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Chapter 1

THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND


Introduction
In this era where natural disasters continue to worsen through the effects of climate
change, people need to be protected; people need to survive. However ironically, these
victims are also the culprit. Since the year 2000, each succeeding years has ranked among the
15 warmest since record keeping began 134 years ago. According to a study conducted by the
World Bank, this significant rise in the earths temperature brought about an increase in
extreme weather-related events. Developed or developing, first class or third class; no
countries around the world are resistant from the drastic effects climate change can bring.
As stated in the 2009 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Synthesis
report, the range of published evidence indicates that the total damage costs of climate
change are likely to be significant and will increase over time. Snowpack in the western
mountains of the North America decrease by five to 20 percent while duration of heat waves
in cities turn to increase; the loss of Latin Americas tropical forests and wide biodiversity is
slowly becoming visible and felt; an increase in the susceptibility to flash floods, erosions,
and glacial retreats are becoming threats to Europes economy and its winter tourism; a
projected 250 million people vulnerable to water shortage and agriculture loss is expected by
the year 2020 in Africa; and finally, a significant decrease of freshwater availability in Asia
by 2050s is seen as a possibility, as well as the increased risk of coastal communities to
flooding and drought.
These changes in the environment threaten jobs, agriculture and crop production,
water supplies, industries, and most importantly, the reality of human life and his ecosystem.

The World Wildlife Fund assumes that a temperature rise of 2 degree Celsius could result in
the extinction of 25 percent of the Earths animals and plants due to failure of adaption.
The Philippines is considered as one of the most vulnerable countries to climate
change based on two factors, geography and development. Situated within the Pacific Ring
of Fire, the Philippines is most susceptible to typhoons and volcanic eruptions. The countrys
wind patterns also give the opportunity for typhoons to traverse to almost all its 7,107
islands. But it is not only the location which contributes to its vulnerability; here comes
infrastructure development. Recovering from the super typhoon Yolanda (international name:
Haiyan), Tacloban and Leyte, along with other neighboring cities and provinces, experienced
the wrath of nature they could ever imagine; ruined industries, damaged schools, destroyed
government centers, and tear-down shelters. The structures and evacuation centers dubbed
and perceived to be safe are also responsible for ending peoples life.
The World Wildlife Fund, in partnership with a private cement corporation, strives to
make building construction in the Philippines sustainable and resilient by continuously taking
initiative in raising awareness on sustainable yet resilient construction work stream and
utilizing tools like Life Cycle Assessments (LCA). This partnership aims to influence public
policy and industry leaders to be more concerned in sustainable and resilient building
construction standards.
The figures, forecasts, and facts provoked the researcher to do a study on creating
evacuation shelter design strategies by determining the peoples flood response and recovery.
The proponent believes that flood mitigation schemes cannot fully protect the welfare of the
citizens, thus, a more concrete response and recovery system must be implemented and
observed.

Theoretical Framework

Figure 1. Flood Management in Victoria, Australia


Flood management in Victoria, Australia (2009) is presented in a Venn diagram
above. The system generally consists of three categories; the prevention, response, and
recovery category. Prevention activities involve programs devoted to minimizing the effects
of flooding. Response activities are programs created and immediately implemented when
the disaster occurred. The recovery activities are programs which provide assistance to
people and to rebuilding infrastructures in order to recover from the disaster that happened.
Overlapping under both response and recovery categories is the evacuation and relief centers.

This will be the focus of the study, and the reason why the experience of people in both
categories will be significant.
Statement of the Problem
The study will aim to determine the peoples flood response and recovery in
formulating design strategies for evacuation shelters.
Specifically, the research will seek answers to the following questions:
1. What are the responses of people when the flood level in the street rises?
1.1. Where do people vacate when the floodwater rises?
1.2. Is there an evacuation system implemented in the area?
2. What are the things experienced by people in evacuation centers?
2.1. What are the facilities available in the evacuation centers?
2.2. Is security and peace maintained?
2.3. What do evacuees do to make themselves busy during their stay in the evacuation
center?
3. What may be the reasons why some people prefer to stay within their homes rather than
in evacuation centers?
Assumption

The study will be conducted for it is assumed that flooding in the coming years will
be more destructive and flood mitigation systems will not be sufficient in protecting the
welfare of the community, therefore, a stronger response and recovery system is needed.
Significance of the Study
The results of the study will be beneficial to the following:
To the local communities, this can ensure them their safety and welfare during
flooding occurrences as their response and recovery shall be resilient in surviving such
disaster.
To the local government units and non-government organizations, the findings of this
study shall further broaden their knowledge and idea on how to help and assist communities
in response and recovery to flooding.
To the architects and designers, this can further help them in carefully designing and
creating a plan and structural concepts on how to improve the current condition and
perception of evacuation center design in the Philippines.
To the architecture students and other researchers concerned with the same idea of the
topic, they can have another side of idea and an additional reference material for their future
studies.
Limitation of the Study
The study will be limited only to the perception and flooding experienced by the
respondents, specifically the sample community which is Barangay Dela Paz in Binan,
Laguna. The conclusion will significantly be based upon the responses and data obtained

from the city risk reduction management council, as well as records of the barangay which
will be of relevance to the study.
Delimitation of the Study
The study will focus on peoples flood response and recovery in creating design
strategies for evacuation centers. The study is to be conducted in Barangay Dela Paz in
Binan, Laguna and will aim to target 101 qualified respondents. The questionnaires will be
handed out personally by the researcher to the respondents with the help and assistance of
some barangay officials.

Definition of Terms
The terms were used in this study to further understand the exact meaning of a
particular word. The researcher defined the following words using the operational definition.
Design. This does not necessarily pertain to aesthetics, moreover to the overall use and
synergy of space, its allocation, and its relevance to the other elements of the structure.
Evacuation Shelter. This refers to a structure dedicated to temporarily house people in times
of calamities such as typhoon and flooding. This render that this type of building should be
resilient.
Flood Recovery. It pertains to the post-action of people upon experiencing flooding.
Flood Response. It is the immediate action of people upon experiencing flooding.
Flood Mitigation. It is the systems and projects created and implemented to minimize and
counter the effects of flooding.

Flooding. The rise of water on above-normal level which can further cause massive effects to
people and properties.
Resilient. It refers to the ability to withstand and survive catastrophes.
Resilient Construction. It refers to the ability of a building to be able to protect the welfare
of its occupants by withstanding significant stress and pressure.

Chapter 2
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES
This chapter presents the local and foreign literature and the studies reviewed by the
researcher, which are related to the present study.
Related Literature
Flood causes damage not only to the community affected, moreover, to the economy
and the resources these people have. According to Alex Jackson (2012), flood management
can be classified into two: the hard engineering and the soft engineering projects. The
formers aim is to prevent the flood from occurring and it involves more technical works
needing more skilled workers resulting to higher cost. It may also cause ecological imbalance
since the natural drainage will be mechanically altered. On the other hand, the latters aim is
not to prevent, but to reduce the damage of the flood. This means that the cost is efficiently
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lower and that local residents can be able to execute it themselves for this type of project
requires less technical knowledge and skills. Furthermore, soft engineering projects do not
disturb the natural drainage pattern, and instead embraces the problem and tries to improve
the situation.
In a briefer prepared by the Metro Manila Development Authority (MMDA) in
September 2010, six major causes of flooding were listed and one of these is the inadequate
facilities to support flood control. It is also stated in the said briefer that the Manila natural
waterways and existing flood control infrastructures were not enough to support and prevent
the excessive flooding which happened that day. A total of 368.6 millimeter of rainfall was
recorded, significantly higher than the average monthly rainfall which is 330 millimeter. This
is a proof that flood mitigation systems will not always suffice to protect the peoples welfare
A report submitted by the environmental agency of England (2009), the prevention of
all properties from flooding is generally viewed and cited as not, in reality, a possibility nor
economically wise to implement. This is where flood risk reduction comes into place. Flood
risk reduction programs offer studies and projects which will enable the community and to be
able to properly manage the situation as it arise; not prevent the flood from occurring.
Therefore, since flood mitigation systems will not always suffice to protect the welfare of the
community, strategic response and action system must be formed in order to shelter the
people from the worst possible scenario which may happen.
A study conducted by the World Bank released in June 2013 tackled issues and
possible situations which will be caused by climate change for the coastal poor of Africa and
Asia. It has also mentioned that as urbanization grows, the informal communities tend to
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settle within the edges of the city, the rivers and waterways. These areas are not equipped
with good drainage and are unprotected from flooding and storm surges. These informal
communities, therefore, are proven most vulnerable to the effects of climate change as the
resources they have and use is not enough and not sustainable.
Economic resources are significant component of individual resilience. According to
Abramson, Garfield, and Redlener (2007), a lower economic status means less resilience and
is more susceptible to psychological distress. Economic resources are needed to counter the
effects of calamities, such as rebuilding houses after disasters to re-ensure the well-being of
the family.
Another factor to be considered is the age. From the research conducted by Masten
and Osofsky (2010), children are able to recover well from disaster over time. Meanwhile,
older adults show tend to show less stress symptoms compared to younger adults when it
comes to traumatizing events. However, the elderly pose more physical health concerns
which can affect their response and recovery to a certain disaster.
Five types of safer locations during calamities were discusses in the Queensland
Evacuation Guidelines (2011). These are the peoples own residences, an assembly point,
evacuation center, refuge place, and the public cyclone shelter. The choice on where the
people are to vacate is based from factors like event suitability, place capacity and several
others such as communication, amenities, ventilation and alternative power and water supply.
However so, the bottom line would be that these structures be resilient and adaptable to the
situation it was intended for.

A report from UNICEF Philippines (December 2009) has stated that school as
evacuation centers also poses disadvantages especially to the children. It is said that schools
are among the best option for an emergency shelter because of its structural stability amongst
the structures around the community. However, staying in these buildings for three months,
as in the case of Barangay Dela Paz Main Elementary School, already caused problems on
sanitation which leads to spread of diseases. The need of children for academic instructions,
as well as games and sports need to be provided so that they will not get involved in
unwanted behavior like drinking, fighting, and even sexual abuse. It is related to the study in
such that community today needs a separate structure for holding evacuation when a disaster
happens.
Related Study
The research conducted by Kenneth Marcos (2013) entitled Man Versus Flood:
Responses of Filipinos to Landscape Flooding in Taguig City, Philippines is closely related
to the study of the researcher. The study of Marcos focused on the flood responses of the
people in Taguig and sought ways to mitigate the effects of flooding in the area, particularly
the improvement of residential houses. Marcos utilized questionnaire forms as major data
gathering material and was participated by 101 respondents aged 19-21 years old who reside
in Taguig and experienced flooding within the community. The recommendations made were
mostly design in nature such as building houses on-stilts and vertical urbanism and the
proposal of resettlement was also mentioned.
However so, the researcher did not consider the perception of the residents whether
they agree on transferring location or they are content with their environment and is just
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willing to adapt and embrace the flooding situation in the area by means of architectural
improvement of their residences. The age bracket of the respondents is also limited in such
that the flood response of the children and elderly citizens were not considered.

Chapter 3:
RESEARCH DESIGN AND PROCEDURE
This chapter presents the methods that will be used in this research, the research
instrument and research locale, sampling technique, respondents of the study, and the
statistical treatment to be used in interpreting the data to be acquired.
Research Method Used
The method that will be employed in the study is descriptive. The researcher will state
the facts obtained from the questionnaire to be conducted. Descriptive research describes
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what is, with emphasis on what actually exist such as current conditions, practices, or
situations. It will aim to give accurate information and observation that will be gathered from
different resources and respondents.
Research Instruments
The researcher has prepared his own questionnaire (see Appendix A) as the primary
research instrument. The researcher saw to it that there were enough items to collect data to
cover all aspects of the problem and to answer all the sub problems given under the statement
of the problem. However, the questionnaire will still be validated by the barangay officials or
some residents of the sample community to ensure that each items are clear and that choices
are fair and reflects that of the situation of the community.
After validation and revisions, the copies of the questionnaire will be distributed and
handed out personally by the researcher to the respondents with the assistance of some
barangay officials. The questionnaires will also be personally retrieved by the researcher
after a few days.

Research Locale

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Figure 2. Map of Barangay Dela Paz, Binan Laguna


The study is to be conducted in Barangay Dela Paz, Binan Laguna. The barangay is
located just at the mouth of the Laguna Lake and is bounded by the Binan River at the east,
Barangay Poblacion at the south and Barangay Casile at the west.
The community was chosen because the area is much vulnerable to flooding and streets
were submerged for weeks during the 2009 typhoon Ondoy, as well as the more recent
typhoon Maring and the Habagat. The experience and perception of people in terms of flood
response and recovery will greatly assist the researcher in obtaining reliable and primary
source of data and information.
Population Universe
The population universe of the study will be the residents from Barangay Dela Paz in
Binan, Laguna; specifically, those affected by the extensive flooding during the September
2009 typhoon Ondoy and the August 2012 Monsoon rain. According to the National
Statistics Coordination Board (NSCB), as of May 2010, Barangay Dela Paz holds a
population of 29, 568.

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Sampling Procedure
The size of the sample was determined by using the formula:
n=

N
1+ N e 2

(3.1)

Where:
n = the size of the sample
N = the size of the population
e = the margin of error (used in the study is 3%)
From the equation above, a total of 1,001 respondents are needed in the study. To
further limit this number, the researcher selected 10% of the total number of respondents
resulting to a total of 101 respondents for the study.
The study will employ the use of quota sampling. Quota sampling is a type of
sampling where specified numbers of certain types of persons are included and are given out
questionnaires as they come. Although the method may not be systematic in nature, it is
much applicable to the setting of the study because it is more likely that each residents of the
barangay have experienced the same situation when the community is flooded. This method
will also be of convenience to the researcher as the study is time-bound.
Statistical Treatment
The data that will be gathered from the questionnaire will be recorded, analyzed, and
interpreted by using a specified statistical formula.
The first formula to be used by the researcher is the Frequency and Percentage
Distribution (3.2). The formula is as follows:
f
P= 100
n
Where:
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(3.2)

P = Percentage
f= Frequency
n = Total number of Respondents
For the remaining questions which will be answerable using ratings (Strongly Agree,
Minimally Agree, Agree, Disagree, and Strongly Disagree) the researcher will use the
weighted mean (3.3) and the standard deviation (3.4).
X=

fx
n

(3.3)

Where:
F = Frequency of each respondents
x = Class Mark
n = Total number of observation in the sample
For the purpose of the study, the verbal interpretation of the tables will be described
as follows:
Weighted Mean
1
2
3
4
5

Ranges
1.00 1.79
1.80 2.59
2.60 3.39
3.40 4.19
4.20 5.00

S=

Where:
S = Standard Deviation
y = Individual Scores
z = Mean

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Verbal Interpretation
Strongly Disagree
Disagree
Minimally Agree
Agree
Strongly Agree

( yz)
N 1

(3.4)

N = Number of Respondents

REFERENCES
Bloch, Robin, Jha, Abas, & Lamond, Jessica. (February 2012). Cities and Flooding: A Guide
to Integrated Urban Flood Risk Management for the 21st Century. Washington DC.
World Bank Publications.

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Brown, Andy. (December 2009). Home for Christmas: Evacuation Centers in Schools.
Manila, Philippines. UNICEF Philippines. Retrieved from:
http://www.unicef.org/philippines/reallives_12266.html#.U6JHW_mSySo
Cabrera, Michael. (2013). Informal Settlers Face Eviction from Manilas Riverside Slums to
Prevent Flooding. Development Workshop Foundation. Retrieved from:
http://www.dwf.org/en/blog/informal-settlers-face-eviction-manila%E2%80%99sriverside-slums-prevent-flooding
Environment Agency (EA). (2009). Flooding in England: A national assessment of flood risk.
Technical Report. Environment Agency England.
Fetalvero, Aubrey Y., Orlina, Reymark R. (2013). Flood Risk Indexing and Mapping of
District V of Manila. (Thesis) College of Civil Engineering, De La Salle University of
Manila.
Hoang Vinh Hung, Rajib Shaw, Masami Kobayashi. (2010). Flood risk management for the
riverside urban areas of Hanoi: The need for synergy in urban development and risk
management policies. Disaster Prevention and Management.
Jackson, Alex. (January 2012). Flood Management. Retrieved from
http://geographyas.info/rivers/flood-management/

Marcos, Kenneth N. (June 2013). Man Versus Flood: Responses of Filipinos to Landscape
Flooding in Taguig City, Philippines. (Case Study). School of Architecture,

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Industrial Design, and the Built Environment. Mapua Institute of Technology,


Manila.
Melbourne Water Corporation. (2010). Flooding in Melbourne. Retrieved from:
http://www.melbournewater.com.au/whatwedo/manageflooding/Pages/-inMelbourne.aspx
Melbourne Water Corporation. (2009). Flood Management and Drainage Strategy.
Melbourne Water. Retrieved from
http://www.melbournewater.com.au/aboutus/reportsandpublications/keystrategies/Documents/Flood_Management_and_Drainage_Strategy_complete
Metro Manila Development Authority. (September 27, 2010). MMDA Flood Reduction
Measures in Metro Manila. Official Gazette. Retrieved from:
http://www.gov.ph/2010/09/27/mmda-flood-reduction-measures-in-metro-manila/
The World Bank. (2013). What Climate Change Means to Africa, Asia, and the Coastal Poor.
The World Bank Organization. Retrieved from
http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/feature/2013/06/19/what-climate-changemeans-africa-asia-coastal-poor

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