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Müller Breslau Principle

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Objectives

In this course you will learn the following

The Mller-Breslau principle for influence lines.

The Mller-Breslau principle uses Betti's law of virtual work to construct influence lines. To illustrate the

method let us consider a structure AB (Figure 6.7a). Let us apply a unit downward force at a distance x

and

at supports A and B ,

from A , at point C . Let us assume that it creates the vertical reactions

respectively (Figure 6.7b). Let us call this condition System 1. In System 2 (figure 6.7c), we have the

. Here

is the deflection at point C .

same structure with a unit deflection applied in the direction of

Figure 6.7 (a) Given system AB , (b) System 1, structure under a unit load, (c) System 2, structure with a

unit deflection corresponding to

According to Betti's law, the virtual work done by the forces in System 1 going through the corresponding

displacements in System 2 should be equal to the virtual work done by the forces in System 2 going

through the corresponding displacements in System 1. For these two systems, we can write:

The right side of this equation is zero, because in System 2 forces can exist only at the supports,

corresponding to which the displacements in System 1 (at supports A and B ) are zero. The negative sign

accounts for the fact that it acts against the unit load in System 1. Solving this equation we get:

before

In other words, the reaction at support A due to a unit load at point C is equal to the displacement at point

C when the structure is subjected to a unit displacement corresponding to the positive direction of support

reaction at A . Similarly, we can place the unit load at any other point and obtain the support reaction due

.

to that from System 2. Thus the deflection pattern in System 2 represents the influence line for

Following the same general procedure, we can obtain the influence line for any other response parameter

as well. Let us consider the shear force at point C of a simply-supported beam AB (Figure 6.8a). We apply

a unit downward force at some point D as shown in System 1 (Figure 6.8b). In system 2 (Figure 6.8c), we

. Note that the displacement at point C is

apply a unit deflection corresponding to the shear force,

applied in a way such that there is no relative rotation between AC and CB . This will avoid any virtual work

) going through the rotation in System 2. Now, according to

done by the bending moment at C (

Betti's law:

Figure 6.8 (a) Given system AB , (b) System 1, structure under a unit load, (c) System 2, structure with a

Thus, the deflected shape in System 2 represents the influence line for shear force

want to find the influence line for bending moment

. Similarly, if we

unit rotation at point C (that is, a unit relative rotation between AC and CB ). However, we do not want any

going

relative displacement (between AC and CB ) at point C in order to avoid any virtual work done by

through the displacements in System 2. Betti's law provides the virtual work equation:

So, as we have seen earlier, the displaced shape in System 2 represents the influence line for the response

parameter

.

Construction of System 2 for a given response function is the most important part in applying the MllerBreslau principle. One must take care that other than the concerned response function no other force (or

moment) in System 1 should do any virtual work going through the corresponding displacements in System

2. So we make all displacements in System 2 corresponding to other response functions equal to zero. For

,

and

are equal to zero. Example 6.4

example, in Figure 6.8c, displacements corresponding to

illustrates the construction of influence lines using Mller-Breslau principle.

and

Solution:

System 2 for

System 2 for

System 2 for

at point D

,

)

The deflected shape in each system 2 provides the influence line for the corresponding response function.

Recap

In this course you have learnt the following

The Mller-Breslau principle for influence lines.

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