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Our contributions discuss modification of well-known Colpitt LC oscillator having inductance simulator based on voltage differencing transconductance amplifier (VDTA) instead of common bipolar transistor and passive metal coil. High performance analog circuits are getting more and more challenging with the center of attention towards reduced supply voltages. VDTA is chosen to designing colpitt oscillator for signal processing circuits because it has low power consumption. Colpitt oscillator implemented using VDTA are simulated with PSPICE simulation using the 0.18um CMOS technology to confirm the good performance of the proposed design in the paper.

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1072

Dipti singh1

1

ABSTRACT

Our contributions discuss modification of well-known

Colpitt LC oscillator having inductance simulator based

on voltage differencing transconductance amplifier

(VDTA) instead of common bipolar transistor and

passive metal coil. High performance analog circuits are

getting more and more challenging with the center of

attention towards reduced supply voltages. VDTA is

chosen to designing colpitt oscillator for signal

processing circuits because it has low power

consumption. Colpitt oscillator implemented using

VDTA are simulated with PSPICE simulation using the

0.18um CMOS technology to confirm the good

performance of the proposed design in the paper.

Keywords - VDTA, inductor, collpitts oscillator, CMOS

integrated circuits.

I.

INTRODUCTION

presents new circuit principles of active building blocks

for fast analog signal processing and improving the

properties of existing ones, such as operational

tranconductance amplifier (OTA) or current conveyor

(CC) [2]. Some new analog active building blocks

providing the potentially in analog circuit design were

and are being introduced, such as current differencing

transconductance amplifier (CDTA) [3]. The voltage

differencing transconductance amplifier (VDTA) is a

recently introduced active element [1].The VDTA is

composed of the current source controlled by the

difference of two input voltages and a multiple-output

transconductance gains. Therefore, the VDTA device is

very suitable for electronically tunable active circuit

synthesis. Another advantageous feature of the use of the

VDTA as an active element is that compact structures in

some applications can be achieved can be achieved

easily [2,1].

Furthermore, VDTA exhibits two different values of

transconductance so that there is no need to external

resistors for VDTA based applications All these

advantages make the VDTA an alternative choice for the

implementation of voltage-mode analog signal

processing circuits.

LC sinusoidal oscillators are very important parts of

applications in analog and mixed-signal electronics.

tuning (only change of external passive elements L and

C is possible) are main drawbacks of such solutions.

Electronic control is not possible easily in many cases.

Fortunately, there are many various active elements that

allow direct electronic control of its parameter(s) and

also control of features of particular application, [1] for

instance. The most well-known and frequently used

methods are: current gain control, control of intrinsic

resistance of current input and transconductance control

.We intend to replace metal coil by synthetic equivalent.

Operational transconductance amplifiers (OTAs) seem to

be the best and the simplest choice for these purposes.

Method of impedance conversion based on OTAs was

discussed in tutorial [9] in detail. Active element

including two OTAs is very useful and its definition was

introduced in [1]. Voltage differencing transconductance

amplifier (VDTA) [1] is quite new active element and it

is very useful for our intentions in synthetic inductance

equivalent. This element received attention in some

applications that were discussed in recent works (active

filters [4], oscillators. We can also use knowledge of

application of VDTA as inductance simulator presented

in [7]

II.

Description of VDTA

VDTA, is shown in Fig. 1, where VP and VN are input

terminals and Z, X+ and X- are output terminals. All

terminals exhibit high impedance values. Using standard

notation, the terminals relationship of an ideal VDTA

can be characterized by:

www.ijsret.org

(1)

International Journal of Scientific Research Engineering & Technology (IJSRET), ISSN 2278 0882

Volume 4, Issue10, October 2015

stage and output stage can be simply implemented by

floating current sources. According to input terminals,

an output current at Z terminal is generated. The

intermediate voltage of Z terminal is converted to output

currents. The new CMOS realization of the VDTA is

shown in Fig. 2. The introduced circuit employs two

Arbel-Goldminz transconductances [5]. Input and output

transconductance parameters of VDTA element in the

circuit are determined by the transconductance of

outputs transistors. It can be approximated as

(2)

(3)

where gi is the transconductance value of ith transistor

defined by

1073

VDTA.

The circuit, thus, simulates a floating inductor with the

resulting inductance given by

(6)

(4)

IV.

i is (i = n, p) the mobility of the carrier for NMOS (n)

and PMOS (p) transistors, COX is the gate-oxide

capacitance per unit area, W is the effective channel

width, L is the effective channel length and IBi is bias

current of ith transistor

developed this type of oscillator design. It is basically an

LC oscillator which uses the phenomenon of resonating

LC circuit, whose frequency of resonance gives the

value of frequency of oscillation.

inductor[6]

Table 1.Aspects of MOS Transistor (m/ m)

MOS

M1, M2,M5,M6

M3,M4,M8,M7

III.

W(m)

16.1

28

COLPITTS OSCILLATOR

L(m)

0.7

0.7

FLOATING INDUCTOR

one of Voltage Differencing Transconductance

Amplifier (VDTA) which contains Differential Input

Single Output OTA (DISO) and Single Input

Differential Output OTA (SIDO), and one grounded

capacitor CL.

ratio governs the excitation of the oscillator[6,8]. The

salient feature of Colpitt is that the capacitors C1 and C2

provide a low impedance path to the harmonics,

effectively shorting them to the ground. It is capable of

generating RF signals & performs exceptionally fine at

high frequencies well into the microwave region (the

active device must of course have the high frequency

capability).[6]

Frequency of oscillation of Colpitt oscillator can be

calculated as:

(7)

(5)

www.ijsret.org

International Journal of Scientific Research Engineering & Technology (IJSRET), ISSN 2278 0882

Volume 4, Issue10, October 2015

V.

1074

SIMULATION RESULTS

used. The aspect ratios of the transistors have shown in

table 1. Supply voltages are taken as VDD = VSS = 0.9

V and IB1 = IB2 = IB3 = IB4=IB5= IB6= 100 A

biasing currents are used. Simulation results show that

this choice yields transconductance values of VDTA as

gm1 = gm2 = 520.868 A/V .The DC transfer

characteristic of Iz+ and Iz- against Vp for output stage

of proposed VDTA is shown in Fig. 5 .

To obtain sustained oscillation at this frequency, the

magnitude of the loop gain should be set to unity. This

can be achieved by selecting

(8)

In Inductance simulation the synthetic inductor is

replaced by VDTA . Impedance of the circuit

shown in fig.6.

(9)

varied simultaneously through a single external current

using the current- steering circuit[12], then

(10)

simulated inductors.

(11)

shown in fig. There

108.30A\V

oscillation can be linearly controlled by adjusting the

transconductance gains of OTA1 and OTA2 without

affecting the condition of oscillation. Since the

tranconductance gain is a function of a dc bias current, I

can be seen that linear current (voltage)- to-frequency

conversion is obtainable.

and

frequency from the Fig.7 which is showing the generated

output waveform of Colpitts Oscillator is observed as

2.4MHz and resonant frequency from (11) is calculated

as 2MHz which are almost equal.

www.ijsret.org

International Journal of Scientific Research Engineering & Technology (IJSRET), ISSN 2278 0882

Volume 4, Issue10, October 2015

VI.

CONCLUSION

interesting features that are missing in classical version

of Colpitt oscillator based on bipolar transistor and

classical coil (inductance). These useful benefits can be

summarized as: linear control of FO, current gain

required for fulfillment of CO (equal or greater than 1).

One floating capacitor (but it comes from principle of

the Colpitt oscillator) and the amplitude of the signal is

low, are the disadvantages of this solution. This

contribution shows preliminary results. We suppose

additional measurements with behavioral models,

proposal of CMOS realization, study of parasitic

influences and impact of Ri on levels and THD in the

future.

1075

Procesing, 1992, vol.2, no. 3, p. 243 255.

[6]. Choong Yul Cha,Sang Gug Lee A Complementary

Colpitts Oscillator in CMOS Technology, IEEE

Transaction on Microwave theory & Techniques, Vol.53

No.3 March 2005.

[7] Roman Sotner1, Jan Jerabek2, Norbert Herencsar2,

Jiri Petrzela1, Kamil Vrba2 and Zdenek Kincl1.

Tunable Oscillator Derived from Colpitt Structure with

Simply Controllable Condition of Oscillation and

Synthetic Inductor Based on Current Amplifier and

Voltage Differencing Transconductance Amplifier, in

35th International Conference on Telecommunications

and Signal Processing

(TSP 2012), Prague, Czech Republic, 2012, pp. 401-405.

[8] Arvind Singh Rawat1, Arun Singh Rawat2, Vishal

Ramola3, Telescopic OTA Based Design of Signal

Processing Circuits IOSR Journal of VLSI and Signal

Processing (IOSR-JVSP) Volume 3, Issue 1 (Sep. Oct.

2013), PP 70-76.

[9] R. L. Geiger, E. Sanchez-Sinencio, "Active filter

design using operational transconductance amplifier: a

tutorial",IEEE Circuits and Devices Magazine, vol. 1,

pp. 20-32,1985.

REFERENCES

[1].Abdullah

YEL,

Frat

KAAR,

Hakan

KUNTMANNew Simple CMOS Realization of Voltage

Differencing Transconductance Amplifier and Its RF

Filter Application. RADIOENGINEERING, VOL. 20,

NO. 3, SEPTEMBER 2011

[2]. D. Biolek, CDTA-Building block for current-mode

analog signal processing, in Proceedings of the

ECCTD03, (2003), pp. 397400

[3]. D. Biolek, R. Senani, V. Biolkova, 4, Z. Kolka,

Active elements for analog signal processing:

classification,

review,

and

new

proposals.

Radioengineering 17(4), 1532 (2008)

[4] D. Prasad, D. R. Bhaskar, and M. Srivastava,

"Universal current-mode biquad filter using a VDTA",

Circuits and Systems, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 3236, 2013.

[5] ARBEL, A. F., GOLDMINZ, L. Output stage for

current-mode feedback amplifiers, theory and

www.ijsret.org

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