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International Journal of Scientific Research Engineering & Technology (IJSRET), ISSN 2278 0882

Volume 4, Issue 10, October 2015

Study about Scope of Nano Technology in Real World

Past, Present and Future
Sheelesh Kumar, Arunoday Kumar, Shubham Kr. Sharma
EEE III Year, MIIT Meerut, India

Nanotechnology is like a toolkit for the electronics
industry. It gives us tools that allow us to make
nanomaterials with special properties modified by ultrafine particle size, crystallinity, structure or surfaces.
These will become commercially important when they
give a cost and performance advantage over existing
products or allow us to create new products. Over the
next five years we will see significant introduction of
nanomaterials and novel production processes based on
Nanotechnology which will address key issues of
importance to the electronics industry. Longer term the
use of Nanotechnology will allow us to meet customer
requirements by extending existing technologies or
replacing them with new ones.
Keywords: nano technology; environment; healthcare;



Nano technologies cover all technologies that deal with

materials in nano - scale size. In a parochial sense,
technologies that cover unique phenomena which arise in
the components of 10 -to-100 nm size range. Materials
used for such small sizes have been prepared using two
techniques, the top - down and the bottom-up methods
The top - down method is used to convert macro -scale
materials into smaller sizes as we use in the
semiconductor process, whereas the bottom - up method
is applied to commulate molecules or atoms into nano
scale materials as has been observed in the synthesis of
living organism. This paper discusses past and recent
progress and current trends in nanotechnology.


Nanotechnology Can Offer Us:
Nano-structured materials such as tubes, balls,
hooks, surfaces, etc.
Reactive particles
Identical particles like metals and their oxide,
ceramics, composite
Uncommon optical, thermal and electronic
properties as found in phosphors, heat pipes,
percolation based conductors.

Chemical sensors together with Hydrogen and

glucose sensors.
Optical sensors
Transistors and integrated circuits.
Increasing the density of memory chips.
Reducing the size of transistors used in
integrated circuits.
Improving display screens on electronics


A. Nanoscale Transistors:
Transistors are electronic switching devices in which a
small amount of electricity is used at gate to control the
flow of larger amount of charge carriers. In the hardware
of computers, more the number of transistors, the greater
the power obtained. With the development of
technologies the transistors sizes have been decreasing
continuously making the computer more powerful. So
long as now a days, the industrys best mercantile
technology has been successful in developing computer
chips consisting of 45 transistors with nanometer
features. Recent declarations suggest that 32 nanometer
characteristics technology soon will be in the market.
B. Molecular Memory:

A dielectric film for a DR A M*1 capacitor was

fabricated using the bottom - up method of
nanotechnology. A primary cell of DRAM comprises a
pair, of a transistor and a capacitor, and the transistor (an
active element) can be developed based on the scaling
rule although the capacitor (a passive element)
cannot.The driver of the film deepness decreases.,
Capacitor leakage current increases, and decreases in the
film, as the capacitance decreases. Prof. Werner G. Ku hr
and his col leagues, University of California, Assembled
monolayer (S A M) and an electrolyte - which contains a
self-proposed a two -layered filmasad ielectric film. The
film then its capacitance and electromotive force
between Sam and the electrolyte can be controlled by a
redox reaction that has been created.

Various applications in the field of nano technology
comprises of:
Read heads that are used in hard disk drives.
Integrated circuit deposition control systems

Fig 1: Molecular memory applied to DRAM capacitors


International Journal of Scientific Research Engineering & Technology (IJSRET), ISSN 2278 0882
Volume 4, Issue 10, October 2015
C. Semiconductors:

The most revolutionary applications of nanotechnology

are in the semiconductor areas. Doping of a Carbon or
Silicon nanotube and coating it with differently doped
materials and further assembling it in an array. Creation
of quantum dots that can store a single electron charge
can also be implemented using nano technology. One
such application can be trapping atoms inside a nanotube
and making use of electron spin to create a quantum
computing device.
One example of great interest in the field of
semiconductor technology is the atomic cluster
deposition technology implemented by Nano Cluster
Devices (NCD). The technology is the result of
convergence of two prior established technologies,
atomic cluster deposition and the type of lithography
currently used in semiconductor manufacture of ICs.


A. Medicine And Healthcare:

A nanotechnology for medical field is known as

nanomedicine applications. In particular, the area of
application for the diagnosis, monitoring, treating and
preventing diseases nanometer-scale materials and nanoenabled technologies uses. These are heart disease,
cancer, musculoskeletal and inflammatory conditions,
neurodegenerative and psychiatric disease, diabetes and
infectious diseases (bacterial and viral infections such as
HIV), and more. The probable rule of nanotechnologies
in the medical sector is that they must include new
dignostics tools; imaging agents and methods; drug
delivery systems and pharmaceuticals; therapies;
implants and tissue engineered constructs.
Health and medicine for the diagnosis of a suspected
disease is one of the most important steps. The
requirements are early diagnosis along with reliable
results, specific and precise, and with minimal risk of
false positives. Nanomedicine has the potential to
greatly improve the whole diagnostic process. Instead of
collecting the blood sample in a vial (which can take
days), send it to a special laboratory for testing, doctors
are now capable of using in-vitro diagnostic devices. To
enable the analysis of samples at the same time enables
very low concentrations and can quickly carry out
several tests. These are small but highly integrated
devices. Some small-vitro diagnostic devices are being
already used in police alcohol screening devices and can
also be used by diabetics to take that breath alysers
portable glucose test. These devices help us in
measurements of ions, small molecules or proteins and
even DNAs for some specific diseases or medical
Nanotechnologies for medical field have brought one of
the most exciting opportunities. Disease diagnosis,
treatment and follow-up are expected to get integrated.
This is known as theranostics, and can change some
properties that can be activated by a drug inside

nanoparticles - such as paint - drug target. The drug

could therefore be a response action.
B. Environment:

In industrialized region, the air is filled with various

pollutants caused by human activity or industrial
chlorofluorocarbons (CFC), heavy metals (arsenic, chromium, lead, cadmium, mercury, zinc), hydrocarbons,
nitrogen oxides, organic chemicals (volatile organic
compounds, known as VOCs, and dioxins), sulphur
dioxide etc. The presence of oxide of nitrogen and
sulphur in the air causes acid rain that is responsible for
the soil pollution. Water pollution is caused by various
factors like as-, oil spills, leaking of fertilizers, sewage,
pesticides from land and product of burned fossil fuels.
Contaminants are mostly measured in ppm (parts per
million) or ppb (parts per billion) and their toxicity level
is defined by a toxic level Nanotechnologies service
that can create materials with unique properties on the
nano scale level case control functions defined by the
ability to provide. This is particularly important in
environmental issues where pollution arises from the
presence of a specific contaminant that is in the form of
solid, liquid or gas. Nano materials also actively interact
with the pollutants and less toxic species and can be
engineered to decompose. Another application area exist
simply because they resist the attack of pollution, rain
water are recycled and so is self-cleaning properties, the
less detergent is required to be washed that are nano
structured in this way coatings engineering.
C. Energy Generation:

In addition to renewable sources of energy, solar energy

holds great potential. Solar light is available only during
part of the day and so is not stable, and it is
geographically uneven. Some countries get more light
than others due to their proximity of equator. The second
biggest problem is its storage and efficient
transportation. A photovoltaic (PV) device is a device
that converts solar energy into electricity. The efficiency
of a PV device depends on the type of semiconductor,
and on its ability to absorb the amount of UV radiations.
Nanotechnology supports these devices to absorb a large
portion of the solar spectrum and produce cells with the
possibility of introducing alternative materials and
construction methods. The cell is a standard silicon
cell.In one such example, the cell is based on
nanocrystals like silicon-based tandem solar cells.
D. Biomimetic approaches using nanotechnologies:

Nature helps green plants in production of food through

a process called photosynthesis. This process involves
the conversion of solar energy into chemical energy that
enables a smart molecular machine .Some researchers
have undergone the study of this complex photosynthesis
in spinach and made use of solid-state electronic devices
to perform such function where power can be made


International Journal of Scientific Research Engineering & Technology (IJSRET), ISSN 2278 0882
Volume 4, Issue 10, October 2015

available for use. This represents an example of a

biomimetic solid-state photosynthetic solar cell. The
combinatorial biological protocols, that is, bacterial cell
surface and phage-display technologies is used in the
culling of short sequences that have closeness to (noble)
metals, semiconducting oxides and other scholarly
compounds. These genetically engineered proteins for
inorganics (GEPIs) can be encorporated in the assembly
of functional nanostructures. Based on the three basic
principles of molecular recognition, self-assembly and
DNA transaction, we accentuate successful uses of GEPI
in nanotechnology.. The device has conversion
efficiency of 12%.


E. Nanoyou Dilemma:

The use of nonmaterial in photovoltaic devices are

responsible to improve the efficiency of these devices.
When nanomaterials are contained within a photovoltaic
cell, the risk of coming into contact with the user is very
less. The problem may occur when the device is in its
last stage of its lifetime. Now the problem occurs with
the disposal of the device, especially when, the
regulation and control of these devices lags their
development. In the NANOYOU a basic role-playing
model is Nano-based solar cell.
F. Information And Communication Technologies

Nanotechnology plays a vital role in the information and

communication technology (ICT), research and
development, both in academic and industry. Computer
microprocessors and memory storage devices have
dimensions less than 100 nm. The naturally
miniaturization of transistors has brought the past 20
years as a development spam. Experts say that Moores
law will lasts until the year 2015, perhaps a few years
beyond 2015. Finally, a time is expected to comes,
where transistor will be so small that quantum effects
may begin to prevail.
Another issue is power
consumption and heat generation. Current transistors are
already below 100 nm, so technically the industry
already makes use of nanotechnologies. Continued
miniaturization of transistors using the CMOS
(complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) platform
(More Moore technology) has already produced
transistor less than 100 nm. This threshold was crossed
around year 2000, and today transistors are 45 nm.
Miniaturization of advancing Moore's Law is being
considered for a nano imprint lithography and nano
method. Although they provide various fabrication
techniques that can be used for making nanoscale
features of the semiconductor industry.

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Molecular Biomimetic Technology through Biology;
[2] ChiiDong Chen, Institute of Physics, Academia
Sinica Introduction to Nanotechnology
Implications and Hands-on Activities
[4] Dr. Prem Felix Siril, School of Basic Sciences;
Nanotechnology and its application in renewable energy
[5] Atsushi Ogasawara, Hiroshi Komatsu; Applying
Nanotechnology to Electronics Recent Progress in SiLSIs to Extend Nano-Scale.
[6] Asim Kumar, Madan Jee; Nanotechnology: A
Review of Applications and Issues, September 2013,
[7] Alan Rae, Real Life Applications of Nanotechnology
In Electronics