SPEEECH OF MARTIN LUTHER KING

I am happy to join with you today in what will go down in history as the greatest demonstration for freedom in the history of our nation. Five score years ago, a great American, in whose symbolic shadow we stand today, signed the Emancipation Proclamation. This momentous decree came as a great beacon light of hope to millions of egro slaves who had been seared in the flames of withering injustice. It came as a joyous daybrea! to end the long night of their captivity. "ut one hundred years later, the egro still is not free. #ne hundred years later, the life of the egro is still sadly crippled by the manacles of segregation and the chains of discrimination. #ne hundred years later, the egro lives on a lonely island of poverty in the midst of a vast ocean of material prosperity. #ne hundred years later, the egro is still languished in the corners of American society and finds himself an e$ile in his own land. And so we%ve come here today to dramati&e a shameful condition. In a sense we%ve come to our nation%s capital to cash a chec!. 'hen the architects of our republic wrote the magnificent words of the (onstitution and the )eclaration of Independence, they were signing a promissory note to which every American was to fall heir. This note was a promise that all men, yes, blac! men as well as white men, would be guaranteed the *unalienable +ights* of *,ife, ,iberty and the pursuit of -appiness.* It is obvious today that America has defaulted on this promissory note, insofar as her citi&ens of color are concerned. Instead of honoring this sacred obligation, America has given the egro people a bad chec!, a chec! which has come bac! mar!ed *insufficient funds.* "ut we refuse to believe that the ban! of justice is ban!rupt. 'e refuse to believe that there are insufficient funds in the great vaults of opportunity of this nation. And so, we%ve come to cash this chec!, a chec! that will give us upon demand the riches of freedom and the security of justice. 'e have also come to this hallowed spot to remind America of the fierce urgency of ow. This is no time to engage in the lu$ury of cooling off or to ta!e the tran.uili&ing drug of gradualism. ow is the time to ma!e real the promises of democracy. ow is the time to rise from the dar! and desolate valley of segregation to the sunlit path of racial justice. ow is the time to lift our nation from the .uic!sands of racial injustice to the solid roc! of brotherhood. ow is the time to ma!e justice a reality for all of /od%s children. It would be fatal for the nation to overloo! the urgency of the moment. This sweltering summer of the egro%s legitimate discontent will not pass until there is an invigorating autumn of freedom and e.uality. ineteen si$ty0three is not an end, but a beginning. And those who hope that the egro needed to blow off steam and will now be content will have a rude awa!ening if the nation returns to business as usual. And there will be neither rest nor tran.uility in America until the egro is granted his citi&enship rights. The whirlwinds of revolt will continue to sha!e the foundations of our nation until the bright day of justice emerges.

"ut there is something that I must say to my people, who stand on the warm threshold which leads into the palace of justice1 In the process of gaining our rightful place, we must not be guilty of wrongful deeds. ,et us not see! to satisfy our thirst for freedom by drin!ing from the cup of bitterness and hatred. 'e must forever conduct our struggle on the high plane of dignity and discipline. 'e must not allow our creative protest to degenerate into physical violence. Again and again, we must rise to the majestic heights of meeting physical force with soul force. The marvelous new militancy which has engulfed the egro community must not lead us to a distrust of all white people, for many of our white brothers, as evidenced by their presence here today, have come to reali&e that their destiny is tied up with our destiny. And they have come to reali&e that their freedom is ine$tricably bound to our freedom. 'e cannot wal! alone. And as we wal!, we must ma!e the pledge that we shall always march ahead. 'e cannot turn bac!. There are those who are as!ing the devotees of civil rights, *'hen will you be satisfied2* 'e can never be satisfied as long as the egro is the victim of the unspea!able horrors of police brutality. 'e can never be satisfied as long as our bodies, heavy with the fatigue of travel, cannot gain lodging in the motels of the highways and the hotels of the cities. 3'e cannot be satisfied as long as the negro%s basic mobility is from a smaller ghetto to a larger one. 'e can never be satisfied as long as our children are stripped of their self0hood and robbed of their dignity by a sign stating1 *For 'hites #nly.*3 'e cannot be satisfied as long as a egro in 4ississippi cannot vote and a egro in ew 5or! believes he has nothing for which to vote. o, no, we are not satisfied, and we will not be satisfied until *justice rolls down li!e waters, and righteousness li!e a mighty stream.*6 I am not unmindful that some of you have come here out of great trials and tribulations. 7ome of you have come fresh from narrow jail cells. And some of you have come from areas where your .uest 00 .uest for freedom left you battered by the storms of persecution and staggered by the winds of police brutality. 5ou have been the veterans of creative suffering. (ontinue to wor! with the faith that unearned suffering is redemptive. /o bac! to 4ississippi, go bac! to Alabama, go bac! to 7outh (arolina, go bac! to /eorgia, go bac! to ,ouisiana, go bac! to the slums and ghettos of our northern cities, !nowing that somehow this situation can and will be changed. ,et us not wallow in the valley of despair, I say to you today, my friends. And so even though we face the difficulties of today and tomorrow, I still have a dream. It is a dream deeply rooted in the American dream.

I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed1 *'e hold these truths to be self0evident, that all men are created e.ual.* I have a dream that one day on the red hills of /eorgia, the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave owners will be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood. I have a dream that one day even the state of 4ississippi, a state sweltering with the heat of injustice, sweltering with the heat of oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice. I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their s!in but by the content of their character. I have a dream today8 I have a dream that one day, down in Alabama, with its vicious racists, with its governor having his lips dripping with the words of *interposition* and *nullification* 00 one day right there in Alabama little blac! boys and blac! girls will be able to join hands with little white boys and white girls as sisters and brothers. I have a dream today8 I have a dream that one day every valley shall be e$alted, and every hill and mountain shall be made low, the rough places will be made plain, and the croo!ed places will be made straight9 *and the glory of the ,ord shall be revealed and all flesh shall see it together.*: This is our hope, and this is the faith that I go bac! to the 7outh with. 'ith this faith, we will be able to hew out of the mountain of despair a stone of hope. 'ith this faith, we will be able to transform the jangling discords of our nation into a beautiful symphony of brotherhood. 'ith this faith, we will be able to wor! together, to pray together, to struggle together, to go to jail together, to stand up for freedom together, !nowing that we will be free one day. And this will be the day 00 this will be the day when all of /od%s children will be able to sing with new meaning1 My country 'tis of thee, sweet land of liberty, of thee I sing. Land where my fathers died, land of the Pilgrim's pride, From every mountainside, let freedom ring!

And if America is to be a great nation, this must become true.

And so let freedom ring from the prodigious hilltops of ,et freedom ring from the mighty mountains of

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,et freedom ring from the heightening Alleghenies of Pennsylvania. ,et freedom ring from the snow0capped +oc!ies of (olorado. ,et freedom ring from the curvaceous slopes of (alifornia. "ut not only that1 ,et freedom ring from 7tone 4ountain of /eorgia. ,et freedom ring from ,oo!out 4ountain of Tennessee. ,et freedom ring from every hill and molehill of 4ississippi. From every mountainside, let freedom ring. And when this happens, when we allow freedom ring, when we let it ring from every village and every hamlet, from every state and every city, we will be able to speed up that day when all of /od%s children, blac! men and white men, ;ews and /entiles, Protestants and (atholics, will be able to join hands and sing in the words of the old egro spiritual1 Free at last! Free at last! han! "od #lmighty, we are free at last!<

JOHN F KENNEDY – INAUGARAL SPEECH Vice President Johnson, Mr. Speaker, Mr. Chief Justice, President Eisenhower, Vice President Nixon, President Truman, reverend c er!", fe ow citi#ens, we observe tod ! "ot v#$tor! o% & rt!' b(t $e)ebr t#o" o% %reedo*+s!*bo)#,#"- " e"d' s we)) s be-#""#"-+s#-"#%!#"- re"ew )' s we)) s $. "-e/ For I . ve swor" be%ore !o( "d A)*#-.t! God t.e s *e so)e*" o t. o(r %orebe rs &res$r#bed "e r)! $e"t(r! "d t.ree 0( rters -o/ T.e wor)d #s ver! d#%%ere"t "ow/ For * " .o)ds #" .#s *ort ) . "ds t.e &ower to bo)#s. )) %or*s o% .(* " &overt! "d )) %or*s o% .(* " )#%e/ A"d !et t.e s *e revo)(t#o" r! be)#e%s %or w.#$. o(r %orebe rs %o(-.t re st#)) t #ss(e ro("d t.e -)obe +t.e be)#e% t. t t.e r#-.ts o% * " $o*e "ot %ro* t.e -e"eros#t! o% t.e st te' b(t %ro* t.e . "d o% God/ 1e d re "ot %or-et tod ! t. t we re t.e .e#rs o% t. t %#rst revo)(t#o"/ Let t.e word -o %ort. %ro* t.#s t#*e "d &) $e' to %r#e"d "d %oe )#2e' t. t t.e tor$. . s bee" & ssed to "ew -e"er t#o" o% A*er#$ "s+bor" #" t.#s $e"t(r!' te*&ered b! w r' d#s$#&)#"ed b! . rd "d b#tter &e $e' &ro(d o% o(r "$#e"t .er#t -e+ "d ("w#))#"- to w#t"ess or &er*#t t.e s)ow ("do#"- o% t.ose .(* " r#-.ts to w.#$. t.#s N t#o" . s )w !s bee" $o**#tted' "d to w.#$. we re $o**#tted tod ! t .o*e "d ro("d t.e wor)d/ Let ever! " t#o" 2"ow' w.et.er #t w#s.es (s we)) or #))' t. t we s. )) & ! "! &r#$e' be r "! b(rde"' *eet "! . rds.#&' s(&&ort "! %r#e"d' o&&ose "! %oe' #" order to ss(re t.e s(rv#v ) "d t.e s($$ess o% )#bert!/ T.#s *($. we &)ed-e+ "d *ore/ To t.ose o)d ))#es w.ose $()t(r ) "d s&#r#t( ) or#-#"s we s. re' we &)ed-e t.e )o! )t! o% % #t.%() %r#e"ds/ U"#ted' t.ere #s )#tt)e we $ ""ot do #" .ost o% $oo&er t#ve ve"t(res/ D#v#ded' t.ere #s )#tt)e we $ " do+%or we d re "ot *eet &ower%() $. ))e"-e t odds "d s&)#t s("der/ To t.ose "ew St tes w.o* we we)$o*e to t.e r "2s o% t.e %ree' we &)ed-e o(r word t. t o"e %or* o% $o)o"# ) $o"tro) s. )) "ot . ve & ssed w ! *ere)! to be re&) $ed b! % r *ore #ro" t!r ""!/ 1e s. )) "ot )w !s e3&e$t to %#"d t.e* s(&&ort#"- o(r v#ew/ 4(t we s. )) )w !s .o&e to %#"d t.e* stro"-)! s(&&ort#"- t.e#r ow" %reedo*+ "d to re*e*ber t. t' #" t.e & st' t.ose w.o %oo)#s.)! so(-.t &ower b! r#d#"- t.e b $2 o% t.e t#-er e"ded (& #"s#de/ To t.ose &eo&)es #" t.e .(ts "d v#)) -es $ross t.e -)obe str(--)#"- to bre 2 t.e bo"ds o% * ss *#ser!' we &)ed-e o(r best e%%orts to .e)& t.e* .e)& t.e*se)ves' %or w. tever &er#od #s re0(#red+"ot be$ (se t.e Co**("#sts * ! be do#"- #t' "ot be$ (se we see2 t.e#r votes' b(t be$ (se #t #s r#-.t/ I% %ree so$#et! $ ""ot .e)& t.e * "! w.o re &oor' #t $ ""ot s ve t.e %ew w.o re r#$./ To o(r s#ster re&(b)#$s so(t. o% o(r border' we o%%er s&e$# ) &)ed-e+to $o"vert o(r -ood words #"to -ood deeds+#" "ew ))# "$e %or &ro-ress+to ss#st %ree *e" "d %ree -over"*e"ts #" $ st#"- o%% t.e $. #"s o% &overt!/ 4(t t.#s &e $e%() revo)(t#o" o% .o&e $ ""ot be$o*e t.e &re! o% .ost#)e &owers/ Let )) o(r "e#-.bors 2"ow t. t we s. )) 5o#" w#t. t.e* to o&&ose --ress#o" or s(bvers#o" "!w.ere #" t.e A*er#$ s/ A"d )et ever! ot.er &ower 2"ow t. t t.#s He*#s&.ere #"te"ds to re* #" t.e * ster o%
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CONTENTS

4I4LIOGRAPHIC RECORD

JA1AHARLAL NEHRU – TRYST 1ITH DESTINY Lo"- !e rs -o we * de tr!st w#t. dest#"!' "d "ow t.e t#*e $o*es w.e" we s. )) redee* o(r &)ed-e' "ot w.o))! or #" %()) *e s(re' b(t ver! s(bst "t# ))!/ At t.e stro2e o% t.e *#d"#-.t .o(r' w.e" t.e wor)d s)ee&s' I"d# w#)) w 2e to )#%e "d %reedo*/ A *o*e"t $o*es' w.#$. $o*es b(t r re)! #" .#stor!' w.e" we ste& o(t %ro* t.e o)d to t.e "ew' w.e" " -e e"ds' "d w.e" t.e so() o% " t#o"' )o"- s(&ressed' %#"ds (tter "$e/ It #s %#tt#"- t. t t t.#s so)e*" *o*e"t we t 2e t.e &)ed-e o% ded#$ t#o" to t.e serv#$e o% I"#d "d .er &eo&)e "d to t.e st#)) ) r-er $ (se o% .(* "#t!/ At t.e d w" o% .#stor! I"d# st rted o" .er ("e"d#"- 0(est' "d tr $2)ess $e"t(r#es re %#))ed w#t. .er str#v#"- "d t.e -r "de(r o% .er s($$ess "d .er % #)(res/ T.ro(-. -ood "d #)) %ort("e )#2e s.e . s "ever )ost s#-.t o% t. t 0(est or %or-otte" t.e #de )s w.#$. - ve .er stre"-t./ 1e e"d tod ! &er#od o% #)) %ort("e "d I"d# d#s$overs .erse)% - #"/ T.e $.#eve*e"t we $e)ebr te tod ! #s b(t ste&' " o&e"#"- o% o&&ort("#t!' to t.e -re ter tr#(*&.s "d $.#eve*e"ts t. t w #t (s/ Are we br ve e"o(-. "d w#se e"o(-. to -r s& t.#s o&&ort("#t! "d $$e&t t.e $. ))e"-e o% t.e %(t(re= Freedo* "d &ower br#"- res&o"s#b#)#t!/ T.e res&o"s#b#)#t! rests (&o" t.#s Asse*b)!' sovere#-" bod! re&rese"t#"- t.e sovere#-" &eo&)e o% I"d# / 4e%ore t.e b#rt. o% %reedo* we . ve e"d(red )) t.e & #"s o% ) bo(r "d o(r .e rts re .e v! w#t. t.e *e*or! o% t.#s sorrow/ So*e o% t.ose & #"s $o"t#"(e eve" "ow/ Nevert.e)ess' t.e & st #s over "d #t #s t.e %(t(re t. t be$2o"s to (s "ow/ T. t %(t(re #s "ot o"e o% e se or rest#"- b(t o% #"$ess "t str#v#"- so t. t we * ! %()%#) t.e &)ed-es we . ve so o%te" t 2e" "d t.e o"e we s. )) t 2e tod !/ T.e serv#$e o% I"d# *e "s t.e serv#$e o% t.e *#))#o"s w.o s(%%er/ It *e "s t.e e"d#"- o% &overt! "d #-"or "$e "d d#se se "d #"e0( )#t! o% o&&ort("#t!/ T.e *b#t#o" o% t.e -re test * " o% o(r -e"er t#o" . s bee" to w#&e ever! te r %ro* ever! e!e/ T. t * ! be be!o"d (s' b(t s )o"- s t.ere re te rs "d s(%%er#"-' so )o"- o(r wor2 w#)) "ot be over/ A"d so we . ve to ) bo(r "d to wor2' "d wor2 . rd' to -#ve re )#t! to o(r dre *s/ T.ose dre *s re %or I"d# ' b(t t.e! re )so %or t.e wor)d' %or )) t.e " t#o"s "d &eo&)es re too $)ose)! 2"#t to-et.er tod ! %or "! o"e o% t.e* to #* -#"e t. t #t $ " )#ve & rt Pe $e . s bee" s #d to be #"d#v#s#b)e< so #s %reedo*' so #s &ros&er#t! "ow' "d so )so #s d#s ster #" t.#s O"e 1or)d t. t $ " "o )o"-er be s&)#t #"to #so) ted %r -*e"ts/ To t.e &eo&)e o% I"d# ' w.ose re&rese"t t#ves we re' we * 2e " &&e ) to 5o#" (s w#t. % #t. "d $o"%#de"$e #" t.#s -re t dve"t(re/ T.#s #s "o t#*e %or &ett! "d destr($t#ve $r#t#$#s*' "o t#*e %or #))7w#)) or b) *#"- ot.ers/ 1e . ve to b(#)d t.e "ob)e * "s#o" o% %ree I"d# w.ere )) .er $.#)dre" * ! dwe))/ II

T.e &&o#"ted d ! . s $o*e7t.e d ! &&o#"ted b! dest#"!7 "d I"d# st "ds %ort. - #"' %ter )o"- s)(*ber "d str(--)e' w 2e' v#t )' %ree "d #"de&e"de"t/ T.e & st $)#"-s o" to (s st#)) #" so*e *e s(re "d we . ve to do *($. be%ore we redee* t.e &)ed-es we . ve so o%te" t 2e"/ Yet t.e t(r"#"-7&o#"t #s & st' "d .#stor! be-#"s "ew %or (s' t.e .#stor! w.#$. we s. )) )#ve "d $t "d ot.ers w#)) wr#te bo(t/ It #s % te%() *o*e"t %or (s #" I"d# ' %or )) As# "d %or t.e wor)d/ A "ew st r r#ses' t.e st r o% %reedo* #" t.e E st' "ew .o&e $o*es #"to be#"-' v#s#o" )o"- $.er#s.ed * ter# )#,es/ M ! t.e st r "ever set "d t. t .o&e "ever be betr !ed> 1e re5o#$e #" t. t %reedo*' eve" t.o(-. $)o(ds s(rro("d (s' "d * "! o% o(r &eo&)e re sorrowstr#$2e" "d d#%%#$()t &rob)e*s e"$o*& ss (s/ 4(t %reedo* br#"-s res&o"s#b#)#t#es "d b(rde"s "d we . ve to % $e t.e* #" t.e s&#r#t o% %ree "d d#s$#&)#"ed &eo&)e/ O" t.#s d ! o(r %#rst t.o(-.ts -o to t.e r$.#te$t o% t.#s %reedo*' t.e F t.er o% o(r N t#o" ?G "d.#@' w.o' e*bod!#"- t.e o)d s&#r#t o% I"d# ' .e)d )o%t t.e tor$. o% %reedo* "d )#-.ted (& t.e d r2"ess t. t s(rro("ded (s/ 1e . ve o%te" bee" ("wort.! %o))owers o% .#s "d . ve str !ed %ro* .#s *ess -e' b(t "ot o")! we b(t s($$eed#"- -e"er t#o"s w#)) re*e*ber t.#s *ess -e "d be r t.e #*&r#"t #" t.e#r .e rts o% t.#s -re t so" o% I"d# ' * -"#%#$e"t #" .#s % #t. "d stre"-t. "d $o(r -e "d .(*#)#t!/ 1e s. )) "ever ))ow t. t tor$. o% %reedo* to be b)ow" o(t' .owever .#-. t.e w#"d or stor*! t.e te*&est/ O(r "e3t t.o(-.ts *(st be o% t.e ("2"ow" vo)("teers "d so)d#ers o% %reedo* w.o' w#t.o(t &r #se or rew rd' . ve served I"d# eve" ("to de t./ 1e t.#"2 )so o% o(r brot.ers "d s#sters w.o . ve bee" $(t o%% %ro* (s b! &o)#t#$ ) bo("d r#es "d w.o (". &&#)! $ ""ot s. re t &rese"t #" t.e %reedo* t. t . s $o*e/ T.e! re o% (s "d w#)) re* #" o% (s w. tever * ! . &&e"' "d we s. )) be s. rers #" t.e#r -ood ?or@ #)) %ort("e )#2e/ T.e %(t(re be$2o"s to (s/ 1.#t.er do we -o "d w. t s. )) be o(r e"de vo(r= To br#"%reedo* "d o&&ort("#t! to t.e $o**o" * "' to t.e &e s "ts "d wor2ers o% I"d# < to %#-.t "d e"d &overt! "d #-"or "$e "d d#se se< to b(#)d (& &ros&ero(s' de*o$r t#$ "d &ro-ress#ve " t#o"' "d to $re te so$# )' e$o"o*#$ "d &o)#t#$ ) #"st#t(t#o"s w.#$. w#)) e"s(re 5(st#$e "d %())"ess o% )#%e to ever! * " "d wo* "/ 1e . ve . rd wor2 .e d/ T.ere #s "o rest#"- %or "! o"e o% (s t#)) we redee* o(r &)ed-e #" %())' t#)) we * 2e )) t.e &eo&)e o% I"d# w. t dest#"! #"te"ded t.e* to be/ 1e re $#t#,e"s o% -re t $o("tr! o" t.e ver-e o% bo)d dv "$e' "d we . ve to )#ve (& to t. t .#-. st "d rd/ A)) o% (s' to w. tever re)#-#o" we * ! be)o"-' re e0( ))! t.e $.#)dre" o% I"d# w#t. e0( ) r#-.ts' &r#v#)e-es "d ob)#- t#o"s/ 1e $ ""ot e"$o(r -e $o**(" )#s* or " rrow7*#"ded"ess' %or "o " t#o" $ " be -re t w.ose &eo&)e re " rrow #" t.o(-.t or #" $t#o"/

To t.e " t#o"s "d &eo&)es o% t.e wor)d we se"d -reet#"-s "d &)ed-e o(rse)ves to $oo&er te w#t. t.e* #" %(rt.er#"- &e $e' %reedo* "d de*o$r $!/ A"d to I"d# ' o(r *($.7)oved *ot.er) "d' t.e "$#e"t' t.e eter" ) "d t.e ever7"ew' we & ! o(r revere"t .o* -e "d we b#"d o(rse)ves %res. to .er serv#$e/ JAI HIND/

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