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8.0 Application of
Guidelines

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Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan
Design Guidelines

Application of Guidelines

8.1 Introduction
This section of the document relates the application of the design components detailed within
the previous section, how the components are used and applied to the street typologies of The
Emirate of Abu Dhabi.
There are four main street typologies which have been detailed:
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Freeways/Express Ways
Arterials
Collector
Local Road

Each typology has been broken down into typical elements


such as:
Junctions/intersection, Cross Road Junction and T Junction.
The primary principles are outlined and supported with standard
dimension for typical layouts.

Arterial
Cross Road Junction
Cross Road Junction Phasing retro tting
T Junctions
Collector
Cross Road Junction
Cross Road Junction Phasing retro tting
T Junctions
Roundabout
Local Road
Cross Road Junction
T Junctions
Roundabout
Combination plans

Application of Guidelines

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Master Plan
Design Guidelines

297

Freeway/Expressway
Fig. 164 Aerial Oblique Across Typical Freeway/
Expressway Layout

2 Way Cycle Track

Buffer Zone 8.5m wide preferred minimum


Tree planting to shade pedestrian and
cycle route

6m Median

2-4 Carriage Lanes

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Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan
Design Guidelines

Application of Guidelines

Freeway/Expressway
Fig. 166 Aerial oblique of Expressway

Key Principles of Freeway/ Expressways


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High Motor Vehicle priority


At least 2+2 (two lanes in each direction minimum)
Maximum speed: 120kmph (urban) & 140kmph (rural)
Two way cycle tracks off carriageway on separate route,
protected from direct access to road with secure fence
line
Minimum width between road and cycle track 8.5m
Crossings via grade separation footbridges or
underpasses

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Fig. 165 Typical cross section A-A1

Buffer/Embankment

Hard Shoulder

Travel Lane

Travel Lane

8.5m

Travel Lane

Central Median

Travel Lane

Travel Lane

Travel Lane

Hard Shoulder

4.7m
Buffer/Embankment

Cycle Track

4m

Application of Guidelines

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan
Design Guidelines

Freeway/Expressway
Fig. 167 Freeway/Expressway

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Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan
Design Guidelines

Arterial
Fig. 168 Aerial Oblique Across Typical Arterial
Layout
T-Junction

Local Road
Street Furniture and Cycle Stands - Located
under shade structures and trees Position away
from main ow of pedestrian movement
Staggered Crossing - Carriage level crossing with
drop kerbs, 6m median with no guardrail
Mushtarak and Sikkas
Parking Lane - Parallel parking adjacent to
building kerb, 2.8m wide with 2.5m parking
Cross Road Junction - Carriageway level
crossings, 6m median with no guardrail
(depending on volume and speed of trafc), No
dedicated right turn lane, Raised table across
frontage lane

Bus Stop - Lay by for bus, Divert cycle track,


Raised table crossing over frontage lane, Shelter
with seating for waiting passengers

2 way Cycle Track - 3m wide, 1m buffer beside


main carriageway, 0.5m beside parking lane

Application of Guidelines

Application of Guidelines

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan
Design Guidelines

Arterial - Cross Road


Junction
Fig. 169 Aerial Oblique of typical arterial cross
road junction

Key Principles

Building Zone

5.3-10.8m
Pedestrian Realm

2.3m

Parking

Access Lane

3m 0.5 2.8m

Cycle Track

Buffer

Curb Lane

Travel Lane

1m

Travel Lane

Buffer

6m
Central Median

1m

Travel Lane

3m

Travel Lane

2.8m

Curb Lane

2.3m

Cycle Track

Pedestrian Realm

Building Zone

5.3-10.8m

Access Lane

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Parking

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Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan
Design Guidelines

Application of Guidelines

Arterial - Cross Road


Junction
Table 34 Arterial Standard Dimensions Typical
Layout

Feature

City
Required

Town/Commercial

Exceptions

Required

Exceptions

Residential
Required

Exceptions

Industrial
Required

Exceptions

Pedestrian realm

7.8m

6.3 - 10.8m

7.3m

5.8 - 10.8m

6.8m

5.3 - 10.8m

6.8m

5.3 - 10.8m

Parking

2.3m

2.3 - 2.5m

2.3m

2.3 - 2.5m

2.3m

2.3 - 2.5m

2.3m

2.3 - 2.5m

Access lane

2.8m

n/a

2.8m

2.5 - 2.8m

2.8m

2.5 - 2.8m

2.8m

n/a

Access lane buffer

0.5m

0 - 1.0m

0.5m

0 - 1.0m

0.5m

0 - 1.0m

0.5m

0 - 1.0m

2 way Cycle track

3.0m

2.5 - 3.0m

3.0m

2.5 - 3.0m

3.0m

2.0 - 3.0m

3.0m

2.0 - 3.0m

Carriageway buffer

1.0m

0.5 - 1.5m

1.0m

0.5 - 1.5m

7.8m

6.3 - 7.8m

7.8m

6.3 - 7.8m

Curb Lane

3.5m

3.0 - 3.5m

3.5m

3.0 - 3.5m

3.5m

3.0 - 3.5m

3.5m

3.0 - 3.5m

Trafc lanes

3.3m

3.0 - 3.5m

3.3m

3.0 - 3.5m

3.3m

3.0 - 3.5m

3.3m

3.0 - 3.5m

Median

6.0m

5.0 - 6.0m

6.0m

5.0 - 6.0m

6.0m

5.0 - 6.0m

6.0m

5.0 - 6.0m

Application of Guidelines

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan
Design Guidelines

Arterial - Cross Road


Junction
Fig. 170 Arteria: Typical Cross Road Junction

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Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan
Design Guidelines

Arterial - Cross Road


Junction
Fig. 171 Option 1: Re-Congured Right Turn Slip
Lane
Fig. 172 Option 2: Dedicated Right Hand Lane

Application of Guidelines

Application of Guidelines

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan
Design Guidelines

305

Arterial - Cross Road


Junction
Fig. 173 Option 3: No dedicated Right Hand Lane

Key Principles
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Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan
Design Guidelines

Application of Guidelines

Arterial - T Juction
Fig. 174 Option 1: Re-Congured Right Turn Slip
Lane

Key Principles

Fig. 175 Option 2: Dedicated Right Hand Lane

Building Zone

5.3-10.8m
Pedestrian Realm

2.3m

Parking

0.5 2.8m
Access Lane

Cycle Track

Buffer

Curb Lane

Travel Lane

Travel Lane

Central Median

Travel Lane

1m 3m

Travel Lane

1m

Curb Lane

3m

Buffer

2.8m 0.5

Cycle Track

2.3m

Access Lane

5.3-10.8m

Parking

Building Zone

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Pedestrian Realm

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Application of Guidelines

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan
Design Guidelines

Arterial - T Juction
Feature

City

Town/Commercial

Residential

Table 35 Standard Dimensions Typical Layout

Industrial

Required

Exceptions

Required

Exceptions

Required

Exceptions

Required

Exceptions

Pedestrian realm

7.8m

6.3 - 10.8m

7.3m

5.8 - 10.8m

6.8m

5.3 - 10.8m

6.8m

5.3 - 10.8m

Parking

2.3m

2.3 - 2.5m

2.3m

2.3 - 2.5m

2.3m

2.3 - 2.5m

2.3m

2.3 - 2.5m

Access lane

2.8m

n/a

2.8m

2.5 - 2.8m

2.8m

2.5 - 2.8m

2.8m

n/a

Access lane buffer

0.5m

0 - 1.0m

0.5m

0 - 1.0m

0.5m

0 - 1.0m

0.5m

0 - 1.0m

2 way Cycle track

3.0m

2.5 - 3.0m

3.0m

2.5 - 3.0m

3.0m

2.0 - 3.0m

3.0m

2.0 - 3.0m

Carriageway buffer

1.0m

0.5 - 1.5m

1.0m

0.5 - 1.5m

7.8m

6.3 - 7.8m

7.8m

6.3 - 7.8m

Curb Lane

3.5m

3.0 - 3.5m

3.5m

3.0 - 3.5m

3.5m

3.0 - 3.5m

3.5m

3.0 - 3.5m

Trafc lanes

3.3m

3.0 - 3.5m

3.3m

3.0 - 3.5m

3.3m

3.0 - 3.5m

3.3m

3.0 - 3.5m

Median

6.0m

5.0 - 6.0m

6.0m

5.0 - 6.0m

6.0m

5.0 - 6.0m

6.0m

5.0 - 6.0m

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Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan
Design Guidelines

Arterial - T Juction
Fig. 176 Arterial: Typical T Junction Principles

Application of Guidelines

Application of Guidelines

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan
Design Guidelines

309

Arterial - T Juction
Fig. 177 Arterial: Typical Three Lane Roundabout

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Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan
Design Guidelines

Collector
Fig. 178 Aerial Oblique Across Typical Collector
Layout
T-Junction

Mushtarak and Sikkas

Straight Crossing Carriageway level crossings


6m median with no guardrail

2 Way Cycle Track - 3m wide, 1m buffer beside


carriageway

Cross Road Junction - Carriageway level


crossings, 6m median with no guardrail, No
dedicated right turn

Street Furniture and Cycle Stands Located under shade structure and trees
Position away from main ow of pedestrian
movement

Parallel Parking

Application of Guidelines

Application of Guidelines

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan
Design Guidelines

311

Collector - Cross Road


Junction
Fig. 180 Aerial oblique of typical collector cross
road junction

Key Principles
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3m

5.3-9.8m

Cycle Track

Pedestrian Realm

Building Zone

1.5m

Buffer

Parking

Curb Lane

Travel Lane

Buffer

Central Median

Cycle Track

6m

Travel Lane

1.5m

Curb Lane

3m

Parking

5.3-9.8m

Pedestrian Realm

Building Zone

Fig. 179 Typical Cross Section A-A1

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Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan
Design Guidelines

Application of Guidelines

Collector - Cross Road


Junction
Table 36 Collector: Typical Cross Road Junction
Principles Standard Dimensions Typical Layout

City

Town/Commercial

Residential

Industrial

Required

Exceptions

Required

Exceptions

Required

Exceptions

Required

Exceptions

Pedestrian realm

6.8m

5.3 - 9.8m

6.3m

5.8 - 9.8m

5.3m

5.3 - 9.8m

5.3m

5.3 - 9.8m

2 way Cycle track

3.0m

2.0 - 3.0m

3.0m

2.0 - 3.0m

3.0m

2.0 - 3.0m

3.0m

2.0 - 3.0m

Buffer

1.5m

0.5 - 1.5m

1.5m

0.5 - 1.5m

1.5m

0.5 - 1.5m

1.5m

0.5 - 1.5m

Parking

2.5m

2.3 - 2.5m

2.5m

2.3 - 2.5m

2.5m

2.3 - 2.5m

2.5m

2.3 - 2.5m

Curb Lane

3.5m

3.0 - 3.5m

3.5m

3.0 - 3.5m

3.5m

3.0 - 3.5m

3.5m

3.0 - 3.5m

Trafc lanes

3.3m

3.0 - 3.5m

3.3m

3.0 - 3.5m

3.3m

3.0 - 3.5m

3.3m

3.0 - 3.5m

Median

6.0m

5.0 - 6.0m

6.0m

5.0 - 6.0m

3.0m

4.0 - 6.0m

3.0m

4.0 - 6.0m

Application of Guidelines

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan
Design Guidelines

313

Collector - Cross Road


Junction
Fig. 181 Collector: Typical Cross Road Junction

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Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan
Design Guidelines

Application of Guidelines

Collector - Cross Road


Junction
Fig. 182 Option 1: Re-Congured Right Turn Slip
Lane

Key Principles of Collectors


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Application of Guidelines

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan
Design Guidelines

315

Collector - Cross Road


Junction
Fig. 183 Option 2: Dedicated Rght Hand Lane

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Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan
Design Guidelines

Application of Guidelines

Collector - T Junction
Fig. 184 Aerial oblique of typical collector
T Junction

Key Principles
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3m

5.3-9.8m

Cycle Track

Pedestrian Realm

Building Zone

1.5m

Buffer

Parking

Curb Lane

Travel Lane

Central Median

Travel Lane

6m

Curb Lane

Cycle Track

1.5m

Parking

3m

Buffer

5.3-9.8m

Pedestrian Realm

Fig. 185 Typical Cross Section A-A1

Application of Guidelines

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan
Design Guidelines

317

Collector - T Junction
City

Town/Commercial

Residential

Industrial

Required

Exceptions

Required

Exceptions

Required

Exceptions

Required

Exceptions

Pedestrian realm

6.8m

5.3 - 9.8m

6.3m

5.8 - 9.8m

5.3m

5.3 - 9.8m

5.3m

5.3 - 9.8m

2 way cycle track

3.0m

2.0 - 3.0m

3.0m

2.0 - 3.0m

3.0m

2.0 - 3.0m

3.0m

2.0 - 3.0m

Buffer

1.5m

0.5 - 1.5m

1.5m

0.5 - 1.5m

1.5m

0.5 - 1.5m

1.5m

0.5 - 1.5m

Parking

2.5m

2.3 - 2.5m

2.5m

2.3 - 2.5m

2.5m

2.3 - 2.5m

2.5m

2.3 - 2.5m

Curb Lane

3.5m

3.0 - 3.5m

3.5m

3.0 - 3.5m

3.5m

3.0 - 3.5m

3.5m

3.0 - 3.5m

Trafc lanes

3.3m

3.0 - 3.5m

3.3m

3.0 - 3.5m

3.3m

3.0 - 3.5m

3.3m

3.0 - 3.5m

Median

6.0m

5.0 - 6.0m

6.0m

5.0 - 6.0m

3.0m

4.0 - 6.0m

3.0m

4.0 - 6.0m

Table 37 Collector: Typical T Junction Principles


Standard Dimensions

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Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan
Design Guidelines

Collector - T Junction
Fig. 186 Collector: Typical T Junction Principles

Application of Guidelines

Application of Guidelines

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan
Design Guidelines

Collector Roundabout
Precedent

Key Principles for Roundabouts


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Fig. 187 Typical Cross Section A-A1

3m

5.3-9.8m

Cycle Track

Pedestrian Realm

Building Zone

1.5m

Buffer

Parking

Curb Lane

Travel Lane

Buffer

Central Median

Cycle Track

6m

Travel Lane

1.5m

Curb Lane

3m

Parking

5.3-9.8m

Pedestrian Realm

Building Zone

work in progress

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Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan
Design Guidelines

Application of Guidelines

Collector Roundabout
Table 38 Roundabout Principles Standard
Dimensions Typical Layout

City

Town/Commercial

Residential

Industrial

Required

Exceptions

Required

Exceptions

Required

Exceptions

Required

Exceptions

Pedestrian realm

6.8m

5.3 - 9.8m

6.3m

5.8 - 9.8m

5.3m

5.3 - 9.8m

5.3m

5.3 - 9.8m

2 way Cycle track

3.0m

2.0 - 3.0m

3.0m

2.0 - 3.0m

3.0m

2.0 - 3.0m

3.0m

2.0 - 3.0m

Buffer

1.5m

0.5 - 1.5m

1.5m

0.5 - 1.5m

1.5m

0.5 - 1.5m

1.5m

0.5 - 1.5m

Parking

2.5m

2.3 - 2.5m

2.5m

2.3 - 2.5m

2.5m

2.3 - 2.5m

2.5m

2.3 - 2.5m

Curb Lane

3.5m

3.0 - 3.5m

3.5m

3.0 - 3.5m

3.5m

3.0 - 3.5m

3.5m

3.0 - 3.5m

Trafc lanes

3.3m

3.0 - 3.5m

3.3m

3.0 - 3.5m

3.3m

3.0 - 3.5m

3.3m

3.0 - 3.5m

Median

6.0m

5.0 - 6.0m

6.0m

5.0 - 6.0m

3.0m

4.0 - 6.0m

3.0m

4.0 - 6.0m

Application of Guidelines

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan
Design Guidelines

Collector Roundabout
Fig. 188 Roundabout- Typical Layout Plan Option 1

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Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan
Design Guidelines

Collector Roundabout
Fig. 189 Roundabout- Typical Layout Plan Option 2

Application of Guidelines

Application of Guidelines

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan
Design Guidelines

323

Local Road
Fig. 190 Local Road Aerial Oblique Across Typical
Street Layout

T-Junction - Carriageway level crossing

Mushtarak and Sikkas

Straight Crossing

Cross Road Junction - Carriageway level


crossings

Parallel Parking

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Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan
Design Guidelines

Application of Guidelines

Local Road - Cross


Road Junction
Fig. 191 Aerial oblique of typical street cross road
junction

Key Principles
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Fig. 192 Typical Local Road cross section with


cycle lanes
Fig. 193 Typical Local Road Cross Section
Fig. 194 Typical Local Road Cross Section

Building Zone

Pedestrian Realm

2.3m

Travelled Way

Pedestrian Realm

Building Zone

2.3m

Building Zone

Pedestrian Realm

Parking Lane

Curb Lane

Curb Lane

2.3-4.6m

Parking Lane

Pedestrian Realm

Building Zone

2.3-4.6m

Building Zone

Pedestrian Realm

Cycle Lane

Curb Lane

0.5m
2m 2.3-6.1m

Curb Lane

Cycle Lane

Pedestrian Realm

Building Zone

0.5m
2.3-6.1m 2m

Application of Guidelines

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan
Design Guidelines

Local Road - Cross


Road Junction
City

Town/Commercial

Residential

Table 39 Local Road - Standard Dimensions


Typical Layout

Industrial

Required

Exceptions

Required

Exceptions

Required

Exceptions

Required

Exceptions

Pedestrian realm

5.1m

2.3 - 6.1m

5.1m

2.3 - 6.1m

3.0m

2.3-6.1

3.0m

2.3-6.1

Parking

2.3m

2.1 - 2.5m

2.3m

2.1 - 2.5m

2.3m

2.1 - 2.5m

2.3m

2.1 - 2.5m

Parking buffer

0.5m

0 - 1.0m

0m

0 - 1.0m

0m

0 - 1.0m

0m

0 - 1.0m

Cycle Lane

2.0m

1.5 - 3.0m

2.0m

1.5 - 3.0m

2.0m

1.5 - 3.0m

2.0m

1.5 - 3.0m

Trafc lanes

3.0m

2.8 - 3.0m

3.0m

2.8 - 3.0m

3.0m

2.8 - 3.0m

3.0m

2.8 - 3.0m

City

Town/Commercial

Residential

Industrial

Required

Exceptions

Required

Exceptions

Required

Exceptions

Required

Exceptions

Pedestrian realm

5.1m

4.5 - 6.1m

5.1m

4.5 - 6.1m

4.5m

n/a

4.5m

n/a

Parking

2.3m

0 - 2.5m

2.3m

0 - 2.5m

2.3m

0 - 2.5m

2.3m

0 - 2.5m

Cycle Track

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

Cycle Lane

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

Trafc lanes

2.8m

2.5 - 2.8m

2.8m

2.5 - 2.8m

2.8m

2.5 - 2.8m

2.8m

2.5 - 2.8m

Table 40 Local Road (low volume, low speed) Standard Dimension Typical Layout

325

326

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan
Design Guidelines

Local Road - Cross


Road Junction
Fig. 195 Typical Plan of cross road junction with
cycle lanes

Application of Guidelines

Application of Guidelines

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan
Design Guidelines

Local Road - Cross


Road Junction
Fig. 196 Typical Plan of cross road junction
without cycle lanes

327

328

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan
Design Guidelines

Application of Guidelines

Local Road T Junction


Fig. 197 Aerial oblique of typical street T junction

Key Principles
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t

-PX.PUPS7FIJDMF1SJPSJUZ
 TUSFFU 0OFMBOFJOFBDIEJSFDUJPO

.BYJNVNTQFFELNQI
0OFXBZDZDMFMBOFTJGDBSSJBHFXBZBUMFBTUN
$ZDMFTJODBSSJBHFXBZJGXJEUIMFTTUIBON
0OTUSFFUQBSBMMFMQBSLJOH
/PNFEJBO
.JOJNVNQFEFTUSJBOSFBMNXJEUIN
.BYJNVNTQBDJOHPGDSPTTJOHTN

Fig. 198 Typical Local RoadCrossSection with


Cycle Lanes
Fig. 199 Typical Local Road Cross Section
Fig. 200 Typical Local Road Cross Section

Building Zone

Pedestrian Realm

2.3m

Travelled Way

Pedestrian Realm

Building Zone

2.3m

Building Zone

Pedestrian Realm

Parking Lane

Curb Lane

Curb Lane

2.3-4.6m

Parking Lane

Pedestrian Realm

Building Zone

2.3-4.6m

Building Zone

Pedestrian Realm

Cycle Lane

Curb Lane

0.5m
2m 2.3-6.1m

Curb Lane

Cycle Lane

Pedestrian Realm

Building Zone

0.5m
2.3-6.1m 2m

Application of Guidelines

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan
Design Guidelines

329

Local Road T Junction


City

Town/Commercial

Residential

Table 41 Local Road: Typical T Junction Principles:


Street - Standard Dimensions

Industrial

Required

Exceptions

Required

Exceptions

Required

Exceptions

Required

Exceptions

Pedestrian realm

5.1m

2.3 - 6.1m

5.1m

2.3 - 6.1m

3.0m

2.3-6.1

3.0m

2.3-6.1

Parking

2.3m

2.1 - 2.5m

2.3m

2.1 - 2.5m

2.3m

2.1 - 2.5m

2.3m

2.1 - 2.5m

Parking buffer

0.5m

0 - 1.0m

0m

0 - 1.0m

0m

0 - 1.0m

0m

0 - 1.0m

Cycle Lane

2.0m

1.5 - 3.0m

2.0m

1.5 - 3.0m

2.0m

1.5 - 3.0m

2.0m

1.5 - 3.0m

Trafc lanes

3.0m

2.8 - 3.0m

3.0m

2.8 - 3.0m

3.0m

2.8 - 3.0m

3.0m

2.8 - 3.0m

City

Town/Commercial

Residential

Industrial

Required

Exceptions

Required

Exceptions

Required

Exceptions

Required

Exceptions

Pedestrian realm

5.1m

4.5 - 6.1m

5.1m

4.5 - 6.1m

4.5m

n/a

4.5m

n/a

Parking

2.3m

0 - 2.5m

2.3m

0 - 2.5m

2.3m

0 - 2.5m

2.3m

0 - 2.5m

Cycle Track

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

Cycle Lane

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

Trafc lanes

2.8m

2.5 - 2.8m

2.8m

2.5 - 2.8m

2.8m

2.5 - 2.8m

2.8m

2.5 - 2.8m

Table 42 Local Road: Typical T Junction Principles


Street - Access Lane - Standard Dimensions

330

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan
Design Guidelines

Local Road T Junction


Fig. 201 Typical Plan of Street T Junction without
cycle lanes

Application of Guidelines

Application of Guidelines

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan
Design Guidelines

331

Local Road T Junction


Fig. 202 Typical plan of Local Road T junction with
cycle lanes

332

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan
Design Guidelines

Application of Guidelines

Local Road Roundabout


Fig. 203 Example Congeration of cycle tracks
and a roundabout in Holland

Key Principles
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t

-PX.PUPS7FIJDMF1SJPSJUZ
 TUSFFU 0OFMBOFJOFBDIEJSFDUJPO

.BYJNVNTQFFELNQI
0OFXBZDZDMFMBOFTJGDBSSJBHFXBZBUMFBTUN
$ZDMFTJODBSSJBHFXBZJGXJEUIMFTTUIBON
0OTUSFFUQBSBMMFMQBSLJOH
/PNFEJBO
.JOJNVNQFEFTUSJBOSFBMNXJEUIN
.BYJNVNTQBDJOHPGDSPTTJOHTN

Fig. 204 Typical Local Road Cross section with


cycle lanes
Fig. 205 Typical Local Road Cross section
Fig. 206 Typical Local Road Cross section

Building Zone

Pedestrian Realm

2.3m

Travelled Way

Building Zone

Building Zone

Pedestrian Realm

Parking Lane

Curb Lane

Curb Lane

Pedestrian Realm

2.3m

2.3-4.6m

Parking Lane

Pedestrian Realm

Building Zone

2.3-4.6m

Building Zone

Pedestrian Realm

Cycle Lane

Curb Lane

0.5m
2m 2.3-6.1m

Curb Lane

Cycle Lane

Pedestrian Realm

Building Zone

0.5m
2.3-6.1m 2m

Application of Guidelines

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan
Design Guidelines

Local Road Roundabout


City

Town/Commercial

Residential

Table 43 Local Road: Typical Roundabout


Principles: Street - Standard Dimensions

Industrial

Required

Exceptions

Required

Exceptions

Required

Exceptions

Required

Exceptions

Pedestrian realm

5.1m

2.3 - 6.1m

5.1m

2.3 - 6.1m

3.0m

2.3-6.1

3.0m

2.3-6.1

Parking

2.3m

2.1 - 2.5m

2.3m

2.1 - 2.5m

2.3m

2.1 - 2.5m

2.3m

2.1 - 2.5m

Parking buffer

0.5m

0 - 1.0m

0m

0 - 1.0m

0m

0 - 1.0m

0m

0 - 1.0m

Cycle Lane

2.0m

1.5 - 3.0m

2.0m

1.5 - 3.0m

2.0m

1.5 - 3.0m

2.0m

1.5 - 3.0m

Trafc lanes

3.0m

2.8 - 3.0m

3.0m

2.8 - 3.0m

3.0m

2.8 - 3.0m

3.0m

2.8 - 3.0m

City

Town/Commercial

Residential

Industrial

Required

Exceptions

Required

Exceptions

Required

Exceptions

Required

Exceptions

Pedestrian realm

5.1m

4.5 - 6.1m

5.1m

4.5 - 6.1m

4.5m

n/a

4.5m

n/a

Parking

2.3m

0 - 2.5m

2.3m

0 - 2.5m

2.3m

0 - 2.5m

2.3m

0 - 2.5m

Cycle track

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

Cycle Lane

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

Trafc lanes

2.8m

2.5 - 2.8m

2.8m

2.5 - 2.8m

2.8m

2.5 - 2.8m

2.8m

2.5 - 2.8m

Table 44 Local Road: Typical Roundabout


Principles: Street - Access Lane - Standard
Dimensions

333

334

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan
Design Guidelines

Local Road Roundabout


Fig. 207 Typical Plan of local road roundabout with
cycle lanes: Option 1

Application of Guidelines

Application of Guidelines

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan
Design Guidelines

335

Local Road T Junction


Fig. 208 Typical Plan of Local Road Roundabout
without Bicycle Lanes: Option 2

336

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan
Design Guidelines

Combination Plans
Fig. 209 Combination Plans: Arterial - Collector
Cross Road

Application of Guidelines

Application of Guidelines

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan
Design Guidelines

337

Combination Plans
Fig. 210 Combination Plans: Arterial T Junction
with Cycle Lane

338

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan
Design Guidelines

Combination Plans
Fig. 211 Arterial access T junction with cycle track

Application of Guidelines

Application of Guidelines

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan
Design Guidelines

339

Combination Plans
Fig. 212 Crossroad collector and local street with
cycle track and lane

340

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan
Design Guidelines

Combination Plans
Fig. 213 Combination Plans: Collector T Junction
with Cycle Lane

Application of Guidelines

Application of Guidelines

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan
Design Guidelines

341

Combination Plans
Fig. 214 Combination Plans: Collector access T
Junction

342

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan
Design Guidelines

Combination Plans
Fig. 215 Combination Plans: Crossed local road
with and without cycle lanes

Application of Guidelines

Application of Guidelines

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan
Design Guidelines

343

Combination Plans
Fig. 216 Combination Plans: Local Road with and
without Cycle Lane

344

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan
Design Guidelines

Combination Plans
Fig. 217 Arterial with LRT (Light Rapid Transit)

Application of Guidelines

Application of Guidelines

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan
Design Guidelines

345

Combination Plans
Fig. 218 Arterial with no LRT (Light Rapid Transit)

346

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan
Design Guidelines

Combination Plans
Fig. 219 Collector with Parking

Application of Guidelines

Application of Guidelines

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan
Design Guidelines

Combination Plans
Fig. 220 Collector without Parking

347

348

349

9.0 Glossary of Terms

350

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan

Network Design

Access Lane
"WFSZMPXNPUPSWFIJDMFQSJPSJUZ TUSFFU POFMBOFJOFBDI
EJSFDUJPO
4PNFUJNFT JOUIFFYJTUJOHFOWJSPONFOU BO"DDFTT-BOF
DPVMEBMTPEFTDSJCFBPOFMBOFTUSFFU

Boulevard
"IJHINPUPSWFIJDMFQSJPSJUZ TUSFFU UISFFMBOFTJOFBDI
EJSFDUJPO
5ZQJDBMMZ B#PVMFWBSEGBDJMJUBUFTTUSBUFHJDBOEMPDBMUSBGmD
NPWFNFOUT BOEDBOIBWFGPVSMBOFTJOFBDIEJSFDUJPO

Advisory Cycle Lane


"POFXBZDZDMFMBOFNBSLFEPOBSPBETVSGBDFXIJDIEFNBSDBUFT
TQBDFPOUIFSPBEGPSDZDMJOH XIJDIDBOBMTPCFVTFECZPUIFS
NPUPSWFIJDMFTPOUIFSPBE

Contra-Flow Cycle Lane


"POFXBZDZDMFMBOFUIBUQFSNJUTDZDMJTUTUPSJEFBHBJOTUUIFnPXPG
NPUPSJTFEWFIJDVMBSUSBGmDJOBPOFXBZTUSFFU

Avenue
"NFEJVNQSJPSJUZ TUSFFU UXPMBOFTJOFBDIEJSFDUJPO
"O
"WFOVFUZQJDBMMZQSPWJEFTBDDFTTCFUXFFOMPDBMTUSFFUTBOEBDDFTT
MBOFT BOE#PVMFWBSETBOE&YQSFTTXBZT
Bicycle
(FOFSBMMZDPOTJEFSFEUPCFBUXPXIFFMFE QFEBMESJWFO IVNBO
QPXFSFE TJOHMFUSBDLNPUPSWFIJDMF*OUIFDPOUFYUPGUIF8BMLJOH
BOE$ZDMJOH.BTUFS1MBO UIJTNBZBMTPJODMVEFOPOTUBOEBSE
IVNBOQPXFSFEDZDMFT UIBUDPVMECFQFEBMESJWFOPSIBOEESJWFO 
XJUIUXPPSNPSFXIFFMT
Bus Lane
"MBOFXIJDIDBOPOMZCFVTFECZQVCMJDCVTFT
Cycleway
"HFOFSJDUFSNGPSBOZSPBE TUSFFU QBUI USBJMPSXBZ UIBUJOTPNF
NBOOFS JTTQFDJmDBMMZEFTJHOBUFEGPSCJDZDMFUSBWFM SFHBSEMFTT
PGXIFUIFSTVDIGBDJMJUJFTBSFEFTJHOBUFEGPSUIFFYDMVTJWFVTFPG
CJDZDMFTPSBSFUPCFTIBSFEXJUIPUIFSUSBOTQPSUBUJPONPEFT

Crosswalk
5IFIPSJ[POUBMQPSUJPOPGSPBEXBZT VTVBMMZBUJOUFSTFDUJPOT 
SFTFSWFEGPSQFEFTUSJBOBOEPSDZDMFDSPTTJOHJUNBZCFNBSLFEPS
VONBSLFE
Cycle Facility
1IZTJDBM*OGSBTUSVDUVSFBOEQSPWJTJPOTUIBUGBDJMJUBUF BDDPNNPEBUF 
PSFODPVSBHFDZDMJOH5IJTDPVMEJODMVEFGBDJMJUJFTTVDIBTDZDMF
MBOFT DZDMFUSBDLT DZDMFQBUITBOEDZDMFQBSLJOH
Cycle Lane
"POFXBZDZDMFGBDJMJUZNBSLFEPOBSPBETVSGBDFXJUIJOUIF3JHIU
PG8BZXIJDIEFNBSDBUFTTQBDFPOUIFSPBESFTFSWFEGPSDZDMJOH
Cycle Parking Facility
"DZDMFQBSLJOHGBDJMJUZJTBTUSVDUVSFEFTJHOFEUPIBWFCJDZDMFT
MPDLFEBOEQMBDFEJOTJEFPSBHBJOTUJU
Cycle Path
"OPOFPSUXPXBZDZDMFGBDJMJUZGPVOEPGGUIF3JHIUPG8BZ

Network Design

Cycle Route
(FOFSJDUFSNBEPQUFEUPEFTDSJCFBTFSJFTPGGBDJMJUJFTVTFECZB
DZDMJTUPOIJTIFSUSJQ
Cycle Track
"DZDMFUSBDLJTBOPGGSPBEGBDJMJUZSFTFSWFEGPSDZDMJOHUIBUDBOCF
FJUIFSPOFXBZPSUXPXBZ
End of Ride Facility
'BDJMJUJFTBOETVQQPSUJOGSBTUSVDUVSFJNQMFNFOUFEBUUIFFOEPGB
DZDMFKPVSOFZUPQSPNPUF FODPVSBHFBOETVQQPSUDZDMFUSJQTBOE
DZDMJTUT$PNNPOMZUIFTFGPSNUXPLFZDBUFHPSJFT$ZDMFQBSLJOH
BOEUSJQFOEGBDJMJUJFT

Hook Turn
"SJHIUUVSOBDZDMJTUNBLFTBUUSBGmDTJHOBMT XIFSFUIFZLFFQMFGU
XIJMFQSPDFFEJOHTUSBJHIUUISPVHIUIFJOUFSTFDUJPO XBJUBUUIFGBS
MFGUTJEFGPSUIFMJHIUTUPDIBOHF UIFODSPTTXJUIUIFTJEFSPBE
USBGmD QSJNBSJMZVTFGVMGPSCJDZDMFTBOEDBSTXIFOUIFSFBSFDFOUSBMMZ
SVOOJOHUSBNTPSTJNJMBS
ITS
*OUFMMJHFOU5SBOTQPSU4ZTUFNT*54VUJMJTFJOGPSNBUJPOTZTUFNT
BOEDPNNVOJDBUJPOTUPQSPWJEFUSBOTQPSUVTFSTXJUIFOIBODFE
JOGPSNBUJPOBCPVUUSBOTQPSUNPWFNFOUBOEJOGSBTUSVDUVSF

Expressway
"NBKPSSPBEUIBUGPSNTQBSUPGBTUSBUFHJDIJHIXBZOFUXPSL
XIJDIMJOLTUPXOT DJUJFTBOEPUIFSVSCBODFOUSFT5ZQJDBMMZ BO
&YQSFTTXBZJTBWFSZIJHINPUPSWFIJDMFQSJPSJUZ IJHITQFFESPBE
XJUIBUMFBTUMBOFTJOFBDIEJSFDUJPO

Level Surface
"TUSFFUTVSGBDFUIBUJTOPUQIZTJDBMMZEJWJEFECZLFSCPSMFWFM
EJGGFSFODFTJOUPBSFBTGPSQBSUJDVMBSVTFT-FWFMTVSGBDFJTBGFBUVSF
PGTPNF4IBSFE4QBDFTDIFNFT/PUFUIBUOPUBMMQBSUTPGBMFWFM
TVSGBDFBSFOFDFTTBSJMZTIBSFE BDDFTTJCMFUPNPUPSWFIJDMFT
BT
PUIFSGFBUVSFT TVDIBTTUSFFUGVSOJUVSF NBZQIZTJDBMMZQSFWFOU
NPUPSWFIJDMFBDDFTT

Grade Separation
5IFWFSUJDBMTFQBSBUJPOPGDZDMJTUTCZBCSJEHFPSVOEFSQBTTBDSPTT
BSPBEXBZ SBJMXBZMJOFFUD*UDPOUSBTUTXJUIBOBUHSBEFJOUFSTFDUJPO
PSMFWFMDSPTTJOH

Median Refuge
"OBSFBXJUIJOBOJTMBOEPSNFEJBOUIBUJTJOUFOEFEGPSQFEFTUSJBOT
BOEPSDZDMJTUTUPXBJUTBGFMZBXBZGSPNUSBWFMMBOFTGPSBO
PQQPSUVOJUZUPDPOUJOVFDSPTTJOHUIFSPBEXBZ

Greenway
"QBUIPVUPGUIF3JHIUPG8BZ UISPVHIQBSLTBOEPQFOTQBDFT 
JOUFOEFEGPSQFEFTUSJBOTBOEDZDMJTUTPOMZ GPSVTFCZQFPQMF
PGBMMBCJMJUJFTJODMVEJOHUIPTFPOGPPUPSCJDZDMF GPSVUJMJUZVTF 
DPNNVUJOH SFDSFBUJPOBOEMFJTVSF

Mushtarak
"SFTJEFOUJBMTIBSFETQBDF JOUFOEFEQSJNBSJMZGPSXBMLJOHBOE
DZDMJOHNPWFNFOUXIJMTUNBJOUBJOJOHNPUPSJTFEWFIJDVMBSBDDFTT
5ZQJDBMMZ NPUPSWFIJDMFTQFFETBSFWFSZMPX

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan

351

352

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan

Network Design

Pedestrian
"QFSTPOXBMLJOHPSUSBWFMMJOHCZNFBOTPGBXIFFMDIBJS FMFDUSJD
TDPPUFS DSVUDIFTPSPUIFSXBMLJOHEFWJDFTPSNPCJMJUZBJET5ZQJDBMMZ 
UIFVTFPGUIFUFSNQFEFTUSJBOJTNFBOUUPJODMVEFBMMEJTBCMFE
JOEJWJEVBMTSFHBSEMFTTPGXIJDIFRVJQNFOUUIFZNBZVTFUPBTTJTU
UIFJSTFMGEJSFDUFEMPDPNPUJPO VOMFTTUIFZBSFVTJOHBCJDZDMF
*U
BMTPJODMVEFTSVOOFST KPHHFST UIPTFQVMMJOHPSQVTIJOHTUSPMMFST 
DBSSJBHFT DBSUTBOEXBHPOT BOEUIPTFXBMLJOHCJDZDMFT
8BMLJOHBOE$ZDMJOH4IBSFE6TF'BDJMJUZ
"TQBDFBDDFTTJCMFUPCPUIQFEFTUSJBOTBOEDZDMJTUT CVUOPUPUIFS
NPUPSWFIJDMFT
EFTJHOFEUPFOBCMFQFEFTUSJBOTBOEDZDMJTUTUP
NPWFNPSFGSFFMZJOUIFVSCBOSFBMN
Pedestrian Route
(FOFSJDUFSNBEPQUFEUPEFTDSJCFBTFSJFTPGGBDJMJUJFTVTFECZB
QFEFTUSJBOPOIJTIFSUSJQ
Pufn Crossing Facility
5IJTJTBTJHOBMJTFEDSPTTJOHXIJDIBMMPXTWBSJBCMFUJNFGPS
QFEFTUSJBOTXIJMTUDSPTTJOHBOEJTEFQFOEFOUPOUIFEFUFDUJPOPG
QFEFTUSJBOTPOUIFDSPTTJOH$ZDMJTUTBSFSFRVJSFEUPEJTNPVOU
Sikka / Sikkas
"SPVUFGPSQFEFTUSJBOT PSBTIBSFEVTFSPVUFGPSQFEFTUSJBOTBOE
DZDMJTUT OPUJOUFOEFEGPSNPUPSJTFEWFIJDMFT
Shared Lane
"4IBSFE-BOFJTBOPOSPBEGBDJMJUZXJUIOPEFNBSDBUJPOCFUXFFO
CJDZDMFTBOEPUIFSWFIJDVMBSUSBGmD

Shared Space
"TUSFFUPSQMBDFBDDFTTJCMFUPCPUIQFEFTUSJBOT DZDMJTUTBOENPUPS
WFIJDMFTUIBUJTEFTJHOFEUPFOBCMFQFEFTUSJBOTUPNPWFNPSFGSFFMZ
CZSFEVDJOHUSBGmDNBOBHFNFOUGFBUVSFTUIBUUFOEUPFODPVSBHF
VTFSTPGNPUPSWFIJDMFTUPBTTVNFQSJPSJUZ
Sharing Space
(FOFSJDUFSNBEPQUFEUPEFTDSJCFBOPWFSBSDIJOHQSJODJQMFPG
EFTJHOJOHBTUSFFUGPSBNPSFFRVJUBCMFCBMBODFCFUXFFOVTFST
Sharrow
"TIBSSPXJTBDBSSJBHFTVSGBDFNBSLJOHJOTUBMMFEPOTUSFFUTQPQVMBS
XJUIDZDMJTUT CVUUPPOBSSPXGPSDPOWFOUJPOBMDZDMFMBOFT*UJT
JOUFOEFEUPJOGPSNNPUPSJTUTUPTIBSFUIFSPBEXJUIDZDMJTUTBOE
DPOWFZTUIBUUIFTUSFFUJTBQSFGFSSFEDZDMFSPVUF
Street
"MPXNPUPSWFIJDMFQSJPSJUZ TUSFFU POFMBOFJOFBDIEJSFDUJPO

5JHFS$SPTTJOH'BDJMJUZ
5IJTJTBNBSLFEDSPTTJOHOPUDPOUSPMMFECZUSBGmDTJHOBMT$ZDMJTUT
BSFOPUSFRVJSFEUPEJTNPVOU
Trail
(FOFSJDUFSNVTFEUPEFTDSJCFXBMLJOHBOEPSDZDMJOHGBDJMJUZ
UZQJDBMMZPGGUIF3JHIUPG8BZ UZQJDBMMZEFTJHOFEUPJODMVEF
SFDSFBUJPOBMVTF
Trafc Calming
"DPNCJOBUJPOPGNFBTVSFT NPTUMZDIBOHFTUPUIFSPBE
FOWJSPONFOU
BJNFEBUBMUFSJOHESJWFSCFIBWJPVS TVDIBTCZ
SFEVDJOHTQFFE
BOEJNQSPWJOHDPOEJUJPOTGPSQFEFTUSJBOT DZDMJTUT
BOESFTJEFOUT

Network Design

Transit Lane
"MBOFXIJDIDBOPOMZCFVTFECZQVCMJDQBTTFOHFSNPUPSWFIJDMFT 
NPUPSDZDMFT DZDMFTBOENPUPSWFIJDMFTDBSSZJOHBTQFDJmFE
NJOJNVNOVNCFSPGQBTTFOHFST

CCTV

Trip-end Facility
5IFUFSN5SJQFOEGBDJMJUZJTVTFEUPEFTDSJCFFOEPGSJEFGBDJMJUJFT 
PUIFSUIBODZDMFQBSLJOH UIBUDBOCFQSPWJEFEUPNFFUUIFOFFETPG
DZDMJTUTBUUIFJSEFTUJOBUJPO

ITS

Toucan Crossing Facility


5IJTJTBTJHOBMJTFEDSPTTJOHXIJDIBMMPXTWBSJBCMFUJNFGPS
QFEFTUSJBOTXIJMTUDSPTTJOHBOEJTEFQFOEFOUPOUIFEFUFDUJPOPG
QFEFTUSJBOTPOUIFDSPTTJOH$ZDMJTUTBSFOPUSFRVJSFEUPEJTNPVOU

LRT

Wadi Trail
"QBUIPGGUIF3JHIUPG8BZJOUFOEFEGPSVTFCZQFEFTUSJBOTBOE
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Waterfront Promenade
"QBUIPGGUIF3JHIUPG8BZ BEKBDFOUUPXBUFS JOUFOEFEGPSVTFCZ
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Zebra Crossing Facility
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BSFSFRVJSFEUPEJTNPVOU

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SCAT
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UTC
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PGUSBGmDTJHOBMT VTVBMMZUISPVHIBOEBSFB

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan

353

354

355

10.0 Source
Documentation and
References

356

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan
Design Guidelines

Glossary of Terms

Emirate of Abu Dhabi

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Europe
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Glossary of Terms

Australia

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#JDZDMF'BDJMJUZ%FTJHO(VJEFMJOFTo.JOOFBQPMJT

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan
Design Guidelines

357

358

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan

Network Design

Network Design

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan

2. User Information and


Waynding

359

360

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan

User Information and Waynding

User Information and Waynding

Contents
1. Waynding

10

Introduction

10

Overarching Principles and Good Practice

16

Understanding of Local Context

38

Recommendations

51

2. Trafc Signs and Markings

68

Introduction

68

Existing Standards

74

Regulatory, Warning and Informatory Signs

78

Surface Markings

89

Typical Layouts

97

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan

361

362

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan

User Information and Waynding

User Information and Waynding

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TVDIBT61$T/BUJPOBM5SBJM

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan

363

364

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan

User Information and Waynding

Waynding
Introduction

1. Waynding
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TVSSPVOEJOHT

Introduction
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WJTJUOFXQMBDFT BOEHSPXUIFJSNFOUBMNBQT

User Information and Waynding

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan

365

Waynding
Introduction
Benets of waynding for walking and cycling
t *ODSFBTFXBMLJOHBOEDZDMJOHKPVSOFZT*OGPSNBUJWFBOEXFMM
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XIJDIJOUVSOSFEVDFTPWFSBMMFNJTTJPOT

Cities that install waynding sign systems nd


that the benets are tangible: They see increases
in tourism, commerce, and foot trafc to local
institutions. (Slate, Legible London: Can better
signs help people understand an extremely
disorienting city?www.slate.com/id/2246105/)
Research In the UK (Legible London - A
Waynding Study - March 2006) showed that
between 60-80% of people were likely to make
more walk trips when they had access to good
quality map-based information, illustrating the
safe walking routes, walk-time estimates and the
range of destinations that could be easily reached
on foot.

366

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan

User Information and Waynding

Waynding
Introduction
Denitions

8IBUJTOPUJODMVEFE

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User Information and Waynding

Waynding
Signage

Figure 1 - Types of Waynding Signs

367

Waynding
Introduction

Identication Signs

Information Signs

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan

Direction Signs

368

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan

User Information and Waynding

Waynding
Introduction
Aims of This Strategy
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UP
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Figure 2 - Image Source: Atkins

User Information and Waynding

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan

369

Waynding
Introduction
Drivers
5IF61$T6SCBO4USFFU%FTJHO.BOVBM 64%.
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Figure 3 - UPC Urban Design Street Manual

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Figure 4 - DoTs Surface Transport Master Plan

370

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan

User Information and Waynding

Waynding
Overarching Principles and Good Practice
Overarching Principles and Good Practice

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User Information and Waynding

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan

371

Waynding
Overarching Principles and Good Practice
Good Practice: Sign Categories
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PGUIFJNQPSUBODFPGTJHOJmDBODFPGBQMBDFBOEIJTUPSJDBMGBDUT

372

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan

User Information and Waynding

Waynding
Overarching Principles and Good Practice
Good Practice: Cyclists and Pedestrians
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User Information and Waynding

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan

373

Waynding
Overarching Principles and Good Practice
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Figure 5 - Activity on the Corniche, Abu Dhabi.


Image source: Atkins

374

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan

User Information and Waynding

Waynding
Overarching Principles and Good Practice
Information and content strategies: Chicago Bicycle Program
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Image sources: ww
www.chicagobikes.

Figure 6 - Image sources: www.cityofchicago.org; www.


chicagobikes.org/

User Information and Waynding

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan

375

Waynding
Overarching Principles and Good Practice
Information and content strategies: Southampton Legible City
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Image sources: Atkins

Figure 7 - Image source: Atkins

376

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan

User Information and Waynding

Waynding
Overarching Principles and Good Practice
Oakland Bike Master Plan
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Route confirmation

Route confirmation
and turn sign

Route confirmation
and decision sign

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Figure 8 - Sign placement plan for the Bay Area


Image source: City of Oakland, California, USA www.oaklandnet.com

User Information and Waynding

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan

377

Waynding
Overarching Principles and Good Practice
Information and content strategies: Cycle Superhighways
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DZDMJTUT
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SPVUF QSPWJEJOHSPVUFDPOmSNBUJPO BOEQSPWJEJOHBDMFBSWJTVBMMJOF
GPSDZDMJTUTUPGPMMPXBOEGPSNPUPSJTUTUPUBLFOPUJDFPG
5PUFNTUZMFTJHOTBSFBMTPQMBDFEBMPOHTJEFUIFSPVUF5IFTFTJHOT
BSFUXPTJEFEGBDJOHUIFSPVUF BTDIFNBUJDMJOFJOEJDBUJOHUIF
SPVUFJTEJTQMBZFEXJUIBTTPDJBUFEUSBWFMUJNFT JONJOVUFT
0OUIF
SFWFSTFPGUIFTJHO BNBQPGUIFDZDMFSPVUFXJUIMPDBMBSFBNBQJT
QSPWJEFE
3PVUFDPOmSNBUJPOTJHOTGPMMPXUIFTBNFCSBOEJOH BOESFJUFSBUF
UIFSPVUFOVNCFS EFTUJOBUJPOT BOEKPVSOFZUJNFT



I
f L
Figure 9 - Image source:
TransportTfor London

378

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan

User Information and Waynding

Waynding
Overarching Principles and Good Practice
Information and content strategies: Legible London
8JOOFSPGB)POPS"XBSECZUIF4PDJFUZGPS&OWJSPONFOUBM
(SBQIJD%FTJHO -FHJCMF-POEPOJTBQFEFTUSJBOPOMZXBZmOEJOH
TZTUFNCBTFEPOFYUFOTJWFSFTFBSDIJOUPIPXQFPQMFVOEFSTUBOE
QMBDFTBOEIPXUIFZmOEUIFJSXBZBSPVOE XIBUJOGPSNBUJPOUIFZ
OFFEBOEXBOUBOEIPXDBOCFFGGFDUJWFMZQSFTFOUFE5IFTZTUFN
XBTDPNNJTTJPOFECZ5SBOTQPSUGPS-POEPOJOPSEFSUPPWFSDPNF
CBSSJFSTUPXBMLJOHBOEFODPVSBHFXBMLJOHUSJQTMFTTUIBOBNJMFJO
MFOHUI
5IFPSJHJOBM-FHJCMF-POEPOQJMPUUFTUFEUIFQSPUPUZQFTZTUFNBUB
USBOTQPSUJOUFSDIBOHFJOUIFIFBSUPG-POEPOTSFUBJMDPSF4JHOBHF
XBTQMBDFEPVUTJEFPGUIF6OEFSHSPVOETUBUJPO BOEQBQFSNBQT
XFSFEJTUSJCVUFE
*OGPSNBUJPOQSPWJEFEPOUIFNBQJODMVEFTBTJHOBEESFTT BMPDBM
BSFBNBQ BXJEFSBSFBNBQ EJSFDUJPOBMJOGPSNBUJPO BTUSFFUJOEFY 
BOEBEFTUJOBUJPOJOEFY

Image sources: Atkins

5IFTZTUFNNFFUTVOJWFSTBMEFTJHOTUBOEBSET VTJOHIJHIDPMPVS
DPOUSBTUBOEDBSFGVMMZQMBOOFEMBZPVU5IFZFMMPXCFBDPOPOUIF
UPQFOTVSFUIBUUIFZDBOCFTFFOGSPNBEJTUBODF
5IFTZTUFNJTBMTPVOJRVFCFDBVTFPGJUTXJEFSBOHJOHBQQMJDBUJPO 
JODMVEJOHJOUFHSBUJPOXJUIPUIFSNPEFTPGUSBOTQPSUBOEB
SFDPHOJUJPOUIBUXBMLJOHGPSNTBQBSUPGBMMKPVSOFZTVTJOHQVCMJD
USBOTQPSUBUJPO5SBOTQPSUGPS-POEPOJTDVSSFOUMZJOWFTUJHBUJOH
GVSUIFSBQQMJDBUJPOTPGUIFJOGPSNBUJPO JODMVEJOHQSJOUFEXBMLJOH
NBQT POMJOFNBQT CVTTUBUJPONBQT HVJEFCPPLT


Examples of Legible London


paper map handouts

Figure 10 - Image source: Atkins

User Information and Waynding

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan

379

Waynding
Overarching Principles and Good Practice

380

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan

User Information and Waynding

Waynding
Overarching Principles and Good Practice
For more information see Barker, Peter and Fraser,

Good Practice: Display of Information

June. Sign Design Guide: a Guide to Inclusive


Signage. JMU and the Sign Design Society,
London (2004).

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QVCMJDSFBMN5IFQSFTFOUBUJPOBOEEJTQMBZPGJOGPSNBUJPODBO
CFDSVDJBMUPFOTVSJOHJUJTTFFO VOEFSTUPPE BOEVTFE'PSUIJT
SFBTPO XBZmOEJOHJOGPSNBUJPOJTEFTJHOFECZQSPGFTTJPOBMHSBQIJD
EFTJHOFST
*OGPSNBUJPOTIPVMECFMFHJCMFBOEBDDFTTJCMFGPSQFPQMFPGEJGGFSFOU
BCJMJUJFT GSPNEJGGFSFOUDVMUVSFTBOEXIPTQFBLEJGGFSFOUMBOHVBHFT 
NFFUJOH6OJWFSTBM%FTJHO4UBOEBSET"DPOTJTUFOUBOEDPIFSFOU
HSBQIJDWJTVBMMBOHVBHFXJMMVOJGZJOGPSNBUJPO NBLJOHJUFBTZUP
SFDPHOJTF

t *OGPSNBUJPOTIPVMEQSFTFOUFETPUIBUJUJTDMFBS DPOTJTUFOU BOE


DPIFSFOU
t -BOHVBHFVTFETIPVMECFQMBJOBOEFBTZUPVOEFSTUBOE6TF
TUBOEBSE DPNNPOMZSFDPHOJTFEUFSNT
t 4IPXPOMZUIFJOGPSNBUJPOXIJDIJTSFMFWBOUUPIFMQVTFSTmOE
UIFJSXBZBSPVOE5IJTNBZCFEJGGFSFOUJOEJGGFSFOUDPOUFYUT
t 5FYUTJ[FTIPVMECFMBSHFFOPVHIUPSFBEGSPNUIFJOUFOEFE
EJTUBODF XIFUIFSBNBQXIJDIXJMMCFDMPTFMZFYBNJOFEPS
BEJSFDUJPOBMTJHOQSPWJEJOHSPVUFDPOmSNBUJPO5FYUTJ[FXJMM
EFQFOEPOJOUFOEFEWJFXJOHEJTUBODF
t 'POUPSUZQFGBDFTIPVMECFFBTZUPSFBE*OHFOFSBMTBOTTFSJG
GPOUTBSFSFDPNNFOEFE
t )JHIDPMPVSDPOUSBTUJNQSPWFTSFBEBCJMJUZPGUFYU$POUSBTU
CFUXFFOUFYUBOECBDLHSPVOEDPMPVSTIPVMECFBUMFBTU

Size of information depends on intended viewing distance

t 4JNQMFTZNCPMTBOEQJDUPHSBNTIFMQUPPWFSDPNFMBOHVBHF
CBSSJFSTBOEFOBCMFVTFSTUPTDBORVJDLMZGPSJOGPSNBUJPO
*OUFSOBUJPOBMMZSFDPHOJTFETZNCPMTTIPVMECFVTFEXIFSF
QPTTJCMF"SSPXTBSFVTFEUPJOEJDBUFEJSFDUJPO4JNQMF QMBJO
BSSPXTTIPVMECFVTFE TVDIBTUIF*OUFSOBUJPOBM4UBOEBSET
0SHBOJTBUJPO
t ,FZJOGPSNBUJPOTIPVMECFQMBDFEBUBMFWFMXIJDIJTFBTZUPTFF
BOESFBE.BOZXBZmOEJOHTZTUFNTQPTJUJPOLFZJOGPSNBUJPO
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EFTJHOHVJEFMJOFT,FFQJONJOEUIBUJOGPSNBUJPOXJMMCFVTFE
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VTFSTIBWFBNVDIMPXFSmFMEPGWJTJPO GPSFYBNQMF

Figure 11 - Example from Dundee waynding system pictograms used


in a map allow users to quickly scan and can overcome language barriers
Image source: Atkins

User Information and Waynding

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan

381

Waynding
Overarching Principles and Good Practice
Display of Information : Jumeirah Lake Towers
5IJTXBZmOEJOHBOETJHOBHFDPODFQUGPS+VNFJSBI-BLF5PXFSTBT
QBSUPGUIFNBTUFSQMBOGPSBNJYFEVTFXBUFSGSPOUEFWFMPQNFOUJO
%VCBJ
4JHOBHFJTCPMEMZDPMPVSDPEFEUPJOEJDBUFEJGGFSFOUBSFBTXJUIJO
UIFEFWFMPQNFOU-JHIUUPXFSTBSFQSPQPTFEBTMBOENBSLTUP
TUJNVMBUFUIFQVCMJDSFBMNTJUFBOEUPQSPWJEFLFZXBZmOEJOH
CFBDPOT
"WBSJFUZPGTJHOBHFJTQSPQPTFEUPQSFTFOUJOGPSNBUJPOJOEJGGFSFOU
GPSNBUT JODMVEJOHBQPEJVNDPOUBJOJOHB%NBQPGUIFTJUF
-BSHFJOGPSNBUJPOCPBSETQSPWJEFNBQTPGUIFTJUFBOEBOJOEFYPG
BUUSBDUJPOT
%JSFDUJPOBMUPUFNTTFSWFBTCFBDPOTBOEBMTPQSPWJEFEJSFDUJPOBM
JOGPSNBUJPOUPHVJEFVTFSTUPWBSJPVTMPDBUJPOTUISPVHIPVUUIFTJUF

Figure 12 - Image source: Portland Design

382

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan

User Information and Waynding

Waynding
Overarching Principles and Good Practice
Display of Information: Downtown LA Walks
-"8BMLTXBTBOJOJUJBUJWFUPFODPVSBHFXBMLJOHBOEUPVOJGZ
UIFEJWFSTFEJTUSJDUTPGEPXOUPXO-PT"OHFMFT 64"5IF
DPNQSFIFOTJWFXBZmOEJOHTUSBUFHZXBTVOEFSUBLFOCZUIF
$POGFEFSBUJPOPG%PXOUPXO"TTPDJBUJPOT UIF$BMJGPSOJB
%FQBSUNFOUPG5SBOTQPSUBUJPOJOBTTPDJBUJPOXJUIUIF-"
%FQBSUNFOUPG5SBOTQPSUBUJPO UIF.FUSP BOEOVNFSPVT
MPDBMTUBLFIPMEFSTJODMVEJOHCVTJOFTTJNQSPWFNFOUEJTUSJDUT
SFQSFTFOUJOHUIFWBSJPVTEJTUSJDUTUIBUNBLFVQUIFEPXOUPXOBSFB
5IFTDIFNFQSPWJEFTBDPNQSFIFOTJWFTZTUFNPGTJHOBHFGPS
NPUPSWFIJDMFTBOEQFEFTUSJBOT MJOLJOHVQUIFSPBEOFUXPSLXJUI
QVCMJDUSBOTQPSU XBMLJOHSPVUFT

From Hunt Design,


http://www.huntdesign.com/signage/signage_cities
The system, designed by Hunt Design and Corbin
y for Environmenta
2007 jjuryy award from the Society
Design.

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JOUFSBDUJWFXFCTJUF BQQT BOEQPEDBTUUPVSTXJUIBTTPDJBUFE
NBQT
*OBEEJUJPOUPTVQQPSUJOHMJOLTUPQVCMJDUSBOTQPSUBUJPO QPQVMBS
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JODMVEJOHQVCMJDBSUBOEOJHIUMJGF
0OPOMJOFNBQT EJTUSJDUTXJUIJOUIFEPXOUPXOBSFBBSFTIPXO
EJGGFSFOUMZXJUIUIFVTFPGDPMPVSTBOEQJDUPHSBNT IFMQJOHWJTJUPST
UPVOEFSTUBOEUIFBSFBBOEIJHIMJHIUJOHUIFJSVOJRVFDIBSBDUFSJTUJDT
PGFBDIEJTUSJDU5IFDPMPVSTBOEQJDUPHSBNTBSFVTFEJOUIFPO
TUSFFUTJHOBHF DPOUJOVJOHUIJTBTTPDJBUJPO

www.downtownlawalks.com

Figure 13 - Image source: From Hunt Design, http://www.huntdesign.com/signage/signage_cities_lawalks.htm

User Information and Waynding

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan

383

Waynding
Overarching Principles and Good Practice
Display of Information : Indianapolis Cultural Trail Signage
*OEJBOBQPMJT$VMUVSBM5SBJMJO*OEJBOBQPMJT *OEJBOB 64" JTBO
NJMFVSCBOQFEFTUSJBOBOECJDZDMFSPVUFXIJDIDPOOFDUT
EJWFSTFDVMUVSBMEJTUSJDUTXJUIJOUIFDJUZ5IFUSBJMXBTBDIJFWFE
UISPVHIQBSUOFSTIJQXJUIUIFDJUZBOEOVNFSPVTMPDBMTUBLFIPMEFST 
BOEXBTTVQQPSUFECZBDPNCJOBUJPOPGQSJWBUF QVCMJD BOE
OPUGPSQSPmUGVOEJOH5SBJMDPOTUSVDUJPOTUBSUFEJOBOEJT
JOUFOEFEGPSDPNQMFUJPOCZ
8BZmOEJOHTVQQPSUTUIFFYUFOTJWFQVCMJDSFBMNJNQSPWFNFOUT
UPQSPWJEFBDMFBS MFHJCMF BOEBUUSBDUJWFTQBDFGPSXBMLJOHBOE
DZDMJOHUISPVHIPVUUIFDJUZDFOUSF
3PVUFDPOmSNBUJPOTJHOTBSFQSPWJEFEBMPOHSPVUFTBOEIFMQUP
CSBOEUIF$VMUVSBM5SBJM
"UDSPTTJOHT DPMPVSFEQBWFNFOUNBSLJOHTJOEJDBUFUPQFEFTUSJBOT
BOEDZDMJTUTXIFSFUPDSPTT5IJTBMTPSFNJOETNPUPSJTUTUPMPPL
PVUGPSQFEFTUSJBOTBOEDZDMJTUT
*OUFSQSFUBUJPOTJHOBHFJTBMTPPGGFSFEBMPOHUIFNFEXBMLTTVDIBT
(MJDL1FBDF8BML XIJDIQSFTFOUTJOGPSNBUJPOBCPVUJOEJWJEVBMT
LOPXOGPSUIFJSDPOUSJCVUJPOTUPXPSMEQFBDF

Figure 14 - Image source: www.indyculturaltrail.com

384

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan

User Information and Waynding

Waynding
Overarching Principles and Good Practice
Display of Information : Qas Al Sarab waynding and signage
5IJTXBZmOEJOHBOETJHOBHFDPODFQUGPS+VNFJSBI-BLF5PXFSTBT
QBSUPGUIFNBTUFSQMBOGPSBNJYFEVTFXBUFSGSPOUEFWFMPQNFOUJO
%VCBJ
4JHOBHFJTCPMEMZDPMPVSDPEFEUPJOEJDBUFEJGGFSFOUBSFBTXJUIJO
UIFEFWFMPQNFOU-JHIUUPXFSTBSFQSPQPTFEBTMBOENBSLTUP
TUJNVMBUFUIFQVCMJDSFBMNTJUFBOEUPQSPWJEFLFZXBZmOEJOH
CFBDPOT
"WBSJFUZPGTJHOBHFJTQSPQPTFEUPQSFTFOUJOGPSNBUJPOJOEJGGFSFOU
GPSNBUT JODMVEJOHBQPEJVNDPOUBJOJOHB%NBQPGUIFTJUF
-BSHFJOGPSNBUJPOCPBSETQSPWJEFNBQTPGUIFTJUFBOEBOJOEFYPG
BUUSBDUJPOT
%JSFDUJPOBMUPUFNTTFSWFBTCFBDPOTBOEBMTPQSPWJEFEJSFDUJPOBM
JOGPSNBUJPOUPHVJEFVTFSTUPWBSJPVTMPDBUJPOTUISPVHIPVUUIFTJUF

Figure 15 - Image source: Portland Design

User Information and Waynding

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan

385

Waynding
Overarching Principles and Good Practice

386

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan

User Information and Waynding

Waynding
Overarching Principles and Good Practice
Good Practice: Sign placement strategies
4JHOQMBDFNFOUJTBLFZGBDUPSJOBXBZmOEJOHTUSBUFHZ FOTVSJOH
UIBUUIFJOGPSNBUJPOJTUIPVHIUGVMMZQMBDFEBUMPDBUJPOTXIFSFJU
XJMMQSPWFVTFGVM1PPSQMBDFNFOUPGTJHOBHFDBONFBOUIBUUIF
TJHOTNBZOPUCFTFFOOPSVTFE4JHOQMBDFNFOUNVTUDBSFGVMMZ
DPOTJEFSXIBUJOGPSNBUJPOJTOFFEFEBOEXIFSF*UJTJNQPSUBOU
UPVOEFSTUBOEUZQJDBMKPVSOFZTCZGPPUBOECZCJDZDMFBOE
UIFSFGPSFXIFSFBOEXIFOUIFZTIPVMECFQSFTFOUFEXJUIQIZTJDBM
JOGPSNBUJPO
8BZmOEJOHTJHOBHFTIPVMECFQMBDFEXIFSFJUJTVTFGVM CVUBMTP
XIFSFQFPQMFDBOCFFODPVSBHFEUPXBMLPSDZDMF TVDIBTBUDBS
QBSLT USBOTQPSUJOUFSDIBOHFT BOESFUBJMBSFBT
*OHFOFSBM TJHOBHFJTCFTUQMBDFEBUiBSSJWBMwBOEiEFDJTJPOwQPJOUT
XIFSFVTFSTGFFMUIFZOFFEJOGPSNBUJPO5IJTJODMVEFTBU
t PSJHJOT TVDIBTDBSQBSLT USBOTQPSUTUPQTJOUFSDIBOHFT

t EFTUJOBUJPOT UPVSJTUBUUSBDUJPOT SFUBJM TQPSU DPNNVOJUZ
GBDJMJUJFT


4JHOTTIPVMECFWJTJCMFBMPOHSPVUFTGPSQFEFTUSJBOTBOEDZDMJTUT 
CVUOPUPCTUSVDUSPVUFTPSBOZBEKBDFOUTJHOT&OWJSPONFOUBM
DPOTJEFSBUJPOTJODMVEFMJHIUJOHBUOJHIUBOETIBEJOHEVSJOHUIFEBZ 
TPUIBUUIFZDBOCFVTFEDPNGPSUBCMZ
4JHOTTIPVMECFBMTPQMBDFESFHVMBSMZBMPOHBSPVUF XIFSFUIFZBSF
WJTJCMFBOEXIFSFJOUFOEFEVTFSTDBOTFFUIFN$BSFTIPVMECF
UBLFOUPTUSJLFBCBMBODFCFUXFFOQSPWJEJOHTVGmDJFOUJOGPSNBUJPO
BOEOPUDMVUUFSJOHBSPVUFXJUIFYDFTTJWFJOGPSNBUJPO4JHOTQMBDFE
JOUIFDFOUSFPGBSPVUFNBZCFWFSZDPOTQJDVPVTCVUCMPDLUIF
QBUIPGVTFSTPSPUIFST
*UJTBMTPDSVDJBMUPNBJOUBJODMFBSSPVUFTBOETVGmDJFOUBDDFTTJCJMJUZ
BSPVOEUIFTJHOT*UJTHPPEQSBDUJDFUPQMBDFXBZmOEJOHTJHOT
QFSQFOEJDVMBSUPUIFSPVUFXJUIJOUIFGVSOJUVSF[POF CVUBXBZGSPN
PCTUSVDUJPOPSWFHFUBUJPO3FNFNCFSUIBUQFPQMFBOEDZDMJTUTNBZ
TUPQUPVTFUIFTJHO TPTVGmDJFOUTQBDFBSPVOEUIFTJHOJTBMTP
OFDFTTBSZ4BGFUZJTBMTPBQSJNBSZDPODFSOoTJHOTTIPVMECF
QMBDFEJOBSFBTXIFSFJUJTTBGFUPTUPQ

t KVODUJPOTPSBSFBTPGBNCJHVJUZ 
t BMPOHSPVUFTBTDPOmSNBUJPO BOE
t "UEXFMMJOHBSFBToXIFSFZPVNJHIUTJUBOESFTUEVSJOHB
KPVSOFZ

Figure 16 - Pedestrian waynding signs outside of transport links in Boston,


USA. Image source: Atkins

User Information and Waynding

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan

387

Waynding
Overarching Principles and Good Practice
Placement Strategies: Switzerland Bicycle Route Signage
4XJU[FSMBOETCJDZDMFSPVUFTJHOBHFTDIFNFFTUBCMJTIFTBVOJGPSN
TZTUFNGPSXBZmOEJOHTJHOBHFPOBWBSJFUZPGSPVUFTUISPVHIUIF
DPVOUSZ JODMVEJOHJOUFSOBUJPOBM OBUJPOBM SFHJPOBM MPDBMMFJTVSF
SPVUFT
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EJTUBODFUPEFTUJOBUJPOT.PEFPGUSBWFMJTJOEJDBUFEVTJOHJDPOT 
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UIFVTFPGDMFBSJOUFSOBUJPOBMMZSFDPHOJTFEQJDUPHSBNTPOTJHOBHF
PWFSDPNFTUIFOFFEGPSNVMUJQMFUSBOTMBUJPOT
1MBDFNFOUPGNBQJOGPSNBUJPOQBOFMT EJSFDUJPOBMTMBUT UVSO
JOEJDBUPST BOETDIFNBUJDTUSFFUMBZPVUNBQTJTDMFBSMZEFmOFEGPS
FBDITJHOUZQF*OHFOFSBM TJHOQMBDFNFOUJTSFDPNNFOEFEBU

Excerpts from the strategy and implementation plan

t 4UBSUBOEmOJTIPGSPVUFT
t *OUFSGBDFXJUIQVCMJDUSBOTQPSU
t *OUFSGBDFXJUIWFIJDVMBSSPVUFT
t +VODUJPOTBOEUVSOT
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5IFJNQMFNFOUBUJPOQMBO  QSFTFOUFEJO(FSNBO 'SFODI BOE
*UBMJBO
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QMBOBEESFTTFTBOVNCFSPGSPVUFUZQPMPHJFT GBDJMJUBUJOHQMBDFNFOU
QMBOOJOH

Figure 17 - Image sources: Handbuch Wegweisung fr Velos, Mountainbikes und fahrzeughnliche


Gerte, Bundesamt fr Strassen (ASTRA) und von der Stiftung SchweizMobil (2010)

388

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan

User Information and Waynding

Waynding
Overarching Principles and Good Practice
Placement Strategies: Legible London
-FHJCMF-POEPOJTBQFEFTUSJBOXBZmOEJOHTZTUFNUIBUBJNTUP
EFMJWFSBDPOTJTUFOUBQQSPBDIUPXBMLJOHXBZmOEJOHJOGPSNBUJPO
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FBTZUPVTFTZTUFNQSFTFOUTJOGPSNBUJPOJOBSBOHFPGXBZT 
JODMVEJOHPONBQTBOETJHOT UPIFMQQFPQMFmOEUIFJSXBZ*UJT
BMTPJOUFHSBUFEXJUIPUIFSUSBOTQPSUNPEFTTPXIFOQFPQMFBSF
MFBWJOHUIF6OEFSHSPVOE GPSFYBNQMF UIFZDBORVJDLMZJEFOUJGZUIF
SPVUFUPUIFJSEFTUJOBUJPO
5IFTZTUFNXBTVOEFSQJOOFEXJUIBSPCVTUQMBDFNFOUTUSBUFHZ 
XIJDIFODPVSBHFETJHOQMBDFNFOUJO
t %XFMMJOHBSFBT
t "MPOHQSJNBSZQFEFTUSJBOSPVUFT
t "UEFDJTJPOQPJOUTTVDIBTKVODUJPOT
5IFTZTUFNEFTJHOFSTQSPWJEFEHVJEFMJOFTGPSTJHOQMBDFNFOU 
JOEJDBUJOHJUTMPDBUJPOXJUIJOTUSFFUGVSOJUVSF[POFT
"WFSTJPOPGUIFTJHOTXFSFBMTPQMBDFEBUUSBOTQPSUMJOLTJODMVEJOH
CVTTUPQTBOEFYJUTGSPNUIF6OEFSHSPVOE

Figure 18 - Image sources: Transport for London and Atkins

User Information and Waynding

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan

389

Waynding
Overarching Principles and Good Practice
Placement Strategies: Inner Melbourne Waynding Signage
5IF*OOFS.FMCPVSOF8BZmOEJOH4JHOBHFTDIFNFCZ7JTVBM7PJDF
8BZmOEJOH BJNTUP
t DPOOFDUEJTUSJDUT
t JOEJDBUFBOEJEFOUJGZUIFQFEFTUSJBOSPVUFOFUXPSL BOE
t DPOOFDUVQUSBOTQPSUMJOLTBOEPUIFSEFTUJOBUJPOT
5IFTZTUFNJTCBTFEPOCFTUQSBDUJDFSFTFBSDI BOEVTFTB
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"TUSBUFHJDTJHOQMBDFNFOUQMBOFOTVSFEUIBUUIFBJNPGDPOOFDUJOH
VQEFTUJOBUJPOTXJUIJOBNJOVUFXBMLPGPOFBOPUIFSXBTNFU
5IJTJOUVSOFODPVSBHFEQFPQMFUPXBMLGVSUIFSBOEUPVOEFSTUBOE
UIFMJOLBHFTCFUXFFOQMBDFT

Figure 19 - Photo source: State Government of Victoria http://imap.vic.gov.au/uploads/docs/IMAP_Inner%20Melbourne%20


Waynding%20Signage_Report_Dec%2007.pdf; http://www.stonnington.vic.gov.au/residents-and-services/planning/
strategic-planning-projects/inner-melbourne-forums--action-plans/

390

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan

User Information and Waynding

Waynding
Overarching Principles and Good Practice

Lessons Learned

Display of Information

Information Content

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VOEFSTUBOEJOHCZUIFEJWFSTFQPQVMBUJPOPGSFTJEFOUTBOE
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PGJOGPSNBUJPOJTLFZUPUIJT8BZmOEJOHTJHOBHFTIPVME
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JOGPSNBUJPO TJHOUZQFT

t 8BZmOEJOHTIPVMECFQBSUPGXJEFSFGGPSUTUPQSPNPUFXBMLJOH
BOEDZDMJOH TBGFCFIBWJPVSTPOUIFQBSUPGQFEFTUSJBOT 
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t "DPIFSFOUTVJUFPGJOGPSNBUJPOTIPVMECFQSPWJEFEUPJODMVEF
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t "IJFSBSDIZPGJOGPSNBUJPOTIPVMECFVTFEUPIFMQEFUFSNJOF
XIBUJOGPSNBUJPOJTTVJUBCMFPOEJGGFSFOUTJHOTBOEJOEJGGFSFOU
QMBDFT
t 1BWFNFOUNBSLJOHTGPSPOTUSFFUDZDMFSPVUFTTIPVMECF
QSPWJEFEUPPGGFSPCWJPVTSPVUFDPOmSNBUJPOXIJDIJTBMTPDMFBS
UPNPUPSJTUT
t 0OSPVUFXBZmOEJOHTJHOBHFGPSDZDMJTUTTIPVMECFDMFBS WFSZ
TJNQMF BOERVJDLUPSFBE4VDIJOGPSNBUJPODPVMEJODMVEF
EFTUJOBUJPOTBOEKPVSOFZEJTUBODFTBOEJOEJDBUJWFUJNFT
t *OUFSQSFUJWFTJHOBHFTIPVMECFVTFEXIFSFBEEJUJPOBM
JOGPSNBUJPOJTVTFGVMUPWJTJUPST

t *OUFSOBUJPOBMMZSFDPHOJTFEJDPOTTIPVMECFVTFEPONBQTBOE
POEJSFDUJPOBMTJHOT
t "TUBOEBSEMPPLBOEGFFMTIPVMECFVTFEGPSXBZmOEJOHTJHOT
UISPVHIPVUUIF&NJSBUF*OQBSUJDVMBS DZDMJTUTUBLJOHMPOHFS
KPVSOFZTXPVMECFOFmUHSFBUMZGSPNDPOTJTUFOUQSFTFOUBUJPOPG
JOGPSNBUJPO
t 8BZmOEJOHTJHOBHFDBOCFEJTQMBZFEJOBNBOOFSDPOTJTUFOU
XJUIUIFTVSSPVOEJOHFOWJSPONFOU5IJTDBODPOUSJCVUFUPB
NPSFQMFBTBOUBOEBUUSBDUJWFFOWJSPONFOU
t 4JHOTTIPVMEJOEJDBUFUIFJSJOUFOEFEVTFSToJOUIF64 UIF
.65$%TJHOBHFTUBOEBSETTUBUFUIBUCPUIUFYUBOEBOJNBHF
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64VTFTKVTUBCJDZDMFJDPO.BOZi-FHJCMF$JUZwTDIFNFTTVDI
BT-FHJCMF-POEPOVTFBTZNCPMPGBXBMLJOHQFSTPOUPJOEJDBUF
QFEFTUSJBOXBZmOEJOHTJHOT

User Information and Waynding

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan

391

Waynding
Overarching Principles and Good Practice

Sign Placement

t 8BZmOEJOHJOGPSNBUJPOTIPVMECFQMBDFEXIFSFJUJTNPTU
VTFGVM BOEGPMMPXJOHBOVOEFSTUBOEJOHPGUZQJDBMVTFSKPVSOFZT
t "TUSBUFHJDQMBOGPSQMBDFNFOUBOEDPOUFOUTIPVMECF
VOEFSUBLFOGPSBMMTJUFT MPPLJOHBUBSFBMBZPVU UZQFTPGKPVSOFZT
BOEEFmOJOHBTUSBUFHJDQMBO*GQMBDFEXFMMBOEXJUIUIPVHIU 
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TJHOBHFDBOPGUFOCFJOUFHSBUFEJOUPPUIFSTUSFFUGVSOJUVSF TVDI
BTCVTTIFMUFST
t 8BZmOEJOHTJHOBHFTIPVMECFQMBDFEBMPOHTJEFXBMLJOHBOE
DZDMJOHSPVUFTUPIFMQVTFSTmOEPVUNPSFBCPVUUIFBSFBBOE
MJOLVQUPTVSSPVOEJOHBUUSBDUJPOT
t 4BGFUZGPSQFEFTUSJBOTBOEDZDMJTUTJTQBSBNPVOU8BZmOEJOH
TJHOBHFTIBMMCFQMBDFEBEKBDFOUUPXBMLJOHBOEDZDMJOH
SPVUFT CVUOPUTPJUPCTUSVDUTSPVUFTPSWJTJCJMJUZGPSDZDMJTUTPS
QFEFTUSJBOT

392

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan

User Information and Waynding

Waynding
Understanding of Local Context
Understanding of Local Context

#FDBVTFXBZmOEJOHJTBCPVUUIFIVNBOFYQFSJFODFPOUIFTUSFFU 
POHPJOHQSPKFDUTXJUIJOUIF&NJSBUFXJMMJNQBDUPVSFYQFSJFODF
PGUIFDJUZ5IJTJODMVEFTDIBOHFTUPUIFVSCBOGBCSJDBOEVSCBO
JOGSBTUSVDUVSFBTXFMMBTUPQPMJDJFTBOEQSPHSBNT
Infrastructure and physical changes

Non-Infrastructure and soft measures


'VSUIFSOPOJOGSBTUSVDUVSFQSPKFDUTBSFBMTPCFJOHVOEFSUBLFO 
JODMVEJOH
t %."TTPPOUPCFDPNQMFUFE4USFFU"EESFTTJOHHVJEFMJOFT
t %."XBZmOEJOHTDIFNFTGPSUIFNVOJDJQBMJUJFT

"TUIF&NJSBUFBOEUIFDJUZPG"CV%IBCJJOQBSUJDVMBSJTVOEFSHPJOH
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JNQBDUBOZQSPQPTBMTGPSXBZmOEJOHTDIFNFT
t "OVNCFSPGQMBOOFEEFWFMPQNFOUTBSFQSPQPTFEBOEPOHPJOH 
JODMVEJOH:BT*TMBOE 4BBEJZBU*TMBOE BOECVJMEJOHQSPKFDUT
XJUIJOUIFDJUZDFOUSF
t SFEFWFMPQNFOUPG"M)PTO1BMBDF
t FYUFOTJPOPG$PSOJDIF1VCMJD#FBDI

t 5IF%P5XJMMCFDPOEVDUJOHBNVMUJNPEBMXBZmOEJOHQSPKFDU JO
MJOFXJUIQMBOTGPS.FUSPBOE-35

User Information and Waynding

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan

393

Waynding
Understanding of Local Context
Other local considerations impacting waynding
t %JWFSTJUZPGDVMUVSFTBOENVMUJQMFMBOHVBHFTTQPLFOJO&NJSBUF
t $MJNBUF
t #BSSJFSTUPXBMLJOHBOEDZDMJOH FHQIZTJDBM CFIBWJPVSBM 
QFSDFQUJPOT

t $POmEFODFJOVOEFSUBLJOHKPVSOFZT
t 6OEFSTUBOEJOHPGFOWJSPONFOU
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t 1FSDFJWFETBGFUZ
t 1FSDFJWFEUJNFBOEEJTUBODFPGSPVUFT
t $POmEFODFJOQIZTJDBMBCJMJUJFT
t $MJNBUFBOEDPOmEFODFJOBQQSPQSJBUFQVCMJDSFBMN FH
TIBEJOH

t 7FIJDMFTQFFEBOEWPMVNF
t /PJTFBOEDPNNPUJPOPGNPUPSJTFEUSBGmD
t *OBCJMJUZUPSJEFBCJDZDMF
t /POPXOFSTIJQPGPSBDDFTTUPBCJDZDMF
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t 0WFSVOEFSQBTTFTBOEnZPWFST
t )JHIXBZCSJEHFT
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t (VBSESBJMJOH
t ,FSCIFJHIU
t 8BUFS

394

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan

User Information and Waynding

Waynding
Understanding of Local Context
User route narratives
#BTFEPOUIFJEFOUJmDBUJPOPGUBSHFUVTFSHSPVQTBOEKPVSOFZUZQFT
VOEFSUBLFOBTQBSUPGUIFOFUXPSLQMBOOJOHXPSL UIFGPMMPXJOH
TBNQMFSPVUFTIBWFCFFOFYQMPSFEUPJMMVTUSBUFUIFWBSJFUZPG
JOGPSNBUJPOOFFETXIJDITIPVMECFBEESFTTFECZBXBZmOEJOH
TDIFNF
/PUFUIBUUIJTJTOPUBDPNQSFIFOTJWFMJTU CVUJTJOUFOEFEUP
QSPWJEFBOJOEJDBUJPOPGUIFXBZJOXIJDIQFPQMFVTFBWBSJFUZPG
JOGPSNBUJPOUISPVHIPVUUIFJSKPVSOFZT

User Information and Waynding

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan

395

Waynding
Understanding of Local Context
Middle-aged
businessman
going for lunch
with a client at a
new restaurant

Business visitor,
looking for a
place to cycle

My colleague
recommended this
restaurant. We can
CBD

Hotel in
CBD

Which of these side


streets is it on?

Walks along known


route from
restaurant

Which way is the


Corniche?

Which street do I
turn onto?

First day at Abu


Dhabi Womens
College

Young Emirati
family from Al Ain
visiting family in
Abu Dhabi

bus

checks paper map


from hotel on how
to get around

Home in
residential
area

drives to
Metro stop

Home in
residential
area

rant name from


sign

This must be the


Corniche!

Which way leads to


the beach?

visually

Uses directional
signage

Cycles along beach

Lets take the bus


to the museum.
Hotel in
CBD

Visits restaurant

Uses local map app


on smart phone

Uses street sign,


recalling verbal
directions

Tourist family
visiting the
National Museum
from Al Ain
Rotana

Here we are!

drives to
Corniche

Is this our stop?

Which way is the


museum?

stop using signage

Uses map at bus


stop and directional
sign on street

We can leave the


car at the Metro
station and walk
from there.
uses signage at
Metro station to
locate car park

metro

This must be it!


sign on building

This is the stop


closest to the
college.

Which way is the


college?

stop using digital


information screen

Uses signage at
Metro station to
locate street

Lets visit the


Corniche for a walk!

Here we are!

Is there a park nearby


where they kids can
play?

Looks online for


local attractions

Sees route from


road, visually
locates car park

Use park signage to


look for play are, sees
Capital Park nearby
park

Figure 20 - User Route Narratives

Arrive at
National
Museum

Which way is the


administration
Uses campus map
to locate building

Use crossing to
walk to park

Abu Dhabi
Womens College

396

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan

User Information and Waynding

Waynding
Understanding of Local Context
Multiple languages on signs
5IFPGmDJBMMBOHVBHFPG"CV%IBCJJT"SBCJD UIPVHI&OHMJTIJT
WFSZXJEFMZTQPLFO"EEJUJPOBMMZ BOVNCFSPGPUIFSMBOHVBHFT
BSFTQPLFO JODMVEJOHNBOZ4PVUI"TJBOMBOHVBHFT.VDIPG
JOGPSNBUJPOBOEXBZmOEJOHTJHOBHFGPVOEUISPVHIPVUUIF&NJSBUF
JTQSFTFOUFEJOCPUIMBOHVBHFT
$PNNVOJDBUJOHJOGPSNBUJPOUPBMJOHVJTUJDBMMZEJWFSTFQPQVMBUJPO
QSFTFOUTBDIBMMFOHFUPDMBSJUZBOEEJTQMBZPGJOGPSNBUJPO
5IFJNBHFTBUMFGUTIPXJOUFSOBUJPOBMFYBNQMFTPGUIFVTFPG
MBOHVBHFTPOEJSFDUJPOBMTJHOBHF"MMPGUIFTFFYBNQMFTEJTQMBZ
&OHMJTIPOUIFCPUUPN XJUIUIFMPDBMMBOHVBHFPOUPQ

Use of icons accompanies text in Arabic and in English


on Dubais Marina signage. http://transportdesign.com/

*DPOTBOEQJDUPHSBNTDBOBMTPCFVTFEUPPWFSDPNFMBOHVBHF
CBSSJFST%VCBJT.BSJOF5SBOTQPSUTJHOBHF JODMVEJOHXBUFSUBYJ 
"CSB XBUFSCVT BOEGFSSZ VTFTQJDUPHSBNTBTXFMMBTDPMPVS
DPEFEUFYUJO"SBCJDBOEJO&OHMJTIUPEJGGFSFOUJBUFCFUXFFO
TFSWJDFT
5IF%."T"EESFTTJOH4UBOEBSETEPDVNFOU BTOPUFEJOUIF
JNBHFBUMFGU BMTPSFDPNNFOETVTJOH"SBCJDBOE&OHMJTIUFYUGPS
TUSFFUOBNFT XJUI"SBCJDPOUPQBOE&OHMJTICFMPX

Directional sign in Beirut

Street signs and directional signs in Dubai

Directional sign in Wales

Directional sign in Tehran

Figure 21 - Image Sources: http://transportdesign.com/

User Information and Waynding

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan

397

Waynding
Understanding of Local Context
Existing Waynding Signage in Abu Dhabi
t 4UBUFPGXBZmOEJOHJO"CV%IBCJ
t 5IFHSJETUSVDUVSFPGUIFDJUJFTBOEUPXOTJOUIF&NJSBUF
NBLFUIFNFBTZUPOBWJHBUF)PXFWFS UIFTJ[FBOETDBMFPG
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JOBSDIJUFDUVSBMTUZMFTNBLFTOBUVSBMXBZmOEJOHEJGmDVMU
*O"CV%IBCJDJUZBOEJO"M"JO UIFPGUFOEPHMFHHFE
DPOmHVSBUJPOPGUIFCMPDLJOUFSJPSDPOUSJCVUFUPBEJGmDVMUZJO
OBUVSBMXBZmOEJOHJONBOZBSFBT

t &YJTUJOHPOTUSFFUTJHOBHF
t 4PNFPOTUSFFUXBZmOEJOHTJHOBHFFYJTUTJO"CV%IBCJDJUZ
)PXFWFS NVDIPGUIJTJTJOUFOEFEGPSNPUPSWFIJDMFT.VDI
PGUIFTJHOBHFJOUIFDJUZEJSFDUTUPQFEFTUSJBOVOEFSQBTTFT 
FODPVSBHJOHQFEFTUSJBOTUPVTFUIFTFPWFSJMMFHBMNJECMPDL
DSPTTJOHT CVUJUTQMBDFNFOUDPVMECFCFUUFSBMJHOFE
t 5IFSFJTOPPOTUSFFUDZDMFTJHOBHF BOEOPDZDMFMBOFT
JOEJDBUFE2VJFUFSBOEMFTTCVTZSPVUFTJOUIFJOUFSJPSPG
UIFCMPDLQSPWJEFJEFBMMPDBUJPOTGPSXBMLJOHBOEGPSDZDMJOH 
BMUIPVHIJUJTOPUDMFBSUPWJTJUPSTXIFSFUIFTFSPVUFTNJHIU
MFBE BTUIFZBSFPGUFOEPHMFHHFEBOEOPUOBNFE

t 4USFFUOBNJOH
t 5IFSFJTOPDPOTJTUFOUTUSFFUOBNJOHTZTUFN3PVUFTJOTJEF
UIFCMPDLTIBWFOPOBNFT5IFZEPGPMMPXBOVNCFSJOH
TZTUFN CVUOPTUSFFUTJHOTJOEJDBUFUIJTSPVUFOVNCFS5IJT
JOGPSNBUJPOJTMJTUFEPOMZPOMBSHFNBQTJHOTBUFOUSBODFTUP
UIFCMPDLJOUFSJPS TFFJNBHFBUSJHIU


t 0QQPSUVOJUJFTGPSXBZmOEJOHTJHOBHF
t 5IFJOUFSJPSPGNBOZPGUIFVSCBOCMPDLTQSFTFOUJEFBM
MPDBUJPOTGPSDZDMJOH BOEXJUIUIFJOUSPEVDUJPOPGNJECMPDL
DSPTTJOHTDPVMEQSPWJEFDPNGPSUBCMFMPOHFSDZDMJOHSPVUFT
BDSPTTUIF/PSUI*TMBOE
t 5IFGPMMPXJOHQBHFTQSFTFOUBOPWFSWJFXPGFYJTUJOH
XBZmOEJOHTJHOBHFJO"CV%IBCJ

398

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan

User Information and Waynding

Waynding
Understanding of Local Context
Existing Signage: Directional on-street waynding signage
5IFGPMMPXJOHQSFTFOUTBSFWJFXPGFYJTUJOHXBZmOEJOHTJHOBHFJO
"CV%IBCJ
t 4USFOHUIT
t 4JHOBHFJTQMBDFESFHVMBSMZBMPOHTJEFUIFQFEFTUSJBO
VOEFSQBTTFTUPJOEJDBUFUIFJSMPDBUJPO
t 5FYUPOCMVFEJSFDUJPOBMTJHOBHFJTMBSHFBOEFBTZUPSFBE 
BOEVTFTQJDUPHSBNTUPJOEJDBUFQFEFTUSJBOSPVUFT
t 5IFEJSFDUJPOBMmOHFSQPTU UPQSJHIU
JOEJDBUFTUIFSPVUFWJB
VOEFSQBTTFTUPEJGGFSFOUEFTUJOBUJPOTXIFSFNVMUJQMFSPVUFT
DSPTT $PSOJDIFBOE-BLF1BSL

t 8FBLOFTTFT
t .PTUVOEFSQBTTFTBMMPXQFEFTUSJBOTUPDSPTTPOFNBKPS
WFIJDVMBSSPBE BOEUIFPUIFSTJEFJTWJTJCMF)PXFWFS XIFSF
UIJTJTOPUUIFDBTF JUJTVODMFBSXIFSFUIFSPVUFMFBET
t 5FYUPOUIFmOHFSQPTUTJHOJTTNBMMBOEUIFmOHFSTMBUTBSF
IJHIVQ NBLJOHUIFJOGPSNBUJPOEJGmDVMUUPSFBEGSPNBGBS
t 5IF14"1TUBUFTUIBUi1FEFTUSJBOTJHOBHFJOBEWBODFPG
QFEFTUSJBODSPTTJOH<JT>NJTTJOHPSJNQSPQFSMZQMBDFEw 

t 0QQPSUVOJUJFT
t *OTPNFMPDBUJPOT JUNBZCFOFDFTTBSZUPJOEJDBUFUIF
EFTUJOBUJPOPGUIFQFEFTUSJBOSPVUFT
t 8IFSFUIJTJOGPSNBUJPOJTJOEJDBUFE JUTIPVMECFEJTQMBZFE
DMFBSMZ
Figure 22 - Image Source: Atkins

User Information and Waynding

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan

399

Waynding
Understanding of Local Context
Existing Signage: Beachfront signage and branding
5IFTFTJHOTBSFMPDBUFEPOUIFQVCMJDCFBDIBMPOHUIF$PSOJDIFJO
"CV%IBCJ
t 4USFOHUIT
t 4USPOHCSBOEJOH DPOTJTUFOUTUZMF
t $MFBSMZWJTJCMF
t -BSHFCMVFUPUFNTJHOVTFTJDPOT OPUUFYU

t 8FBLOFTTFT
t 4PNFJEFOUJmDBUJPOTJHOBHFPCTUSVDUTWJFXUPEJSFDUJPOBM
TJHOT
t %VQMJDBUJPOPGEJSFDUJPOBMTJHOBHFDSFBUFTDPOGVTJPO

t 0QQPSUVOJUJFT
t $POTJEFSVTFJOPUIFSQMBDFT
t 1FPQMFBSFGBNJMJBSXJUIUIJTLJOEPGJOGPSNBUJPO BOEIBWF
TFFOJUCFGPSF
t 3BUJPOBMJTFTJHOBHFUPBWPJEEVQMJDBUJPO
t #VJMEPOFYJTUJOHQJDUPHSBNTJGUIFTFBSFXFMMVTFEBOE
VOEFSTUPPE

Figure 23 - Image Source: Atkins

400

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan

User Information and Waynding

Waynding
Understanding of Local Context
Existing Signage: Route conrmation signs in Abu Dhabi
5IFTFTJHOTBSFMPDBUFEBMPOHUIF$PSOJDIFJO"CV%IBCJ
t 4USFOHUIT
t 4JHOBHFJTQMBDFESFHVMBSMZBMPOHTJEFUIF$PSOJDIFDZDMF
SPVUFUPJOEJDBUFJUTJOUFOEFEVTFST

t 8FBLOFTTFT
t 4UZMFTBSFOPUDPOTJTUFOUBMPOHUIFSPVUF$ZDMFBOE
QFEFTUSJBOSPVUFTJHOBHFJTQSPWJEFEJOBWBSJFUZPGGPSNBUT 
VTJOHTMJHIUMZEJGGFSFOUTZNCPMT
t %JTQMBZTBSFWFSZTNBMMBOEOPUWFSZOPUJDFBCMF
t *ODPSSFDUTJHOPSVTFPGTJHOUIFQJDUPHSBNVTFEPO
UIFCPUUPNMFGUJNBHFJTB6,TUBOEBSETJHOUPJOEJDBUF
SPVUFTQSPIJCJUFEUPCJDZDMFT)PXFWFS UIJTTJHOJTQMBDFE
BMPOHTJEFBDZDMFSPVUF

t 0QQPSUVOJUJFT
t 4JHOBHFTIPVMEVTFUIFTBNFEJTQMBZTUZMFBOEWJTVBM
MBOHVBHF

t 1BWFNFOUNBSLJOHTDPVMECFVTFEPOUIFSPVUFBOEXPVME
BWPJEUIFOFFEGPSQPTUTJHOT

Figure 24 - Image Source: Atkins

User Information and Waynding

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan

401

Waynding
Understanding of Local Context
Existing Signage: Map-based waynding signage in Abu
Dhabi
t Strengths
t A map of the island located along the cycle track on the
Corniche gives an overview of the vehicular routes in the city.
(Top images)
t A map of the Urban Gardens (Hadeeqa Al Madeena) indicate
the various areas within it.
t Weaknesses
t The signs are placed at a height that makes it difcult to
read, and it is not area where people can comfortably stand
to read it.
t The map displays the main vehicular routes on the North
Island. The graphics are unclear, with red being used over
roads as well as outlining the entire island.
t Urban Garden sign is only in Arabic. It is placed along a slim
path, blocked by a lamppost and with large shrubs in front
preventing people from standing to look at the sign.
t Opportunities
t When placing map-based signs, consider how people will
use them and ensure that sufcient space is given in front of
them for standing.
t Sign height should correspond with their function. Map signs
for pedestrians should be placed at eye height.
t Sign information should be in Arabic and in English.

Figure 25 - Image Source: Atkins

402

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan

User Information and Waynding

Waynding
Understanding of Local Context
Existing Signage: Map-based on-street waynding signage
This type of sign can be found throughout Abu Dhabi along the
street at an entrance to the interior of the block.
t Strengths
t Map-based road signs located within the CBD show the
conguration of the block interior.
t Information is in Arabic and in English.
t A You are here conrmation sign indicates your position on
the block.
t Interior routes are shown in a different colour than the main
vehicular road, with a route number indicated.
t Weaknesses
Signs lack useful detail such as landmarks and surrounding
street names.
Interior route numbers do not have corresponding location
signs to indicate these routes.
Interior route numbers are the same within different blocks.

t Opportunities
t Although not intended for pedestrians, such signs are a
useful indicator of the block.
t Placing such signs at a lower level will allow people to look
more closely and understand the block.

Figure 26 - Image Source: Atkins

User Information and Waynding

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan

403

Waynding
Understanding of Local Context
Existing Signage: Yas Island

These signs can be found on Yas Island.


t Strengths
t Signage on Yas Island provides directional information
in English and Arabic, as well as distance and additional
information such as opening hours.
t Small icons low to the ground indicate routes for pedestrians
and cyclists through the use of icons.
t Eye-catching and high quality products make signs more
approachable.

t Weaknesses
t Vertical text is not very easy to read
t Inconsistency of information format with other signage
systems throughout Abu Dhabi and

t Opportunities
t Interpretive Signage could be introduced to inform people
about the area.

Figure 27 - Image Source: Atkins

404

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan

User Information and Waynding

Waynding
Understanding of Local Context
Existing information: Map handouts
These free paper map handouts are available at many tourist
destinations and at hotels.
t Strengths
t 3D buildings help users to use landmarks to navigate and
understand the city
t Showing the area in multiple scales helps to better
understand the city and its location within the Emirate
t The ADTA map has features on key attractions within the
city, including the Grand Mosque and Emirates Palace
t An online version of the Geoforma map allows a closer look
using a magnifying glass feature
t An interactive version of the ADTA map is available online, as
well as a Business Tourism Planner Guide
t Weaknesses
t Focuses on vehicular routes
t Walking routes not shown, including the Corniche
t Opportunities
t 3D buildings highlight landmarks and buildings of
architectural merit for navigating and for communicating the
citys features
t Maps at multiple scales are useful for visitors to understand
the place and encourage exploration further aeld
t Printed maps distributed to visitors are useful for informing
them about the place and encouraging visits by foot
t Online versions are helpful for pre-planning

Figure 28 - Image Source: Geoforma

User Information and Waynding

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan

405

Waynding
Recommendations
Recommendations

Based on the review of good practice, existing signage, and work


undertaken to develop the Walking and Cycling Masterplan, we
have developed the following recommendations.

t Provide information to encourage active travel and behaviour


change
t Signage and maps in particular can help people to better
understand the area and should be used to encourage
active journeys.
t Support walking and cycling networks through signage and
information provision.
t Inform users about journey distance and indicative time by
foot and by bicycle. Journeys within the city centre may be
much shorter than perceived.

t Improve connectivity (and perceived connectivity)


t Connect up whole routes and journeys using signage to
make the routes easier to understand and more enjoyable.
Ensure pedestrian and cyclist routes are clear, visible, and
demarcated through surface treatments, signage including
painted lines on the route, landscaping, etc.
t Provide contextual or wider area information is encouraged
to maximise integration with other trails, strategic routes
and waynding systems. Connectivity across administrative
boundaries is important, and should be addressed to
encourage seamless journeys.
t Signage and information should be integrated with public
transportation, recognising and advocating walking and
cycling as part of journeys on public transportation.
t Provide information on cycling and walking routes, including
where they are, how to get to them, and available facilities.
Consider adding evaluations of routes, such as any
topographical features (e.g. Is it an easy route or challenging
due to hills).

406

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan

User Information and Waynding

Waynding
Recommendations
t The right information at the right time
t Focus on the user, and make sure that walking and cycling
journeys are supported through the provision of information
where it is needed on the network and on key routes.
t Sign location and content must be pertinent to user needs
and location. The right information should be presented to
the user at the most appropriate moment in their journey.
Signs should only be located where they are necessary.

t Communicate the environment


t Streets should be identied with signs. This will help people
to determine where they are.
t Adaptability is important, especially in environments which
are undergoing physical changes. In these cases, it is
important that signage be updated to reect the changing
conguration and to communicate these changes to users.
For example, consider displaying redevelopment areas on
walking and cycling maps.

t Get the word out promote walking and cycling


t Provide information at the airport, visitor information centres,
transport links, shopping centres, tourist attractions, hotels,
restaurants. The more people hear the message and see
how easy it can be, the more likely it is that theyll take it up.

t Improve natural waynding


t Alongside changes to the physical environment, public
art and landmarks to identify places and support natural
waynding without signage.

User Information and Waynding

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan

407

Waynding
Recommendations
Route and area naming conventions
t Addressing System Standards
In order to encourage use of routes and to help people to nd
them, it is important to name the routes for use on maps and
even in daily conversation. Road naming is being undertaken
by the Department of Municipal Affairs (DMA) as part of the
Addressing System Standards. The aim of the document is to
dene a universal addressing standard for the emirate of Abu
Dhabi. This includes naming of existing and future districts and
roads, and numbering of buildings.
The Addressing Standard proposes that one unique name will
be used for each road within the Emirate. In summary, road
names should be:
t unique to the district
t Short (no longer than 36 characters)
t Easy to read, spell, and pronounce in Arabic and in English
t Preference for road names is given to those associated with
heritage and culture of the UAE
t Names shall be written in Arabic and in the English
transliteration
t Numbers shall not be used for road names, with some
exceptions of existing roads
The document also denes districts with specic boundaries
and unique names for the Emirate.
Further details can be found in DMAs Addressing System
Standards Manual for the Emirate of Abu Dhabi.

t Walking and Cycling route naming


It is proposed that the naming system for walking and cycling
routes follow the same principles as the DMAs Addressing
System.
t Signicant walking and cycling routes, such as those
identied in the network of the Walking and Cycling
Masterplan, should be named.
t Route names should be short, easy to read, spell and
pronounce in Arabic and in English.
t Routes should have a name unique within the Emirate, so
that only one route, regardless of transport mode or district,
has a unique name. Distinct walking and cycling routes are
less common than are vehicular routes, and as such, it is
reasonable to expect.
t Preference should be given to names associated with the
heritage and culture of the UAE.
t Route names should be displayed on maps and on signs.
It is recommended that the district boundaries dened
within the Addressing System document be integrated into
waynding schemes to ensure consistency of information.

Further detail may need to be determined as route names are


established. Responsible parties for naming of routes will need to
be determined.

408

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan

User Information and Waynding

Waynding
Recommendations
Information provision and outline sign family
The scope of formats available for waynding information is
extensive, and can include on-street information as well as
handouts.
The products shown here offer a preliminary outline sign family,
indicating the suite of waynding signs proposed as part of the
Walking and Cycling Masterplan. These should be developed
further by graphic designers and product designers to detail the
exact layout, structure, and format of the products.
Different applications can provide different information in different
formats, as shown in the indicative sign family at left. Information
can be presented as static, digital, or interactive. Further detail on
information content can be found on the following pages.
Product design should take into account accessibility, ensuring
that products follow the UKs Disability Discrimination Act (1995),
the US Americans with Disabilities Act (1990), the Australian
Disability Discrimination Act, or similar.

Example layout of map totem


Figure 29 - Example layout of map totem

User Information and Waynding

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan

409

Waynding
Recommendations
Digital and Paper Media

Augmented
reality apps

Smart phone apps

Websites

Paper maps

Paper handouts

On-street sign products

Static or
interactive
information totem

Banner (large)

Figure 30 - Potential Sign Family

Static or interactive
information board

Banner (small)

Wall-mounted panel

Fingerpost

Information
board

Pavement markings

410

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan

User Information and Waynding

Waynding
Recommendations
Information Content
Information content should addressed user needs, addressing a
variety of user types, journeys, and areas, and will vary based on
need and context. Content should be user focused, presenting
information needed by pedestrians and cyclists in a clear and
consistent manner.
Maps of cycling and walking network and distinct routes should be
developed to meet the needs of pedestrians and cyclists. The map
could be used in a number of ways, including as a paper handout,
online or as a smart phone app, or as on street-based waynding
signage.
The table at right describes the core information content that
should be displayed in different formats, as well as additional
information which could be added if deemed appropriate.

Core Information

Additional

Map of local and wider area, including

t 3D buildings on maps

t Walking and cycling routes;

t Pedestrian and cyclist


facilities such as road
crossings

t Route names;
t Public/open spaces,
t Key attractions, including hotels;
t Transport links including bus stops,
Metro and LRT stops, taxi ranks
and car parks
t Shaded routes
t Area names such as districts,
quarters
t Topographical features

t Regulatory information
such as cycling rules of
the road
t Schematic transport maps
t Index of streets and
destinations presented on
the map
t Interpretation information
t Bicycle shop locations

t Location of cycle facilities such as


parking, end of ride facilities
t Scale and indication of distance
and journey times
Directional Information
t To strategic destinations, including
visitor attractions and key
communicty facilities
Route Identication Signage
t Route names, pavement markings
Interpretation Information
t Will vary based on location, but
should contain information to
help users understand an area,
such as historic facts or cultural
signicance.

Table 1 - Information content for different formats

User Information and Waynding

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan

411

Waynding
Recommendations
Information Content and Delivery
t Information Delivery
t Information should be presented in Arabic and in English
t Icons and pictograms should be used wherever possible to
facilitate understanding. These can be designed to follow a
particular graphic style or local considerations.
t A hierarchy can be established to ensure that the right
information is displayed and that signs and maps are clear
and legible.
t Information should have a consistent look and feel
t - Graphic style can be based on graphic design guidelines
from WCMP, for example using the yellow colour for walking,
green for cycling. In particular for any pilot programmes
and temporary signage, using this graphic style can
communicate the system to the users on the street.
t Follow accessibility guidelines for sign graphics and artwork,
including colour contrast, text and pictogram size and
display. - Detailed information which requires close-up
reading such maps or small text is best placed at eye level.
Display height levels for transport information should be
applied to waynding signage as well.
t Digital and/or interactive display can be used where this
would provide added value and signicant benet.
t When producing maps, ensure that sufcient quantities are
produced and delivery is secured so that they can be widely
distributed and can be done so by a number of different
organisations.

t On-street signage
t This is further described on pages xx.
t Digital and Paper Media
t Paper handouts can include maps, interpretation
information, and regulatory information.
t Paper maps can depict a variety of map scales and highlight
key destinations.
t Websites can include interactive journey planners, maps,
walking and cycling guides, and in-depth information
about rules of the road (for cyclists on motorised routes).
Information can be interactive and, and can be developed for
printing at home.
t Smart phone applications could include much of the same
applications as the website, but focus on interactive material
and local guides.
t Augmented reality for smart phones can be used to further
integrate the physical and digital realms, making walking
from key destinations easier and more approachable.

412

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan

User Information and Waynding

Waynding
Recommendations
t Placement Strategy

t Information should be provided along identied walking and


cycling networks.
t Signs and information panels should always be placed in the
furniture zone and perpendicular to the primary direction of
movement.
t Safety for pedestrians, cyclists, and motorised vehicles is
paramount, and a sufcient buffer zone should be used
around the sign.

t Shading should be considered in the placement plan


for informational signage such as map signs. This can
be achieved by planting and trees, buildings, or shading
structures.
t Appropriate lighting levels around signs should be available
so that signs can be used in the evenings and at night.
t Signs should be kept clear of foliage such as trees, as this
can impact on sign visibility and on maintenance.

t Accessibility should be an important consideration. Signs


and information panels should not obstruct routes, and
should not be placed on routes.

Pedestrian Realm

Buffer
and furniture zone

Shared Surface

Figure 31 - Typical Waterfront Route Example

Buffer
and furniture zone

Cycle track

Buffer

Road

User Information and Waynding

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan

413

Waynding
Recommendations
High Level Placement Strategy

t Street typologies
t Expressway
t Boulevard

A single sign, appropriately chosen, designed, and placed,


should be able to address information needs at a given location.
Placement will need to be determined by a review of user journeys.

t Avenue
t Street and Access Lane
t Sikka

Based on the land use and street typologies of different areas, sign
placement, types and information content have been identied
as deemed appropriate to context. It should be noted that this is
intended as guidance only and is not a prescription for signage in
these areas.
t Land use typologies
t Commercial/Retail Central Business District, active
frontage, shopping areas (malls and active frontage), ofce
areas
t Community Services schools and educational facilities,
community centres, religious centres, healthcare facilities,
street-based public police and governmental ofces
t Open Space and Recreation parks, playgrounds and
sports elds, natural open spaces
t Transport Facilities public transport including bus terminals
and stops, taxi stands, rail or tram stations, ferry stations,
water taxi stands
t Residential
t Industrial/Agricultural/Infrastructure Industrial areas, utility
areas, farms and agricultural areas, air strip, military facilities,
civil defence, or private police facilities

t Mushtarak
t Wadi Trail
t Greenway
t Waterfront Promenade
t Cycle route
t Includes cycle lane, cycle track, shared lane, segregated
cycle and pedestrian path, shared cycle and pedestrian path
t Pedestrian Bridge/Overpass
t Tunnel/Underpass/Subway

WAYFINDING SIGN

414

BANNER

PRODUCT
Abu
DhabiTYPE
Walking and Cycling
APPLICATIONS
Master
Plan

ROUTE MARKER

TOTEM

(static or interactive
User Information and Waynding

INFORMATION BOARD
(large)

information)

TRANSPORT INFORMATION
PANEL
(wall mounted)

INTERPRETATION PODIUM

PAVEMENT MARKINGS

FINGERPOST

Waynding
Recommendations
FUNCTION

Indicate to pedestrians
and/or cyclists that they
are on a route designated
for their use. Make other
modes aware of the route.
Particularly suitable for
temporary events and to
support placemaking.

Indicate to pedestrians and/


or cyclists that they are on
a route designated solely
for their use. Make other
modes aware of the route.
Can also provide directional
information for cyclists.

Provide detailed information


on the local area, including
available routes for
pedestrians and cyclists,
local attractions and
facilities

Provide information on
the local and wider area,
including available routes for
pedestrians and cyclists, local
attractions and facilities,
additional information and
interpretation

Provide information on
the local area, including
available routes for
pedestrians and cyclists,
transport connections

Provide information
on the local area, and
interpretation of the area
and local features

Indicate a route and its


usage. Make other modes
aware of the route.

Mark a junction or decision


point; indicate where a
route turns; direct to nearby
destinations. Supports quick
decisions at junctions.

GENERAL
PLACEMENT
GUIDELINES

placed regularly along route

placed regularly along route


and at major decision points

arrival and decision points,


dwelling areas, transport
links

major public spaces, arrival


points, stopping and resting
points including end of ride
facilities

transport links

dwelling areas, destinations


such as view points or scenic
overlooks

placed regularly along


routes, primarily cycle or
shared use routes

junctions, decision points,


route turns

LANDUSE TYPOLOGIES AND BENEFITS


Commercial / Retail

N/A

 Increase local
understanding by informing
users of locations of
designated routes and
facilities for walking and
cycling, route destinations
 Improve understanding
of journeys by providing
travel times/distances
 Promote usage of routes

 Communicate area name,


identity and branding
 Increase local
understanding by informing
users of locations of
designated routes and
facilities for walking and
cycling, route destinations,
and local amenities
 Improve understanding
of journeys by providing
travel times/distances
 Encourage walking
and cycling between
nearby destinations and
exploration of nearby areas
 Support journeys between
transport connections

 Inform users about local


features such as places
of historical and cultural
signicance by providing
interpretation information
 Communicate area name,
identity and branding
 Inform people about
routes and facilities for
walking and cycling, route
destinations, and travel
times/distances
 Inform people about the
local area, including new
developments using maps
 Encourage walking
and cycling between
nearby destinations and
exploration of nearby areas
 Provide basic information
on local transport
connections, such as
schematic route maps

 N/A

 Communicate area name,


identity and branding
 Inform pedestrians
about the local area and
attractions using static or
interactive information
 Inform users about
local features such as
information regarding
retail areas, by providing
interpretation information
such as shopping maps
 Encourage engagement
with the area by providing
interactive or 3D maps of
local area

 Indicate designated
walking and cycling routes
and indicate turns to
inform users
 Make other modes aware
of the route

 Increase local
understanding by informing
users of locations of
designated routes and
facilities for walking and
cycling, route destinations
 Improve understanding
of journeys by providing
travel times/distances
 Encourage walking
and cycling between
nearby destinations and
exploration of nearby areas
 Support journeys between
transport connections

Community Services

N/A

 Increase local
understanding by informing
users of locations of
designated routes and
facilities for walking and
cycling, route destinations
 Improve understanding
of journeys by providing
travel times/distances
 Promote usage of routes

 Communicate area name,


identity and branding
 Increase local
understanding by informing
users of locations of
designated routes and
facilities for walking and
cycling, route destinations,
and local amenities
 Improve understanding
of journeys by providing
travel times/distances
 Encourage walking
and cycling between
nearby destinations and
exploration of nearby areas
 Promote active journeys to/
from community services,
such as at schools.
 Support journeys between
transport connections

 Communicate area name,


identity and branding
 Inform people about
routes and facilities for
walking and cycling, route
destinations, and travel
times/distances
 Inform people about the
local area, including new
developments
 Encourage walking
and cycling between
nearby destinations and
exploration of nearby areas
 Provide basic information
on local transport
connections, such as
schematic route maps

 N/A

 N/A

 Indicate designated
walking and cycling routes
and indicate turns to
inform users
 Make other modes aware
of the route

 Increase local
understanding by informing
users of locations of
designated routes and
facilities for walking and
cycling, route destinations
 Improve understanding
of journeys by providing
travel times/distances
 Encourage walking
and cycling between
nearby destinations and
exploration of nearby areas
 Support journeys between
transport connections

Table 2 - High Level Placement Strategy

WAYFINDING SIGN
PRODUCT TYPE
APPLICATIONS

BANNER

ROUTE MARKER

TOTEM
(static or interactive
information)

INFORMATION BOARD
(large)

TRANSPORT INFORMATION
PANEL
User
(wall mounted)

INTERPRETATION PODIUM

PAVEMENT MARKINGS

Information and Waynding

FINGERPOST

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan

415

Waynding
Recommendations
Open Space and
Recreation

 Communicate area name,


identity, and branding
 Indicate to pedestrians
and/or cyclists that they
are on a route designated
for their use
 Promote events

 Increase local
understanding by informing
users of locations of
designated routes and
facilities for walking and
cycling, route destinations
 Improve understanding
of journeys by providing
travel times/distances
 Promote usage of routes

 Communicate area name,


identity and branding
 Increase local
understanding by informing
users of locations of
designated routes and
facilities for walking and
cycling, route destinations,
and local amenities
 Improve understanding
of journeys by providing
travel times/distances
 Encourage walking
and cycling between
nearby destinations and
exploration of nearby areas
 Promote links to public
transportation

 Communicate area name,


identity and branding
 Increase local
understanding by informing
users of locations of
designated routes and
facilities for walking and
cycling, route destinations,
and local amenities
 Improve understanding of
journeys by providing travel
times/distances
 Encourage walking
and cycling between
nearby destinations and
exploration of nearby areas
 Improve understanding
of local transport
connections by providing
static information such as
schematic route maps and
timetables

 N/A

 Inform pedestrians
about the local area and
attractions using static or
interactive information
 Inform users about
local features such as
places of historical &
cultural signicance and
recreational spaces by
providing interpretation
information
 Encourage engagement
with the area by providing
interactive or 3D maps of
local area
 Communicate area name,
identity and branding

 Indicate designated
walking and cycling routes
and indicate turns to
inform users
 Make other modes aware
of the route

 Increase local
understanding by informing
users of locations of
designated routes and
facilities for walking and
cycling, route destinations
 Improve understanding
of journeys by providing
travel times/distances
 Encourage walking
and cycling between
nearby destinations and
exploration of nearby areas
 Support journeys between
transport connections

Transport Facilities

 N/A

 Increase local
understanding by informing
users of locations of
designated routes and
facilities for walking and
cycling, route destinations
 Improve understanding
of journeys by providing
travel times/distances
 Promote usage of routes

 Communicate area name,


identity and branding
 Increase local
understanding by informing
users of locations of
designated routes and
facilities for walking and
cycling, route destinations,
and local amenities
 Improve understanding
of journeys by providing
travel times/distances
 Encourage walking
and cycling between
nearby destinations and
exploration of nearby areas

 Communicate area name,


identity and branding
 Increase local
understanding by informing
users of locations of
designated routes and
facilities for walking and
cycling, route destinations,
and local amenities
 Improve understanding of
journeys by providing travel
times/distances
 Encourage walking
and cycling between
nearby destinations and
exploration of nearby areas
 Improve understanding of
on local and district-wide
transport connections by
providing static information
such as schematic route
maps and timetables

 Information can be
integrated into transport
structures such as bus
shelters
 Increase local
understanding by informing
users of locations of
designated routes and
facilities for walking and
cycling, route destinations,
and local amenities
 Encourage walking
and cycling between
nearby destinations and
exploration of nearby areas
 Provide static or interactive
information on local and
district-wide transport
connections, such as
schematic route maps and
timetables
 Promote interchange of
other modes

 N/A

 Indicate designated
walking and cycling routes
and indicate turns to
inform users
 Make other modes aware
of the route

 Increase local
understanding by informing
users of locations of
designated routes and
facilities for walking and
cycling, route destinations
 Improve understanding
of journeys by providing
travel times/distances
 Encourage walking
and cycling between
nearby destinations and
exploration of nearby areas
 Encourage walking to local
transport links

Residential

 N/A

 As appropriate, where
routes pass through a
residential area, increase
local understanding
by informing users of
locations of designated
routes and facilities for
walking and cycling, route
destinations
 Improve understanding
of journeys by providing
travel times/distances
 Promote usage of routes

 N/A

 N/A

 N/A

 N/A

 Indicate designated
walking and cycling routes
and indicate turns to
inform users
 Make other modes aware
of the route

 N/A

Industrial / Agricultural

 N/A

 N/A

 N/A

 N/A

 N/A

 N/A

 Indicate designated
walking and cycling routes
and indicate turns to
inform users
 Make other modes aware
of the route

 N/A

416

WAYFINDING SIGN
PRODUCT TYPE

BANNER

Abu
Dhabi Walking and Cycling
APPLICATIONS
Master Plan

ROUTE MARKER

TOTEM
(static or interactive

User Information and Waynding


information)

INFORMATION BOARD
(large)

TRANSPORT INFORMATION
PANEL
(wall mounted)

INTERPRETATION PODIUM

PAVEMENT MARKINGS

FINGERPOST

Waynding
Recommendations
STREET TYPOLOGY
Expressway

 N/A

 N/A

 N/A

 N/A

 N/A

 N/A

 N/A

 N/A

Boulevard

 N/A

 Indicate designated
walking and cycling routes,
destinations, and travel
times/distances

 Indicate location
 Provide directional
information for pedestrians
and cyclists along
designated routes
 Provide static information
including maps showing
designated walking and
cycling routes, locations
of cycle and community
facilities, transport links
 Index of streets and local
destinations

 At major transport facilities


or large public spaces
 Indicate location
 Provide static or interactive
information including
maps showing designated
walking and cycling
routes, locations of cycle
and community facilities,
transport links
 Index of streets and local
destinations
 Optional platform for social
marketing strategies

 N/A

 N/A

 Indicate designated routes


and turns

 Direct to routes and local


destinations (pedestrians
and cyclists)
 Provide route conrmation
and route destination

Avenues

 N/A

 Indicate designated
walking and cycling routes,
destinations, and travel
times/distances

 Indicate location
 Provide directional
information for pedestrians
and cyclists along
designated routes
 Provide static information
including maps showing
designated walking and
cycling routes, locations
of cycle and community
facilities, transport links
 Index of streets and local
destinations

 At major transport facilities


only
 Indicate location
 Provide static or interactive
information including
maps showing designated
walking and cycling
routes, locations of cycle
and community facilities,
transport links
 Index of streets and local
destinations
 Optional platform for social
marketing strategies

 N/A

 N/A

 Indicate designated routes


and turns

 Direct to routes and local


destinations (pedestrians
and cyclists)
 Provide route conrmation
and route destination

Streets and Access


Lanes

 N/A

 Indicate designated
walking and cycling routes,
destinations, and travel
times/distances

 Indicate location
 Provide directional
information for pedestrians
and cyclists along
designated routes
 Provide static information
including maps showing
designated walking and
cycling routes, locations
of cycle and community
facilities, transport links
 Index of streets and local
destinations

 N/A

 N/A

 N/A

 Indicate designated routes


and turns

 Direct to routes and local


destinations (pedestrians
and cyclists)
 Provide route conrmation
and route destination

Sikkas and

 N/A

 N/A

 N/A

 N/A

 N/A

 N/A

 N/A

 Direct to routes and local


destinations (pedestrians
and cyclists)
 Provide route conrmation
and route destination

 N/A

 Indicate designated
walking and cycling routes,
destinations, and travel
times/distances
 Ensure sign design is
context appropriate

 Indicate location
 Provide directional
information for pedestrians
and cyclists along
designated routes
 Provide static information
including maps showing
designated walking and
cycling routes, locations
of cycle and community
facilities, transport links
 Ensure sign design is
context appropriate

 N/A

 N/A

 Information and
interpretation on key local
attractions
 Ensure sign design is
context appropriate

 N/A

 Direct to routes and local


destinations (pedestrians
and cyclists)
 Provide route conrmation
and route destination
 Ensure sign design is
context appropriate

Mushtaraks

Wadi Trails

WAYFINDING SIGN
PRODUCT TYPE
APPLICATIONS

BANNER

ROUTE MARKER

TOTEM
(static or interactive
information)

INFORMATION BOARD
(large)

TRANSPORT INFORMATION
PANEL
(wall mounted)User

INTERPRETATION PODIUM

PAVEMENT MARKINGS

Information and Waynding

FINGERPOST

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan

Waynding
Recommendations

Greenways

 N/A

 Indicate designated
walking and cycling routes,
destinations, and travel
times/distances
 Ensure sign design is
context appropriate

 Indicate location
 Provide directional
information for pedestrians
and cyclists along
designated routes
 Provide static information
including maps showing
designated walking and
cycling routes, locations
of cycle and community
facilities, transport links
 Ensure sign design is
context appropriate

 At stopping points along


routes only, as appropriate
 Indicate location
 Provide directional
information for pedestrians
and cyclists along
designated routes
 Provide static or interactive
information including
maps showing designated
walking and cycling
routes, locations of cycle
and community facilities,
transport links
 Optional platform for social
marketing strategies
 Ensure sign design is
context appropriate

 N/A

 Information and
interpretation on key local
attractions
 Ensure sign design is
context appropriate

 Indicate designated routes


and turns

 Direct to routes and local


destinations (pedestrians
and cyclists)
 Provide route conrmation
and route destination
 Ensure sign design is
context appropriate

Waterfront

 Identify route

 Indicate designated
walking and cycling routes,
destinations, and travel
times/distances

 Indicate location
 Provide directional
information for pedestrians
and cyclists along
designated routes
 Provide static information
including maps showing
designated walking and
cycling routes, locations
of cycle and community
facilities, transport links

 At stopping points along


routes only, as appropriate
 Indicate location
 Provide directional
information for pedestrians
and cyclists along
designated routes
 Provide static or interactive
information including
maps showing designated
walking and cycling
routes, locations of cycle
and community facilities,
transport links
 Optional platform for social
marketing strategies

 N/A

 Information and
interpretation on key local
attractions

 Indicate designated routes


and turns

 Direct to routes and local


destinations (pedestrians
and cyclists)
 Provide route conrmation
and route destination

Cycle route

 N/A

 Indicate designated
walking and cycling routes,
destinations, and travel
times/distances

 Indicate location
 Provide directional
information for pedestrians
and cyclists along
designated routes
 Provide static information
including maps showing
designated walking and
cycling routes, locations
of cycle and community
facilities, transport links

 N/A

 N/A

 N/A

 Indicate designated routes


and turns

 Direct to routes and local


destinations (pedestrians
and cyclists)
 Provide route conrmation
and route destination

Pedestrian Bridge/
Overpass

 N/A

 Indicate designated
walking and cycling routes,
destinations, and travel
times/distances

 N/A

 N/A

 N/A

 N/A

 Indicate designated routes


and turns

 Direct to routes and local


destinations (pedestrians
and cyclists)
 Provide route conrmation
and route destination

Tunnels/

 N/A

 Indicate designated
walking and cycling routes,
destinations, and travel
times/distances

 N/A

 N/A

 N/A

 N/A

 Indicate designated routes


and turns

 Direct to routes and local


destinations (pedestrians
and cyclists)
 Provide route conrmation
and route destination

Promenade

Underpasses/
Subways

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Waynding
Recommendations

t Further applications
t Waynding information can be applied in a number of
different ways to better meet the needs of users, to promote
walking and cycling networks as well as waynding systems.

t Themed maps
t Themed maps can be developed to promote and inform
pedestrians and cyclists about specic features and
destinations, including shopping, tourist attractions, or parks
and outdoor activities.
t Maps of emirate-wide cycle routes can inform cyclists about
routes and also allow them to plan longer journeys.

t Waynding to market the WCMP


t Waynding can be used in demonstration projects to identify
routes and inform users about the routes and destinations.
This can be benecial both for users of the routes and for
non-users to identify and to associate with the scheme.
t Signs can be used to communicate new developments and
projects, active travel schemes and promotions. Similarly, the
Abu Dhabi Tourist Authority currently provides information
on its local area map, including existing attractions such as
the Grand Mosque as well as upcoming developments at
Saadiyat Island.

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Waynding
Recommendations

t Marketing waynding strategies


When implementing a scheme, get people excited about it.
For example, temporary base plates can be used to cover the
installation holes for on-street waynding signs and to inform
people about the scheme.
Encourage distribution of paper maps at ofces, hotels, visitor
centres, and other public places.
Maps can be printed onto construction hoarding to redirect
people and to advertise the changes as well as a waynding
system.
Hand out maps and information at places where walking can be
encouraged between destinations, such as shopping centres
and public transport interchanges. Trained staff could be used
on-site to answer questions about the value of walking and
cycling, possible routes, and showing people how to use the
maps and information distributed.
Web-based features can offer maps or information to print at
home.

t Integration with public transportation information and waynding


t Walking forms an integral part of any journey by public
transportation. Providing information to support walking and
cycling as transport acknowledges their importance.
t Pedestrian and cyclist waynding information should be
incorporated into transport waynding signage. While it
may not be possible to do so at all transport links such as
minor bus stops where no shelter is provided, this should be
incorporated as a priority at major links such as rail stations,
Metro and LRT stations, bus shelters, identied taxi ranks,
water taxi ranks.
t Maps which clearly display walking and cycling routes
should be incorporated into the upcoming multi-modal
waynding scheme.
t Tourism
t Maps are important for helping tourists to understand an
area and to nd their way around.
t Journeys by foot and by bicycle can be encouraged by
highlighting this information in tourist destinations.

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Waynding
Recommendations

Next Steps for waynding in Abu Dhabi


This document dened a strategy for waynding as part of the
Walking and Cycling Masterplan. Following this strategy, the next
steps to develop waynding for the Emirate should be to:
t Develop temporary signage to promote demonstration projects

A waynding strategy provides a global approach to waynding. It


should outline how it ts into other modes, dene the objectives of
the waynding strategy, and develop a framework for information
content, placement, and display of information.
A waynding system should develop and dene:

t Dene a full waynding system applicable throughout the


Emirate, including

t a set of signs to be used across schemes (sign product family),

t Test several pilot waynding schemes throughout the Emirate


to assess the strategy and system and rene for further
development.

t consistent look and feel of sign content

t content hierarchy and rules for the information to be included


t placement principles
t implementation and delivery mechanism including maintenance
and management of signs and prices for schemes
The waynding scheme is an implementation of the guidelines and
framework set out in the system, and is generally undertaken by a
distinct area or district.
t Product design
t Information plan
t Sign placement plan
t Sign artwork

Note that the development of the waynding system and scheme


do not form part of this strategy or the Walking and Cycling
Masterplan.

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Waynding
Recommendations

Waynding Strategy

Dene objectives and framework for information content, placement and display of information

Waynding System

Develop sign product family

Dene general content

Dene graphics, branding,


identity

Develop delivery mechanism

Develop schematic placement


plan

Pilot Prototypes and system renements

Waynding Scheme

Final product design details

Rene information plan for signs

Figure 32 - Overview of process to develop waynding scheme

Specic sign placement plan

Create sign artwork

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Trafc Signs and Markings


Introduction

2. Trafc Signs and Markings


Introduction
The contents of this document will inform the Recommended
Design Guidelines for Walking and Cycling (an appendix to the
Walking and Cycling Master Plan) and support identication
of elements of the walking and cycling master plan requiring
Legislation and Regulation.
Related to this document is the development of recommendations
for strategic waynding recommendations, incorporating
discussion of route naming and route signing. The summary of the
Waynding Strategy is issued in a separate report. Any directional
signing recommendations in this report will be superseded by the
Waynding Strategy.
Trafc signs and markings demarcate the highway (or street) and
communicate trafc laws and byelaws for a variety of purposes,
primarily to inform users, improve safety and provide a basis for
enforcement. This type of signing should be distinguished from
any other types of signs in the public realm (e.g. waynding signs)
which do not include any information from which to form a basis
for regulation or enforcement.

This document provides a review of existing regulatory signs


and regulations relating to pedestrian and cycle trafc signs ,
surface markings and paving symbols, drawing guidance from
published documentation from Abu Dhabi Department of Transport
& published research and knowledge of pedestrian and cycle
guidance from international examples.
The recommendations in this document will be incorporated into
the Recommended Design Guidelines, a key part of the Walking
and Cycling Master Plan.

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International Practice

International Practice
Many countries have adopted simplied and standardised
systems for the design of trafc signs. This has allowed
international protocols to be established assisting road safety and
understanding to local street users and visitors.
There are two principal systems of international protocol used:
t Federal Highways Administrations Manual on Uniform Trafc
Controls Devices
t The Vienna Convention on Road Signs and Signals agreed in
1968 by the United Nations Economic and Social Council.

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International Practice
International
Practice
Federal Highways Administrations Manual on Uniform Trafc
Controls Devices
This is used by North America, Australia and New Zealand.
t Signs are colour coded in a variety of colours, e.g. red/white for
forbidden actions, green for information, and blue for services.
t Cycle and pedestrian warning signs have a uorescent
yellow or red background, and directional signs have a green
background.
t The shape of these signs vary between diamond, triangular,
circular and rectangular. A limited number of symbols are used
in the US, however a majority of warning and informatory
signs contain text. New Zealand is inuenced by both US and
European standards and include more pictorial signs.

American standards (shown) use a less graphical approach, relying


more on worded English language descriptions of the route ahead.

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International Practice

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Trafc Signs and Markings


International Practice
The Vienna Convention on Road Signs and Signals
The Vienna Convention on Road Signs and Signals was agreed in
1968 by the United Nations Economic and Social Council.
The Vienna Convention System is currently used by 52 countries
throughout Europe, Central and South America, China and Japan.
t The convention sets out shapes and colours to be used e.g.
warning signs are triangular with a white or yellow background,
prohibition signs are circular with a red border and informatory
signs are rectangular.
t The signs are designed with a high degree of pictorial symbols
aiming to be understood at a single glance.
European countries with long-term planning and design for cycling
including Holland and Denmark use the basic principals of the
Vienna Convention standardised shapes and symbols.
The Dutch and German designs (shown) use the basic principles
of the Vienna Convention with standardised shapes and pictorial
symbols used to communicate the meaning of each sign with
minimal additional text or language.

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Trafc Signs and Markings


International Practice

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Trafc Signs and Markings


Existing Standards
Existing Standards
The Abu Dhabi Trafc Control Devices Manual 2003 includes a
small number of pedestrian and cycling regulatory and warning
signs.

The Abu Dhabi Western Region Master Plans suggest the use of
UK standard cycle regulatory signs and include a gure of typical
signs.

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Trafc Signs and Markings


Existing Standards
Local best practice suggests that where signs are provided for
cycle facilities:
t Standard signs from the UK have been used.
t Where worded signs are used an Arabic translation is also
provided.

The Walking and Cycling Master Plan will adopt (and adapt
where the need is identied) the UK standards, using the key
principles of the Vienna convention which uses standardised
shapes and pictorial symbols optimised to communicate the
meaning of each sign with minimal additional text or language

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Trafc Signs and Markings


Recommendations
Recommendations
Trafc Signs
Regulatory, warning and informatory trafc signs are being
recommended for adoption within the Emirate wide Trafc Control
Devices Manuals that are either in use or being developed. The
signs proposed are to communicate information to pedestrians
and cyclists, and where appropriate all other road users.
Sign Selection
An overarching principle of this Master Plan is to enhance and
improve the planning, design, implementation and operation of the
Public Realm in the Emirate. With this in mind, the number of trafc
signs introduced should be kept to a minimum to reduce street
clutter and to prevent confusion amongst users.
Trafc signs for shared use areas as well as cycle lanes are
currently not included in the Trafc Control Device Manual. From
site observations of shared use facilities (pedestrians and cyclists)
along the Corniche as well as Yas Island, United Kingdom trafc
signs have been adopted. It is recommended that the trafc signs
indicated be adopted for application within the Emirate where
shared use facilities are proposed as well as already in place.
Signs are also proposed for cycle lanes; contra ow lanes and
cycle parking areas.
Sign Placement: Where trafc signs are required to be
implemented, there are two key clearance principles to
understand:

Vertical clearance
t Any trafc sign likely to be a hazard to pedestrians should be
mounted at a minimum height of 2.1m to the underside of
the sign. This should be increased to 2.3m where cyclists are
present.
t Signs may be mounted at lower heights where they do not
represent a hazard to pedestrians, cyclists and motor vehicles,
such as on grass verges.
t Signs which are to be read by pedestrians and cyclists should
where possible be mounted at low level, on bollards, or be
replaced by surface markings
Lateral clearance
t Posts and signs should normally have a minimum of 600mm
lateral clearance to the edge of carriageway, and should not
affect any adjacent pedestrian through zone or off-carriageway
cycle facility.
t For off-carriageway facilities, it is recommended that posts and
signs should be positioned with sufcient clearance such that
they do not encroach in to the travel envelope of cyclists as this
reduces the effective width, and comfort, of the facility.
Trafc Sign or Surface Marking/Paving symbol?
Where regulatory, warning and other information for use by only
pedestrians and/or cyclists is required, it is recommended that the
use of Trafc Signs is minimised, and the information is displayed
by surface markings and/or paving symbols where feasible. This
recommendation is in line with the overarching principles of the
Master Plan to not only support safety, but support the delivery of
high quality public realm design, in which street clutter is minimised
and rationalised.

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Trafc Signs and Markings


Recommendations
Surface Markings
Surface Markings and Paving Symbols Selection
Surface Markings include paving symbols and are used to indicate
and inform users (both motorised and active travel users) of areas
segregated for specic movements or users.

between cyclists and people who are getting into and out of
parked vehicles.
The cycle lane is also indicated by repeated painting of the cycle
symbol in the lane, and could be further reinforced by sign posts
adjacent to the carriageway.
Shared Lane Surface Markings

The design guidelines do not seek to propose any changes to


the current surface markings used for pedestrian crossings and
facilities, other than to expand the range of sizes to suit the
reduced carriageway width.
For cycle facilities, it is recommended that the existing markings
used within the Emirate, predominantly those within the Abu Dhabi
Municipalitys Trafc Control Device Manual are used to provide
consistency. New markings are proposed where there is currently
no provision within the manual.
Some new pedestrian and cycle surface markings and paving
symbols are proposed to replace (or supplement) equivalent
trafc signs where appropriate to support high quality public realm
design, in which street clutter is minimised and rationalised.
On-carriageway Cycle Lane Surface Markings
A solid white line is recommended at the edge of a cycle lane to
denote that it is a mandatory cycle lane reserved for cyclists only.
An additional solid white line may be used on the inside of a cycle
lane when parking is situated along the length of the cycle lane.
A hatched marking should be provided giving a clearance to the
offside of the parking lane, providing a buffer as a door zone
for the parked cars. This buffer zone will minimise interactions

A Shared Lane can be denoted by using individual, painted cycle


symbols with a double chevron indicating the direction of ow.
These are used internationally and are named as Sharrows or
shared lane paving markings.
Off-carriageway Cycle Track Surface Markings and Paving
Symbols
Where a cycle track intersects a pedestrian crossing or a
Pedestrian and Cyclist Shared Use facility, it is intended that the
pedestrian has right of way and priority. To support this through
physical design, it is recommended that a give way line is used for
cyclists, and complemented by a Pedestrian and Cyclist Shared
Use surface marking or paving symbol.
On a two way cycle track, the give way line could be used in
conjunction with the no passing line, which could extend 15
metres.
When a cycle track is not dened by a change in level within the
pedestrian realm, a continuous white edge line or other delineating
feature should be used to demarcate space allocated for cyclists.

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Trafc Signs and Markings


Regulatory, Warning and Informatory Signs
Regulatory, Warning and Informatory Signs

The following list of Regulatory, Warning and Informatory signs


for use for on-carriageway routes and off-carriageway routes are
recommended, and shown on subsequent pages:
t C1 - Route for use by bicycle only
t C2 - Route for use by bicycles and pedestrians only
t C3a and C3b Route for use by bicycles and pedestrians only
(segregated shared use)
t C4 - Riding of bicycles prohibited
t C5 - No right turn for vehicles except bicycles
t C6 No Entry for vehicles except bicycles
t C7 - Turn left for vehicles except bicycles
t C8 / C9 Entry / Exit to pedestrian zone restricted
t C10 - Cycle crossing ahead
t C11 Give way for bicycles
t C12 - Route recommended for bicycles
t C13 - With-ow cycle lane
t C14 - Contra-ow cycle lane dened by a continuous lane
surface marking

t C15 - Contra-ow cycle lane without a lane surface marking


t C16 - Cycle lane with trafc proceeding from left (sign for
pedestrians)
t C17 - Cycle parking
t C18 / C19 Entry / Exit to Home Zone
t C20 / C21 Entry / Exit to Quiet Lane
t P1 Pedestrian crossing ahead

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Regulatory, Warning and Informatory Signs

Sign C1
Route for use by
bicycle only

The only vehicles able to use this route are bicycles; cars and motorbikes are
banned. This is used to dene cycle tracks.
Five sizes are recommended:
t 450mm on posts to sign the start of a main cycle route (these also can be
placed as surface markings or tiles).
t 300mm diameter at the start of a route and repeaters, placed on posts, or
surface markings or tiles
t 150mm and 270mm on low posts and bollards as repeaters on cycle routes,
t 600mm when used on-carriageway as a contra-ow lane
Where possible cycle route sign should be tiles or surface markings, or mounted
on bollards which are more conspicuous to cyclists.

Sign C2
Route for use
by bicycles and
pedestrians only
(unsegregated shared
use)

Example of adapted sign on Yas Island

This sign indicates that cyclists are allowed off-carriageway shared use with
pedestrians particularly at junctions, crossings and sikkas.
Four sizes are recommended:
t 300mm diameter at the start of a route and as repeaters, placed on posts, or
surface markings or tiles
t 100mm, 150mm and 270mm on low posts and bollards as route repeaters.
Where possible cycle route sign should be tiles or surface markings.

Example of sign mounted on Bollard in UK


(UK standard equivalent)

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Regulatory, Warning and Informatory Signs

Sign C3 a & b
Route for use
by bicycles and
pedestrians only
(segregated shared
use)

This sign indicates that cyclists are allowed off-carriageway on segregated shared
use facility, comprising two sections, each separated by a continuous surface
marking or other delineating design feature. Each section is for use by bicycles
only and by pedestrians only.
This sign indicates that cyclists are allowed to use one side of the footway. For use
in segregated shared use routes for example adjacent to arterial roads.
Four sizes are recommended:
t 100mm, 150mm and 270mm on low posts and bollards as route repeaters.
t 300mm diameter at the start of a route and as repeaters.

Examples of bollard and post mounted signs


(from the UK)

Where possible cycle route sign should be tiles or surface markings.

Sign C4
Riding of bicycles
prohibited

This sign indicates that cycling is not permitted beyond this point. It can be
used at the start of a pedestrian only route, but only where an alternative route is
provided for cyclists either on or off carriageway.

Five sizes are recommended:


t 150mm and 270mm on low posts and bollards as repeaters on cycle routes,
t 300mm diameter at the start of a route and repeaters on islands.
t 450mm or 600mm on approaches to major routes.
Where possible cycle route sign should be tiles or surface markings.
Examples of bollard mounted sign on Abu
Dhabi Corniche (Note: sign C4 recommends
the addition of a diagonal red line)

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Regulatory, Warning and Informatory Signs

Sign C5
No right turn for
vehicles except
bicycles

A banned turn sign can be used with an Except cycles supplementary plate to
show a turn which is only permitted for bicycles
The banned turn can be varied to No left turn.
An Arabic translation for Except Cycles is required to be displayed in addition.

Two sizes are recommended:


t 600mm on routes with a speeds up to 40kph; and
t 750mm on routes with a speeds up to 60kph.
Except cycles plate 50 or 37.5mm x-height

Sign C6
No Entry for vehicles
except bicycles

A No Entry sign can be used with an Except cycles supplementary plate to show
an entry which is only permitted for bicycles.
An Arabic translation for Except Cycles is required to be displayed in addition.
Two sizes are recommended:
t 600mm on routes with a speeds up to 40kph; and
t 750mm on routes with a speeds up to 60kph.
Except cycles plate 50 or 37.5mm x-height

Examples of sign C6: Where no entry


signs are used at a gateway, the cycle
route may be shown with separate blue
cycle route sign (right image, UK) or with
a worded plate (left image, Netherlands).

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Trafc Signs and Markings


Regulatory, Warning and Informatory Signs

Sign C7
Turn left for vehicles
except bicycles

A Turn left sign can be used with an Except cycles supplementary plate to show
a turn which is only permitted for bicycles.
The turn left sign can be varied to a turn right.
An Arabic translation for Except Cycles is required to be displayed in addition.
The following sizes are recommended:
t 270mm on low posts and bollards as repeaters on cycle routes,
t 300mm diameter at the start of a route and repeaters on islands.
t 450mm or 600mm on routes with a speeds up to 30kph;
t 750mm on routes with a speeds up to 40kph

Sign C8 / C9
Entry / Exit to
pedestrian zone
restricted

A Pedestrian Zone is an area such as a shopping street where pedestrians have


full use of the width of the highway, either at all times or at certain times of day.
Providing a part-time restriction for motor vehicles allows the area to be used by
motor vehicles outside the times specied.
The highway may be fully paved for pedestrians or comprise a carriageway with
separate footways.
An Arabic translation is required to be displayed in addition.
Access to the highway by motor vehicles is not permitted, except at certain times
to allow activities such as deliveries, but bicycles may use the highway at any
time.

estrian zones could

and with
cycle on
Pedestrian zones couldstrian
be signed
pedestrian and cycle only sign as shown
in the left image (Germany); however a no
motor vehicles sign should be used where
vehicles can access the road outside the
zone hours of operation (right image, UK).

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Regulatory, Warning and Informatory Signs

Sign P1
Pedestrians crossing
ahead

Can be used to warn motorists of a pedestrian crossing. A distance or a direction


to hazard can be used with this sign.

Three sizes are recommended:


t 600mm on routes with a speeds up to 30kph;
t 750mm on routes with a speeds up to 40kph; and
t 900mm on routes with a speeds up to 60kph.

Example of sign in Al Ain

Sign C10
Cyclists crossing
ahead

This sign can be used to warn motorists of a cycle route crossing or merging. A
distance or a direction to hazard can be used with this sign.
Sign should be used where a cycle routes crossing the carriageway ahead or
cycles are joining the carriageway from a cycle track.

Three sizes are recommended:


t 600mm on routes with a speeds up to 30kph;
t 750mm on routes with a speeds up to 40kph; and
t 900mm on routes with a speeds above 40kph.
Cycle warning sign with a red bordered
supplementary plate (Denmark)

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Regulatory, Warning and Informatory Signs

Sign C11
Give way for bicycles

A Give Way sign may be used without the supplementary plate on an offcarriageway cycle track in association with a cycle route sign to warn of a cycle
crossing point ahead.
It may also be used on-carriageway as a warning sign to warn drivers where a
cycle and pedestrian crossing is ahead.
Four sizes are recommended:
t 300mm on the approach to a give way marking on a cycle route;
t 600mm on the approach to a cycle crossing on routes with a speeds up to
30kph;
t 750mm on the approach to a cycle crossing routes with a speeds up to
40kph; and
t 900mm on the approach to a cycle crossing routes with a speeds up to
60kph.

Sign C12

Route recommended for bicycles on the main carriageway of a road.

Route recommended
for bicycles

The signs indicate that the carriageway route is suitable for use by cyclists,
perhaps because it is a less busy road, or forms a useful short cut, has been
designated by the network plan as a cycle route or is a shared lane.
The signs also provide reassurance for cyclists unfamiliar with an area that they
are on the right route.
Two sizes are recommended:
t 300mm x 440mm on routes with a speeds up to 40kph; and
t 375mm x 550mm for higher speed roads
A bollard mounted route sign
(Denmark)

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Regulatory, Warning and Informatory Signs

Sign C13
With-ow cycle lane

This sign can be used at the start, and at regular intervals, along a dedicated oncarriageway cycle lane
The cycle lane is dened on the carriageway by a continuous solid surface
marking.

Two sizes are recommended:


t 375mm x 825mm on routes with a speeds up to 40kph; and
t 450mm x 990mm for higher speed roads.

Sign C14

Contra-ow cycle lane dened by a continuous lane surface marking

Contra-ow cycle
lane dened by a
continuous lane
surface marking

A contra-ow cycle lane is used on a one way carriageway with a contra-ow for
bicycles only in the opposite direction to the general trafc.
The lane is normally dened on the carriageway by a continuous lane surface
marking.

Two sizes are recommended:


t 475mm x 660mm on routes with speeds up to 40kph; and
t 570mm x 795mm for higher speed roads.

Photo shows a contraow cycle lane where


the cycle lane ends at an off-carriageway
shared use cycle / pedestrian area (UK).

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Regulatory, Warning and Informatory Signs

Sign C15
Contra-ow cycle lane
without a lane surface
marking

A contra-ow cycle lane is used on a one way carriageway with a contra-ow


for bicycles only in the opposite direction to the general trafc. The lane is not
normally dened on the carriageway by any surface marking.
Where trafc ows are very low the lane marking used with Sign C14
may be omitted.

Two sizes are recommended:


t 475mm x 650mm on routes with a speeds up to 40kph; and
t 570mm x 780mm for higher speed roads.
Photo shows a contraow lane in an area
without road markings (UK)

Sign C16
Cycle lane with trafc
proceeding from left
(sign for pedestrians)

It is sometimes helpful to warn pedestrians when cyclists travel from an


unexpected direction e.g. on a contra-ow cycle lane or two way cycle track.
LEFT may be varied to RIGHT or BOTH WAYS and LANE varied to TRACK.
Additional text is required displaying an Arabic translation

Two sizes are recommended:


t 40mm and
t 50mm x-height
Sign size can vary depending on the text used.

The signs should be used where pedestrians


need to cross cycle tracks where cyclists
may be travelling at higher than normal
speeds, applied in this example on Yas
Island.

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Regulatory, Warning and Informatory Signs

Sign C17

This sign can be used to show the location of a cycle parking rack.

Cycle parking

It is normally not required but can be used where there is adjacent parking for
motorcycles and the two types of parking may be confused.
One size is recommended:
t 170mm x 170mm and 250mm x 170mm. Signs can be placed one above the
other

Cycle parking signs can be mounted on the


cycle parking frame or on a separate bollard
(UK)

Sign C18 / 19

A home zone, referred to in the USDM broadly as a Mushtarak, is a residential


street or residential area in which the road space is shared between drivers of
motor vehicles and other road users such as cyclists and pedestrians including
children.

Entry / Exit to Home


Zone (e.g. residential
area, street, or
Mushtarak)

The zone encourages drivers of motor vehicles to drive cautiously to allow for
other road users.
Additional text is required displaying an Arabic translation.

Indicative
appearance only

Indicative
appearance only

Two sizes are recommended, 40mm and 50mmx-height . Sign size therefore
varies depending on the text used.
A Home Zone (Mushtarak) sign provides some visual warning to drivers that
pedestrians and cyclists are in the area ahead.

Examples of Sign C18 (UK)

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Trafc Signs and Markings


Regulatory, Warning and Informatory Signs

Sign C20 / C21

A Greenway (referred to as a quiet lane in the above indicative sign) is a route


appropriate for shared use by pedestrians and cyclists, which typically maintains
vehicle access (e.g. for servicing). It could also include other user groups such as
horse or camel riders where suitably planned and designed.

Entry / Exit to
Greenway

They should have very low trafc ows and like home zones they encourage
drivers of motor vehicles to drive cautiously to allow for the other road users.
Additional text is required displaying an Arabic translation.

Indicative
appearance only

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Trafc Signs and Markings


Surface Markings
Surface Markings

Surface markings including paving symbols replace or supplement


trafc signs to communicate trafc management and directional
information to pedestrians, cyclists and other road users.
t M1: Cycle track, lane or route symbol
t M2: On-carriageway Shared Lane
t M3: Give Way
t M4: No passing longitudinal marking
t M5: Cycle route central dividing lane
t M6: Entry taper to cycle lane.
t M7: On carriageway cycle lane warning marking
t M8: Give Way warning triangle
t M9: Lane arrows
t M10: The division of a route into that part reserved for bicycles
and that part reserved for pedestrians
t M11: Cycle track paving symbol
t M12: Pedestrian route symbol
t M13: Route for use by bicycles and pedestrians only
(unsegregated shared use) paving symbol
t M14: Riding of bicycles prohibited paving symbol

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Trafc Signs and Markings


Surface Markings

Marking M1
Cycle track, lane or
route symbol

Cycle symbols should be provided on cycle lanes and cycle tracks at the start of
each lane or track, and immediately after each decision point thereafter (including
just after a side road has joined the route). On long sections of route repeater
symbols should be provided, to give a maximum interval between symbols of
200m, although a distance of 50 100m is recommended.
The symbol may be reversed to show the direction of travel at a junction or bend.
If used on a two-way cycle track the symbol should be used on alternating sides
of the track and can be used with a route number marking and a direction arrow.
Recommended sizes are 750x1215 for cycle tracks, 1100 x1780 and 1700 x 2750
on-carriageway.

Marking M2
On-carriageway
Shared Lane

Example of surface marking (UK)

A Shared Lane can be denoted by using individual, painted cycle symbols with a
double chevron indicating the direction of ow. These are used internationally and
are named as Sharrows or shared lane paving markings.
May be used with a cycle route number as shown in the gure.
Recommended size is 2850mm overall height, 1780mm cycle symbol height and
1100mm wide.

Example of surface marking (UK)

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Trafc Signs and Markings


Surface Markings

Marking M3

This marking is used for give-way on cycle lanes and cycle tracks at junctions.

Give Way

Recommended size for cycle lanes and junctions is 150mm wide marking,
300mm long and 150mm gap.

Marking M4

Advisory no passing marking is used on the approach to a cycle give way marking
M3 and associated marking M8 when provided.

No passing
longitudinal marking

Recommended size for cycle lanes and junctions is 100mm wide marking, 5m
long and 3m gap to lane marking M5.

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Trafc Signs and Markings


Surface Markings

Marking M5
Cycle route central
dividing lane

Dividing lane marking used in the centre of a cycle route to warn cyclists that
others are travelling on the other side of the lane in the opposite direction.

Recommended size is 100mm wide marking, 2m long mark and 4m gap.

Example of surface marking (UK)

Marking M6
Entry taper to cycle
lane.

Taper marking used to warn drivers of the start of an on-carriageway cycle lane.
Recommended taper is 1:10.

Recommended size is 100mm wide marking, 600mm long with 300mm gap

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Trafc Signs and Markings


Surface Markings

Marking M7
On carriageway
cycle lane warning
marking

Where an on-carriageway cycle lane passes through a junction, the solid line is
replaced with a warning marking to allow other trafc to cross the cycle lane.
To provide additional warning to drivers and cyclists the cycle lane should have a
red coloured surfacing across the junction.
Recommended size is 100mm wide marking, 4m long mark and 2m gap.

Marking M8
Give Way warning
triangle

Marking may be used on the approach to a cycle give way marking to provide
additional warning to supplement or replace the warning sign C12.

Recommended size 1875mm x 625mm.

Example of surface marking (UK)

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Trafc Signs and Markings


Surface Markings

Marking M9
Lane Arrows

Lane arrows are used to show the direction of travel on a lane or on the approach
to a junction.
Recommended size is 1000mm long when used within a cycle track

Marking M10
The division of a route
into that part reserved
for bicycles and that
part reserved for
pedestrians

This marking is also used to delineate the boundary of an on-carriageway cycle


lane and also an off-carriageway cycle track when shared with pedestrians.
Recommended size is 100mm wide solid marking off-carriageway and 150mm to
an on carriageway cycle lane.
M10 can be replaced or supplemented by another delineating design or feature,
which should be approved on an individual basis by the Department of Transport

Example of surface marking (UK)

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Trafc Signs and Markings


Surface Markings

Marking M11

Can be used to supplement or replace sign C1. May be used as an alternative to


the cycle symbol marking (M1) to show the route of a cycle track. While the paving
is less visually obtrusive than signs and markings they are also less conspicuous
and should only be used where high quality surfacing is used.

Cycle track paving


symbol

Recommended size is 400mm x 400mm.

Indicative
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Example of surface marking (UK)

Marking M9

Pedestrian route symbols should be provided on segregated shared use facilities


at the start of each facility.

Pedestrian route
symbol

This sign indicates where pedestrians are recommended on segregated shared


use facility, comprising two sections, each separated by a continuous surface
marking or other delineating design feature. Each section is for use by bicycles
only and by pedestrians only.

Indicative
appearance only

This sign indicates that pedestrians are allowed to use one side of the footway.
May be used in combination with M1 or M12 as an alternative to sign C3a and b.
While the paving symbol is less visually obtrusive than signs and markings (see
C3a and b) they are also less conspicuous and should only be used where high
quality surfacing is used.
Recommended size is 750x1215 adjacent to cycle tracks
Photo shows example of pedestrian route symbol in combination with M1

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Trafc Signs and Markings


Surface Markings

Marking M13

This paving symbol indicates that cyclists are allowed off-carriageway shared use
with pedestrians particularly at junctions, crossings and sikkas.

Route for use


by bicycles and
pedestrians only
(unsegregated shared
use) paving symbol

Can be used to supplement or replace sign C2. While the paving symbol is
less visually obtrusive than signs and markings (see C2) they are also less
conspicuous and should only be used where high quality surfacing is used.
Recommended size is 400mm x 400mm.
Adjacent images from the UK show examples of the UK equivalent of this paving
symbol (note that this Master Plan for Abu Dhabi recommends pedestrians are
shown above the bicycle symbol).

Indicative
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Example of surface marking (UK)

Marking M14

This paving symbol indicates that cycling is not permitted beyond this point. It can
be used at the start of a pedestrian only route.

Riding of bicycles
prohibited paving
symbol

Can be used to supplement or replace sign C4. While the paving symbol is less
visually obtrusive than signs and markings (see C4) they are also less conspicuous
and should only be used where high quality surfacing is used.
Recommended size is 400mm x 400mm
Adjacent images from the UK show examples of paving symbol (note that this
Master Plan for Abu Dhabi recommends a diagonal red line over the bicycle to
support understanding of no cycling).

Indicative
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Example of surface marking (UK)

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Trafc Signs and Markings


Typical Layouts
Typical Layouts

The following present recommendations for trafc sign placements


at typical layouts for cycle tracks and cycle lanes.
As recommended previously, where regulatory, warning and other
information for use by only pedestrians and/or cyclists is required,
it is recommended that the use of Trafc Signs is minimised.
Information should instead be displayed by surface markings and/
or paving symbols where feasible. This recommendation is in
line with the overarching principles of the Master Plan to not only
support safety, but support the delivery of high quality public realm
design, in which street clutter is minimised and rationalised.

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Trafc Signs and Markings


Typical Layouts
Typical Layout
An off-carriageway
cycle track (1)

An off-carriageway cycle track should terminate


with a solid marking and a single sign assembly or
paving symbols.
Regulatory signs show the status of the route
ahead. Segregated shared use signing should
show the side on which cycles and pedestrians are
positioned.
The signs should normally be located between the
cycle and pedestrian routes (shown indicatively in
the adjacent image on Yas Island).
Regulatory signs can be supplemented or replaced
by surface markings or paving symbols on ground
(shown indicatively below).

Example of signing showing the status of the


route ahead (Yas Island)

Typical Layout
An off-carriageway
cycle track (2)

While the signs should normally be located


between the cycle and pedestrian routes, it may
be preferable to locate posts in an area away from
pedestrian area to keep the footpath free from
clutter, or instead use paving symbols.
Where a post mounted sign is provided a clearance
of 2.5m should be provided from the underside of
the sign to the footway/cycleway.
Regulatory signs can be supplemented or replaced
by surface markings or paving symbols on ground
(shown indicatively below).

The photo shows an example from Abu


Dhabi where a No Pedestrians sign has
been provided (left). The preferred design is
a blue cycle only sign (right)

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Trafc Signs and Markings


Typical Layouts
Typical Layout
An off-carriageway
cycle track (3)

While an off-carriageway cycle track crosses a


road a Give Way (Yield) Sign should be used to
ensure cyclists give way to on-coming vehicles.
After the crossing a cycle track sign shows the
status of the route ahead which may be different
i.e. a shared pedestrian / cycle route may change
to a dedicated cycle route.
A single sign assembly could be used on each side
of the junction located in the optimum position for
visibility and conspicuity of the signs facing both
directions.
Alternatively paving symbols or surface marking
should be used instead of sign assemblies.

Typical Layout
A contra-ow cycle
lane with lane marking

One way roads within a network of roads can often


result in journeys by bicycle being longer and more
hazardous.
This can be addressed by allowing cycles to travel
in both directions along the one-way road.

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Trafc Signs and Markings


Typical Layouts
Typical Layout
A contra-ow cycle
lane with no lane
marking

Where a contraow lane is used on a one way


street with slow vehicles speeds and trafc ows,
lane markings can be omitted.

A contraow cycle lane (Cambridge, UK)

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Trafc Signs and Markings


Typical Layouts

456

Network Design

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


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Transport Modes

457

458

Integration with Other Transport Modes

Contents
1. Introduction

107

2. Demand for Integration

117

3. Overview of Cycle Parking Principles

123

Overarching Principles

124

Design Principles for Cycle Parking

130

Design Issues for Cycle Parking

137

4. Integration with Buses

159

5. Integration with LRT

173

6. Integration with Metro

181

7. Integration with Water Transport

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Trafc Signs and Markings


Typical Layouts

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Introduction
Typical Layouts

1. Introduction

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Introduction
Context within the Master Plan
Public transport integration with cycling forms
a key policy theme for the walking and cycling
master plan for the Emirate of Abu Dhabi (see
Appendix I):
The Department of Transport will promote the
integration of pedestrian and cycle modes with
all current and future public transport across the
Emirate. This will include the planning, design
and operation of infrastructure, and investigation
into he carriage of cycles on public transport
vehicles..
The contents of this document will inform the
Recommended Design Guidelines for Walking
and Cycling (an appendix to the Walking and
Cycling Master Plan) and support identication
of elements of the walking and cycling master
plan requiring legislation and regulation.

Context within the Master Plan


This report aims to provide guidelines and principles for effectively
integrating cycling with public transport in the Emirate of Abu
Dhabi.
It should be referenced by those concerned with cycle integration
in relation to the planning, design and implementation of the
following public transport facilities:
t Regional Rail
t Metro
t LRT (Tram)
t Bus (including Local and Regional)
t Water Transport (Ferry)

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Introduction
Theimportanceofplanningpublictransportinterchanges
The importance of planning public
transport interchanges
Most journeys involve at least two changes of mode of travel,
always involving a walk trip at the start and end of the trip.
Connecting interchange facilities with the wider area is critical to
make the integration of public transport successful.
This requires an understanding of local patterns of movement, key
local origins and destinations, legibility, permeability, waynding
and urban design context.
Detailed consideration of these elements will allow the
interchanges, stops and stations to become more accessible to a
wider group of passengers and users.
Best practice is underpinned by delivering movement routes that
are equitably convenient for all users. Adopting principles of legible
and permeable design from the outset will result in places that
are intuitive for all users (requiring minimal signing and supporting
information) which are well integrated with their surrounding urban
context.

Access arrangements should to be designed


and optimised for pedestrian and cycle
movement to facilitate intuitive and easy
interchange between transport modes.
Public transport interchanges in this context are
dened as any location where passengers are
exchanged between modes of transport.
The Walking and Cycling Master Plan Design
Guidelines includes recommendations for
integrating transport with pedestrian movement.
This document focuses on cycle integration
with public transport, which requires additional
guidance for appropriate development in the
Emirate.

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Introduction
KEY
PRINCIPLES
OF GOOD
IN PUBLIC
TRANSPORT INTERCHANGE
Key Principles
of good
design DESIGN
in public transport
interchange

Certainty
Reliable information
on routes, services and
connections. Real-time travel
information is of particular
benet.

Accessibility
Everybody should be
able to use the interchange
inclusively: pedestrians, cyclists,
wheelchair users, people with
children, pushchairs, heavy
luggage, or shopping; people
with movement restriction or
problems with sight or
hearing.

Interest
Something to
entertain passengers
whilst waiting this could be
nearby activity, public art, or
an interesting view. It may
be an opportunity for
advertising.

Principles of
Good Interchange
Design

Security
People need to feel safe
while waiting for public
transport to arrive, and have
condence that parked
bicycles will be safe and
secure.

Comfort
Seating for those less
able to stand, protection
from extremes of weather
and climate, well maintained
and clean facilities.

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Existing Drivers
Overview

Existing Drivers

These documents provide very limited


information relating to integration of cycling with
public transport facilities compared to the level
of information available in international case
studies.

Overview

Regarding these documents, the outcomes of


this Master Plan will:

The following literature and ongoing studies have been taken into
account when developing these recommendations:

t

Inform the Trip Generation and Parking


Rates Manual

t

Inform recommendations for DoTs


integrated public transport network and its
respective Design Guidelines

t Estidama Guidelines
t Trip Generation and Parking Rates Manual for the City of Abu
Dhabi (ongoing study by the Department of Transport)
t Abu Dhabi Development Code
t Urban Street Design Manual
t DoTs Emerging Public Transport Design Guidelines

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Estidama
Estidama
The Estidama Pearl Rating System is a framework for sustainable
design, incorporating guidance on the provision of cycle facilities to
achieve credit scores . Although the framework does not explicitly
apply to public transport interchanges, the following key themes
are relevant for integrating cycling with public transport modes:

Guidelines also include details on the Duration of Stay, and its relevance
to parking facilities:
t

Long-term commuter parking (for commuters and residents):


Residents parking must be off the street either inside a communal,
sheltered, secure cycle parking room or area or conveniently located
within a garage (with safe entrance and exit point for bicycles only)

t Demonstration of commitment to sustainable travel


through the provision of cycle parking in safe, secure and
convenient locations. For one credit Point, an appropriate
number and quality of cycle parking spaces (based on building
type) must be provided at a convenient location.

t

Short-term visitor parking (for visitors and students): All of the stands
must be located within 30m walking distance of the entrance point of
the building and be conveniently accessible for everybody from the
adjacent road/ cycle path.

Guidelines also include technical specications which support


high quality operation, including:
t Each bicycle space must be at least 2 x 0.75 m;
t Solid stands (securely xed to the ground) allowing both the
wheel and the frame of the cycle to be locked safely to the
structure must be used
t There must be an aisle at least 1.5m wide alongside the bicycle
parking to allow for bicycle manoeuvring;
t All parking spaces must be shaded; and if the parking is not
visible from the street and the building, clear signage must be
provided;

Other end of ride facilities are cited to encourage cycling, including the
provision of shower facilities for staff at a minimum of one shower per
gender per 5,000 m2 GFA, up to a maximum of 10 showers per gender,
adjacent dedicated clothes changing areas (separate areas for men and
women) and clothes lockers provided at a ratio of one locker per bicycle
parking space.

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Existing Drivers
Trip Generation and Parking Rates Manual
Trip Generation and Parking Rates
Manual
The Trip Generation and Parking Rates Manual (April 1999) current
makes no reference to Public Transport Integration with cycling or
cycle parking provision at public transport interchanges.
A revision of the manual is currently underway to provide additional
information on cycle parking at various land uses.
This document, together with other outputs of the Walking and
Cycling Master Plan, will inform the trip generation and parking
rates for Abu Dhabi.

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Existing Drivers
Abu Dhabi Development Code
Abu Dhabi Development Code
The Abu Dhabi Development Code is the citys regulatory
framework for managing land use and development. Its regulations
and guidelines aim to implement the vision expressed in Plan Abu
Dhabi 2030 and the Urban Structure Framework Plan.
No explicit reference is made to integrating cycling and public
transport.
However the code recognises the importance of cycle parking
which is required for most developable land uses to encourage
and increase the use of bicycles for transportation.based on the
demand generated by the different use categories.
The Code provides limited detail of parking facility requirements for
short stay cycle parking in terms of:
t Security, Location and Access
t Design of cycle parking stands
t Parking Spaces and Areas
The Code also provides sufcient detail of parking facility
requirements for long stay cycle parking in terms of security,
location and access, dimensioning and signage.
With reference to auxiliary services for cyclists, limited reference
is made to signing of cycle parking and provision of showers and
lockers.

Although no explicit reference is given to cycle provision at public


transport interchanges, the code stipulates that changing facilities
(including showers and lockers) are required where long-term
bicycle parking is required other than in non-residential land use,
with:
t A minimum of 1 shower per gender for every 5000 m2.
t A maximum of 3 showers per gender.
t No requirement for additional trip-end facilities is suggested.

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Existing Drivers
Urban Street Design Manual
Urban Street Design Manual
The Urban Street Design Manual makes limited reference to the
integration of cycling and public transport but notes that design
consideration is particularly important at Interaction areas, which
occur where multimodal networks intersect and design elements
cause potential obstructions. Transit stop and bicycle parking
areas (pedestrian and bicycle) should be examined.
The following design criteria is provided, although its application to
cycle/public transport integration is not made explicit:
t Locate parking within 15m of the main entrance or between
buildings.
t Provide longer term bicycle parking in convenient, shaded, welllit, and secure locations.
t Provide directional signage if parking is not readily visible to
visitors.
t Bicycle lockers should be provided to encourage bicycle
commuting.
t Bicycle racks are to be durable and securely anchored and
designed so that:
t Cycle frame is supported in 2 places, 1 wheel locked with the
frame.
t Rack spacing is such that bicycles can be parked easily.

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Existing Drivers
Abu Dhabi Development Code

Integration with Other Transport Modes

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Demand for Integration


Abu Dhabi Development Code

2. Demand for Integration

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Demand for integration


Integration with public transport
Overview of Benets
Benets

Ensuring ease of access


through connectivity
to local networks and
neighbourhoods

Facilitates and
legitimises cycling
within an Integrated
Transport System

Avoiding
expensive retrot costs through
effective early
planning
Benets of
Effective Cycle/Public
Transport integration

Providing a high
quality door to door
service for public
transport users

Supports
attractive,
active streetscape
and frontage at
interchanges

Increase in
patronage on public
transport for marginal
investment

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Demand for integration with public transport


Key Factors

Demand for integration with public


transport
Key Factors
Combining a cycle trip with public transport
User demand for combining cycling with public transport (PT)
depends on a number of factors in addition to those relating to the
general demand for the PT service.
t The overarching key determinant is typically the journeytime advantage offered by the PT service. Lower speed
services with frequent stops, such as local buses, offer very
little advantage over an entire journey made by bicycle, apart
from in adverse weather or climatic conditions. Conversely,
higher speed PT services, such as a Metro, Regional Rail or
metropolitan bus services, can offer considerable time savings
over the equivalent journey made entirely by bike, and the
demand for integration with cycling is consequently far greater.
t In addition to journey time savings, during hot periods of the
local climate it is possible that users will want to combine
cycling with public transport to have a more comfortable
overall journey.

These factors focus on commuting trips and


other utility journeys.
It is important to note that combining cycling
with public transport allows a wide variety of
other trips to be made on bicycle at any time of
the day or week or year, including recreational
and sporting trips.

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Demand for integration with public transport


Key Factors
The specic demand for the carriage of cycles
on PT services is inuenced by the presence of
a cycle hire or cycle sharing system at key PT
destinations. If a comprehensive cycle sharing
system is available at the destination stop/
station, the demand to carry a bike on the PT
service will be reduced.
The carriage of bicycles on public transport
will be further discussed in the identication of
legislation and regulation recommendations for
the walking and cycling master plan.

Key Factors
Carrying bicycles of public transport
Some users may want to use their bicycle for only one leg of
a multimodal trip (for example, when their nal destination is
very close to their public transport station or stop). These users
will want suitable cycle parking facilities at public transport
interchanges.
Typically, users will want to bring their bicycle onto public transport
in order to continue their journey by bicycle, and allow subsequent
journeys to be made.
Carriage of bicycles on public transport is fundamental :
t To encourage appropriate cycle trips to be made in the Emirate
to support the master plan vision.
t To support economic viability of public transport through
increased patronage and ridership
t To promote and encourage a multimodal transportation system
in which there is genuine mode choice and travel exibility, with
less dependency on car travel.

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Demand for integration with public transport


Key Factors
Carrying bicycles of public transport

Our policy is intentionally bike-friendly. We carry


bikes free of charge. Our light rail vehicle is fully
accessible to all users, including wheelchair
users, carers with strollers and cyclists.
Abigail Goldberg
CEO: Metro Pty Transport, Sydney
Public transport should start from the premise
of Accessibility For All.
Michael Yeates, Accessibility Auditor/ Convenor:
Public Transport Alliance & Bicycle User
Research Group
A 2008 survey found that 72 percent of bikeand-ride passengers carried their bikes with
them, compared to only 28 percent who parked
them at stations
San Francisco Bay Area, USA

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Demand for integration with public transport


Key Factors
Single-deck cycle parking has been upgraded
to double deck, according to demand
For detailed information on cycle parking
facilities refer to the Walking and Cycling Master
Plan: End of Ride Facilities document.

Key Factors
Parking bicycles
There are a number of different ways to determine how much cycle
parking should be provided at a public transport stop or station.
These include:
t A percentage of all passengers arriving at the station (e.g.
enough cycle parking for 5% of all arrivals)
t A percentage of the car-parking capacity provided at the
station/stop
t A percentage of peak-period passengers
In the absence of accurate passenger forecasts, specifying a
number of parking spaces per stop/station may be the best
approach
The demand to cycle to a public transport stop or station depends
on a very large number of unpredictable factors, so the use of a
complex forecasting technique based on estimated demand may
be inappropriate at an early stage of the masterplanning process.
The best approach is likely to be to introduce a relatively small
number of spaces whilst ensuring that there is the potential to
increase the amount of suitable cycle parking facilities in line with
demand. This has been achieved in the past, for example, at UK
rail stations where single-deck cycle parking has been upgraded to
double deck

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Overview of Cycle Parking Principles


Key Factors

3. Overview of Cycle Parking


Principles
For detailed information on cycle parking facilities refer to the End of Ride Facilities
document (developed as part of this Walking and Cycling Master Plan)

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Overarching Principles
What is a Cycle Parking Facility?

Overarching Principles
What is a Cycle Parking Facility?
The main categories of cycle parking facilities are:
t Cycle stands
t Cycle lockers
These can further be subdivided by type (e.g. surface,
underground) and by size (number and quantity of cycle stands)
depending on a range of factors, discussed in this document.
Trip End facilities describe facilities other than cycle parking
which are provided to meet the needs of cyclists at their
destination. Commonly provided trip end facilities are showers and
changing facilities. These are covered in more detail in the End of
Ride Facilities document (developed as part of this Walking and
Cycling Master Plan)
End of ride facilities can be combined with other support
infrastructure in the development of location specic Cycle
Hubs. These concentrate cycle related services, infrastructure
and information to place emphasis on supporting cycling and
encouraging trips to be made by bicycle. These are covered in
more detail in the End of Ride Facilities document (developed
as part of this Walking and Cycling Master Plan)

I t
International
ti
l
examples of onstreet cycle parking
and ofce shower
facility.

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Overarching Principles
Typologies of cycle parking
Typologies of cycle parking
The table below provides a summary of different cycle-parking options, and lists the advantages and disadvantages of each type.
Cycle parking type

Advantages

Disadvantages

Exposed cycle stand (e.g.


Camden or Shefeld)

Easy to install, low-cost, easy to use

Offers no weather (and limited theft) protection

Weather-protected cycle
stands

Additional comfort for cyclists (i.e. not having to use a bicycle


heated by the sun), reduces wear and tear on bicycle (as bicycle is
less exposed to the elements)

More expensive, greater impact on the streetscape, slightly less


space-efcient.

Double-deck (or two


storey) cycle parking

Makes good use of space.

More expensive than single deck, takes longer (and is more


awkward) to park/collect a bicycle and is visually less attractive.

Automated cycle parking


systems

Space efcient, high technology (could serve as a agship


scheme). The best known example is the Tokyo Bicycle Parking
Tower, which can store up to 9,400 bicycle and costs $63 million
to build.

The cost per parked bicycle is high, it takes a relatively long


amount of time to park or collect a bicycle (23 seconds),
and it can only cope with limited types of bicycles (in times of
dimensions).

Ad hoc parking provision


e.g. hoops which can be
attached to lamp-posts,
guard-rail, walls etc

Can be installed on a exible basis taking up very little space with


minimal impact on the streetscape. Relatively low cost, a good
solution where there is not the space for concentrated provision,
can provide varied designs which can be visually attractive and
support identity of places.

Provides a lower density of cycle parking.

Within multi-storey car


park (underground or
over-ground)

Cycle parking provided at the closest point to the car park


entrance giving cyclists easier access than motorists. The
presence of cycle parking at a much reduced rate (ideally free)
would be a highly visible incentive to motorists using the car park,
as well as providing a useful long-term cycle parking option for
existing cyclists.

Will need to ensure cyclists can safely enter and leave the car
park with motorists (e.g. Steep gradients could be a challenge).
Unlikely to be as conveniently located as on-street cycle parking
but weather (and theft) protection should attract longer-stay cycle
parking use.

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Overarching Principles
What trips are we designing for?
What trips are we designing for?
User preferences for cycle parking facilities at public transport
interchange areas may vary depending on the type of trip being
made.
In supporting policy themes of Health & Welfare, Tourism,
Culture & Heritage and Environment & Society, the following
main trip types traverse the expected target population groups of
the Master Plan:

More information is found in the document Identifying an Appropriate


Target Population, issued as part of this master plan study.
The types of trips supported by the network infrastructure recommended
in this master plan study are intended to facilitate movement by the
following, indicative user groups:
t

Young Emirati family

t

Expatriate family

t

Tourist family

t

Young Emirati women

t

Emirati man

t

Business visitor

t

Student

t Resident recreation walking and cycling for leisure

t

Business man/women

t School access frequent, local trips

t

Unskilled expatriate worker

t Community access to the immediate area


t Commuting frequent utility trips
t Multi-modal commuting longer distance daily journeys

t Sports for health and tness


t Touring long distance, recreational trips
t Tourist recreation shorter distance trips to key attractions

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Overarching Principles
What trips are we designing for?
Observations have shown that the cycle eet in Abu Dhabi and
Al Ain comprises mainly a mix of traditional utility bicycles(many
of which are used for delivery purposes) and mountain bikes. A
very small number of other types of bicycles are currently used,
including road bikes, folding bicycles and electric bicycles (see
adjacent photo).
Planning and the design of cycle parking facilities and public
transport integration should appreciate that by 2030 a diverse
cycle eet is planned as an outcome of this Master Plan
(such that attitudes and behaviour towards cycling change, and
investment in networks & infrastructure increases). An expanded
cycle eet will incorporate a wide variety of cycles for a wide variety
of trips, including a much wider uptake of folding and electric
bicycles (which address the problems of limited residential cycle
parking and cycling in hot weather).

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Overarching Principles
What cycles sizes are we designing for?
What cycles sizes are we
designing for?
The following schematic diagram illustrates typical cycle
dimensions.
In designing any cycle parking facility it is important to appreciate
that there are many different types of bicycles, and their
dimensions will vary.

Cycle Accessories (often used by cyclists) can be


attached to the cycle when parked:
t

Cycle helmet

t

Cycle pump

t

Cycle lights

t

Cycle panniers

A folding bicycle is a cycle designed to fold into a


compact form, facilitating transport and storage. A
wide range of products are available on the market
offering different levels of comfort and dimensions
when folded.
When folded, many folding cycles take up less
space than a large suitcase (e.g. Brompton cycle:
565545250mm).

It is recommended that folding bicycles can be


carried on public transport at all times, when
folded.
In addition, consideration of non-standard bicycles
should be given, including:

Dimensions of a standard popular bicycle (Source: Association of Pedestrian and Bikeway Planners)

t

Tandem

t

Recumbent cycle

t

Adult tricycle

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Overarching Principles
Cycle Parking: Stands or lockers?
Cycle Parking: Stands or lockers?
Selecting the correct facility
Cycle lockers are:
t much less space efcient
t much less exible
t less attractive
Lockers guard against an extreme threat of bike and component
theft which is unlikely to be as signicant issue in the Emirate of
Abu Dhabi than it is currently perceived to be in other international
cities.
Lockers should therefore only be used sparingly.
Suitable cycle stands are more preferable

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Design Principles for Cycle Parking


Overview

Design Principles for Cycle Parking


Overview

In Abu Dhabi, short stay cycle parking is likely to prioritise the following
(highest priority rst):

The following key design principles should be acknowledged when


planning and designing cycle parking facilities:

t

Ease of Use

t

Proximity

t

Visibility

t

Climatic Protection (Shading)

t Climatic Protection (Shading)

t

Security

t Visibility

In Abu Dhabi, longer stay cycle parking is likely to prioritise the following
(highest priority rst):

t Ease of Use

t Proximity
t Security
The above principles and their application to the Abu Dhabi
context are outlined in the following section.

t

Climatic Protection (Shading)

t

Ease of Use

t

Security

t

Proximity

t

Visibility

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Design Principles for Cycle Parking


Ease of Use
Ease of Use
The facility should:
t Allow users should be able to manage potential conict with
pedestrians and other users
t Allow circulation space around stands and lockers
t Accept types of cycle frame appropriate to the cycle eet

The facility should not:


t Require physical exertion for parking (e.g. lifting cycle or
opening locker door)

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Design Principles for Cycle Parking


Climatic Protection (Shading)
Climatic Protection (Shading)
The facility should
t Be located in an area which provides shading. Where feasible,
cycle parking facilities can be located in areas in which shading
is maximised by existing structures in the built environment (e.g.
buildings). It is accepted that many such areas for short term
cycle parking may not provide shading all day.
t Be designed to include shading of cycles, where long stay is
likely.

Design Guidelines for walking and cycling provision (a draft appendix


to The Walking and Cycling Master Plan document) include more
comprehensive discussion of shading for walking and cycling.
Further relevant guidance is included in the Urban Planning Councils
Public Realm Design Manual, published in 2011.

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Design Principles for Cycle Parking


Visibility
Visibility
The facility should:
t Be visible on approaches within the surrounding area, or
incorporate effective waynding and signing to support
accessibility.
t Provide a benecial visual impact on the urban environment.
Attractive cycle parking can enhance an area even when it is
not being used. The image below shows cycle parking which

spells out the name of the local area (Lambeth).

Use (and misuse) of lockers should be monitored. If practical,


Lockers could be clearly identied for cycle parking use only with
concise instructions outlining terms and conditions.

Waynding and signing for cycle parking are being considered as


part of an overarching set of waynding recommendations for the
master plan, doucmented in Component F3

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Design Principles for Cycle Parking


Proximity
A desirable threshold for proximity to the
entrance of a nal destination / alternative mode
of transport is an actual trip length of less than
25m. For longer stay trips a maximum of 50m
applies.

Proximity
The facility should:
t Be located so that the distance between the cycle parking and
the nal destination / alternative mode of transport is minimised.
t Basement parking may not be suitable for interchange areas,
but nonetheless for Abu Dhabi in general, is a popular and
useful option for longer-stay cycle parking, e.g. for commuters
at their place of employment. It is important to provide the cycle
parking as close to the pedestrian entrance (to the destination it
is serving) as possible, and to provide a cycle-friendly means of
accessing and leaving the basement by bicycle.
t If an elevator is needed to reach the cycle-parking area, it
should be at least 2.0m deep by 1.8m wide.

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Design Principles for Cycle Parking


Security
Security
The facility should:
t Be designed to allow front wheel and wide range of frame types
to be locked using one lock
t Be located where there is a high level of natural surveillance
(eyes on the street), where feasible. This should be
supplemented by additional surveillance where identied to
reduce the fear of theft.

In international case studies, cycle theft (and fear of it) is found to


discourage and impede cycle usage (Davies et al. Achieving the Aims of
the National Cycling Strategy, TRL1998).
The techniques used to lock bicycles in any given area, tend to
reect perceptions of the scale of cycle theft. In Abu Dhabi, most
bicycles are parked with relatively imsy cable locks (e.g. below)
suggesting that cycle theft is, currently at least, only a minor
concern.

t Be designed robustly to minimise theft or the fear of theft.

A design which reduces the risk of forced entry, cutting,


or removing ground xings is desirable in high theft risk
locations

t Be designed to provide a level of security appropriate for the


length of stay
Levels of cycle theft are also related to the type of bicycle people
use. Highly desirable recreational bicycles are much more
attractive to thieves than utility bicycles. The main focus of the
master plan is for cycling to become a mode of transport for local
journeys so practical utility bicycles will be promoted which should
also help to minimise the amount of cycle theft.
The large-scale city cycle-hire schemes such as Velib in Paris have
attracted high levels of theft. However, lessons have been learnt
and, on more recent schemes, cycles are not provided with a lock
so users tend only to park them at docking stations (which are
100% secure). This explains the huge difference in cycle-hire theft
between Paris (commonplace) and London (virtually unheard of).

To reduce the risk of theft, best practice recommends the user (at a
minimum) to lock the frame and the front wheel to a cycle parking
structure.

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Design Principles for Cycle Parking


Security in practice
Security in practice

Wheel Well

Cycle frame not supported

Camden Stand, a more secure and user-friendly alternative to the


Shefeld stand (more details in Appendix IV)

Cycle frame very difcult to


lock to facility, and risk of
cycle falling over.

Frame supported in
minimum of 2 locations to
support cycle whilst being
locked

Front wheel and frame can


be locked using one lock

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Design Issues for Cycle Parking


The cycle stand - overview

Design Issues for Cycle Parking


The cycle stand - overview
There are numerous examples worldwide of cycle stands, ranging
from cost effective, functional facilities to bespoke designs
contributing to place-making and cycle prole raising.
This document focuses on providing practical, robust cycle parking
facilities.
At a later stage of the study, more innovative cycle parking
measures may be reviewed in conjunction with emerging policies
to change attitudes and behaviour towards cycling in the Emirate.

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Design Issues for Cycle Parking


The cycle stand preferred option
The cycle stand preferred option
Functional, robust cycle stands are most popular worldwide as they provide cost effective, easy to use solutions for secure and accessible
cycle parking.
This study recommends the Shefeld cycle stand for the basis of functional, short stay cycle parking.
An alternative option, offering equivalent benets, is the Camden M stand.

Frame supported in
minimum of 2 locations to
support cycle whilst being
locked

Front wheel and frame can


be locked using one lock

Frame supported in
minimum of 2 locations to
support cycle whilst being
locked

Front wheel and frame can


be locked using one lock

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Design Issues for Cycle Parking


The cycle stand preferred option
The Shefeld stand is an effective design based on an inverted
U-shape metal tube which provides:
t Easy to use cycle storage, accommodating up to 2 cycles per
stand
t cost-effective installation and low maintenance.
t good frame stability and security against theft.

Cycle stands can be implemented individually


or in groups. The decision should be based
around the supply and demand for cycle
parking, discussed in a later section of this
report.
Cycle stands implemented in groups located
within enclosures can be referred to as Cycle
Stores.
Groups of stands can be covered to provide
climatic protection - shading and protection
against UV damage.

E
Example
l off Shefeld
Sh f ld Cycle
C l Stand
St d
(UK)

Example
E
l off covered
d Cycle
C l Store
St
(UK)
(UK))

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Design Issues for Cycle Parking


The cycle stand short stay parking
As a general rule, cyclists who cannot nd a
cycle stand within 25m of their destination are
likely to y park if their visit will be short. (UK,
Transport for London, 2007)

The cycle stand short stay


parking
On-street cycle stands can be particularly appropriate for short
stay cycle parking associated with community trips, e.g. to shops
and retail land uses, or to religious land uses
Cycle parking needs to be as close as possible (within 25m) to the
destination it is intended to serve.
t If cycle parking stands are not available close to their
destination, cyclists are more likely to park informally than seek
out formal parking provision in a less convenient location.
Where there is a wide distribution of destinations across an area
e.g. (a Central Business District) decentralised cycle parking
(e.g. at 25m intervals along active retail frontages), rather than
concentrated at a few larger sites.

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Design Issues for Cycle Parking


The cycle stand long stay parking
The cycle stand long stay
parking
Offstreet cycle stands can both be particularly appropriate
for medium stay cycle parking associated with commuting,
multi modal commuting (including parking at public transport
interchanges), or for special land-use contexts and
destinations such as educational establishments.
Where possible, cycle parking provision should be planned on
property serving the destination (e.g. within the ofce parking bays,
or within school grounds).
In these instances, cycle parking should be located as close as
possible to building entrances whilst still allowing good disabled
access and parking.

Off-street cycle parking, particularly at places of


employment and at school, should be integrated
with other trip end facilities such as showers,
changing facilities and lockers.
Long stay parking can also benet from cycle
lockers and other types of cycle parking
discussed later in this report.

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The cycle stand design parameters
The cycle stand design parameters
The following schematic images show the design parameters of a typical Shefeld cycle stand.
These are used in planning and designing effective cycle parking standards.

Source: TfL, London

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Design Issues for Cycle Parking


The cycle stand design parameters
The nish used on a cycle stand affects its appearance, durability and maintenance requirements. Finish options are summarised in the
table below.
Finish Type

Appearance

Coloured option

Notes

Galvanised

Silver, may have slight texture

No

Least expensive, durable and maintenance free; proper


application reduces surface texture of nish.

Powder Coat

Colour, typically smooth, gloss or matt

Yes

Must be applied over a primer to prevent corrosion, powder


coat must be maintained.

Thermoplastic

Colour, comparable to powder-coat

Yes

Risk of corrosion is less than powder coat option.

Stainless Steel

Silver/chrome, smooth

No

High resistance to cutting, most expensive nish.

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Design Issues for Cycle Parking


The cycle stand design parameters
Poor layout of groups of cycle stands can lead to inappropriate
use and reductions in the usable capacity
Furthermore, stands placed too close together often mean that
bicycles can be knocked over - this can block access to stands
and reduce the capacity below that anticipated at the planning
stage.

Cycle Stands placed too close together (UK)

The maximum capacity has been reduced from 24 bicycles to 6 bicycles (UK
example)
Example of spacing of rails connecting stands giving poor stability (UK)

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Design Issues for Cycle Parking


The cycle stand design parameters
Cycle stand group installation should full the following guidelines.
Design Guideline

Desirable

Minimum

Space between stands

1.2m

1.0m

Width of cycle parking bay (the area used to park 1 bicycle adjacent to cycle stand)

0.6m

0.5m

Length of cycle parking bay (the area used to park 1 bicycle adjacent to cycle stand)

2.0m

1.8m

Space around groups of stands for access (aisle width)

4.0m

3.0m

Cycles should be parked on a horizontal plane

The following pages show example layouts of typical cycle stand grouping

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The cycle stand example layout (3 stands parallel)
The cycle stand example layout (3 stands parallel)

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Design Issues for Cycle Parking


The cycle stand example layout (in-line)
The cycle stand example layout (in-line)

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Design Issues for Cycle Parking


The cycle stand example layout (parallel)
The cycle stand example layout (parallel)

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Design Issues for Cycle Parking


The cycle stand example layout (oblique)
The cycle stand example layout (oblique)

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Design Issues for Cycle Parking


The cycle stand example layout (enclosed/cycle store)
The cycle stand example layout (enclosed/cycle store)

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Design Issues for Cycle Parking


Thecyclestandexampleofparallelandobliqueparking
The cycle stand example of parallel and oblique parking
The image below is indicative of the relationship between cycle stands and the surrounding streetscape and street furniture.
This is further developed in the Design Guidelines of the Master Plan study.

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The cycle stand good practice of design principles
The cycle stand good practice
of design principles
Security

Ease of use
t To be designed to adhere to specied layout requirements.
t To be designed to support the cycle upright in 2 places.
t Stand should prevent the wheel from falling to the side.

t To be located to benet from natural surveillance (eyes on the


street)

t To be designed to allow access from both ends of the parking


bay i.e. front in and back in parking

t To be designed for a user to be able to use a standard lock to


secure the frame and front wheel to the stand.

t To be designed to support a wide range of frame types (as


a minimum they should accommodate straight top tube and
sloping top tube). The need to accommodate non-conventional
frame types such as tandems and tricycles should be assessed
and a suitable design solution found if necessary.

t To be constructed to resist cutting by manual tools


t Stands (and groups of stands) should be securely anchored;
options include securing a surface base plate (minimum
size:150mmx150mmx6mm welded to posts) to the ground or
embedding the stand in the ground.

t To be planned to minimise potential conict with passing


pedestrians or vehicle trafc.

t Groups of stands can be enclosed/gated to restrict access to


users only, providing enhanced security in a Cycle Store.
Visibility
Proximity
t Be convenient to the cyclists making an onward journey.
t Located as close as possible to the facility entrance (desirable
within 15m) not measured as the crow ies/straight line
distance ref: USDM.
t Not conict with passing pedestrian movement.

t Highly visible from the cycle network, or supported by


waynding / signage
t Lighting should be provided if cycle parking is to be used at
night.

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Design Issues for Cycle Parking


The cycle locker - overview
The cycle locker - overview
Cycle lockers are particularly suitable for long-stay parking.
They are commonly used at schools and workplaces as they provide the ability to store cycle accessories e.g. cycle helmet, panniers etc
used by commuting cyclists.
Common locker construction materials are described in the table below.
Type

Advantage

Disadvantages

All metal

Very secure

Can become hot from exposure to sun.

Moulded plastic

Can be susceptible to re damage, and forced entry through


door.

Cheaper and more attractive than metal locker.

Plastic panel on metal frame

Panels can be separated from frame using force.

Cheaper and lighter than metal lockers

Fibreglass panel on metal frame

Stiffness of breglass provides improved security relative to


plastic panels and doors.

Generally more expensive than plastic lockers

Example of a Cycle Locker at a workplace (UK)

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Design Issues for Cycle Parking


Example of a Cycle Locker at a workplace (UK)
Example of a Cycle Locker at a
workplace (UK)
Locking mechanisms for locker doors can include:
t User owned lock: provides relatively low level of security as
mechanisms that accept the lock, provide a lack of resistance
to forced entry.
t Integral mechanical: use non-duplicable keys that are
administered to users risk the locker being under utilised as
keys cannot easily be shared between users.
t Smartcard/electronic systems: users register for a smartcard or
electronic tag (which is attached to the cycle) to gain access to
the locker.

Example of a Cycle Locker smart card in use

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Design Issues for Cycle Parking


The cycle locker example group layout
The cycle locker example group layout

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Design Issues for Cycle Parking


The cycle locker good practice of design principles
The cycle locker good practice
of design principles
Security
t Fully enclose the bicycle and withstand a minimum load of
200lb/sq ft.
t The door when open must withstand 500 lb minimum vertical
load.

Visibility
t Easy access to lockers should be achieved by effective
waynding.
t Lockers should be clearly labelled for cycle parking use.
t Lockers when grouped together can have a signicant visual
impact therefore select a product with positive aesthetics to be
attractive to users.

t CCTV should be provided if users perceive a risk of theft.

Ease of Use

t Allow visibility of content to the extent that administrators can to


ensure that appropriate use.

t Locker doors should open to at least 90 degrees.

t Obscure the value of contents, to reduce the motive for forced


entry.
t Anchored securely to the ground.

t Instructions for use should be displayed on or adjacent to the


lockers.
t Placing the cycle inside the lockers should take minimal effort.
t Lighting should be provided if to be used at night.

Proximity
t Be convenient to the cyclist making an onward journey by foot.
t Located as close as possible to the facility entrance (desirable
within 15m (reference USDM) of the entrance to the building/
destination not measured as the crow ies/straight line
distance.
t Not conict with passing pedestrian movement.

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Design Issues for Cycle Parking


Double deck parking a space saving solution
Double deck parking a space saving solution

Particularly useful when demand for cycle parking is high, relative


to the space available for cycle parking facilities, well designed
double deck parking facilities can provide added provision for
people to securely park the bicycles.

Double deck parking is found where cycle parking demand is very


high, typically at large public transport interchanges.

Double deck parking, Canada

Double deck parking, UK

In Abu Dhabi, this could be operated in a similar method to car


parking currently administered by Mawaqif.

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Design Issues for Cycle Parking


The cycle locker good practice of design principles

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Integration with Buses


The cycle locker good practice of design principles

4. Integration with Buses

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Integration with Buses


Demand

Integration with Buses


Demand
The demand for combining bus travel with cycling is typically much
lower than for other public transport systems. This is typically due
to low overall public transport speeds, frequent stops, and the
density of the network (meaning that bus routes are often within a
few minutes walk of where most people live or work). However, a
walking distance of anything from around 10 minutes can still be
usefully switched to a cycle trip, particularly in hot weather.
The greatest demand for bus and cycle integration is likely to
be at bus stations, rather than stops, due to the high number of
bus services, and the availability of long distance services (e.g.
at a metropolitan, regional or emirate scale). There will likely be
demand for carriage of bicycles on long distance services.
Although the demand for the carriage of cycles on buses is likely
to be limited to those people on long distance services, the
ability to be able to carry a bicycle on any bus can facilitate
cycling and encourage trips to be made, reassuring cyclists
that if they get into any trouble (e.g. ill health, mechanical
problems, extremes of weather, or heavily trafcked
sections of route), they have an option of taking their bicycle
on the bus to their destination.
In addition, the ability to carry a bicycle on a bus can facilitate and
encourage cycle touring and recreational trips. Internationally, in
countries with rail-based public transport, cycle spaces on public

transport are often taken by people on cycle touring holidays and


trips.

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Integration with Buses


Cycle Design Principles and Recommendations
Cycle Design Principles and
Recommendations

Recommendations for cycle parking and


carriage
t

For long distance bus services (inter metropolitan, regional and emirate scale),
carry out a feasibility study into cycle
carriage on long-distance bus services.

t

At bus stops, assess the existing and


proposed bus route network where bus
route catchment areas are greater than
a 10 minute walk (>400m) provide small
amounts of cycle parking (minimum of 3
stands i.e. space for 6 bicycles).

t

At main bus station(s), initially provide 20


weather-protected, single deck cycleparking spaces.

Cyclist should be accommodated in the safest and most inviting


manner possible within the urban environment.
Facilities shall be located to manage potential conicts with
pedestrian and vehicular trafc, reducing the need for additional
signing or information.
Where possible, cycle racks and lockers should be located on
the bus station platform. Parking facilities should be less than 25
metres from primary access points at bus stations.
Allowance should be made for growth of cycle parking areas as
demand and use of cycle network increases.

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Integration with Buses


Cycle Carriage
Cycle Carriage
For long distance bus services (inter - metropolitan, regional and
emirate scale), carry out a feasibility study into cycle carriage on
long-distance bus services.
On-vehicle design options
t Racks: Front, side or rear mounted to the vehicle:

Racks should allow any cycle to be removed without the


need to remove other cycles also.

CCTV can be used by driver to monitor use.

t Assessment of time and frequency required to secure/release


the cycle should be undertaken to inform timetabling.
t Demand assessment more likely to demonstrate potential for
demand for cycle carriage on non-intra urban journeys.
t Trailer towed by bus:

Cycle Trailers can be used where racks do not provide


sufcient capacity.

In-vehicle design options


t Flexible space should be designed to accommodate cycles
boarding the vehicle and when in transit.
t Folding cycles should be permitted on all buses.

Integration with Other Transport Modes

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517

Integration with Buses


Cycle Carriage
Example instructions for use of a cycle rack on the outside of
the vehicle
t As the bus approaches have your bike ready to load; remove all
pumps and loose items that could fall off your bike.
t Always approach the bus from the kerb side.
t Tell the bus driver that you are loading a bike.
t Load the bike following the instructions on the rack.
t Board the bus and inform the driver of your journey details.

On-vehicle cycle carriage


Portland, USA: cyclists prefer taking their bikes on board transit vehicles. A
survey indicated that 76 percent of cyclists would not be willing to park their
bikes at a transit stop even if there were sheltered and secure bike parking
available.

518

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Integration with Other Transport Modes

Integration with Buses


Cycle Parking
Cycle Parking

Main bus stations

Bus Stops

At main bus station(s), initially provide 20 weather-protected, single


deck cycle-parking spaces.

At bus stops, assess the existing and proposed bus route network
where bus route catchment areas are greater than a 10 minute
walk (>400m) provide small amounts of cycle parking (minimum of
3 stands i.e. space for 6 bicycles).
It is recommended to provide small amounts of cycle parking
(minimum of 3 stands i.e. space for 6 bicycles) at bus stops where
bus route catchment areas are likely to be greater than a 10
minute walk (>400m).
Cycle parking spaces should be placed adjacent to the bus stop,
ideally in a naturally shaded area. A clear and coherent footway
through zone should be maintained at all times.

It is recommended to initially provide 20 weather-protected, single


deck cycle-parking spaces at main bus stations. Through ongoing
monitoring, demand and supply should be tracked and appropriate
positive actions be taken to increase supply as required.
Weather protected cycle parking spaces should be placed within
the bus station boundary extents, focussing on the cycle parking
criteria of visibility, proximity, ease of use and security.

Integration with Other Transport Modes

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan

519

Integration with Buses


BRT Cycle Integration Case Studies
BRT Cycle Integration Case
Studies
Guangzhou, China
Guangzhous Bus Rapid Transit is quickly being recognised as an
exemplary public transport system and recently won the city the
2011 International Sustainable Transport Award from the Institute
for Transport Development and Policy (ITDP). Its numbers are
impressive.
t Over 800,000 passenger-trips per day
t 8,500 passengers per hour (the highest in the world)
t 55,000 boarders at a single station (also the highest in the
world)
t Has the worlds longest BRT station; and
t Is the rst BRT system in China to include bike parking and bike
sharing into the BRT station design
Comprehensive planning and signicant provisions for both
pedestrian and cyclists have been provided at all stations and
comprehensive bike sharing programme has been initiated. Over
10,000 bikes spaces are available at around 100 stations, of which
about half are bike share as highlighted below.

520

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


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Integration with Other Transport Modes

Integration with Buses


BRT Cycle Integration Case Studies
Examples of the cycle facilities are provided at BRT stations along
the BRT corridor are shown below.

Bogota, Colombia
Bogotas infamous TranMilenio began in 2000 has over 100
stations and carries over 1.5 million passengers per day. As part
of the citys drive towards affordable sustainable transport, city
ofcials have also planned and constructed over 350kms of cycle
routes . The CicloRuta both augments and supports the BRT
system. The CicloRuta is made up of three components; Main
Network connects the city centre to the most populated residential
areas with linkage into the TransMilenio. A Secondary Network
connects housing areas, park and attractions with the main
network and these routes serve as feeders to the TransMilenio. Six
stations have guarded bike parking. Over 1,500 bikes are parked
up and these are free to BRT users. The third component is
known as the complementary network and in the main feeds into
the citys green spaces.
The CicloRuta has over 83,000 users per day and sometimes this
gures doubles or triples. In 5 years, 2005 to 2010, the annual
cycle deaths dropped by one third. Since 2000 the city has
achieved reductions of approximately 36,000 tons of CO2. The
system costs around USD150,000 per km to construct and in
2010 the city spent USD2M maintaining 152 miles of cycle route.
Studies are now ongoing to further expand the network the results
of which are due shortly.

Source : Case Study of the Guangzhou BRT (ITDP 2010)

Integration with Other Transport Modes

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan

521

Integration with Buses


BRT Cycle Integration Case Studies
Cycle Parking at a TranMilenio Station

The CicloRuta in Bogota

Source : Best Practice : Largest Bicycle Path Network, Nyc Global Partners
(May 2011)

522

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


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Integration with Other Transport Modes

Integration with Buses


Bus Stops: Typical Features
Bus Stops: Typical Features
Route Integration
Bus passengers, pedestrians and cyclists are in close proximity
when cycle tracks are located on the same route as bus transit
routes. Particular attention needs to be taken with detailing and
design of public realm around bus stops to maintain a visually
open corridors which will help to mitigate safety issues.
Public Realm
Public realm adjacent to transit lanes should have minimal street
furniture to enable easy access on and off buses. The following
elements should be considered:
t Bus shelter and associated services
t Litter bins
t Seating (typically located within bus shelter).
t Bus stand post/signage with travel information
t Route plan information (usually attached to bus shelter)
t Highway lighting with standard off set from back of kerb.
Spacing to be adjusted to minimise columns along bus stop
(where possible)
t Kerb heights adjusted to bus stop standards,180mm.
t Drainage and service covers to be recessed to ensure smooth
trip free surface

Sharing Space
The needs of all users (pedestrians and cyclists) travelling along
or through the area should be considered. The following elements
should be considered:
t Contrasting paving to highlight change of users priority
t Demarcation between public realm and shared use areas - ush
edge or similar to enforce boundaries
t Signage on cycle tracks to notify change in priority
t Tactile surfacing at the end of cycle tracks.

Integration with Other Transport Modes

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan

523

Integration with Buses


BusStop:TypicalArrangement(atkerbbuildoutbusstop)
Bus Stop: Typical Arrangement (at kerb build out bus stop)

524

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


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Integration with Other Transport Modes

Integration with Buses


Bus Stop: Typical Arrangement (on-carriageway bus stop)
Bus Stop: Typical Arrangement (on-carriageway bus stop)

Integration with Other Transport Modes

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan

525

Integration with Buses


BusStop:TypicalArrangement(on-carriagewaybusstop)

526

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan

Integration with Other Transport Modes

Integration with Buses


Bus Stop: Typical Arrangement (on-carriageway bus stop)

Integration with Other Transport Modes

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan

527

Integration with LRT


BusStop:TypicalArrangement(on-carriagewaybusstop)

5. Integration with LRT

528

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


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Integration with Other Transport Modes

Integration with LRT


Demand
Facilities for pedestrians and cyclists at LRT
stops need to meet the needs of people that
are arriving at or exiting the station, without
compromising their ability to move around the
area or impede their onward travel.
Particular attention should be given to the
placement and location of pedestrian crossing
points and the anticipated ow of passengers at
peak periods.
Sufcient space must be provided to allow for
people to orientate themselves while maintain
clear lines of sight and direct walking routes
between all modes of transport.
Connecting network bus stops should be
within100 metres of LRT stops to improve
connectivity and public transport usability.

Demand
LRT can provide a faster service than a bus, with potentially less
frequent stops, and a less dense network mesh. This can make
it a more efcient public transport mode with which to combine
cycling.
In addition to journey times analysis, for cultural reasons LRT
can be compared more favourably as an alternative to car use or
taxis for certain trips (compared to buses). A wider, more afuent
target audience may therefore be attracted to LRT, supporting the
DoTs objectives for mode shift from private cars. Combining LRT
with cycling can allow greater ability for multi modal commuting
amongst afuent target populations, and encourage other journeys
such as multi modal recreational trips.

Integration with Other Transport Modes

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan

529

Integration with LRT


Cycle Design Principles and Recommendations
Cycle Design Principles and
Recommendations
Cyclist should be accommodated in the safest and most inviting
manner possible within the urban environment.

Recommendations for cycle parking and


carriage
t

LRT cars should include exible space for


bicycles, wheelchairs, prams etc.

t

Any regulations impacting on time


restrictions for the carriage of bicycles on
LRT cars should be determined by demand
forecasting of patronage and monitoring of
the existing system. In western countries,
the off-peak period is typically between
10am and 4pm, after 7pm, and all day at
the weekend

t

Folding bicycles should be permitted on all


LRT cars at all times.

t

It is recommended to provide small


amounts of cycle parking (minimum space
for 6 to 10 bicycles) at LRT stops

Facilities shall be located to manage potential conicts with


pedestrian and vehicular trafc, reducing the need for additional
signing or information.
Where possible, cycle racks and lockers should be located at the
LRT stop or less than 25 metres from primary LRT interchange
areas
Allowance should be made for growth of cycle parking areas as
demand and use of cycle network increases.
Where vertical separation occurs between multi modal stations
suitable provision should be made for cyclists.
When separation heights are signicant and would require long
ramps to access concourse levels of the interchange. Escalators
can be considered but stepped escalators for cyclist create a
number of safety issues which are difcult to mitigate. Elevators are
the most suitable arrangement for cyclists. If an elevator is needed,
it should be at least 2.0m deep by 1.8m wide.

530

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan

Integration with Other Transport Modes

Integration with LRT


Cycle Carriage
Cycle Carriage
LRT Cars
t LRT cars should include exible space for bicycles, wheelchairs,
prams etc.
t Any regulations impacting on time restrictions for the carriage
of bicycles on LRT cars should be determined by demand
forecasting of patronage and monitoring of the existing system.
In western countries, the off-peak period is typically between
10am and 4pm, after 7pm, and all day at the weekend
t Folding bicycles should be permitted on all LRT cars at all
times.
International policies and regulation relating to the carriage of
bicycles on LRT vehicles vary. There is growing international
awareness of the multiple benets of combining cycling with
public transport, and modern LRT systems typically facilitate cycle
carriage.
It is recommended that in-vehicle design options should
incorporate exible space for wheelchairs, prams and bicycles.
Any regulations impacting on time restrictions for the carriage of
bicycles on LRT cars should be determined by demand forecasting
of patronage and monitoring of the existing system. Internationally,
some systems restrict the carriage of bicycles to off-peak periods
in order to maximise user capacity during peak periods.

Integration with Other Transport Modes

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan

531

Integration with LRT


Cycle Parking
Cycle Parking
LRT Stops
t It is recommended to provide small amounts of cycle parking
(minimum of between 3 and 5 stands i.e. space for 6 to 10
bicycles) at LRT stops. The decision on the number of cycle
parking facilities may depend on local geographical factors and
space constraints.
LRT interchange areas
t It is recommended to provide small amounts of cycle parking
(minimum of between 10 - 12 stands i.e. space for 20 to 24
bicycles) at LRT interchanges. The decision on the number
of cycle parking facilities may depend on local geographical
factors and space constraints.

532

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan

Integration with Other Transport Modes

Integration with LRT


LRT Stop: Conceptual Arrangement
LRT Stop: Conceptual
Arrangement
LRT Urban Spine stop

LRT Transit Spine stop

Integration with Other Transport Modes

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan

533

Integration with LRT


LRT Stop: Conceptual Arrangement
LRT Stop: Conceptual
Arrangement
LRT Primary stop

LRT Stop (Tourist spine)

534

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan

Integration with Other Transport Modes

Integration with LRT


LRT Stop: Conceptual Arrangement

Integration with Other Transport Modes

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan

535

Integration with Metro


LRT Stop: Conceptual Arrangement

6. Integration with Metro

536

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan

Integration with Other Transport Modes

Integration with Metro


Demand
Demand
Metro systems can attract high levels of integration with cycle trips
due to their much higher line speeds, and less frequent stops, than
LRT and bus services.
Station arrangements are typically more complex than for LRT
with ticket barriers, staircases, escalators and lifts proving a
challenge for integration with cycling. However, many of these
issues also relate to providing access to people with mobility
impairments (e.g. the requirement for step-free access) so the
additional cost of accommodating cycle carriage will be small if
included at an early stage.

Integration with Other Transport Modes

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan

537

Integration with Metro


Design Principles
Design Principles
Facilities for pedestrians and cyclists at Metro stations need to
meet the needs of people that are arriving at or exiting the station,
without compromising their ability to move around the area or
impede their onward travel.
Sufcient space must be provided to allow for people to orientate
themselves, and also to allow for people that are waiting to meet
and greet others, while maintain clear lines of sight and direct
walking routes between all modes of transport.

District Interchanges
At District Interchanges it is likely that people will be making
shorter onward journeys, and these are most likely to be on
foot, bicycle or by taxi. There may be some interchange with
local bus services, but generally focus will be on a shift off the
public transport network. It is therefore important to ensure that
people have adequate orientation and circulation space as well
as sufcient areas of bicycle storage to meet demand, as failing
to provide this will lead to carelessly parked bikes that will impede
pedestrian movement. Sufcient space needs to be provided to
facilitate expansion of bicycle storage areas at a later date.

Major stations and LRT interchanges


Bus Access
At major stations people are likely to be interchanging between
major modes of public transport Metro, LRT, and Bus. They may
be making onward journeys on foot or by bicycle, but it is likely
they will not be at their nal destination. It is therefore vital that
each mode of transport is as close as possible to each other, with
clear pedestrian routes between each mode of transport.
Any cycle facilities may need to be located slightly further away
from the Metro stop to facilitate this.

Buses should be able to get as close to the building transition


plaza as possible with a maximum walking distance of 100 metres.
Network bus stops should be within 200 metres for major stations
and 100 metres for District stations.

538

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan

Integration with Other Transport Modes

Integration with Metro


Cycle Design Principles and Recommendations
Recommendation for cycle parking and carriage
t

t

It is recommended that between 20 and 40


spaces are provided at each Metro station
(i.e. between 10 and 20 stands). The exact
amount will depend on local geographical
factors e.g. the proximity to large residential
areas. The cycle parking should be weather
protected as Metro stations are likely to
attract longer stay parking than bus and
LRT stops.
As with LRT, Metro cars should include
exible space for the carriage of cycles.
Policies relating to any time restrictions
for the carriage of bikes to be developed
along with demand forecasting. In western
countries, the off-peak period is typically
between 10am and 4pm, after 7pm, and
all day at the weekend. In neighbouring
Dubai, however, it has been found that
the peak period coincides with shopping
rather than commuting activity the trains
are heavily used at weekends with people
accessing the various malls

Cycle Design Principles and


Recommendations
Cyclist should be accommodated in the safest and most inviting
manner possible within the urban environment.
Facilities shall be located to manage potential conicts with
pedestrian and vehicular trafc, reducing the need for additional
signing or information.
Where possible, cycle racks and lockers should be located less
than 25 metres from primary access points into Metro Stations.
Allowance should be made for growth of cycle parking areas as
demand and use of cycle network increases.
Where vertical separation occurs between multi modal stations
suitable provision should be made for cyclists.
When separation heights are signicant and would require long
ramps to access concourse levels of the interchange. Escalators
can be considered but stepped escalators for cyclist create a
number of safety issues which are difcult to mitigate. Elevators are
the most suitable arrangement for cyclists. If an elevator is needed,
it should be at least 2.0m deep by 1.8m wide.

Integration with Other Transport Modes

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan

539

Integration with Metro


Cycle Design Principles and Recommendations

540

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan

Integration with Other Transport Modes

Integration with Metro


Cycle Design Principles and Recommendations

Integration with Other Transport Modes

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan

541

Integration with Water Transport


Cycle Design Principles and Recommendations

7. Integration with Water


Transport

542

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan

Integration with Other Transport Modes

Integration with Water Transport


Demand
Recommendation for cycle parking and carriage
Cycles should be permitted on board all ferries
to allow onward travel by cycle.
The need for cycle parking at the ferry terminals
will depend on the proximity of the key
destinations, and the cost of cycle carriage. If
the ferry takes passengers to within a short walk
of their nal destination, and the cost of cycle
carriage is high, there will be a relatively high
demand for cycle parking at the ferry terminal.

Demand
Ferries can provide a vital link in a cycle network as they enable
cyclists to make a journey that cannot be made by car (assuming
that the ferry does not carry motor vehicles). Given the typical
location of a foot ferry (away from city centres) it is likely that there
will be considerable demand for the carriage of cycles on the
ferries to facilitate onward travel by bicycle.
Space on a ferry is typically less constrained than on other public
transport vehicles so the carriage of cycles internationally is usually
allowed or encouraged to increase patronage. Unlike land based
public transport, it is not unusual to charge for cycle carriage on
ferries internationally.

543

544

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan

Network Design

Network Design

4. Opportunities for
Intelligent Transport
Solutions

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan

545

546

Opportunities for Intelligent Transport Systems

Contents
1. Pedestrian ITS

197

Pedestrian Countdown Signals

197

Pedestrian Diagonal Crossings

205

Pedestrian Detection

209

2. Cycling ITS

213

Background

213

Cycle Detection

214

Cycle Journey Planning Tools

218

Advance Stop Line

219

3. ITS Conclusions
Moving Forward

221
221

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan

547

548

Cardiff
Toronto

Copenhagen

London

Washington
San Francisco

Sydney
Wellington

Opportunities for Intelligent Transport Systems

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan

549

Pedestrian ITS
Most road users desire a quick and safe journey to their destination. Intelligent Transport Systems
(ITS) are efforts which add information and communications technology to transport infrastructure
and vehicles in an effort to manage various competing factors to improve safety, reduce journey
times and reduce fuel consumption.

Aims and Objectives


The aim of this document is to identify and review ITS strategies
relevant to the walking and cycling Master Plan.
The review includes international case studies of where ITS/TIS
strategies for walking and cycling have been applied. Each case
study presents the lessons learnt, highlighting relevant benets and
disbenets. The review also seeks to identify where experience can
be transferable to the Emirate of Abu Dhabi in context with this
Master Plan.
The recommendations in this document will be incorporated into
the Recommended Design Guidelines, a key part of the Walking
and Cycling Master Plan.
The following ITS for walking and cycling have been reviewed:

ITS Strategies for Walking and Cycling


This document reviews various ITS strategies relevant to walking
and cycling. Although such strategies are not comprehensive
across global transport planning practices there is nonetheless
signicant, innovation in the sector, spread internationally. Though
not an exhaustive list, the following cites and areas have been
reviewed, which have adopted and tested ITS strategies in part to
benet walking and/or cycling:
t London, UK
t Cardiff - UK
t Copenhagen Denmark
t San Francisco USA
t Sydney Australia
t Toronto - Canada

t Pedestrian Countdown Signals

t Washington USA

t Scramble/ Diagonal Crossing

t Wellington - New Zealand

t Pedestrian and Cycle Detection


t Bike Counter System

550

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


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Opportunities for Intelligent Transport Systems

Integration with Water Transport


Demand

Opportunities for Intelligent Transport Systems

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan

551

Pedestrian ITS
Pedestrian Countdown Signals

1. Pedestrian ITS
Pedestrian Countdown Signals

What are Pedestrian Countdown Signals?


Pedestrian Countdown technology is implemented across the
World in many different ways, though it is designed for two key
objectives:
To count down to the pedestrian green man, to inform pedestrians
how long they have to wait before they can cross safely
To count down from the start of the pedestrian green man, to
inform pedestrian how much time is left to cross safely.

Several major global cities including Abu Dhabi (e.g. the


intersection of 6th and 7th Streets Najda/Electra), as well as
London, New York, Toronto, San Francisco, Los Angeles and
Auckland use pedestrian countdown signals at trafc lights in
these ways.

552

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan

Opportunities for Intelligent Transport Systems

Pedestrian ITS
Pedestrian Countdown Signals

Abu Dhabi pedestrians pay price for motorists


recklessness
At least six fatalities have been reported in a spate
of accidents over the past two days in the capital
city alone. Most of the victims were pedestrians
hit while trying to cross the roads.
- Gulf News, Published: Jun. 22, 2008
Abu Dhabi: Pedestrians also to be blamed for
road accidents
Inattentiveness and speeding are the main causes
of accidents involving pedestrians. However,
pedestrians are also to blame as many of them
cross roads from non-designated areas and fail to
use pedestrian tunnels and bridges.

Why have pedestrian countdown signals?

How do they work?

Efforts by the Department of Transport and other stakeholders in


this Master Plan, have highlighted the importance of pedestrian
safety in the Emirate. The Department of Transports Abu Dhabi
Pedestrian Safety Action Plan, in particular, has led the way
in delivering a plan to implement additional pedestrian crossing
facilities in urban areas, located at accident blackspots typically
where there is no existing pedestrian crossing facility.

Currently in Abu Dhabi, as in many other places, a green man


invites pedestrians to cross the road whilst vehicles are stopped at
a red light. When the green man light goes out, there are several
seconds where no pedestrian lights are showing before the
red man comes on. This is called the blackout and stops new
pedestrians from starting to cross the road, whilst giving those
already on the crossing time to safely reach the other side.

Nonetheless, accidents continue to occur at existing pedestrian


crossing facilities; the overarching contents of this Master Plan
recommends redesigning pedestrian crossing to make them more
pedestrian friendly, including the removal of right slip lanes where
feasible, or implementing raised tables to reduce cornering trafc
speeds.

Trafc lights with pedestrian countdown signals are designed to be


used by pedestrians as they usually are, the only difference is that
there will be an electronic countdown signal replacing the blackout
between the green man and the red man. This strategy can
therefore provide an engineering quick win in which there is very
minimal need for additional user education on how to use them
safely, or enforcement over and above existing practices.

Pedestrian countdown signals can support pedestrian safety at


signalised intersections by providing information to pedestrians
which supports better decision making.

The following pages present pedestrian countdown signal case


studies for:

- Khaleej Times, Published: Jul. 2010

t San Francisco, USA

Abu Dhabi to become more pedestrian-friendly

t Sydney, Australia

- The Daily Gulf, Published: Mar. 2011

Pedestrian countdown signals is an ITS that will contribute


towards Abu Dhabis goal to becoming more pedestrian
friendly; it will assist in lowering causalities/ fatalities at
signalised intersections as a consequence of collisions
between pedestrians and vehicles.

t Wellington, New Zealand


t Abu Dhabi, Middle East

Opportunities for Intelligent Transport Systems

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553

Pedestrian ITS
Pedestrian Countdown Signals
Case Study 1: San Francisco, USA

Vehicle Collision Analysis

Background

Sites surveyed with pedestrian signals and those without both


observed decreases in the collisions; however, the drop was more
signicant at locations with the pedestrian countdown signals.

The San Francisco Department of Parking and Trafc equipped 14


intersections in a pilot project beginning in March 2001.
The pilot intersections were selected based on a range of factors,
including:
t Pedestrian injury collision record;
t Pedestrian volumes;
t Crossing distance;
t Public complaints about perceived safety; and
t Diversity of physical and social environment.

Table 3 - Pedestrian Collisions


Before

t Behavioural Analysis
During the 14 intersection pilot installations, there were statistically
signicant improvements in pedestrian behaviour and attitudes.
The number of pedestrians who nished crossing during the red
phase decreased from 14% to 9%. The proportion of pedestrians
who ran or aborted their crossing decreased from 13% to 8%.
The proportion of pedestrians who reported the pedestrian signals
to be very helpful increased from 34% to 76%.

After

Change

%
Change

142

-48

-25%

56

+8

+16%

Change

%
Change

Average
2001/02

2003

With Pedestrian
signals

190

Without Pedestrians
signals

48

Table 4 - Vehicle Collisions

Pedestrian Collision Analysis

Before

Accident spots surveyed at pedestrian signalised crossing facilities


performed more safely after receiving countdown signals, as
shown in the adjacent table.

After

Average
2001/02

2003

With Pedestrian
signals

485

320

-165

-34%

Without Pedestrians
signals

191

163

-28

-15%

554

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan

Opportunities for Intelligent Transport Systems

Pedestrian ITS
Pedestrian Countdown Signals
Outcomes

Background
g

San Francisco decided to convert virtually all pedestrian signals


citywide to the countdown version.

The San Francisco Department of Parking and Traffic equipped 14 intersections


in a pilot project beginning in March 2001.
The pilot intersections were selected based on a range of factors, including:

San Francisco has installed countdown signals at about 700


intersections and intends to install them at all 1,100 signalised
junctions in the city.
Pedestrian countdown signals were adopted in 2002 as a standard
device in the Manual on Uniform Trafc Control Devices (MUTCD)
Millennium Edition, Revision 2.
The MUTCD included a guide for high priority locations:
t Those that are over 4 trafc lanes wide.
t Those that provide relatively short crossing times relative to the
street width.
t Those that have high pedestrian volumes.
t Those that are ranked high in pedestrian collisions over the last
5 years.
Indicative capital cost:
t $1000 per intersection.
t $130 per signal head.

Pedestrian injury
j y collision record;;

Pedestrian volumes;

Crossing distance;

Public complaints about perceived safety; and

Di
Diversity
it off physical
h i l and
d social
i l environment.
i
t

Behavioural Analysis
During the 14 intersection pilot installations, there were statistically significant
improvements in pedestrian behaviour and attitudes. The number of pedestrians
who finished crossing during the red phase decreased from 14% to 9%
9%. The
proportion of pedestrians who ran or aborted their crossing decreased from 13%
to 8%. The proportion of pedestrians who reported the pedestrian signals to be
very helpful increased from 34% to 76%.

Opportunities for Intelligent Transport Systems

Abu Dhabi Walking and Cycling


Master Plan

555

Pedestrian ITS
Pedestrian Countdown Signals
Case Study 2: Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

Background
Earlier this year (2011) in Sydney, pedestrian countdown timers
were trialled on pedestrian signals at two busy city intersections in
a bid to improve safety.
t George and Bathurst streets

The pedestrian countdown timer removes the tendency of this


behaviour by providing suitable information (the countdown) which
facilitates personal decision making.

Outcomes
The Road Trafc Authority (RTA) says research shows that
pedestrian countdown timers increase the number of pedestrians
crossing the road in the allotted time.

t Pitt and Park streets

Analysis
New South Waless (NSW) largest city and capital is Sydney.
About 2000 pedestrians are injured in NSW each year. The trial
was part of a City of Sydney plan to improve pedestrian safety
and walkability in the city by lowering the Central Business District
(CBD) speed limit to 40km/h and reduce waiting times at lights.
Anecdotally, Justin Harris, an associate professor at Sydney
Universitys School of Psychology, says that if a pedestrian came
across a group of other pedestrians at an intersection, he/she
tended to do what everyone else was doing - a type of herd
mentality where people are inuenced by others to adopt certain
behaviours.
t If you see other people crossing then you feel its safe to
cross, Dr Harris said. If no one is crossing then youre
reluctant to be the one to take the risk.
t You feel safer if other people are doing it or you can make
inferences that somebody else might understand the risks
better than you do and feel more comfortable about following
someone elses decision.

There were some concerns noted from safety experts which


highlight that the countdown approach at trafc lights could lead to
people taking riskier decisions, though this was not analysed.
Only certain types of countdown timers are suitable for use with
the RTAs advanced adaptive trafc signal control system which by
its very nature is constantly adapting the time allocated to different
movements in response to trafc demand:
t Countdown to green walk (yellow phase only approximately 6
seconds); and
t Countdown to end of Flashing Dont Walk Phase (i.e. the safety
clearance period for pedestrians).

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Pedestrian ITS
Pedestrian Countdown Signals
Case Study 3: Wellington, New Zealand

The following characteristics were recorded:

Background

t total number of pedestrians per phase

In this case study, the overall research objective was to evaluate


changes in safety and efciency from installing countdown timers
at signalised pedestrian crossings in New Zealand.

t number of elderly/sensitive users (including any children in


pushchairs)

The trial was initially proposed at two sites in the Wellington region:
t Vivian/Taranaki St intersection in Wellington

Countdown timer on southern side of Queens/


Margaret outside Gibson Sheat Building with the
side of the existing pedestrian signal in view.

t number of pedestrians on the road when the solid red man was
displayed

t Queens Drive, Bunny Street and Margaret Street intersection in


Lower Hutt (a town/suburb near Wellington)

t number of pedestrians running to complete the crossing

The equipment was installed in July 2007 and was easily


integrated with the existing trafc control system. Before and after
video and questionnaire surveys were carried out.

t number of violators pedestrians crossing on a vehicle phase

t number of aborted crossings


t number of pedestrian/vehicle conicts.

Findings
Analysis
Before and after video and questionnaire surveys were carried out.
Standard statistical testing was conducted involving an analysis
of variance that rst determined whether the data could be
compared by determining differences in the means, then if this was
successful, comparing the variances in the data sets.

Countdown timer on northern side of Bunny/


Queens in front of the Westeld Queensgate Mall
entrance with the side of the existing pedestrian
signal in view.

t number of pedestrians starting to cross when the signal was


ashing red

The data analysis consisted of the percentage of late nishers,


later starters, runners/aborters, violators and pedestrian
vehicle conicts. The percentage basis was the total number of
pedestrians starting to cross on the green or ashing red man for
the three evaluation periods.

t A statistically signicant increase (all data: 11% to 17%) in the


number of pedestrians remaining in the roadway at the end of
the pedestrian phase (late nishers).
t A statistically signicant increase (all data: 20% to 23%) in the
number of pedestrians commencing crossing at the display of
the ashing red man (late starters).
t A statistically signicant decrease (all data: 7% to 5%) in the
number of pedestrians running to complete crossing (late
starters)
t A statistically signicant decrease (all data: 4% to 3%) in the
number of pedestrians crossing on vehicle phases (violators)
t Almost all pedestrians interviewed thought the countdown
timers added to pedestrian safety and almost all pedestrians
(95%) understood their function

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Pedestrian ITS
Pedestrian Countdown Signals
Case Study 4: Abu Dhabi, Middle East

Lessons Learnt and Recommendations

Background

Interest in the use of countdown signals is growing internationally.

The Municipality of Abu Dhabi City has installed a countdown


pedestrian signalling system onthe Corniche as part of the
Municipalitys efforts to introduce the latest trafc systems of
world-class standards,ensuring security and safety of all road
users.
The Municipality had previously conducted trial runs of the
countdown signal system before its installation on the main streets.
The trial-run successfully streamlined trafc and pedestrian
movement at the intersections and reduced the rate of trafc
accidents.
According to the Municipality, the new pedestrian light signalling
system is based on a countdown digital timer clearly displaying the
time pedestrians have to wait before crossing the road along with
the timescale allotted for crossing.

Findings
t A survey conducted revealed that 89% of the people are aware
of the benets of the system and are in favour of its application.
t Among those interviewed 65% said that the time frame allotted
for road crossing is sufcient.
t 74% stated that they would abide by the allotted crossing time
even if the street was clear
t While 69% admitted that the countdown light signal system
helps them take a decision before crossing.

Evidence has been provided in this review that countdown signal


do contribute towards reducing the risk of accidents between
pedestrians and vehicles.
Pedestrians acknowledge that the countdown signals help them to
determine whether it is safe for them to cross the road.
Countries where countdown signals are being trialled for the rst
time are interested to know how well similar trials in other countries
have done.
There are some safety concerns raised, including that the
countdown approach at trafc signals could lead to people taking
riskier decisions.
Whilst undertaking this review it is clear that there are different
types of countdown signals available in the market. This is an area
that should be researched further in context with the current signal
standards used (and/or planned) for the Emirate of Abu Dhabi.

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Pedestrian ITS
Pedestrian Countdown Signals

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Pedestrian ITS
Pedestrian Diagonal Crossings
Pedestrian Diagonal Crossings

What are diagonal crossings?


A pedestrian diagonal crossing, also known as a scramble
crossing, is a pedestrian crossing facility that stops all vehicular
trafc and allows pedestrians to cross an intersection in every
direction, including diagonally, at the same time.
The most widely known facility is that in Tokyo, Japan (below).
The following case studies are presented:
t London, UK
t Toronto, Canada .

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Pedestrian ITS
Pedestrian Diagonal Crossings
What are the benets and disbenets?
The potential benets of introducing scramble crossings for
pedestrians includes the following:
t Reduction of walk distances and times particularly where
pedestrians would otherwise use two orthogonal crossings
to reach their intended destination and can now complete
their journey through the junction by making a single diagonal
crossing movement.
t Potential improvements in safety by reducing conicts between
pedestrians and vehicles.
t Promotion of pedestrian priority and relief of pedestrian
congestion.
The potential disbenets of introducing scramble crossings for
pedestrians includes the following:
t Increased delays to vehicles particularly where an all red signal
stage has to be introduced.
t The effectiveness of scramble crossings relies on pedestrian
compliance with the signals and several examples are
considered to suffer from pedestrian failing to clear the
junction at the end of the crossing periods leading to potential
additional delays to vehicles.
t Increase in the perceived risk to pedestrians by the removal of
barriers and guardrails to allow crossings in all directions. The
key consideration is the potential risk of pedestrians waiting to
cross on diagonal movements at the corners of junctions being
stuck by vehicles turning left around the corners.

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Pedestrian ITS
Pedestrian Diagonal Crossings
Case Study 1: Oxford Circus, London

Background
The UKs second diagonal pedestrian crossing facility, and the
rst at a major urban intersection and signicant landmark of the
junction of Oxford Street and Regent Street.

t Pedestrian crossing compliance increased by 10%.


t Pedestrian congestion was signicantly reduced.

B f
Before
2008

The scheme was designed by Atkins on behalf of the landowners,


(The Crown Estate), city transport authorty (Transport for London,
the local authority (Westminster City Council) and other key
stakeholders, and delivered in 2009.
Oxford Circus experiences very high pedestrian activity, and prior
to the implementation of the diagonal crossing and its associated
additional footway space, was heavily congested for pedestrians at
peak periods of the day.
Typically, pedestrians account for 64%of all people passing
through the junction. Bus passengers account for the next highest
proportion, at 32%, with around 1% of people passing though in
private cars, taxis, on motorcycles and by cycle respectively.

Analysis
Modelling was undertaken by Atkins through microsimulation
modelling using Legion. Following the implementation, a
comprehensive before and after analysis was undertaken to test is
operation quantitatively.

Findings
t Pedestrian journey time at the intersection was reduced by one
minute on average.

After 2009

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Pedestrian Diagonal Crossings
Before 2008

Case Study 2: Toronto, Canada

Lessons learnt and Recommendations

Background

The diagonal pedestrian crossing facility is designed to integrate


the use of countdown signals and other potential technologies
to improve pedestrian safety at intersections, reduce pedestrian
journey times and pedestrian congestion, whilst maintaining or not
signicantly affecting vehicle journey times.

This diagonal crossing was implemented in 2008 for pedestrians to


cross the street at Yonge and Dundas (reportedly the citys busiest
intersection) primarily to improve pedestrian safety.

After 2009

The intersection is used by about 100,000 pedestrian trips per


day; approximately two thirds of all users of the intersection
are pedestrians, and one third are in vehicles. Reportedly, the
pedestrian green phase is 28 seconds out of a total 80-second
cycle.
In addition to the more typical design arrangements, this crossing
includes an audio announcement given when activated: Walk
time is on for diagonal crossing.

Findings
There was a variety of typical ndings, including:
Improved pedestrian safety.
Reduce pedestrian crossing time by up to 40 seconds.
Drivers perceive the diagonal crossing as an inconvenience to
them.
The intersection does not allow right or left turns.

Outcomes
The diagonal crossing facility will be rolled out at other
intersections in the city.

Nonetheless, drivers perceives the diagonal crossings as an


inconvenience to them; analysis of Oxford Circus shows very
minimal journey time increases for private vehicles and buses.
In this instance, the benets for pedestrian vastly outweigh any
disbenets to other users.
The key driver for a diagonal crossing is high pedestrian activity,
relative to the demands for trafc through ow and congestion
alleviation. It is considered that at this stage in Abu Dhabi,
during cooler winter months, the benets for pedestrians may
not outweigh the disbenets to vehicle movement. However, the
prospect of introducing diagonal crossings in Abu Dhabi should
be continually reviewed on a case by case basis where there are
potential benets relating to:
t Pedestrian safety
t Pedestrian Journey times / pedestrian ambience benets

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Pedestrian ITS
Pedestrian Detection
Pedestrian Detection

Pedestrian signals assign right-of-way to pedestrians in much the same way as vehicular signals do
for vehicular trafc. However, they are no guarantee of safety. Pedestrians still have to exercise sound
judgement when crossing a road.
Pedestrian detectors are normally installed at intersections when:
Arrival rates of side street vehicles are occasionally low and
pedestrians experience undue delay waiting for a vehicular
indication to turn green.
Vehicular green indications are too short to allow for a pedestrian
to safely cross a wide street - in these instances the pedestrian
push button causes the signal controller to extend the green time
for both vehicles and pedestrians.
Pedestrians can get trapped on median islands in the middle of a
complex intersection.
The combination of passive pedestrian detection and audible
signals is being used in the United Kingdom, Australia, New
Zealand and the Netherlands.
One available accessible pedestrian system provides the option
of triggering the pushbutton locator tone through sensors (piezoelectric, infrared, or microwave) when a pedestrian enters the
detection zone. If a pedestrian is not detected, the locator tone is
silent.

An example of passive pedestrian detection technology is the


Pedestrian User-Friendly Intelligent (PUFFIN) crossing in use in
England since 1993 (Department of Transport, 1993). PUFFIN
crossings employ pedestrian detectors for both the pedestrian
waiting area and the crosswalk. Waiting area detectors consist
of either pressure mats with piezo-electric sensors, infrared
or microwave detectors mounted on the signal pole, or video
cameras serving remote sensor software.
New ITS pedestrian detection technologies are being rolled out
and one such example (produced by Tracon) is presented as case
study.

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Pedestrian ITS
Pedestrian Detection
There are 5 types of technologies that have been used in detection
systems and that could possibly be used for passive pedestrian
detection:
t Passive infrared: detects a change in the thermal contrast within
a dened eld of vision.
Sensor

False Calls

Detection

No Detection

8%

47%

45%

(7)

(41)

(39)

8%

89%

3%

(8)

(86)

(3)

1%

92%

7%

(1)

(116)

(9)

Passive Infrared at close


range

4%

96%

(3)

(72)

Passive Infrared at long


range

4.5%

94%

1.5%

(6)

(126)

(2)

Ultrasonic at long range

Ultrasonic at close range

Doppler Radar

Table 5 - Results of a pedestrian detection test in Portland, Oregon (USA)

Total Peds

87

97

t Ultrasonic: emits an ultrasonic sound and listens for an


echo bouncing off an object that is found within its eld of
view. Temperature and humidity changes can affect sensor
operations.
t Doppler radar: emits a radio wave and analyzes the change in
frequency of that radio wave as it bounces back from an object
moving within its detection range. This change in frequency is
known as the Doppler effect.

75

t Video imaging: analyzes the change in pixels of a video image


in order to detect movement within a dened zone. Lighting
and shadows can affect a video imaging systems detection
capabilities.

134

t Piezometric: senses a change of pressure on a material


subjected to hydrostatic pressure.

126

The above technologies were trialled in a pedestrian detection test


in Portland, Oregon (USA), which the results have been presented
in the ..

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Pedestrian ITS
Pedestrian Detection
Case Study 1: Are Pufn Crossings safer than Pelicans?

Findings

Background - Pelicans

A study carried out by Transport Research Laboratory,


commissioned by the UKs Department for Transport, was carried
out on Pufn Crossings.

A Pelican crossing is a traditional type of pedestrian crossing


featuring a pair of poles each with a standard set of trafc lights
facing oncoming trafc, a push button and two illuminated,
coloured men facing the pedestrian from across the road - a
red, stationary man to indicate that it is not safe to cross, and a
green, walking man to indicate that it is safe to do so. The name is
derived from PELICON, an acronym of pedestrian light controlled.
The term Pelican crossing originated in the United Kingdom, and is
not in ofcial use elsewhere, but similar trafc control devices are in
use throughout the world, including in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi.

Background Pufns
A pedestrian user-friendly intelligent crossing (pufn crossing) is a
type of pedestrian crossing in use in the United Kingdom. It differs
from a pelican crossing in that the lights informing pedestrians
when to cross and wait are on the near side of the road, rather
than on the opposite side. The system also utilises sensors which
detect the presence of pedestrians waiting at the crossing, and as
they are crossing the road.
Unlike the older Pelican crossing design, the pufn crossing
mounts pedestrian signal lights at the near road side, set
diagonally to the road edge. The stated reason for this design is
to allow the pedestrian to monitor passing trafc whilst waiting for
the signal to cross. A second stated reason for the design is that
having the lights closer to the user assists visually impaired people
who would otherwise have difculty viewing the signal from across
the road.

t TRL studied accident data from 50 sites (40 mid-block


crossings and 10 intersections) that had been converted from
pufn to Pelican operation. The accident frequency reduction
for the sample was 19%, statistically signicant at a 5%
condence level.

Pelicans?

t TRL stated: This nding should be disseminated widely to


the transport planning and engineering community of Pufn
facilities. (Source: Local Transport Today LTT 568, 08APR21APR 2011).

Outcomes
Such improvements to pedestrian crossing facility designs may
be of potential benet in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi to improve
pedestrian safety and support the vision of this Master Plan.
This is particularly relevant for further feasibility study at mid
block crossing facilities, which are becoming more prevalent in
the Emirate as a result of this Master Plan and other signicant
inuences such as the Pedestrian Safety Action Plan.

Pufn crossing control box and pedestrian


signal lights

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Pedestrian ITS
Pedestrian Detection
Case Study 2: Safewalk & Tracam-Walk

Case Study 2: Safewalk & Tracam-Walk - Tracon

Lessons Learnt and Recommendations

Background

Pedestrian crossing facilities are fundamental to introduce in key


parts of Abu Dhabi, where the impact of vehicle trafc and road
design are major factors in isolating and severing pedestrian
movement. Pedestrian detection systems are particularly
important in the Emirate, where such systems can minimise any
negative impacts on vehicle movement as a result of introducing
fundamental facilities required by pedestrians to cross roads.

- Tracon

SafeWalk, from Tracon, detects the presence of waiting


pedestrians at the kerbside. TraCam C-Walk, also from Tracon, is
an all-in-one sensor (camera and detector) which detects crossing
pedestrians. By detecting crossing pedestrians and, at the same
time, by managing and controlling trafc lights more dynamically,
this sensor aims to improve pedestrian safety and minimse delays
to motorists.

Research and Findings


Independent tests were undertaken on SafeWalk and the C-Walk
detectors by UKs Transport Research Laboratories (TRL). Positive
ndings resulted in both of the above ITS products being certied
by the UKs Highways Agency (HA) and Transport Research
Laboratory (TRL).

Outcomes

Tracon C-Walk (left) and SafeWalk (right)


mounted on a signal pole

Such ITS solutions may be potentially of benet in the Emirate of


Abu Dhabi to improve pedestrian safety and minimise disruptions
to vehicle through-ow. This is particularly relevant for further
feasibility study at mid block crossing facilities, which are
becoming more prevalent in the Emirate as a result of this Master
Plan and other signicant inuences such as the Pedestrian Safety
Action Plan.

There is a variety of technologies available and a comprehensive


review and feasibility study should be carried out the test the
suitability of these technologies and select a preferred option.
New ITS are emerging in the market; some of these are integrating
technologies together in order to maximise benets, for example
the Safewalk & Tracam-Walk; it is recommended the ITS market is
monitored and feasibility studies be carried out to assess the Value
for Money for the Emirate of Abu Dhabi.

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Master Plan

567

Cycling ITS
Background

2. Cycling ITS
Background

What is the problem?

What is the solution?

Signals at road crossings or intersections that do not cater


adequately for bicycles or cyclists.

The deployment of cycle detection technologies at signalised


intersections.

What are the risks?


If intersection signals do not allow for the needs of cyclists there is
a risk of collision. This can happen if:
t Cyclists do not have enough green time to safely cross the
intersection. They may be part way across the intersection
when the lights turn red and the opposing trafc is released by
a green signal.
t Cyclists cannot register their presence at the intersection or
there are not bicycle signals so they are not given a turn (or
phase) of green time on the lights to cross. They may resort to
crossing informally.
t Cyclists are released on the same green phase of the lights
when most trafc wants to turn across their path. For instance if
most riders intend to go straight ahead but most drivers intend
to turn across their path.

What types of cycle detection technologies are


available?
t Various types of cycle detection technologies are available:
t Inductive loops
t Video
t Infrared / Microwave / Magnetometers
t Or a combination of the above technologies

ater adequately for bicycles

sts there is a risk of


oss the intersection. They
ghts turn red and the
ection
ti or there
th
are nott
se) of green time on the
lly.
he lights when most traffic
riders intend to go
g straight
g
ath.
signalised intersections.
lable?

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Cycling ITS
Cycle Detection
Cycle Detection

Microwave
Benets:

Technologies
t During installation, lane closures are not necessary.

Example of a microwave detector system


Source: http://www.walkinginfo.org/pedsmart/
devcmain.htm

Inductive Loops

t Can be used in any surface.

Benets:

t Can be use for pedestrian detection.

t High sensitivity loop detectors work well.

Disbenets:

Disbenets:

t Complex to maintain.

t Ineffective if cyclists are unaware of the exact location.

t Difcult to use in a presence mode.

t The equipment may not be capable of detecting all types of


bicycles.

Infrared

t Hard to install on rigid surfaces.

Video
Benets:
t During installation, lane closures are not necessary.

Example of an infrared detector system.


Source: http://www.walkinginfo.org/pedsmart/
devcmain.htm

Benets:
t Installation: lane closures are not necessary.
t Can be used in any surface.
Disbenets:

t Can be used in areas with deteriorated pavement.

t Difcult to detect smaller masses (especially children on


bicycles).

t Easy to relocate detection zones.

t Weather makes detection unreliable.

t More reliable and can detect any object, even without metal.

Magnetometers

Disbenets:

Benets

t Heavy weather conditions may reduce effectiveness.

t Special locations, such as on or under bridges.

t Higher cost.

Disbenets
t Very small detection zone area.

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Cycling ITS
Cycle Detection
Case Study 1: Washington County, Oregon

Loops

Background

The inductive loop senses the presence of a vehicle within the


loop area by measuring the change in the electrical characteristics
resulting from the introduction of a mass of metal into the loop
area.

Every person riding a bicycle upon a public way is subject to the


provisions applicable to and has the same rights and duties as the
driver of any other vehicles concerning operating on highways,
vehicle equipment and abandoned vehicles Oregon vehicle
code
The above extends logically to the right of the cyclist to effectively
use the trafc signal system.
In order for trafc signals to provide cyclists the same rights as
motor vehicles, the signal needs to know that a cyclist is present.
Washington County meet that requirement by having a vehicle
detection system that has the capability of detecting vehicles of
all sizes including bicycles. The following case study will look at
how this is achieved and highlight the benets and disbenets.
Washington County used two different types of detection:
t Inductive Loops
t Video Detection

Benets
t Relatively simple and straight forward installation
t Low maintenance
Disbenets
t Sensitivity is based on the mass of inductive metal in the
detected vehicle with periodic tuning required for maximum
sensitivity
t Loops are subjected to damage by pavements rehabilitation,
work in the roadside area, etc.
t Rigid locations requiring reconstruction to modify to meet
changing conditions.
The majority of detectors in Washington County are the embedded
loop typology.
One solution which Washington County are implementing to make
their trafc signals more cyclist friendly consists of visibility marking
the most sensitive areas of the loops in critical locations.
Once the sweet spot is located (see right) it is marked with a
logo similar to the one shown to the right. Cyclists then know that
positioning their bike over the logo as shown provides the greatest
potential for detection and activation of that signal approach.

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Cycling ITS
Cycle Detection
Video Detection
Video detection utilises a video camera to continuously record the
activity at the intersection approaches.
Detection zones are superimposed on the video image at the
desired locations.

oop senses the presence of a vehicle within the loop area by


change in the electrical characteristics resulting from the
a mass of metal into the loop area.
ely simple and straight forward installation
aintenance

Detections of vehicles results from vehicles entering the detection


zones superimposed on the video image.
Benets:
t Flexibility: Detection zones can be relocated at will, typically
with no costs other than technicians labour
t Sensitivity: Detection zones adjustable in size, shape and
sensitivity and can easily detect objects with no metal content
(people, carbon-bre bikes, etc.)
Disbenets:
t Equipment costs for installation and replacement are higher
(complex signals normally requiring large number of loops
actually reduce the magnitude of the cost differential.

s
vity is based on the mass of inductive metal in the detected vehicle
eriodic tuning required for maximum sensitivity
are subjected to damage by pavements rehabilitation, work in the
de area, etc.
ocations requiring reconstruction to modify to meet changing
ons.
Technician using test bike to nd the sweet spot of a loop.

Opportunities for Intelligent Transport Systems

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Master Plan

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Cycling ITS
Cycle Detection
Case Study 2: Bike Counter System, Copenhagen

Case Study 3: Bicycle Switch Pad, Australia

In May 2009 Copenhagen installed a cyclist counter in front of city


hall displaying two numbers.

A joint venture between the NSW Roads and Trafc Authority,


Sydney City Council and Trafc Tech resulted in the rst Ezyloops
Bicycle Switch Pads (BSP) being installed in Sydney CBD.

t One displays the total number of passing cyclists for the day.
t The other shows the total number of passing cyclists for the
year.
In hopes of encouraging more people to get on their bikes,
Copenhagen is giving away a bicycle to the 500,000th cyclist.
There is a sensor line in the asphalt on the bike lane a few metres
in front of the counter which registers the cyclists. There is a SIMcard in the counter so the information is automatically sent to the
City of Copenhagens Center for Trafc. The counter only registers
cyclists on one side of the street.

Constructed of heavy duty UV Stable materials with a non-slip


rubber surface. The Bicycle Switch Pad (BSP) adheres to the
surface of an existing bike lane. The patented design is intended
to be an alternative to a call button or in-pavement loops. The call
will be cancelled if vacated. Each button or rows of buttons on the
switch pad can be individually activated so that both presence and
direction can be determined.
Lessons learnt and Recommendations
Cycle detection systems are mainly used to give cyclists priority at
signals.
Like pedestrian detection there is ITS already available in the
market that could potentially be deployed in Abu Dhabi.
The use of loops is the most commonly used cycle detection used.
Cycle has own signal

Fixed signage needs to accompany some of these ITS as is the


case when using loops; a cyclist not correctly positioned on the
loop will not be detected thus will not be given priority to cross the
intersection; as highlighted in the Washington cycle detection case
study.

Switch Pad installed on cycleway

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Cycling ITS
Cycle Journey Planning Tools
Cycle Journey Planning Tools
Overview
The following pages present innovative technology that could
be promoted through the Master Plan to support cycle journey
planning.

iPhone Apps
Cycle journey planning iPhone apps are available. These will be
investigated in more detail in the social marketing workstream of
the Master Plan.
Example: The Bike Hub
This Cycle journey planning and cycle shop nding iPhone app is
free and available in the UK, paid for by the Bike Hub levy scheme.
The cycle routing is achieved via CycleStreets.net, open source
cycle mapping programme. This cycle journey planning website
uses mathematical graph theory algorithms to calculate the
quickest or quietest route.

Web Cycle Journey Planners


A wide variety of cycle planners are available on the web.
Examples for the type of options that are available:
t Easy: Prefer quiet back streets and sign-posted routes. The
speed is 16km/hr.
t Fast: Prefer fastest, most direct routes. The speed is 20km/hr.
t Leisure: Prefer quiet backstreets, canals and parks routes. The
speed is 12km/hr.

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Cycling ITS
Advance Stop Line
Trafc control centres
Bristol City Council (UK) is using its trafc control centre to assist
and promote travelling by bicycle, on foot or by bus. A video wall is
able to display up to 60 CCTV images at once showing congestion
and how individual junctions are operating.
The trafc control centre liaises with the Cycling City team to give
road users an alternating number of road safety messages on
the 18 variable message signs that they control, such as Gives
Cyclists More Space.

Advance Stop Line


Overview
An Advanced Stop Line (ASL), also known as advanced stop box
or bike box, these are road markings at signalised road junctions
allowing certain types of vehicle (for example bikes, buses and
motorcycles) a head start when the trafc signals change from red
to green.

Cyclists
There are two parallel stop lines at the intersection, the rst one
at which all trafc, excluding cyclists, must stop at, and a second
one closer to the intersection for cyclists to proceed to. The area
between these two stop lines is referred to as the reservoir or
box. Signage may be needed to notify road users as to the
meaning of the extra stop line. A separate set of trafc signals may
be provided for the cyclists, but all vehicles in most cases tend to
use the same signals.

Bike Box in Portland, Oregon (USA), with "feeder"


cycle lane entering into the box from the left.
Not all advanced stop boxes have such feeders
(below).

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Cycling ITS
Cycle Journey Planning Tools
Cyclists (continued)
ASLs for cyclists are generally used in conjunction with some
form of cycle lane for ltering cycle trafc. Trafc regulations in
some countries (e.g. UK and Ireland) may require a cycle lane
to give cyclists a legal way of bypassing the rst stop line. This
arrangement theoretically allows cyclists to play to their strengths
by regularising the practice of ltering to the top of queuing trafc
during the red phase at trafc lights. Cyclists turning to the offside
(i.e. right in the UK and Ireland, left in USA etc) are able to take
up a proper turning position. Straight-on cyclists can adopt and
maintain a prominent position for transiting the junction safely
within the main trafc stream. An ASL will also help reduce the
exposure of such cyclists at junctions with nearside (i.e. left in the
UK and Ireland, right in USA etc) lter lights by providing a place
for cyclists to wait while trafc passes on the inside. A similar
consideration arises where a free turn to the nearside is permitted
(called right-turn-on-red in the US).

Findings
Based on Danish research, it is argued that an ASL should have
the general stop line 5 m back from the main trafc signal. The
reasoning is that this puts cyclists clearly into the view of HGV
(heavy goods vehicles) drivers, who have a blind spot up to
4 m directly in front of the cab. According to an Organisation
for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) review,
ASLs are also advocated as way of improving pedestrian safety
at crossings by increasing the separation between crossing
pedestrians and waiting motor vehicles.
UKs Department of Transport produced a leaet covering ASLs
and noted that ASLs had been used successfully at sites with
motor vehicle ows up to 1000 vehicles per hour, and with two-

lane approaches.
Lessons Learnt and Recommendations
New ITS tools are being provided to improve cycle journey
planning, such as iPhone apps and cycle journey planning
websites; these allow cyclists to avoid major intersections whilst
planning the journey.
For Abu Dhabi it is recommended that
t The Department of Transport promotes a trial using iPhone
apps for cyclists
t The Department of Transport creates a national cycle journey
planning website, such as the Department of Transport (UK)
journey planning tool transportdirect.info, designed by Atkins.
There is also evidence that information from existing ITS is being
collectively used for the benet of cyclists; disseminated through
existing Variable Message Signs that are usually used for providing
motorists with trafc information. This strategy could be replicated
in Abu Dhabi and would require a pre study to investigate what ITS
components are already in place and what additional ITS would be
needed, such as VMS.

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ITS Conclusions
Moving Forward

3. ITS Conclusions
Moving Forward

The ITS research undertaken for pedestrians and cyclists,


particularly at intersections, has revealed that there are established
and reliable ITS technologies readily available that could be
adopted by Abu Dhabis DoT.
From the ITS technologies presented in this report the following
would be recommended for a comprehensive review (pilot trials) or
deployment:

Countdown signals.
t There is already evidence to indicate that Abu Dhabi has already
taken initial steps to deploy this ITS technology; countdown
signals in Corniche road. The results from this deployment, if
not already done so, should be assessed and used to update
existing signal standards.
t Our investigations have revealed that countdown signals are
very popular and are being trialed and/or adopted across the
globe.

Pufns
t Pufns are acknowledged to be an improvement to the Pelican
crossing, currently used in the Middle East. It differs from a

pelican crossing in that the lights informing pedestrians when


to cross and wait are on the near side of the road, rather than
on the opposite side. The system also utilises sensors which
detect the presence of pedestrians waiting at the crossing, and
as they are crossing the road.
t Reduces the risk of pedestrians not seeing the crossing signal
as a result of high light intensity from the sun.
t An audit of existing pedestrian crossing be undertaken followed
up with an assessment to upgrade to Pufns.

Cycle detection via loops


t Loops to detect cyclists at intersections is an internationally
established ITS solution used to provide cyclists priority at
signalised junctions. It is recommended that this solution is
adopted by Abu Dhabi and is integrated with ASL (if relevant)
and cycle lanes when being deployed.
t Road markings would be needed to inform cyclists where
to place their bikes in order to be given priority at signals;
precautionary measure already used else where to improve
reliability of the solution.

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ITS Conclusions
Moving Forward
Diagonal crossings
t An old idea making an international comeback. In the Emirate
it is clear that trafc throughow and congestion reduction are
primary drivers for transport planning. Such a diagonal crossing
should be seen as part of an overarching strategy for walkable
/ cyclable places and neighbourhoods, especially for new
developments, where the demands for trafc can be planned
and mitigated for.
t This should be integrated with other ITS, such as, countdown
signals, in order to deliver maximum benets to pedestrians.
t Each intersections put forward for a diagonal crossing
should be individual assessed for their suitability; this could
be achieved by modelling pedestrian crossing movements
and trafc ows, and assessing potential changes that may
be required to the general layout of the intersection. Similar
exercise was successfully undertaken by Atkins to deliver the
diagonal crossing at Londons Oxford Circus (UK).
New ITS technologies are continually being produced by industry
and to deploy these new ITS technologies in Abu Dhabi would
be perceived to be a high risk, in terms of reliability. To mitigated
against the risk it would be recommended that small scale pilot
trials are conducted at low priority sites.

and cyclists at intersections.


Review related standards that are currently in place in Abu Dhabi in
order to identify potential gaps.
t ITS Showcase Site Visits
Identify international recognised ITS pedestrian and bikeway sites
to be visited by Abu Dhabis DoT representatives so, as to obtain
lessons learnt from those directly responsible for the deployment
of their ITS pedestrian and bikeway schemes and to of course see
these in operation.
t Pedestrian/ Bike ITS Suppliers
Identify and compile a contacts list of leading pedestrian and
bikeway ITS technology providers. This will be later used during
pilot trials and full deployment.
t ITS Pilot Trials
Survey potential intersections intended for either pilot trial/ full
deployment.
Invite suppliers to tender for pilot trial/full deployment
Produce lesson learnt report for pilot trials. Based on the outputs
of the report:

Recommendations
- Amend standards (if required).
It is recommended that Abu Dhabis DoT considers reviewing the
following four areas prior to undertaking any ITS pilot trial or full
scale deployment:
t Standardisation
Review international standards for deploying ITS for pedestrians

- Decide whether the trial should result in full deployment in Abu


Dhabi.

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ITS Conclusions
Moving Forward

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Network Design