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International Journal of Scientific Research Engineering & Technology (IJSRET), ISSN 2278 0882

Volume 4, Issue10, October 2015

1072

CMOS Implemented VDTA based colpitt oscillator


Dipti singh1
1

(ECE department, gangwardipti@gmail.com)

ABSTRACT
Our contributions discuss modification of well-known
Colpitt LC oscillator having inductance simulator based
on voltage differencing transconductance amplifier
(VDTA) instead of common bipolar transistor and
passive metal coil. High performance analog circuits are
getting more and more challenging with the center of
attention towards reduced supply voltages. VDTA is
chosen to designing colpitt oscillator for signal
processing circuits because it has low power
consumption. Colpitt oscillator implemented using
VDTA are simulated with PSPICE simulation using the
0.18um CMOS technology to confirm the good
performance of the proposed design in the paper.
Keywords - VDTA, inductor, collpitts oscillator, CMOS
integrated circuits.

I.

INTRODUCTION

In the decade, progress in the microelectronic area


presents new circuit principles of active building blocks
for fast analog signal processing and improving the
properties of existing ones, such as operational
tranconductance amplifier (OTA) or current conveyor
(CC) [2]. Some new analog active building blocks
providing the potentially in analog circuit design were
and are being introduced, such as current differencing
transconductance amplifier (CDTA) [3]. The voltage
differencing transconductance amplifier (VDTA) is a
recently introduced active element [1].The VDTA is
composed of the current source controlled by the
difference of two input voltages and a multiple-output
transconductance gains. Therefore, the VDTA device is
very suitable for electronically tunable active circuit
synthesis. Another advantageous feature of the use of the
VDTA as an active element is that compact structures in
some applications can be achieved can be achieved
easily [2,1].
Furthermore, VDTA exhibits two different values of
transconductance so that there is no need to external
resistors for VDTA based applications All these
advantages make the VDTA an alternative choice for the
implementation of voltage-mode analog signal
processing circuits.
LC sinusoidal oscillators are very important parts of
applications in analog and mixed-signal electronics.

However, presence of metal coil(s) and complicated


tuning (only change of external passive elements L and
C is possible) are main drawbacks of such solutions.
Electronic control is not possible easily in many cases.
Fortunately, there are many various active elements that
allow direct electronic control of its parameter(s) and
also control of features of particular application, [1] for
instance. The most well-known and frequently used
methods are: current gain control, control of intrinsic
resistance of current input and transconductance control
.We intend to replace metal coil by synthetic equivalent.
Operational transconductance amplifiers (OTAs) seem to
be the best and the simplest choice for these purposes.
Method of impedance conversion based on OTAs was
discussed in tutorial [9] in detail. Active element
including two OTAs is very useful and its definition was
introduced in [1]. Voltage differencing transconductance
amplifier (VDTA) [1] is quite new active element and it
is very useful for our intentions in synthetic inductance
equivalent. This element received attention in some
applications that were discussed in recent works (active
filters [4], oscillators. We can also use knowledge of
application of VDTA as inductance simulator presented
in [7]
II.

Description of VDTA

The circuit symbol of the proposed active element,


VDTA, is shown in Fig. 1, where VP and VN are input
terminals and Z, X+ and X- are output terminals. All
terminals exhibit high impedance values. Using standard
notation, the terminals relationship of an ideal VDTA
can be characterized by:

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(1)

Fig. 1: The circuit symbol of the VDTA

International Journal of Scientific Research Engineering & Technology (IJSRET), ISSN 2278 0882
Volume 4, Issue10, October 2015

Consequently, the above describing-equations, the input


stage and output stage can be simply implemented by
floating current sources. According to input terminals,
an output current at Z terminal is generated. The
intermediate voltage of Z terminal is converted to output
currents. The new CMOS realization of the VDTA is
shown in Fig. 2. The introduced circuit employs two
Arbel-Goldminz transconductances [5]. Input and output
transconductance parameters of VDTA element in the
circuit are determined by the transconductance of
outputs transistors. It can be approximated as
(2)
(3)
where gi is the transconductance value of ith transistor
defined by

1073

Fig.3- simplified representation of the synthetic inductor by


VDTA.
The circuit, thus, simulates a floating inductor with the
resulting inductance given by
(6)

(4)

IV.
i is (i = n, p) the mobility of the carrier for NMOS (n)
and PMOS (p) transistors, COX is the gate-oxide
capacitance per unit area, W is the effective channel
width, L is the effective channel length and IBi is bias
current of ith transistor

The Colpitt Oscillator is named after Edwin Colpitt who


developed this type of oscillator design. It is basically an
LC oscillator which uses the phenomenon of resonating
LC circuit, whose frequency of resonance gives the
value of frequency of oscillation.

Fig.3- Two series capacitors in parallel with an


inductor[6]

Fig.2- CMOS implementation of VDTA


Table 1.Aspects of MOS Transistor (m/ m)
MOS
M1, M2,M5,M6
M3,M4,M8,M7

III.

W(m)
16.1
28

COLPITTS OSCILLATOR

L(m)
0.7
0.7

FLOATING INDUCTOR

Fig. 3 shows a synthetic floating inductor which employ


one of Voltage Differencing Transconductance
Amplifier (VDTA) which contains Differential Input
Single Output OTA (DISO) and Single Input
Differential Output OTA (SIDO), and one grounded
capacitor CL.

The two capacitors constitute a voltage divider and their


ratio governs the excitation of the oscillator[6,8]. The
salient feature of Colpitt is that the capacitors C1 and C2
provide a low impedance path to the harmonics,
effectively shorting them to the ground. It is capable of
generating RF signals & performs exceptionally fine at
high frequencies well into the microwave region (the
active device must of course have the high frequency
capability).[6]
Frequency of oscillation of Colpitt oscillator can be
calculated as:
(7)

(5)

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International Journal of Scientific Research Engineering & Technology (IJSRET), ISSN 2278 0882
Volume 4, Issue10, October 2015

V.

1074

SIMULATION RESULTS

For the simulation TSMC 0.18m CMOS Technology is


used. The aspect ratios of the transistors have shown in
table 1. Supply voltages are taken as VDD = VSS = 0.9
V and IB1 = IB2 = IB3 = IB4=IB5= IB6= 100 A
biasing currents are used. Simulation results show that
this choice yields transconductance values of VDTA as
gm1 = gm2 = 520.868 A/V .The DC transfer
characteristic of Iz+ and Iz- against Vp for output stage
of proposed VDTA is shown in Fig. 5 .

Fig.4-colpitts oscillator structure using VDTA


To obtain sustained oscillation at this frequency, the
magnitude of the loop gain should be set to unity. This
can be achieved by selecting
(8)

Fig.5- The DC transfer characteristic of the VDTA.


In Inductance simulation the synthetic inductor is
replaced by VDTA . Impedance of the circuit
shown in fig.6.

And R=R1||R2. From (6) putting value of L in eq. (7)


(9)

If the tranconductance gains of OTA1 and OTA2 are


varied simultaneously through a single external current
using the current- steering circuit[12], then
(10)

Fig.6-The impedance values relative to frequency of the


simulated inductors.

The eq. reduce to


(11)

Output voltage (Vo) of the colpitt oscillator is


shown in fig. There
108.30A\V

From (8) and (11), it is obvious that the frequency of


oscillation can be linearly controlled by adjusting the
transconductance gains of OTA1 and OTA2 without
affecting the condition of oscillation. Since the
tranconductance gain is a function of a dc bias current, I
can be seen that linear current (voltage)- to-frequency
conversion is obtainable.

and

189.08A\V and the value of R1=100K,

R2=10K, C1= C2=2pf and C3 =1nf. Resonant


frequency from the Fig.7 which is showing the generated
output waveform of Colpitts Oscillator is observed as
2.4MHz and resonant frequency from (11) is calculated
as 2MHz which are almost equal.

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International Journal of Scientific Research Engineering & Technology (IJSRET), ISSN 2278 0882
Volume 4, Issue10, October 2015

Fig.7- output voltage of colpitt oscillator


VI.

CONCLUSION

Introduced derivation based on Colpitt circuit offers


interesting features that are missing in classical version
of Colpitt oscillator based on bipolar transistor and
classical coil (inductance). These useful benefits can be
summarized as: linear control of FO, current gain
required for fulfillment of CO (equal or greater than 1).
One floating capacitor (but it comes from principle of
the Colpitt oscillator) and the amplitude of the signal is
low, are the disadvantages of this solution. This
contribution shows preliminary results. We suppose
additional measurements with behavioral models,
proposal of CMOS realization, study of parasitic
influences and impact of Ri on levels and THD in the
future.

1075

applications. Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal


Procesing, 1992, vol.2, no. 3, p. 243 255.
[6]. Choong Yul Cha,Sang Gug Lee A Complementary
Colpitts Oscillator in CMOS Technology, IEEE
Transaction on Microwave theory & Techniques, Vol.53
No.3 March 2005.
[7] Roman Sotner1, Jan Jerabek2, Norbert Herencsar2,
Jiri Petrzela1, Kamil Vrba2 and Zdenek Kincl1.
Tunable Oscillator Derived from Colpitt Structure with
Simply Controllable Condition of Oscillation and
Synthetic Inductor Based on Current Amplifier and
Voltage Differencing Transconductance Amplifier, in
35th International Conference on Telecommunications
and Signal Processing
(TSP 2012), Prague, Czech Republic, 2012, pp. 401-405.
[8] Arvind Singh Rawat1, Arun Singh Rawat2, Vishal
Ramola3, Telescopic OTA Based Design of Signal
Processing Circuits IOSR Journal of VLSI and Signal
Processing (IOSR-JVSP) Volume 3, Issue 1 (Sep. Oct.
2013), PP 70-76.
[9] R. L. Geiger, E. Sanchez-Sinencio, "Active filter
design using operational transconductance amplifier: a
tutorial",IEEE Circuits and Devices Magazine, vol. 1,
pp. 20-32,1985.

REFERENCES
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YEL,
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KAAR,
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KUNTMANNew Simple CMOS Realization of Voltage
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