pepsi can be taken which uses idols of the young
generation to boost sales and keep a young and enthusiastic image with the new generation.
They argued that there are many functions of advertising but one of its main and most vital
function is to create that want in the minds if the consumers. They should see the adverts and
instantly think that they want that product, hence to go to the store and buy it ( Nelson,
Phillip, 1974).
A study conducted by Achenbaum (1989) and Linday (1990) revolved around
advertising acting as a factor in controlling brand equity. It states that brand image plays a
vital role in attracting consumers towards advertisements. Then greater the brand equity the

19

better the chance the advertisement creates an impact among the audience (Achenbaum,
1989; Lindsay, 1990),
The research done by Joyce (1991) implies that people usually tend to be taken away
from all sorts of methods of communication including advertisements if that isnt bringing
them any interest. They only see what attracts them and of their use. Different people
belonging to various age groups and different preferences in terms of advertisements and ad
agencies alter the advertisements according to them (Joyce, 1991).
McDonald (1991) mentioned a statement in his study that brand value is creating by
the perceptions that people have about a particular brand and that is done by how it is
promoted. Marketers and advertisers cannot control the minds and perceptions of the people
but they can give direction to it. By direction it means that companies position a brand in a
way that they want the consumers to perceive it and effective advertising is the key
(McDonald, 1991).
This world revolves around media, and media has become a necessity of ones life.
The most important function of media is that it provides knowledge, keeps us updated and
connected to the world. A study conducted by Petty, Richards, Schumann and David (1983)
states that media is very a tool connecting people to one another and to the world as a whole.
Marketers and advertisers wouldnt be there if it wasnt for the expansion of media. They
promote and advertise their brand on different mediums of media such as the newspaper,
television, internet, radio, billboards, magazines and etc. in one way or the other the message
is conveyed to the audiences. Advertising not only generates sales for the company but also
the medium of media that has encouraged and promoted the advertisement ( Petty, Richard
and Schumann, David, 1983).

20

2.4 Brand Positioning


The relation a company aims to create with a brand is reflected by the proposed
positioning, the authentic positioning is reflected in the positioning which is offered to the
customer (i.e the implementation of proposed positioning is different from what customer
feels or comprehends.)Different marketing communication can be used in order to get this
done but mainly it is done through advertising which is considered as a main and important
tool for constructing a brands position. (Krishnan, 1996; Lilien and Rangaswamy,
2003).Advertising functions as a method of transport of positioning(Dillon , 1986; Seggev,
1982) a creative artwork part and a positioning which includes brand information part is
normally present in any advertisements. The interest of consumer is obtained and aimed to
the positioning of the brand through the creative component of the ad (Easingwood and
Mahajan, 1989). Trout and Rivkin (1996)support and believe that if advertising is done only
with the images and without any positioning assertion will provide no reason to the consumer
to buy the brand. Therefore the difference between proposed and authentic positioning lies in
the implementation of the advertised program(Blankson and Kalafatis, 2007; Roth, 1992).
According to the actual positioning as portrayed in the ad, a different and personal
opinion is formed by the consumer of the brand and they and they position it last in their
minds, this is known as supposed positioning which points out the difficult and compound
collection of different opinion or, thought belief, approach , idea and imprint that the
consumer have for the brand as in contrast to the competitors (Ellson, 2004; Ries and Trout,
1986). Supposed positioning may vary from customer to customer as they may understand
the same positioning differently according to their individual aims , objectives , principles or
usage. (Friedmann and Lessig, 1987; Schiffman and Kanuk, 2007).
Constructing a brands name and position is a long term process linked with
substantial investments mainly in advertising (Bhat and Reddy, 1998),if incorrect positioning

21

is chosen by the companies which means if you select the incorrect positioning scope which
does not seem important and significant by the consumer or if they arent different from the
brand of the competitor , it may jeopardize the supposed positioning of the products and as a
result the sales may be diminished. Similarly another problem might occur if the proposed
positioning fails in its implementation as a useful proposed positioning by the customers.
However successful positioning may be negotiated by poor actual positioning, poor intended
positioning or a mixture of both.
A study done by Sengupta (2005) states that the end buying decision of a consumer is
done by measuring the benefits derived from the purchase and not just the attraction of
features. The physical characteristic are not as important for a consumer as compared to the
benefits tired to the brand (Sengupta, 2005). In the research conducted by Bagozzi (1986) he
discussed that brands are made to meet the needs or solve issues and problems faced by a
person. These days due to stiff competition in the market, brands are forced to focus of
upgrading its features rather than providing benefits to the consumers. Brands are slowly
losing their usefulness and meaningfulness in the minds of the consumer because they are
becoming identical to one another and illustrating the same features and benefits
(Broniarczyk and Gershoff, 2003).
Ries and Trouts (1986) study was based on the theory that building a USP among
homogeneous product is difficult and positioning them in the minds of the target market is
even more difficult because they dont have many distant features to offer.
This argument was supported by Aakers (2003) study which stated that in such
products the performance is compared and perceived highly similar to one another (Aaker,
2003). Technology and scientific research has progressed tremendously over the past few
years and all companies are trying to incorporate the best features in their products to create
differential advantage and position the product in a way that its features are remarkable

22

innovative. But due to the intense competition and other huge firms, they also use new and
innovative methods to make their product stand out but FMCG products like soap, detergent,
hand washes and toothpaste are all mostly the same with similar features, hence the features
arent much different from one another. Branding the product differently by using the 4 ps
of marketing will help such brands be positioned differently in the minds of the consumers
with effective advertising (Hsieh, 2002).

2.5 Consumer Oriented Market


Customer-oriented or market-driven is the new and modified term which has
recommenced to agenda of management, and stresses on the marketing concept of key to
long term profitability by satisfying customer needs and wants (Shapiro, 1988). The basic
and elementary requirement for a companys existence and competitiveness is to keep
complete focus on the customer(Webster, 1988).As an input to marketing decision making in
purchasers market , the knowledge of consumer behavior is becoming progressively
meaningful.
As the most fundamental challenge for marketing strategy consideration of superior
customer value has been suggested by many authors (Webster,1988; Day & Wensley,1988;
DeshpandT, Farley & Webster,1993. Competitive edge has to be achieved which is able and
willing to be demanded by the customer. According to the perspective of the marketing
management the consumer should feel the assumed market price of their companys offering
over takes the market price of their competitors offerings.
Most of the modern contributions deriving from customer research replicate an
increasing interest in examining different characteristic of consumer value, as a result of these
studies unclear interpretations have been seen which is neither represented by facts nor their

23

standardizing implications for marketing strategy. ( Jaworsky & Kohli,1993; Day, 1994;
Slater & Narver,1995).
Marketing managers who are putting in efforts to attain continuous competitive
advantage in consumer market would benefit from exploration of some different scope of
consumer value. The first and foremost step would be to define the correlation between the
consumer value and the continuous competitive advantage. Few of the significant
consequences and qualifications of consumer value are recorded by highlighting the
significance of post buying experience or the expectations of the customers and their value
for the pre-buying judgments. Summarizing it into an explanation of competitive benefit will
be determined which is totally based on the organizations willingness as well as its ability.

2.6 Educating Children


In early 1960s voluntary guidelines were implemented in which advertisers were
forbidden to inculcate children to ask their parents for any advertised product, it has been
pointed out in the research that the ads have an impact on the children and as a result they
demand these products from their parents however positive impact has been seen on children
through animated features and jingles. According to the research done by Heyel, (1960) it has
been found that young children get attracted and develop fondness towards greatly produced
characters.
It is fascinating and predictable that two other researches support the above statement
that children are influenced and persuaded by the advertisement and bring us close to this
conclusion that the more exposure children get the more requests they make. However the
adults have the capability to think, analyze and observe any kind of overstatement where
children are incapable of doing that and this is one of the threats in this kind of advertisement.
The television ads targeting children causes a long term effect on children by producing a

24

longing or desire for purchasing the advertised product. (Heyel, 1960). When their needs are
not satisfied by their parents irritation is caused in parent and child both and if the advertised
product is not as good as it seemed then it results in disappointment and discontent. (Paine,
1984).
In easy terminology learning could be defined as experiences dealt by children
growing up and in adopted changes in their behavior and attitudes, that change is usually
permanent (Bandura, 1997). The process that leads to behavioral change is known as
learning. Children and vulnerable and grasp anything taught to them by their parents, family
member, teachers or the environment. They observe what is happening in their surrounding
and adopt that, they keep trying to things that fascinate them. Children then reinforce what
they learn upon the parents and family, an example could be of what they are taught in
school. Children may very close attention to detail like how we interact with them and how
methods of communication.
Learning plays a great deal affecting a childs behavior and attitude towards life and
dealing with people. In learning first a child receives the information given to them, secondly
interpret that and lastly reproduce it (Shaffer and Kipp, 2010)

2.7 Personal hygiene


The word home hygiene describes the hygiene practices which helps diminish the disease and
its effects in our daily environment which includes social setting, public transport, domestic,
work place etc.
An important role is played by hygiene in our homes and day to day life to reduce the
spreading of infectious diseases. Some various procedures such as hand hygiene, respiratory
hygiene, food and water hygiene, general home hygiene, family and pet hygiene, home

25

hygiene are included in it (Fewtrell L, Kauffman RB, Kay D, Enanoria W, Haller L, Colford
JM 2005).
The stated elements of hygiene however are more likely to be considered as different
issues though they lie underneath the same microbiological principles. By breaking the chain
of infection transmission the disease can be prevented from spreading. It is considered as a
principle that if the chain of infection is broken the infection is unable to spread further. The
International Scientific Forum on Home Hygiene has come up with a risk-based
approach (based on Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP)which is identified as
"targeted hygiene as a reaction to the requirement for effective codes of hygiene in home
and everyday life settings . Targeted hygiene is supported on the identification of the path of
increasing of the pathogens and by utilizing hygiene measure at serious and correct time in
order to break the chain of infections.
The main causes of infection in home are the people who are infected or carry germs,
mostly raw foods, water and domestic pets. Moreover places such as sinks, toilets, waste
pipes, cleaning tools, face cloth which accumulate still water sustain microbial growth readily
and as a result it can become secondary infection of reservoir despite the fact that these
species are mainly those that makes threats at risk group. Microorganisms are frequently
dropped out through mucous membranes, faeces, vomit, skin scales, etc. When situations
merge people become exposed and can grow infections through food or water. Germs are
mostly spread through hands , food , cloth and utensils , towels etc.
Therefore, when situation merge, public becomes exposed, whichever directly or by
water or food, and it can also grow a disease. The chief "artery" for increment of microbes in
the habitat is our hands, food and hand contact exterior and cleanout fabrics and tools.
Microbes can also extend by clothing and household linens such as towels Strachan (2000).

26

Utilities such as toilets and wash basins, for example, were invented for industry
carefully with human ravage, but still acquires risks linked with them, which might turn into
serious at assured times, example when somebody has illness or diarrhea. Secure dumping of
human ravage is a primary necessitate; poor hygiene is a major reason of diarrheal disease in
short precedes community. Respiratory illness and fungal spores are in addition increase by
the atmosphere.
Children are more likable to be affected by diseases due to their weak immune
system, thus households need to be clean and germ free for children.

27

CHAPTER 3
METHODOLOGY

3.1 Research Methods


This study was done in the city of karachi in the specific areas of Defence and Clifton
from which the sample was taken. The data gathered for this study was taken from the
published articles, research papers and journals from the internet using key words such as
chidren in advertisments, marketers targeting the children, children influencing buying
behaviour, evolution of lifebuoy and importance of personal hygiene. Many children
and mothers were interviewed to attain useful information on their points of view on the
topic.

3.2 Sample Size


The sample size that was taken into consideration while this research was 16 people,
which consisted of 8 chidren below the ages of 10 and mothers ranging from ages 25 to 55.
Two marketing executives and one advertising agency executive were a part of the sample as
well.

3.3 Data Collection Method


The method used to attain the information was structured and semi structured
interviews done. The interviewees shared their points of view and their perceptions.

3.4 Time Orientation


This research is a onetime research study which is an individual study being
conducted in Karachi. The cross sectional- basis has been used in the collecting the data for

28

this study. Cross sectional data is mostly obtained from the participants at one specific given
period of time. The participants provide the data in the same period of time, whereas as in
time-series the change is evaluated and measured in the same manner over a period of time.
In this research the data was collected from the participants at one point in time, without any
consider to the difference in time. This is a one-time study which has been conducted in
2013, that started on July 5th 2013 and ended on 27th September 2013.

3.5 Dimensions Of This Research


This study is an expolatory study based on views and perceptions of individuals.
Qualitative method of reseach will be used to attain data. Interviews will help in
understanding the point of views of advertisers as well as consumers on children being used
in ads of liquid hand washes and soaps that inflenuce the buying behaviour and purchase
patterns of consumers. This study revolves around the perpespective behind targeting
children for products like anti-bacterial soaps and liquid hand washes.

3.6 Data Analysis


To analyze data the narrative method was used in which particpants were asked
questions regarding the literatures discussed in the study. The different perceptions of the
particpants were compared to the published literatures mentioned in the research. This is
research is an exploative study which focuses on advertisements of hygeine soaps an liquid
hand washes being targeted to the children that not only help in boosting sales but educating
the children on personal hygeine.

29

CHAPTER 4
DISCUSSIONS
4.1 Childrens Perception
The children of grades 3rd and 4th studying at Hampton school were interviewed and
they gave their views on lifebuoy and their understanding of lifebuoys ad campaigns; a total
of 8 children were interviewed. Due to the immense exposure to television they had much
awareness about lifebuoys advertisements and the message that was trying to be conveyed.
Lifebuoys advertisements are being highly effective to the audiences because the message of
being clean and germ free was being depicted in the correct manner and easily
comprehendible. They shared their understanding on killing germs and the importance of
personal hygiene. The children also stated that they wash their hands with anti-bacterial hand
wash every time they come home from school, before and after they eat, after they come
inside from playing outside, after petting an animal and any activities that may cause their
hands to become dirty. One thing that was highlighted by each child was that they wash their
hands because they want to be healthy and germ-free and lifebuoy kills 99.99% of germs.
This statement is illustrated in the ad campaigns of lifebuoy. A part from just fighting germs
the children also mentioned that fragrance is pleasing and their hands smell and feel fresh. A
year back lifebuoy did an education promotion activity in the school which the children
remembered and shared the benefits that were taught to them about personal hygiene,
cleanliness and the importance of staying healthy. The children even stated that they ask their
mothers to buy lifebuoy liquid hand wash for them to help them stay germ-free, which
indicates the children influencing their mothers of end purchase. The children of Hampton
school even remembered the various colors and types of packing of lifebuoys hand washes.
They said that they find the advertisements of television regarding personal hygiene very
interesting and that it motivates them to stay clean and use the brand.

30

Lifebuoy wasnt the only brand which children talked about when it came to antibacterial soaps and liquid hand washes, safeguard and dettol were also highlighted. Both of
these brands are competitors to lifebuoy, but just as lifebuoy they target the children. The
children recalled tv shows made by safeguard and dettol that teach them about hygiene. Out
of the 8 children 7 of them said they use anti-bacterial soap and liquid hand washes at home
and 5 said that they use lifebuoy, the other 3 mentioned names of other competitive brands.

4.2 A Marketers Take On The Topic


A marketer executive shared his views on the ad campaign of lifebuoy liquid hand
wash and how it targets the children in the most effective way. He stated that Super-fast
germ kill hand wash the only campaign which was launched in 2010, which focused more
on the convenient usage of soap, which does a better job than a bar soap, only faster saving
time.{Ammar Mohsin from Unilever Pakistan}
He elaborated on the point that the campaign consisted of a TVC which focused
primarily on school children, whore shown having junk food and a kid who talks about the
advantages of using lifebuoy liquid hand wash. This ad impacted the consumers online in a
negative way, their perception of the ad was about an obese kid having clean and healthy
food who uses bar soap and gets bullied by another kid who uses Lifebuoy Liquid hand wash.
Listening to the consumer perception, they launched another TVC ad for the same campaign
in which they portrayed impatient kids of todays world and using Lifebuoy liquid hand wash
saves them time keeping them up to their schedule, also keeping their mothers happy. He said
that mothers are very protective of their children and want them to be safe and healthy and
lifebuoy provides safety to children from germs that are the core reason for many common
diseases among the kids.

31

Unilever did heavy advertising on TV, secondly on print/outdoor (Billboard Hoarding)


and then barely on radio. They aired the first TVC with heavy frequency on a number of
channels relevant to their audience like GEO, HUM even Cartoon Network. The use of Radio
however was just to reach or perhaps catch some of the audience again, if theyre traveling.
The ads were usually played in the afternoon and in the evenings around 5:00pm to 6:00pm
on Radio.

4.3 An Advertising Agencys Perspective


An executive of Adcom, a leading advertising agency of Pakistan shared his views on
advertising to the children. He stated that his perception regarding the portrayal of children in
ad campaigns of soaps and liquid hand washes is trivial, yet it really depends on the target
Group of a particular brand. Assuming in general, the way children are portrayed in such
advertisements is merely to influence other kids. The Marketers have this perception that
Kids only relate to other kids, they may see adults in an ad as their role models but they really
find kids relatable only because their psychographics comes as similar to theirs. He also
added that the marketers are spot on, in what they are doing
He further argued that his point of view on using children in advertisements does not
boost sales in a major way. It certainly helps them put the sales up a few notches. The main
decision makers are parents, in some cases mothers or in some cases fathers. Children are
only influenced in getting what they like and the vibrant color, shiny white clean hands and a
fragrance of sweet candy is what they want, thats what appeals to them. The marketers have
this one rule and one rule only, to play with the consumers emotions. Once they do that, then
they have a confirm sale in their pocket. But then the decision makers are the obstacle for
kids. Some kids are perverse and convince their parents into buying what he wants some kids
do not fathom that quality.

32

He talked about the target market of such products and lifebuoy. He argued that there
is no such thing as a designated or a specific individual target set for a brand. It all depends
on the brand and the research put behind it. If the product is something which needs to cater
two different segments only because there is a need on both sides, the marketers will cater to
both sides. Similarly for soaps such as Lifebuoy liquid hand wash in general. We see two
separate individuals being catered. Kids these days are very conscious about their personality,
in lame end terms; they dont want to lose their cool in front of their friends in school. So
they dont feel left out. Similarly, they show the same picture of an obese kid who is not
popular enough to hang out with cool kids and clearly all cool kids are shown using Lifebuoy.
That is association, an association all kids want. Then we have doctors showing statistical
evidence as to how accurately this product benefits the kids, hence catering to mothers. He
concluded by stating that its not just mothers or children, its both yet it also depends on the
brand as well.
Educating children through ad campaigns was highlighted in which he stated that
Brands these days are doing both the things at the same time. Its like a paradox. Further
elaborated he said that though they are educating thousands of children on hygiene and how
important it is through BTL activities such as hand wash day etc. But they are bringing a sort
of classification as well generated by their content by classifying kids who use their brand are
cool as oppose to who dont arent. That is purely wrong. But then again, advertising in this
world today has become more than mainstream some can live with them some can live
without them. He also discussed consumer behavior and the extent to which children
influence their mothers on end purchase decision. He stated that some kids are introvert, they
wont talk much, wont fight much for something they really want. Then there are kids who
are extroverts, who are very expressive, and are willing to fight or talk much and convincing
people or in this case parents into getting what they want. Logically it is known that these

33

brands cater to SEC A B and that means that once the kid is influenced by an ad there is not
stopping of a sale because these parents can afford more than 10 soaps at the same time. He
concluded by saying that for an advertiser it is very important to understand the product being
targeted to and their expectations of a certain product.

4.4 Mothers Views


It was very crucial to understand the mothers point of view in this research, because
they are the customer and end decision maker. A total of 8 mothers were interviewed to attain
a better understanding of this topic. The mothers belonged to different walks of life, 4 of
them were housewives, 2 of them were teachers, 1 was an HR executive and the other was
working for an FMCG company. They all discussed the importance of their childrens health
and the hazardous conditions of the environment of today were the major reason for the
children being ill most of the time. Children are at school and playing outside which exposes
them to many harmful bacteria that are the core reason behind the diseases faced by children
these days. All of the mothers stated that personal hygiene is very important for them and
they do their best to keep their children clean and germ-free but due to immense exposure to
outdoor activities children bring germs with them. Most of the housewives said that they
make their children wash hands as soon they come home with any ordinary soap, where as
the other mothers stated that its important for their kids to use an anti-bacterial hand wash to
cleanse the hands because that is more effective. One mother highlighted that children
themselves have become much aware of using the appropriate hand wash that would keep
their hands clean.
The mothers also shared their views on advertisements that target children that
influence mothers. They said their children are learning about health and personal hygiene
and are self motivated to keep themselves clean. Out of the 8, 5 mothers agreed to the fact

34

that their children force them to purchase a particular brand after they see its ad campaign on
television on a billboard and due to that the mothers make a purchase. Lifebuoy had wash
was present in 7 of the 8 mothers households not just for the children but for the entire house.
There were 4 mothers that stated that its a necessity to have anti-bacterial soaps and hand
washes at home, beauty soaps are less effective to fight germs than anti-bacterial soaps and
hand washes.

35

CHAPTER 5
CONCLUSION
The findings attained from this research prove that children have a great deal of
influence on mothers when it comes to the purchase of liquid hand washes and soaps such as
lifebuoy. Lifebuoy has positioned itself as an anti-bacterial soap and liquid hand wash, the
liquid hand wash is something new for the Pakistani market, and has been accepted widely.
Time changes many things and alters products according to the needs of the people. Thus
now to stay clean and germ-free the many companies have introduced liquid hand washes
that have taken the place of soaps. This study highlights on the importance of educating
children on personal hygiene and staying healthy. Ad campaigns such as lifebuoys not only
targets the children for boosting sales but educates them, and the children educate their
parents. Most of the children that were interviewed discussed many issues related to hands
being dirty that cause diseases. They also mentioned the various ad campaigns of lifebuoy
and had much awareness. Mothers were also interviewed and they agreed to the fact that their
children to influence on purchasing products like soaps and liquid hand washes. Their
children educate them about hygiene and its importance.

36

CHAPTER 6
RECOMMENDATIONS

This research was an exploratory based study and the information gathered was
mainly focused on the perceptions of the interviewees and the literature found published
articles. Through this study it is understood that children are highly influenced by the media
and what the media is teaching them. Companies should try to educate the children more and
the spread the importance of matters like personal hygiene in every household in Pakistan.
more educational activities should be conducted in schools that only promote the product but
convey a message as well.
More schools could be the focus of the study that would increase the sample size and
more feedback could be attained which will not only focus on one area but other areas of
Pakistan as well. The marketers should come up with campaigns that involve the mothers
more with the children and bring them together collectively in the advertisements.

37

CHAPTER 7
LIMITATIONS

While conducting this study there were some limitations faced that dealt with children
and mothers mainly. The children was 10 and under so when they were being asked
questioned it took them time to understand it and many still were confused. Most of them
asked their fellow students and copied their answers. Their answers kept on over lapping with
the previous questions.
When it came to interview the mothers, most of the housewives were not much
educated so they didnt have much idea on personal hygiene and marketing based concepts.
They were only focused on their children being stubborn while purchasing a product rather
than understanding the influence behind it.
The marketing executives shared much information and their perpectives but the
factual data of the company was not provided due to confidential agreements of the company.

38

REFERENCES

Fewtrell L, Kauffman RB, Kay D, Enanoria W, Haller L, Colford JM (2005). "Water,


sanitation, and hygiene interventions to reduce diarrhea in less developed countries: a
systematic review and meta-analysis". Lancet Infectious Diseases 5 (1): 4252.
Strachan DP. Family size, infection and atopy: the first decade of the "hygiene hypothesis".
Thorax 55 Suppl 1:S2-10.: S2-10, 2000.
Day, George S. (1994). The Capabilities of Market-driven Organizations. Journal of
Marketing, Vol. 58 (October 1994), 37-52
Day, George S. & Wensley, Robin (1983).Marketing Theory with a Strategic Orientation.
Journal of Marketing, Vol. 47 (Fall 1983), 79-89.
Day, George S. & Wensley, Robin (1988). Assessing Advantage: A framework for Diagnosing
Competitive Superiority. Journal of Marketing, Vol. 52 (April 1988), 1-20
DeshpandT, Rohit, Farley, John U. & Webster, Frederick E. (1993). Corporate Culture,
Customer Orientation, and Innovativeness in Japanese Firms: A Quadrad Analysis.
Journal of Marketing, Vol. 57 (January 1993), 23-27.
Jaworski, Bernard J. & Kohli, Ajay K. (1993). Market Orientation: Antecedents and
Consequences. Journal of Marketing. Vol. 57 (July 1993), 53-70.
Shapiro, Benson P. (1988). What the Hell is "Market Oriented"? Harvard Business Review,
Vol. 66, No. 6 (November-December 1988).

39

Webster, Frederick E. (1988). The Rediscovery of the Marketing Concept. Business


Horizons, Vol. 31, (May-June 1988), 29-39.
Statt, David (1977). Understanding the Consumer - A Psychological Approach. London:
Macmillan Press.
Clow, Kenneth E.; Baack, Donald (2007). Integrated Advertising, Promotion, and Marketing
Communications 3rd edition. Pearson Education. pp. 16571.
Reynolds, T.J., Gengler, C.E., Howard, D.J. (1995), "A means-end analysis of brand
persuasion through advertising", International Journal of Research in Marketing, Vol.
12 pp.257-66.
Aaker, D.A. (1991), Managing Brand Equity, The Free Press, New York, NY, .
Aaker, D.A. (2003), "The power of the branded differentiator", MIT Sloan Management
Review, Vol. 45 No.1, pp.83-7.
Aaker, D.A., Shansby, G.J. (1982), "Positioning your product", Business Horizons, Vol. 25
No.May/June, pp.56-62.
Bagozzi, R. (1986), Principles of Marketing Management, Science Research Associates,
Chicago, IL, .
Bhat, S., Reddy, S.K. (1998), "Symbolic and functional positioning of brands", Journal of
Consumer Marketing, Vol. 15 No.1, pp.32-43.
Blankson, C., Kalafatis, S.P. (2004), "The development and validation of a scale measuring
consumer/customer-derived generic typology of positioning strategies", Journal of
Marketing Management, Vol. 20 pp.5-43.
Blankson, C., Kalafatis, S.P. (2007), "Congruence between positioning and brand
advertising", Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 47 No.March, pp.79-94.

40

Blankson, C., Kalafatis, S.P., Cheng, J.M.-S., Hadjicharalambous, C. (2008), "Impact of


positioning strategies on corporate performance", Journal of Advertising Research,
Vol. 48 No.1, pp.106-22.
Broniarczyk, S.M., Gershoff, A.D. (2003), "The reciprocal effects of brand equity and trivial
attributes", Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 40 No.2, pp.161-75.
Day, G.S. (1984), Strategic Market Planning, West Publishing Co., New York, NY, .
Day, G.S., Wensley, R. (1988), "Assessing advantage: a framework for diagnosing
competitive superiority", Journal of Marketing, Vol. 52 No.2, pp.1-20.
Dub, L., Schmitt, B.H. (1999), "The effect of a similarity versus dissimilarity focus in
positioning strategy: the moderating role of consumer familiarity and product
category", Psychology and Marketing, Vol. 16 No.May, pp.211-24.
Easingwood, C.J., Mahajan, V. (1989), "Positioning of financial services for competitive
advantage", Journal of Product of Innovation Management, Vol. 6 No.3, pp.207-19.
Ellson, T. (2004), Culture and Positioning as Determinants of Strategy, Palgrave Macmillan,
New York, NY, .
Paine, L. (1984) An Ethical Evaluation of Childrens Television Advertising, Business and
Professional Ethics Journal, Vol. 3, No. 3/4, Pp. 119-169, Philosophy Documentation
Centre
Heyel, C. (1970) The Youth Market: Its Dimensions, Influence and Opportunities for You.
Cited in Melody, pp. 79-80. New York.
Bandura, A. (1977) Social learning theory: Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Hsieh, M. (2002), "Identifying brand image dimensionality and measuring the degree of
brand globalization: a cross-national study",Journal of International Marketing, Vol.
10 No.2, pp.46-67.

41

Dillon, W.R., Domzal, T., Madden, T.J. (1986), "Evaluating alternative product-positioning
strategies", Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 26 No.August, pp.29-35.

Achenbaum, A .(1989), How to Breathe new life into brands, Advertising Age, Vol 60.
No. 18, 24-70
Joyce,T. (1991), Models of Advertising Process in, How Advertising Works and how
Promotions work, ESOMAR conference proceedings, ESOMAR Amsterdam, April
22-24 267-81
Lindsay, M. (1990), Establish Brand Equity Through Advertising, Marketing News Vol. 24
No.2 p.16
McDonald, C. (1991), Sponsorship and image of the sponsor , European Journal of
marketing Vol.25 No. 11 34-8
Friedmann, R., Lessig, P.V. (1987), "Psychological meaning of products and product
positioning", Journal of Product Innovation Management, Vol. 4 No.4, pp.265-73.
Nelson, P. (1970) Information and Consumer Behavior, Journal of Political Economy 78, 311
329.
Trout, J., Rivkin, S. (1996), The New Positioning, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, .
Park, C.W., Jaworski, B.J., MacInnis, D.J. (1986), "Strategic brand concept image
management", Journal of Marketing, Vol. 50 No.October, pp.135-45.
Lilien, G.L., Rangaswamy, A. (2003), Marketing Engineering, 2nd ed., Prentice-Hall, Englewood
Cliffs, NJ, .
MacInnis, D.J., Jaworski, B.J. (1989), "Information processing from advertisements: toward an
integrative framework", Journal of Marketing, Vol. 53 No.October, pp.1-23.

42

Reynolds, T.J., Gengler, C.E., Howard, D.J. (1995), "A means-end analysis of brand
persuasion through advertising", International Journal of Research in Marketing, Vol.
12 pp.257-66.
Ries, A., Trout, J. (1986), Positioning: The Battle for Your Mind, 1st ed., revised, McGrawHill, New York, NY, .
Roth, M.S. (1992), "Depth versus breadth strategies for global brand image
management", Journal of Advertising, Vol. 21 No.June, pp.25-36.
Schiffman, L.G., Kanuk, L.L. (2007), Consumer Behavior, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs,
NJ,
Seggev, E. (1982), "Testing persuasion by strategic positioning", Journal of Advertising
Research, Vol. 22 No.1, pp.37-42.
Sengupta, S. (2005), Brand Positioning: Strategies for Competitive Advantage, 2nd ed.,
McGraw-Hill, New Delhi, .
Anette Pettersson, Christina Fjellstrom, (2006) "Responsibile marketing to children and their
families", Young Consumers: Insight and Ideas for Responsible Marketers, Vol. 7 Iss:
4, pp.13 - 18

43

44