You are on page 1of 15

EXIT

DIVISION 9
9.1
9.2

9.3

RECYCLING
Scope
Hot-Mix Recycling
9.2.1 Description
9.2.2 Materials
9.2.3 Recycled Asphaltic Concrete Mixes
9.2.3.1 Job Mix Formula
9.2.3.2 Acceptance Of Job Mix Formula
9.2.4 Equipment
9.2.4.1 Cold Milling Machine
9.2.4.2 Heater And Scarifier
9.2.4.3 Crushers
9.2.4.4 Mixing Plants
9.2.4.5 Spreaders
9.2.4.6 Rollers
9.2.5 Weather Limitations
9.2.6 Construction
9.2.6.1 Central Plant Mixing
9.2.6.2 In-Site Mixing
9.2.6.3 Surface Smoothness
9.2.6.4 Determining Aggregate Gradation And Asphalt Content In
Recycled Mixes
9.2.7 Traffic Control
9.2.8 Work Acceptance
9.2.8.1 Quality Control Procedures
9.2.8.2 Quality Assurance Procedures
9.2.9 Measurements
9.2.10 Payment
Cold-Mix Recycling
9.3.1 Description
9.3.2 Materials
9.3.3 Job Mix Formula
9.3.3.1 Proposing Job Mix Formula
9.3.3.2 Acceptance Of Job Mix Formula
9.3.4 Equipment
9.3.5 Weather Limitations
9.3.6 Construction
9.3.6.1 Pulverization
9.3.6.2 Mixing
9.3.6.3 Placing And Compaction
9.3.6.4 Surface Leveling
9.3.7 Traffic Control
9.3.8 Work Acceptance
9.3.8.1 Quality Control
9.3.8.2 Quality Assurance
9.3.9 Measurements
9.3.10 Payment

273
273
273
273
273
274
274
275
276
276
276
276
276
277
277
277
277
277
278
278
278
279
279
279
280
280
280
282
282
282
282
282
283
283
283
283
283
283
284
284
284
284
285
285
285
285

General Specifications of Urban Roads Construction

Division 9 - Recycling

Back

DIVISION 9
RECYCLING

9.1 Scope:
The asphalt pavement recycling means producing new asphaltic mixes that
comprise aggregate obtained from an old asphalt pavement and from new added
aggregate, the asphalt binder from an old asphalt pavement and fresh asphalt, and
recycling agent for the old asphalt if needed. This technology is used to preserve the
natural resources and pavement construction and maintenance funds saving. It helps
also in environment protection. Asphalt pavement recycling has several advantages
such as: upgrading the structural capacity of the existing pavement by adding small
thickness, correcting some pavement distresses such as rutting, shoving, and cracking,
treatment of some asphalt mixes, and providing economical solution for reconstruction.
Asphalt recycled mixes are divided into two types: hot-mix recycling (asphaltic
concrete) and cold-mix recycling. Based on production, they are divided into central
plant mixing and on-road mixing using mobile mixing plant; and based on depth; they
are divided into surface recycling up to fifty (50) millimeters and deep recycling for
more than fifty (50) millimeters.
9.2
Hot-Mix Recycling:
9.2.1 Description:
This Section consist of furnishing and mixing new aggregate, pulverized
asphaltic concrete pavement, asphaltic material and asphaltic recycling agent, heating
and mixing these components, hauling, spreading, and compacting the mixture on a
prepared surface, all as shown on the plans, specified in these General Specifications or
the Special Specifications.
This Section is applied only when the reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP)
exceeds twenty (20) percent of the total aggregate weight. The recycled asphaltic
concrete containing RAP shall conform to the gradation and quality requirements
specified in Section 8.5 in these General Specifications wherever it is used in pavement
layers. The recycled asphalt concrete mixes shall be produced in suitable mixing plants
which raises the RAP's temperature without damaging it or affecting the environment
and controlling the basic prosperities of the final product.
9.2.2 Materials:
Added Asphalt Materials: It shall be asphalt cement material conforming to the
quality requirements specified in Tables (7.2.1) in these General Specifications.
New Aggregate: It shall conform to the quality requirements specified in Table (7.3.1)
(types 1, 2, and 3) in these General Specifications.
Mineral Filler: Mineral filler shall conform to the requirements specified in Tables
(7.3.2) and (7.3.3) in these General Specifications.

Ministry of Municipal & Rural Affairs Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

273

General Specifications of Urban Roads Construction

Division 9 - Recycling

Back

RAP: RAP for hot-mix recycled Asphaltic Concrete shall consist of asphaltic concrete
pavement, which has been pulverized or crushed (without being ground), and reduced,
in size to the requirements shown in table (9.2.1).
Table 9.2.1: Gradation requirement of aggregate in RAP
Sieve Size
37.5 mm (1.5 inch)
25 mm (1 inch)

Percent Passing
100
90-100

Asphalt-Recycling Agent: Hot-mix recycling agent shall be from asphaltic origin and
shall conform to the requirements listed in Table (9.2.2) or as specified in the Special
Specifications.
Chemical Admixtures and Asphalt Modifiers: The types and amounts of chemical
admixtures/asphalt modifiers used shall be limited to those listed in the Special
Specifications or proposed by the Contractor and approved by the Ministry. They shall
conform to the requirements specified in Item 7.2.4 in these General Specifications.
Table 9.2.2: Recycling agent requirements according to ASTM D 4522
Requirements
Low
High
Property
Test
Grade
Grade
(RA5)
(RA25)
AASHTO T-202
200-800
1000-4000
Viscosity @ 60 C, (cSt)
AASHTO T-48
219
219
Flash Point, C.O.C., (C) minimum
ASTM D 2007
30 Max.
30 Max.
Saturates by weight (%), Maximum
Tests on Residue From Rolling Thin Film Oven (RTFO) @ 60C according to
AASHTO T-240, OR
Tests on Residue from Thin Film Oven (TFO) Oven @ 163 C according to
AASHTO T-179
4.0
3.0
Weight change, (%), Maximum
3.0
3.0
Viscosity Ratio, Maximum (See Note)
Note: Viscosity Ratio = RTFO Residue Viscosity @ 60 C, cSt) / (Viscosity of the Original Material @
60C).

9.2.3 Recycled Asphaltic Concrete Mixes:


9.2.3.1 Job Mix Formula:
Unless stated in the Special Specifications or Contract Documents, the asphaltic
concrete type shall be prepared according to Item 8.5.3 in these General Specifications
and according to hot-mix recycling Asphalt Institute Series Manual (MS-20), with the
following considerations:
RAP: One test for the asphalt content, gradation, and reclaimed asphalt penetration
shall be done for every one thousand (1000) cubic meter of RAP, with minimum of five
(5) tests in all cases.

Ministry of Municipal & Rural Affairs Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

274

General Specifications of Urban Roads Construction

Division 9 - Recycling

Back

Added Aggregate: The added aggregate, when blended with the RAP, shall conform to
all quality requirements specified in Table (7.3.1) (types 1, 2, 3) in these General
Specifications. The gradation shall be determined with the RAP according to the
targeted gradation.
Asphalt Materials: Type, grade, and quantity of asphaltic material, and recycling agent
(when used), shall be determined according to the following criteria:

It must help to conform the specific requirements of Asphaltic mixture.

The combined asphaltic material in the final mixture shall have a penetration not
less than forty-five (45) and not greater than fifty-five (55). The variation in
penetration, at production, shall be within plus or minus five (5) units.
The Contractor shall furnish and submit a technical report including the JMF prepared
by an skilled agency approved by the Ministry. The report shall include, but not limited
to, the following:
The originals of the laboratory test results on the mix.
The originals of the laboratory test results on the RAP and added
materials.
The percentage of RAP to be used, by total weight of mix.
The percentage of added aggregate to be used, by total weight of mix.
The gradation of added aggregate to be blended with the RAP and the
gradation of the final aggregate.
The type, penetration, or viscosity, and percent of asphaltic material to be
added, by total weight of mix.
The type, penetration, or viscosity, and percent of recycling agent to be
added, by total weight of mix.
The penetration or viscosity of the final asphaltic material to be used in
the mix.
The type and amount of mineral filler, chemical admixture, and asphalt
modifier to be added by total weight of mix.
The type and location of plants to be used for mixing each mix to be
furnished.
Construction method.
The proposed beginning date for producing hot-mix recycled asphaltic
concrete mixtures.
The Engineer shall be provided access to the materials sampling and testing operations
at all times.
9.2.3.2 Acceptance of Job Mix Formula:
The Ministry shall review the JMF and all related matters, shown in previous
Sub item, submitted by the Contractor according to the following steps:
1. Assure that the report contains all requirements. If it does not contain all required
information, it shall be returned within seven (7) days to the Contractor for further
action and resubmission by the Contractor.
2. If the proposed JMF contains all required information but fails to meet all of the
requirements specified, it shall not be accepted by the Engineer and will be returned
to the Contractor within fourteen (14) days. The Contractor shall prepare and
submit to the Engineer a revised JMF conforming to the requirements specified.
3. The fist-day work shall be considered as a field control strip. It shall be assured
that mix is constructible in terms of spreading, compaction, and smoothness level.

Ministry of Municipal & Rural Affairs Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

275

General Specifications of Urban Roads Construction

Division 9 - Recycling

Back

The Contractor shall not alter the methods of manufacturing, screening, mixing,
stockpiling of aggregate, or production of asphalt mixtures since this alteration will
mandate evaluation of JMF.
Changing JMF shall not be permitted without retesting and resubmission of a proposed
(revised) JMF in accordance with all the steps in Sub-item 9.2.3.1.
9.2.4 Equipment:
The Contractor shall furnish suitable equipment to execute the recycling work.
The number and the production capacity of this equipment shall be within the Contract
time in accordance with his Program of Work as approved by the Engineer. This
equipment shall be, but not limited to, the following:
9.2.4.1 Cold Milling Machine:
The cold milling equipment shall be self-propelled, equipped with a rotating
cutting cylinder and replaceable cutting teeth and be of such size and capacity as may
be required to perform the milling work in accordance with required depth. The
equipment shall have a water tank, pump and spray bar for applying cooling water to
the teeth during cutting and for control of dust. The cold milling machine shall be
equipped with an electronically controlled leveling device which will produce the grade
and cross-slope specified, and it shall be able to ride-over obstacles such as manhole
covers.
9.2.4.2 Heater and Scarifier:
The equipment used to heat and scarify the asphaltic surface shall be selfpropelled, equipped to burn liquid petroleum gas (LPG) or natural gas. Diesel fuel shall
not be allowed. The combustion chamber shall be insulated to avoid the flame to
contact the asphalt rear wheel positioned, and equipped with calibrated burners which is
capable of heating the asphaltic surface to a temperature of one hundred and fifty (150)
degrees Celsius plus or minus ten (10) degrees Celsius to a depth between twenty and
thirty (20-30) millimeters. The machine shall be equipped with two (2) rows of springequalized scarifier-leveling rakes which will automatically ride over obstructions in the
surface such as man-hole covers. Additional heater units, without scarifier rakes, shall
be operated in advance for preliminary heating. Heater-scarifying equipment shall be
capable of being adjusted to heat widths between two and four (2-4) meters.
9.2.4.3 Crushers:
Big lumps RAP shall be crushed, using special crushers to obtain the required
gradation.
9.2.4.4 Mixing Plants:
Mixing plants shall conform to the requirements specified in Section 8.5 in these
General Specifications. The plants shall be equipped with devices to raise the RAP
temperature by induction with the added aggregates without contacting the flame.
These plants may be a batch plant, continuous mix pugmill, or dryer-drum mixing plant.
Plants shall be equipped with controls to feed the RAP to pugmill or drum directly
within the allowable limits.

9.2.4.5 Spreaders:

Ministry of Municipal & Rural Affairs Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

276

General Specifications of Urban Roads Construction

Division 9 - Recycling

Back

Asphalt spreader, whether independent or attached to heating and scarifier unit,


shall conform to all requirements specified in Section 8.5 in these General
Specifications, and shall be self-propelled and capable to control the levels and slopes.
9.2.4.6 Rollers:
All used pneumatic or steel wheels rollers shall conform to all requirements
specified in Section 8.5 in these General Specifications, and shall be capable to compact
the pavement to the required density in a fast and easy manner. It shall be selfpropelled and equipped with scraper to clean the tires from any adherent materials and
steering mechanism shall operate readily and permit the roller to be directed on the
alignment desired.
Roller shall have a capacity and weight compatible with the thickness of the
layers to be constructed.
Hand-operated rollers may be used provided they have adequate weight to
compact the pavement sides to the same level of the pavement body.
9.2.5 Weather Limitations:
Weather limitations specified in Item 8.5.5 in these General Specifications shall
be applied.
9.2.6 Construction:
9.2.6.1 Central Plant Mixing:
When the central plant mixing is used, the following considerations shall be
applied:
1.
The exact locations of the areas to be recycled along with the respective
thicknesses thereof shall be determined and delineated by the Engineer
immediately prior to the start of the Work.
2.
Surface to be recycled shall be cleaned from untreated base soils and other
deleterious materials.
3.
The existing asphaltic pavement layer shall be removed in such a manner as
to prevent the mixing of the asphalt-bound materials with soils and other
deleterious materials, or damage the remaining pavement course or sublayers
(base, subbase, or subgrade). The surface shall be smooth conforming to the
required levels and slopes.
4.
The surface shall be thoroughly checked before placing the asphaltic
concrete. If the Contractor finds and defect on the surface or in the sub
layers, he shall inform the Engineer, in writing, detailing the extent of the
problem, it possible causes, and the remedy method. Defect found due to the
Contractors removal operations, as determined by the Engineer, shall be
repaired by the Contractor at his own expense and prior to the placement of
the recycled layer. Deficient parts of base course or subgrade that are to be
restored, as shown on the plans or directed by the Engineer prior to start of
the removal operations, shall be repaired and paid for separately as specified
in the pertinent sections of the Contract documents and Bill of Quantities.
5.
RAP materials shall be reduced, without grinding the aggregates, to a size
smaller than thirty seven and one half (37.5) millimeters as specified in Item
9.2.1 in this Section.
Ministry of Municipal & Rural Affairs Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

277

General Specifications of Urban Roads Construction

Division 9 - Recycling

Back

6.
7.

8.

RAP materials shall not be exposed to flame for heating or mixing purpose
at any time.
Reclaimed aggregate, after being reduced to the required size and prior to
their use in the recycled mixture, shall be segregated into two sizes: course
retained on No. 4 sieve (4.75 millimeter), and fine passing a No. 4 sieve
(4.75 mm), when using central plant mixing.
The used mixing plant shall be suitable to feed all mix components at their
proportions in the JMF, and heating the RAP to the required temperature by
heat transfer with the added aggregates so as not to damage the asphalt
binder, and be capable to produce uniform asphaltic concrete conforming to
the specifications

9.2.6.2 In-Site Mixing:


When the recycling construction is-site mixing is selected, the asphaltic concrete
shall be done in layers suitable to the maximum size aggregate as specified in Table
(8.5.5) in these General Specifications. When the work requires construction in layers,
the top layers shall be removed and properly stored, then the bottom layer is scarified or
milled, heated, and mixed with other components specified in the JMF, then the top
layer shall be brought, heated, mixed, spread, and compacted. This process is repeated
for other layers.
If approved by field trail to obtain asphaltic concrete conforming to the
specifications, the added aggregates and asphalt cement may be mixed in central plant,
then hauled the mixture and mix it with RAP by a mobile mixing plant after heating and
adding the recycling agent. It may also be applicable to spread the aggregate, cold or
hot, coated or uncoated, before the scarifier, so that it collects it and mixes it with RAP
and conveys it to mobile mixing plant. The recycling agent may be sprayed, at the
predetermined amount, before or after pavement removal, while stockpiling, or while
mixing provided it serves the purpose of its utilization.
9.2.6.3 Surface Smoothness:
The recycled asphaltic concrete wearing course shall conform to the
requirements specified in Sub item 8.5.6.10 in these General Specifications.
9.2.6.4 Determining Aggregate Gradation and Asphalt Content in Recycled Mixes:
The asphaltic concrete aggregate gradation and asphaltic content will be
sampled, tested and evaluated in accordance AASHTO T-164. The asphalt penetration
or viscosity is determined by Abson method according to AASHTO T-170. The limit
for payment purposes are as follows:
1. Aggregate gradation: The upper and lower specification limits are the
approved JMF target values plus or minus the allowable deviations shown in
Table (8.5.1) multiplied by one plus the ratio of reclaimed asphalt pavement
(RAP) material to the total mixture. Round to the nearest percent except for the
0.075 mm (No. 200) sieve that is rounded to the nearest 0.10%.
Example: If thirty percent (30%) of the mixture is reclaimed asphalt pavement
material, then all allowable deviation from target value for percent of aggregate
passing the 0.075 mm (No. 200) sieve is 2x (1.30) = 2.6%. Use plus 0.3% and
minus 0.3% from the approved JMF target value for percent passing the 0.075 mm
(No. 200) sieve.
Ministry of Municipal & Rural Affairs Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

278

General Specifications of Urban Roads Construction

Division 9 - Recycling

Back

2.

Asphaltic material content. The upper and lower specification limits are
the approved job-mix formula target value 0.4 x (1 + the ratio of the
reclaimed asphalt pavement material to the total mixture rounded to the
nearest 0.10%).
Example: If thirty percent (30%) of the mixture is reclaimed asphalt
pavement material, then the allowable deviation from target value for
percent asphalt content is 0.4x(1.30) = 0.52%. Use plus 0.5% and minus
0.5% from approved JMF target value for asphaltic material content.

3.

Asphaltic penetration. The minimum allowable limits are equal to the


approval JMF plus or minus fifteen (15) units.

9.2.7 Traffic Control:


The Contractor shall take effective action to allow safe traffic operations when
using the recycling work as specified by Item 8.5.7 in these General Specifications.
9.2.8 Work Acceptance:
The Contractor shall apply quality control procedures for all recycled asphaltic
concrete works to ensure that the materials used and the executed work conform to
these General Specifications and other Contracts Documents.
The Ministry shall assure the quality of production by checking that the
Contractor is performing the quality control procedures in correct manners. The
Ministry may have a direct supervision on the quality control system or by applying
quality assurance procedures in an independent unbiased way, on adequate number of
samples to judge the execution level and decide whether to accept or reject the work.
Division 17 in these General Specifications shall be used for this purpose, unless stated
otherwise in the Special Specifications or Contracts Documents.
9.2.8.1 Quality Control Procedures:
The Contractor shall perform all required tests and measurements, and shall
collect, document, and draw the critical property diagrams to ensure that the raw
materials at source, materials while work execution, recycled asphaltic concrete
produced, and the executed work are within acceptable limits. The tests may be
performed at The Contractors laboratory or at an independent laboratory, approved by
the Ministry. The Contractor shall submit copies of all test results to the Engineer.
Table (9.2.3) shows the tests that the Contractor shall perform on raw materials and
mixes, the frequency of these tests, and the allowance limits. The Contractor shall
submit copies of all tests to the Engineers and shall apply all requirements detailed in
Item 17.1.1 in these General Specifications.

9.2.8.2 Quality Assurance Procedures:


The Ministry reserves the right, at any time, to assure the quality of materials
and executed work by performing or ordering the Contractor to perform, under its direct
supervision, some or all quality control tests that are shown previous Sub item 9.2.8.1.
The Ministry has also the right to inspect all Contractors' quality control test records
and compare them with its quality assurance test done according to Division 17 in these
Ministry of Municipal & Rural Affairs Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

279

General Specifications of Urban Roads Construction

Division 9 - Recycling

Back

General Specifications. Ministry may inspect Contractor's laboratory, devices,


technical staff, and testing methods to assure the full adequacy and capability of the
Contractor to execute the work according to standard approved methods.
9.2.9 Measurements:
The quantity of each lot and course of hot-mix recycled asphaltic concrete
pavement shall be measured by the cubic meter or as stated in Special Specifications, as
placed and compacted to the required density, within the lines and grades, and thickness
shown on the plans or directed by the Engineer. No measurement will be made for
extra thickness or areas of pavement placed outside authorized limits.
Asphalt cement and modified asphalt cement shall be considered subsidiary to
the construction of each lot of asphaltic concrete pavement unless specifically stated in
the Special Specifications and listed in the Bill of Quantities. When they are listed
separately they shall be measured in liters.
Hot-mix asphaltic recycling agent shall not be measured separately unless
specifically stated in the Special Specifications and the item is listed in the Bill of
Quantities, in which case it will be measured in liters.
Mineral fillers, chemical admixtures and asphalt modifiers used by the
Contractor to meet the Job Mix Formula (JMF) requirements will be considered
subsidiary to the construction of the asphaltic concrete layers and will not be measured
separately unless specifically stated in the Special Specifications and listed in the Bill of
Quantities. When they are listed separately they shall be measured as in the specific
specifications Section 8.3.
Prime coat shall be measured as specified in Section 8.2, in these General
Specifications. Tack coat shall not be measured for payment purposes.
9.2.10 Payment:
Payment shall be made at the contract unit price, or adjusted contract unit price,
per cubic meter measured as described in the pervious Item for each grading and class
of recycled asphaltic concrete listed in the Bill of Quantities.
The above prices and payment shall cover and be full compensation for
furnishing labor, materials, equipment, tools and incidentals necessary for completing
all work involved in construction of asphaltic concrete pavement, payment will be made
according to Table (9.2.4).

Ministry of Municipal & Rural Affairs Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

280

General Specifications of Urban Roads Construction

Division 9 - Recycling

Back

Table 9.2.3: Quality control requirements for hot-mix recycling


Work

Properties

Test Method

Asphaltic
material
New Aggregates

Raw
materials

Recycling
agents
RAP
Mineral Filler
Chemical
admixture and
modifiers
Aggregate
gradation

Asphalt content
Material at
use
Viscosity of the
asphalt materials
Penetration of
the asphalt
materials

Road

Finishing

No.
9.2.1

Quality
requirements
tests
Quality
requirements
tests
Quality
requirements
tests
AASHTO T27
Quality
requirements
tests
Quality
requirements
tests
AASHTO
T-164/T-27
AASHTO
T-164/T-170
AASHTO T201

Sample
location

Source

project
site

AASHTO T49

Compaction

AASHTO T2726

Thickness

ASTM D
3549

Surface
roughness

Approved
device

Level,
dimensions,
slopes, and
smoothness

Contract
documents

Project
site

Project
site

Sampling frequency

Requirement
s

Certification of
compliance and supply
and source change

Table 7.2.1

Three (3) tests at start of


work or source change

Table 7.3.1

Certification of
compliance at start of
work or source change
Three (3) tests at start of
work or source change
Certification of
compliance and supply
and source change
Certification of
compliance and supply
and source change
One (1) test every five
hundred (500) ton
produced or for each
working day whichever
the minimum
One (1) test every five
thousand (5000) ton
produced or for each
working day whichever
the minimum
Minimum one (1) test
every 1000 cubic square
meters from each layer
Minimum one (1) test
every 1000 cubic square
meters from each layer
Five (5) measuring per
day or thousand (1000)
meter whichever the
minimum for each lane.
Transverse segments
every 25 meters or five
segments every 1000
meters, whichever the
maximum

Table 9.2.4: Hot-mix recycling pay items


Pay Item
Hot-mix recycling type __________ gradation ___________

Ministry of Municipal & Rural Affairs Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Table 9.2.1
Item 9.2.2
(RAP)
Contract
documents
Table 7.3.2

JMF

JMF

Sub item
8.5.6.8
Sub item
8.5.6.6
Sub item
8.5.6.10

Contract
documents

Pay units
Cubic meter

281

General Specifications of Urban Roads Construction

Division 9 - Recycling

Back

9.3 Cold-Mix Recycling:


9.3.1 Description:
This Section consist of furnishing and mixing new aggregate, pulverized
asphaltic concrete pavement, asphaltic material (emulsified and non-emulsified) and/or
asphaltic recycling agent, mixing these components, hauling, spreading, and
compacting the mixture on a prepared surface, all as shown on the plans, specified in
these General Specifications or the Special Specifications. The recycled pavement, by
this method, is used in asphaltic concrete base course in the same site or different sites.
These base layers shall be covered by a surface treatment or an asphaltic wearing
course. There are two construction methods:
1.
2.

In-place cold-mix recycling: it is used at roads with low traffic volumes or in


remote areas away form central mixing plants.
Cold-mixing in central mixing plant: it is used when high production rates and
precise control are required.

9.3.2 Materials:
The cold-mix containing RAP shall conform to the materials requirements for
cold mixes specified in Section 7.2 and Section 7.3 in these General Specifications,
unless otherwise specified in Contract Documents. These requirements shall include
the following:
RAP: RAP shall be pulverized or crushed (without being ground), and reduced, in size
so that all particles pass one hundred (100) percent from sieve size thirty-seven and one
half (37.5) millimeters.
New Aggregate: When specified in the Special Specifications or required by the Job
Mix Formula, new aggregate shall be blended with RAP. The new aggregate, when
combined with the RAP materials, shall conform to the fracture, gradation and quality
requirements as necessary to produce the specified base course
Asphalt Materials: The types and grades of asphaltic materials shall conform to the
grade listed in the Special Specifications and requirements specified in the Tables
(7.2.2) through (7.2.5) in these General Specifications.
Asphalt-Recycling Agent: Recycling agent shall conform to the requirements listed in
Table (9.2.2) or as specified in the Special Specifications. Test results and Certificate
of Compliance shall be submitted with each shipment of the recycling agent.
9.3.3 Job Mix Formula:
9.3.3.1 Proposing Job Mix Formula:
The procedure outlined in Sub item 9.2.3.1 shall be followed for proposing the
JMF. The Contractor shall submit to the Engineer his proposed method of operation
and test data confirming that the aggregate will conform to all specified fracture,
gradation and quality requirements.

Ministry of Municipal & Rural Affairs Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

282

General Specifications of Urban Roads Construction

Division 9 - Recycling

Back

9.3.3.2 Acceptance of Job Mix Formula:


The revision and acceptance of the cold-mix recycled asphaltic mixture job mix
formula shall be in accordance with Sub item 9.2.3.2.
9.3.4 Equipment:
The Contractor shall furnish suitable equipment to execute the recycling work.
The number and the production capacity of this equipment shall be within the Contract
time in accordance with his Program of Work as approved by the Engineer, and shall
include equipment detailed in Item 9.2.4 in this Division.
9.3.5 Weather Limitations:
Cold mix recycled asphaltic materials shall not be mixed or placed during
rainfall, dust or sand storms, when the ambient temperature is less than five (5) degrees
Celsius or when weather conditions prevent specified mixing and compaction
requirements.
9.3.6 Construction:
The exact locations of the areas to be recycled along with the respective thicknesses
thereof shall be determined and delineated by the Engineer immediately prior to the
start of the Work. The construction process shall involve pulverization, mixing, and
compaction.
9.3.6.1 Pulverization:
The Contractor shall submit to the Engineer prior to the start of the work the
proposed pulverization method for the existing pavement and the addition and mixing in
place of any required new aggregate and new asphalt or recycling agent. The resultant
mixture shall be spread, compacted, and finished.
The Contractor shall pulverize the existing pavement to the required size and
shall add any amount of new aggregate and asphalt required by JMF.
Undesirable contamination of the reclaimed materials with underlying untreated
base course or subgrade materials, clay, silt, or other deleterious matter shall not be
accepted. Should such undesirable contamination occur, as determined by the Engineer,
the materials shall be discarded as directed and shall be replaced with new approved
materials, all at the Contractors expense.
9.3.6.2 Mixing :
Mixing asphaltic materials and/or recycling agent with RAP shall be uniform using
any of the following methods:
1.
The asphaltic material and/or recycling agent may be applied through the
machine used to cold mill the asphaltic surface as a part of the liquid used to
cool the cutter teeth, provided it is applied uniformly across the width of cut
and results in a complete and uniform blending of all materials.
2.
The asphaltic material and/or recycling agent may be applied through a
mixing machine capable of mixing a windrow of RAP and other materials on
the road side.
3.
The asphaltic material and/or recycling agent may be added through a
paving machine that is capable of mixing and placing the recycled asphaltic
base in its final position for compacting.
Ministry of Municipal & Rural Affairs Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

283

General Specifications of Urban Roads Construction

Division 9 - Recycling

Back

4.

The cold mix recycled asphaltic base may be produced using a continuous
operation consisting of an interconnected cold milling device, portable
crusher mounted on a trailer, cold mixing pugmill mounted on a trailer,
paving machine, materials transfer belts for moving the materials from
milling equipment through to the paving machine and compaction
equipment. When new aggregates are required they shall be spread
uniformly at the approved quantity on the road surface in advance of the
cold milling machine.

Regardless of which method is used, mixing equipment shall have accurately meter
the planned amount of asphaltic material and/or recycling agent into the RAP and
aggregate.
When directed by the Engineer, water shall be added to the RAP to facilitate
uniform mixing with asphaltic materials. Water may be added prior to or concurrently
with adding the asphaltic materials, as approved by the Engineer.
9.3.6.3 Placing and Compaction:
The recycled mixture shall be compacted using pneumatic or steel-drum tandem
roller (vibratory or normal) until the compacted density of recycled mixture is at least
ninety-six (96) percent from the Marshall laboratory compacted specimen determined
from ASTM D 2726.
After the recycled mixture has been spread and compacted, it shall be allowed to
cure for at least three (3) days to reduce the moisture content prior to placing a wearing
surface. Additional curing time may be required by the Engineer in the event that the
recycled mixture becomes wet during rainfall. Any damage to the recycled mixture
shall be repaired by and at the Contractor's expense and to the satisfaction of the
Engineer.
9.3.6.4 Surface leveling:
After each working day, the final surface after completion of compaction shall
tested for leveling, and shall have no depressions under a four (4) meter straightedge
greater than three (6) millimeters when laid parallel or transverse to the centerline.
9.3.7 Traffic Control:
The Contractor shall take effective action to allow safe traffic operations when
using the recycling work as specified by Item 8.5.7 in these General Specifications.
9.3.8 Work Acceptance:
The Contractor shall apply quality control procedures for all cold-mix recycled
asphaltic concrete works to assure that the materials used and the executed work
conform to these General Specifications and other Contracts Documents.
The Ministry shall assure the quality of production by checking that the
Contractor is performing the quality control procedures in correct manners. The
Ministry may have a direct supervision on the quality control system or by applying
quality assurance procedures in an independent unbiased way, on adequate number of
samples to judge the execution level and decide whether to accept or reject the work.

Ministry of Municipal & Rural Affairs Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

284

General Specifications of Urban Roads Construction

Division 9 - Recycling

Back

Division 17 in these General Specifications shall be used for this purpose, unless stated
otherwise in the Special Specifications or Contracts Documents.
9.3.8.1 Quality Control :
The Contractor shall perform all required tests and measurements, and shall
collect, document, and draw the critical property diagrams to ensure that the raw
materials at source, materials while work execution, cold-mix recycled asphaltic
concrete produced, and the executed work are within acceptable limits. The tests may
be performed at The Contractors laboratory or at an independent laboratory, approved
by the Ministry. The Contractor shall submit copies of all test results to the Engineer.
Table (9.3.1) shows the tests that the Contractor shall perform on raw materials and
mixes, the frequency of these tests, and the allowance limits. The Contractor shall
submit copies of all tests to the Engineers and shall apply all requirements detailed in
Item 17.1.1 in these General Specifications.
9.3.8.2 Quality Assurance :
The Ministry reserves the right, at any time, to assure the quality of materials
and executed work by performing or ordering the Contractor to perform, under its direct
supervision, some or all quality control tests that are shown previous Sub item. The
Ministry has also the right to inspect all Contractors' quality control test records and
compare them with its quality assurance test done according to Division 17 in these
General Specifications. Ministry may inspect Contractor's laboratory, devices,
technical staff, and testing methods to assure the full adequacy and capability of the
Contractor to execute the work according to standard approved methods.
9.3.9 Measurements:
The quantity of each lot and course of cold-mix recycled asphaltic pavement
shall be measured by the cubic meter, as placed and compacted to the required density,
within the lines and grades, and thickness shown on the plans or directed by the
Engineer. No measurement will be made for extra thickness or areas of pavement
placed outside authorized limits.
Cold-mix asphaltic recycling agent shall not be measured separately unless
specifically stated in the Special Specifications and the item is listed in the Bill of
Quantities, in which case it will be measured in liters.
9.3.10 Payment:
Payment shall be made at the contract unit price, or adjusted contract unit price,
per cubic meter measured as described in the pervious Item for each grading and class
of recycled asphaltic concrete listed in the Bill of Quantities.
The above prices and payment shall cover and be full compensation for
furnishing labor, materials, equipment, tools and incidentals necessary for completing
all work involved in construction of asphaltic concrete pavement. Payment will be made
according to Table (9.3.2).

Ministry of Municipal & Rural Affairs Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

285

General Specifications of Urban Roads Construction

Division 9 - Recycling

Back

Table 9.3.1: Quality control requirements for cold-mix asphaltic concrete mixes
Work

Aggregate
gradation
Asphalt
content

Test
Method
Quality
requirements
tests
Quality
requirements
tests
Quality
requirements
tests
AASHTO T27
AASHTO T164/T-27
AASHTO T164/T-170

Compactio
n

ASTM D
2726

Thickness

ASTM D
3549

Properties
Asphaltic
material

Raw
materials

New
Aggregates
Recycling
agents
RAP

Material
at use

Road

Finishing

Surface
roughness
Level,
dimensions,
slopes, and
smoothness

Sample
location

Source

Requirements

Certification of compliance
and supply and source
change

Tables 7.2.2.A
to 7.2.5

Three (3) tests at start of


work or source change

Table 7.3.1

Certification of compliance
and supply and source
change
Three (3) tests at start of
work or source change
Project
site

Project
site

Contract
documents

Sampling frequency

Project
site

two (2) tests every 2000


square meters from each
layer or each working day
Minimum one (1) test every
1000 cubic square meters
from each layer
Minimum one (1) test every
1000 cubic square meters
from each layer
Straight edge for each
working day
Transverse segments every
25 meters or five segments
every 1000 meters,
whichever the maximum

Table 9.2.1
Item 9.3.2
(RAP)
JMF

Sub item
9.3.6.3
Contract
documents
Sub item
9.3.6.4
Contract
documents

Table 9.3.2: Cold-mix recycling pay items


No.

Pay Item

Pay units

9.3.1

Cold-mix recycling type __________ gradation ___________

Cubic meter

Ministry of Municipal & Rural Affairs Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

286