You are on page 1of 14



PARAGRAPH EXAMPLES.......................................... 10-14

Name : Ladesi Henita

NPM : 1506747774


Academic writing in English is linear, which means it has one central point
or theme with every part contributing to the main line of argument, without
digressions or repetitions. Its objective is to inform rather than entertain. As well
as this it is in the standard written form of the language. There are eight main
features of academic writing that are often discussed. Academic writing is to some
extent: complex, formal, objective, explicit, hedged, and responsible. It uses
language precisely and accurately.


Written language is relatively more complex than spoken language, written texts
are lexically dense compared to spoken language - they have proportionately more
lexical words than grammatical words. Written texts are shorter and have longer,
more complex words and phrases. They have more noun-based phrases, more
nominalisations, and more lexical variation.
Written language is grammatically more complex than spoken language. It has
more subordinate clauses, more "that/to" complement clauses, more long
sequences of prepositional phrases, more attributive adjectives and more passives
than spoken language.
Example :
Spoken : You can control the trains this way and if you do that you can be
quite sure that they'll be able to run more safely and more
quickly than they would otherwise, no matter how bad the
weather gets.
Written : The use of this method of control unquestionably leads to safer
and faster train running in the most adverse weather conditions.


Academic writing is relatively formal. In general this means that in an essay you
should avoid colloquial words and expressions.

In general this means in an essay that you should avoid:

a. colloquial words and expressions; ""stuff", "a lot of", "thing", "sort of",
b. abbreviated forms: "can't", "doesn't", "shouldn't"
c. two word verbs: "put off", "bring up"
d. sub-headings, numbering and bullet-points in formal essays - but use them
in reports.
e. asking questions.


In academic writing, facts and figures are given precisely. You need to be precise
when you use information, dates or figures. Do not use "a lot of people" when you
can say "50 million people".
Example :
Chemists had attempted to synthesize quinine for the previous hundred
years but all they had achieved was to discover the extreme complexity of
the problem.


Written language is in general objective rather than personal. It therefore has

fewer words that refer to the writer or the reader. This means that the main
emphasis should be on the information that you want to give and the arguments
you want to make, rather than you. For that reason, academic writing tends to use
nouns (and adjectives), rather than verbs (and adverbs).
This means that the main emphasis should be on the information that you want to
give and the arguments you want to make, rather than you. This is related to the
basic nature of academic study and academic writing, in particular. Nobody really
wants to know what you "think" or "believe". They want to know what you have
studied and learned and how this has led you to your various conclusions. The
thoughts and beliefs should be based on your lectures, reading, discussion and
research and it is important to make this clear.


Academic writing is explicit about the relationships int he text. Furthermore, it is

the responsibility of the writer in English to make it clear to the reader how the

various parts of the text are related. These connections can be made explicit by the
use of different signalling words.


Academic writing uses vocabulary accurately. Most subjects have words with
narrow specific meanings. Linguistics distinguishes clearly between "phonetics"
and "phonemics"; general English does not.


In any kind of academic writing you do, it is necessary to make decisions about
your stance on a particular subject, or the strength of the claims you are making.
Different subjects prefer to do this in different ways.
A technique common in certain kinds of academic writing is known by linguists
as a hedge.


In academic writing you must be responsible for, and must be able to provide
evidence and justification for, any claims you make. You are also responsible for
demonstrating an understanding of any source texts you use.1 , accessed : 26/9/2015 11.38 PM


Principles Of Essay Writing I

Academic prose often requires more than one paragraph. Futhermore,
because academic prose requires evidence, often a single paragraph is not
sufficient for the amount of essential or specific detail to support ideas or
oppinions. It is often necessary to construct multiple paragraphs. Each paragraph
of an essay, a technical report, a critique or a research paper will have the same
general form: a general topic sentence with controlling ideas, followed by facts,
examples, physical descriptions, and/or experiences that explain, describe, and/or
illustrate those controlling ideas.

An essay has:
1. A beginning : called the introduction, this the first in the essay.
2. A thesis sentence : generally located at the end of the introduction, the
most general, most important sentence in the essay. It contains controlling
ideas that limit and direct the rest of the essay.
3. A middle : called the body of the essay, these paragraphs explain, degine,
clarify, and illustrate the thesis sentence. Each body paragraph consists of
a topic sentence and several supporting sentences.
4. An ending: called the conclusion of the essay, this paragraph ends the
essay by restating the thesis statement, offering a solution or
recommendation or by making a prediction.

Diagram of an essay :

Thesis statement
A topic sentence
Supporting sentences
May contain prediction, solution or

Selecting a Topic
Often the subject for an academic assignment is chosen for the student by
the lecturer. The student must frequently narrow the subject to a topic. Selecting a
topic for an essay is similar to choosing a topic to write about in a paragraph. The
same process applies when you:
1. Write about WHAT YOU KNOW
2. Identify your AUDIENCE
3. Decide on the PURPOSE of the essay
4. Select a topic that will INTEREST your audience
As you begin to narrow your topic, decide the pattern of organization that you
want to use to present your topic on the audience. Several patterns of organization
are possible for each topic.

Principles Of Essay Writing II

Thesis Statement
Each essay you write will contain a thesis statement. This thesis statement
is usually one sentence that gives the purpose of the essay. The following are
characteristics of a good thesis statement.
A thesis statement :

Is the strongest, clearest statement in the essay


Comes at the beginning of the essay, usually at the end of the introductory


Must NOT be a simple statement of fact that requires no elaboration. A

simple statement of fact has little possibilities for development


Should NOT be expressed as a question, because a question contains no

attitude or opinion. The ANSWER to the question is the thesis statemenet


Contain CONTROLLING IDEAS that will be used in the topic sentences

of the body paragraphs of the essay


May be a STATEMENT OF OPINION that will be explained and proved

in the body paragraph


May be a STATEMENT OF INTENT that will be explained and

illustrated in the body paraghraph of the essay

A successful thesis statement usually results from a process of writing and

rewriting. Start with a topic that you want to explore and then narrow it down to
something that can be covered adequately in a short essay.
A good thesis statement usually result from a process of writing and rewriting.
Start with a TOPIC that you want to explore and then narrow it down to
something that can be covered adequately in a short essay.

Principles Of Essay Writing III

Paragraph Relationship
The thesis statement is directly related to the topic sentences in the body
paragraphs. Each topic sentence relates to and deals with one or more of the
controlling ideas in the thesis.

Principles Of Essay Writing IV

The Introduction
The introduction is a very important part of the essay as it tells the reader what the
essay is all about. The function of the introduction is
To provide background information
To capture the readers interest
To state the thesis
The introductory paragraph usually consists of three parts:
1. Hook
2. Connecting information
3. Thesis statement
The hook is the opening statement. Writer uses a hook to catch the readers
There are many different ways to write a hook, among others:
1. By asking a question. If the readers want to know the answer to the
question, they are hooked and will read the essay. For example, a writer
might begin an essay with this sentence :
can you prevent yout brawls on the streets?

As this is a big problem in Jakarta, the reader will probably want to know
more about the topic.
2. By making an interesting observation or relating an anecdote.
Ex : the average American is proud to be American, and he is eager to talk
about American products. However, the average American drivers a
Japanese or German car to work every morning. He wears cotton shirts
made in Indonesia and pants made in Bangladesh. His dinner salad has
tomatoes from Mexico and salad dressing from France. Before he goes to
bed, he will watch his favorite program on a Japanese television set.
3. By describing a unique scenario to cach readers attention
Ex: travelling at more than one hundred miles an hour, he feels as though
he is not moving. He is engulfed in complete silence. For a moment, it is
as if he has entered another dimension.
4. Using a famous quotation or saying as a hook
Ex: give a man a fish, and hell eat for a day. Teach him how to fish and
hell eat forever
5. Using background information related to the thesis statement.

Connecting information
After the hook, the writer usually writes three to five sentences that help
to introduce the topic to the reader. These sentences can be background
information about the topic or they can be examples or explanations.

Writing the introdiction

There are many ways to write an introduction depending on how you want
to present the topic and the kind of essay you decide to write. Many introductions
use one or a combination of the following techniques to provide background
information and capture the readers attention.
A. Move from general to specific
This type of introduction opens with a general statement on the subject
that establishes its importance and then leads the reader to the more
specific thesis statement.

B. Use an anecdote
Relate an interesting story that will get the reader interested in the subject.
C. Use a quotation
A quotation is an easy way to introduce your topic. You can quote an
authority on your subject or use an interesting quotation from an article.
D. Ask a question
Asking one or more questions at the beginning of an essay is a good way
to engage the readers in the topic right away. They will want to read on in
order to find the answers to the questions
E. Present facts and statistics
Presenting some interesting facts or statistics on your subject establishes


Comparison/Contrast Paragraph
Life now and life five years ago
My life now and my life five years ago are similar but there are also some
major differences. Five years ago,I was living in Havre and going to high school. I
didnt have to work because my parents supported me. I went to school everyday
and spent time with my friends. I babysat my nieces everyday after school
because both of my parents were working at the time. I had the responsibility of
feeding them and making sure nothing happened to them while I was watching
them. I didnt really have any major goals five years ago. I wasnt really thinking
about my future quite yet. On the other hand, now I live in Great Falls and Im not
in high school anymore. I have to work now in order to support myself. I only
work twenty hours a week because Im in school right now. I have a lot more
responsibility now than I did five years ago. I have to take responsibility for
myself now and everything that I do. I have a lot of major goals now. For
instance, I want to graduate and get my two year degree. I want to come back and
get a bachelors degree. I have a lot of things that I want to accomplish now. Five
years ago, I really wasnt going anywhere with my life, but now Im starting to get
my life in order and deciding what I want to do. In addition,I am still living at
home with my parents and I still go to school. I still baby sit my nieces every once
in a while. I find time to spend with my family and friends. I still have some of the
same responsibilities. I help my mom take care of my oldest niece. She has always
lived with us, so Ive always helped take care of her ever since she was a baby.
Even though she is not a baby anymore,I still have to baby sit her when my
parents are gone because she is not quite old enough to stay by herself yet. I still
have to depend on my parents for transportation because I dont have a vehicle
right now. My life now has changed a lot in only five years.
~ 2005 Brandy Doney~


Cause/Effect Paragraph
Effects of Alcohol
Letting alcohol take control over your life has many negative effects on a
person and the people around them. One important effect is the damage you can
do to your body. Drinking can lead to severe illness and even eventual death;
some health consequences to consider might be liver disease, kidney failure and,
for pregnant women, the loss of their unborn child. Another detriment is that an
addiction could lead to drinking and driving; possibly causing a fatal car accident
for either yourself and/or an innocent by stander. Another concern to consider is
the relationships alcohol can destroy. Alcohol abuse can have very serious affect
on a persons temperament, which can lead to spousal and even child abuse.
Alcohol often is the number one cause in divorce and spending time in jail. It can
also affect relationships outside of the family; many people have lost life long
friends whether it is due to foolish arguments and behavior or possibly death.
Lastly, drinking has negative effects on self-esteem and rational thinking. People
become more self-centered, develop low self-esteem, doing things or behaving in
ways that they would not normally. They have little or no regard to the outcomes
of what is said or done when they grow reliant on getting that alcohol high. The
negative effects of alcohol abuse are overwhelming when considering the many
consequences that drinkers and the people around them have to deal with.
~ Racheal Guza 2005~

Classification Paragraph
Types of Friends
Friends can be classified according to their honesty, loyalty, the type that
fits you into their schedule, or the type that finds time for you when they need
something. An honest friend tells you the truth even if its not always what you
want to hear. In the long run, that honest friend may have saved you from
embarrassment or possibly rejection. They give you constructive criticism overall.
The loyal friend is the type of friend that will be there for you through the thick
and the thin. They dont care how good or bad you may look one day; they are
sensitive to your feelings, they respect you and the other people in your life, and


most of all they will never let you down when times are hard. They may be what
you call a best friend. The third group, the person that fits you into their schedule,
is the type of person that is always on the go. They barely have time for
themselves let alone another person. More than likely they will not be there for
you when you need them most, because they are so wrapped up in their busy,
hectic life. Then you have the self-absorbent type of friend that finds time for
you only when they need something. This type of person isnt what you would
call a friend. This person may always be extremely nice to you because they know
that if are nice to you then they will more than likely get what they want. They
will call you every once in awhile when it is almost time for them to use that
person again. It may be for a ride to work, home, or they just want somebody to
hangout with because they have no other friends. If the person that is being used is
smart they will eventually realize that they are getting used and will stop being
there for that person.
~ 2005 Amy Neill~

Process Paragraph
Ways to make Breaking up Easier
Breaking up with a boyfriend or girlfriend can be easier said than done, but
here are five steps that may help the breaking up process. First try to distance
yourself by suddenly becoming busier than usual. The next step is to calmly tell
the other person that how you are feeling.Then gently let him or her know that
you do not want to be together anymore. Then make sure to be sensitive of his or
her feelings and answer any questions that he or she may have. For example, if the
person starts to cry, use kind words to help comfort him or her. After everything is
said and done, take some alone time for your self because everyone has feelings to
sort out after a break up. Finally, go out with friends and meet new people. With
these five steps it will make the breaking up process smooth for both parties.
~ Sara Bedwell~

Definition Paragraph
Dj vu


Deja vu is a French word meaning "already seen", it has also been

described as a feeling or experience that one has seen or done something before.
For example, you are waiting in line to check out at the grocery store and the lady
behind you asks you to hand her a pack of gum. Suddenly you get an
overwhelming feeling that you have been there in that exact same spot, talking to
the same lady, even the same brand of gum. Even though everything seems so
familiar you know there is no way that could have happened before. There are
many theories as to why and how this phenomenon happens. One theory is that
deja vu is connected with temporal-lobe epilepsy, but people without a history of
epilepsy have also experienced deja vu. Psychiatrists believe it is something in
your brain that confuses an event that happened in the past with the present.
Another theory is parapsychologist think it is connected with past life experiences.
Whether deja vu is an experience of the paranormal or simply some confusion in
the brain, it is a perplexing feeling of having "already seen."
~Copyright 2005 Courtney Ming~

Argumentation Paragraph
Child abuse Essay
Child abuse is an immense problem that does require immediate help
provided to the child from the side of specialists. Once a teacher gets an allegation
of abuse from a child, he must not require a written statement from the child or
must not make the child repeat the allegation in front of other teachers or adult
people. The teacher must not wait until the end of the school day, but report
immediately by the means of telephone and support it with a written report within
the next 36 hours. The teacher takes individual responsibility for the report, so it
cannot be done anonymously. Both the telephone and the written report are
subjects of certain legal procedures. The telephone report should include detailed
information about the person making the report and detailed information about the
child, suspected of being a victim of abuse: location, special needs, injury, ect.
Afterwards all the details must be repeated by the contact person and approved by
the reporting teacher. By no means a teacher should contact the childs parents
and a teacher should not make an investigation.


The next step after the telephone report is the written report. A fax report is an
interchangeable form of a written report, required by the Department of Children
and Family Services. The written reports are made through the forms: SS 8572 or
SS 8572(2), reporting the fact of child abuse and by the form DOJ 900, which is a
medical report. Copies should be made and saved by the reporter for further
organizational process. Generally all the forms if needed are provided by the child
protective agency. All the information in the forms must be full and as objective
as possible. They require detailed information about the life of the child, his needs
and other information. A personal opinion of the reporter has no legal value. The
information of both written and telephone report is confidential. This
confidentiality in case of its violation may result in 6 month of jail, for the person
violating it. The teacher may feel free to contact the child protective agency for
any questions that may occur throughout the process of reporting the abuse or
neglect. The identifying information provided by the reporting teacher should be
The teacher is completely responsible for any information that he conceals,
including the name of the possible perpetrator from the contact person. The
response and the actions of the child protective agency following the reports may
have a wide range. The teacher has to be ready in case the parent requests details
about the reasons the child abuse report was made. Only a small amount of people
have access to the report details and they always are designated reporters such
as CARE Program SCAN Team members. The main role of the teacher is to make
the report legally right, according to the local abuse-reporting plan. Any illegal
action, incorrect information that does not coincide with the reality and is
subjective attitude is a law violation and the teacher takes responsibility for false
evidence.2 . Accessed : 27/09/2015 12.23 AM